China’s PLA & Future Unconventional Warfare // 中國軍隊的未來非常規戰爭

2012年10月26日作者:知遠

Over the past decade, the United States has coped with a large number of unconventional warfare challenges. In Afghanistan, for example, at the beginning of 2012, a total of nearly 432,000 in Afghanistan, anti-riot troops, including US soldiers nearly 90,000 people, nearly 30,000 NATO soldiers, the Afghan national security forces of nearly 300,000 people, near the Afghan local police forces 12,000 people. In addition, the United States to this end spends more than 100 billion US dollars, the deployment of a large variety of advanced platforms and systems. On the other hand, “the Taliban” organization to deploy troops in between 20,000 to 40,000 people (the ratio of anti-riot troops to 1:11), the annual cost amounted to between 100 million to 200 million (with a consumption of anti-insurgency operations funds ratio of 1: 500). In addition, the Afghan insurgent groups from the main use of improvised explosive devices to the Internet using asymmetric warfare strategy and tactics. The ability to “Taliban” organization with limited resources to maintain a longer period of insurgency, highlighting the unconventional warfare challenges facing the United States. Accordingly, this report focuses on the following three questions:

• What is the United States may face challenges in the future unconventional warfare?

• What strategies best suited to address future challenges?

• Which existing cases or model can support these strategies effectively deal with unconventional warfare challenges?

And “terrorism”, “insurgency” is very similar to that, “unconventional warfare” has a variety of definitions. From the practical sense, unconventional warfare violent struggle for the national and NGO legitimacy and influence specific populations carried out.Unconventional threats include the use of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, sabotage, criminal activities and other activities rebel insurrection way countries and organizations. This article begins with a brief discussion of unconventional warfare threats, including threats from national and NGO’s. Then, the paper summarizes the United States in the fight against violence and support the insurrection could take unconventional warfare strategy. Finally, the “village stability operations,” US special forces in Afghanistan (Village Stability Operations, VSO) as an example to discuss.

 First, unconventional warfare challenges

What is the future of the United States could face unconventional warfare challenges?Period of the next decade, the United States will likely face a variety of unconventional warfare challenges, including terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah), drug trafficking organizations (such as the Mexican “cartels” drug cartels), global violence Activities Group (such as anarchist Group) NGO. In addition, the United States also faced for some countries (such as Iran) for their own purposes and the formation of unconventional warfare threats from some countries (such as Mexico) due to a result of weak dominance.These network threats, adaptability is gradually improving, and has leveraging cyberspace open up recruitment, intelligence gathering, training, spread propaganda, obtain funding and new ways to implement action.

To illustrate the future threat, it is necessary to highlight the al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations, and now they have been a big hit because of some mysterious and gradually disappear. Future threat posed by al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations might cause depends on several factors: Some countries support the weak rule of force surviving leadership structure, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and other regional and local organizations. According to current trends, al-Qaeda is likely to save important leaders (with the possible exception of Pakistan), the ruling power in some countries will remain weak government, al-Qaeda will be local support in some countries. Al Qaeda may target as always: the overthrow of the monarchy more than one regime to establish pan-Islam (near enemy, or “throw into confusion the enemy within”), against the United States and its allies (the far enemy, or “anti-foreign enemies”). However, these trends are not yet clear how this will develop. For example, al-Qaeda as a global activity may be more dispersed bases in Pakistan to its core strength in Iran (Iran-Qaida), Yemen (AQAP), Somalia (Islamic Youth Corps), North Africa (Islamic Maghreb organizational relationships weaken organized base cloth) or other areas. This dispersion will enable the development of al-Qaida along the Syrian strategist Abu Arz • Lane (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri) envisaged way, more involved in the “individual jihad” and “small terror cells.”

Pan-Islamic movement al-Qaida means the United States will need to support the forces against them in many foreign areas. Al Qaeda affiliated organizations and global allies distribution shown in Figure 1. This figure highlights the future al-Qaida may support insurgent groups of countries. In some countries (such as Saudi Arabia), Al-insurgency operations have been launched to try and fail, but they might try again. In other countries (such as Yemen, Iraq), al-Qaeda has helped the insurgent groups. The figure in black-Qaida would support or continue to support the insurgency in the country. Of particular note is that for some African countries (such as Nigeria, Egypt) and Middle Eastern countries (such as Jordan, Iran), Al-Qaeda would seize every opportunity to support the insurgency.

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In addition to these threats, the United States war effort unconventional future will be affected by a variety of other challenges. include:

• inter-agency cooperation. Inter-agency collaboration between some organizations seem to have improved, such as the United States Special Operations and CIA. But among a number of other organizations, such as the Department of Defense and the State Department, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies, inter-agency cooperation is still in a chaotic state. Whether it is still in Yemen, these challenges often result in the relationship between the military and government institutions in Afghanistan in the tensions of the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

• Vietnam syndrome. In Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as some of the challenges that may occur in Korea and Taiwan in the conventional military friction, may make some people ignore the importance of the US military future of unconventional warfare. As John • Nagel (John Nagl) In his counter-insurgency war in the study concluded, and on post-Vietnam era: “The US military believes the United States should not be again trapped in counter-insurgency operations, rather than face the US military counterinsurgency doctrine It was the fact that the failure in Vietnam. “unconventional warfare will not only extremely important for the foreseeable future, but there is a need to” should be how to stop the insurgency “and other topics for further research.

• The health of the US troops. More than a decade of fighting, it has made deep unconventional warfare quagmire of American forces extremely heavy. Officers have had to deal with their families are exposed to tremendous pressure, after the creation of stress disorder (PTSD), wars and countless other creative challenges.

• technical challenges. Future, insurgents and terrorist groups will make greater use of the Internet and social media field communication contact forum, spread propaganda, recruit personnel, to complete other tasks. Figure 2 indicates the 2015 global Internet traffic trends. Overall, Internet traffic will be 32% CAGR growth rate, that is until 2015 devices access to the Internet will be twice the total global population. By 2015, Internet traffic Wi-Fi technology and mobile devices will be 54% of the flow of Internet traffic and wired devices will total 46% of the total traffic. This growth will not happen in the West, but at a faster rate occurred in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. These developments will likely insurgency operations and tactics have a significant impact, make it easier for the insurgents to recruit staff, spread propaganda and communications links.

Figure 2. 2010--2015 global Internet traffic

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Figure 2. 2010–2015 global Internet traffic [Save to album]

Second, the strategy

What strategies best suited to address future challenges? US Department of Defense “Quadrennial Defense Review Report 2010” and “2012 Strategic Assessment” are briefly mentioned in unconventional warfare. But if we insist on the “strategy” is defined as “the use of armed forces and other tools to achieve military and political objectives,” then reports those are not summed unconventional warfare strategy. US Department of Defense publication “unconventional war: against unconventional threats” against unconventional warfare was more substantial research, but still focused on the United States on how to implement the joint operations of the armed forces should a military campaign in the future, rather than questions about the strategy. Due to the lack of unconventional warfare strategy in these assessments, we must seek the answers to elsewhere. The following outlines a few examples I.

(A) counter-insurgency

There are two major counter-insurgency strategy for US unconventional war.

1. Population center strategy: The first strategy is the population center strategy in Field Manual 3-24, and other resources proposed. Field Manual 3-24 from the British in Malaya, France extracted a lot of cases the best practical significance of military operations in Algeria. In these and other cases, the counterinsurgency is governance.However, in the most recent cases, the external forces is difficult to force the local government to make the necessary political change. As the American experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan as external forces can not force local governments to become legal regime. In addition, the deployment of large numbers of foreign troops is not always successful.

2. Indirect strategy: In some cases, the best way might mainly focus on the proposal, indirect strategic equipment and support local conventional and unconventional forces and organizations above. Such assistance, including foreign internal defense (Foreign Internal Defense) and unconventional warfare, has historically become the US Special Operations task forces and intelligence agencies. In the 1950s, the United States and the Philippines since 2001, in the 1960s in Thailand, the early 1990s and the 21st century, Colombia’s aid work, weakening relative success or defeat insurgent groups. In each case, the approach adopted in the USA are indirect rather than a direct way. Indirect way means that the US personnel To combat forces in the host country provide advice and support. Although this support sometimes include tactical leadership issues, but its focus has always been to help the host country instead of the United States against the enemy elements.

(Ii) riot

In other years, the United States might need to support insurgent groups, you may have to select one of the following two strategies.

1. Maoist insurgency strategy: The first strategy is that the United States can choose Mao guerrilla strategy in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the United States had this strategy against the Soviet Union. Such a strategy, a considerable part of the national organization of the population, the government has brought enormous consumption. While Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy is to target against the armed forces and their support networks, but the goal is the collapse of the morale of the attacker, but not necessarily the other’s combat strength. Goal of the strategy is not to ensure the rapid defeat the government. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the objective of the strategy is to consume the enemy to make the final surrender, that “the enemy advances, we retreat to the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack the enemy retreats, we pursue.”

Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy includes three sequential advance and overlapping phases. The first stage is to establish a political and military structures riots among the general public. As Mao summed up: “The main feature is to rely on the people’s guerrilla fronts and other organizations to establish their own.” One of the main objectives of the first phase is to mobilize as many people to participate in sports. When Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy implemented in the rural uprising also began for urban riots. If the riots can be gradually achieved support and access to initial victory, then enter the second phase, the main feature of this phase is the most long guerrilla war and the gradual expansion. For more victory, guerrilla warfare will enable the Government military morale, no fighting, and gradually betrayal. So, the war entered the third phase, namely the collapse of the enemy. Riots changed to government collapsed for the purpose of large-scale conventional attack maneuver.

2. Conventional insurrection strategy: the United States can choose the second strategy is routine riot strategy, the United States against “Taliban” in 2001 adopted this strategy in action. This strategy, skip the first two stages of Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy, mainly in conventional military action against each other. Elements of the strategy include the use of armed forces to capture or destroy the enemy’s armed forces, so as to control its population, territory, city or important industrial center and communications center.Objective of the strategy is a decisive action or series of actions, by defeating the enemy on which to resist the physical strength to win the war. For example, the riot troops could move forward, seizing strategic facilities the defense side, such as the capital, the communication center or base, while the defender will also take action to confront. Thus the two sides will launch a campaign or a series of battles, until the formation of a party or a political agreement to admit defeat.

Three, efficient sample

Development “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police force is one of the recent anti-insurgency operations in the most efficient mode. After three years, the United States Special Operations Forces have been in the majority of rural development in this model. Their goal is to help the Afghan people conscious action, reconstruction of traditional security institutions, economic development and consistent with Afghan history, culture and informal management. In essence, the “village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces will have joint and inter-institutional features. Since 2009, “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan and US troops deployed in Afghanistan into the rural Afghanistan to help the local community of security, management and development, and enable them to better coupled to the central government. “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces according to the point quickly flourish throughout the country, the ultimate success of the “Taliban” to recapture the territory.

CONCLUSIONS

According to recent US experience in unconventional warfare and future threats, following several issues should be considered:

(A) Organization: According to current threats and challenges, the United States Special Operations Forces Command (SOCOM) should be in the fight against the terrorists, insurgents and other unconventional threats of war to play a front-line “defense” role. Although the US economy is more serious, we should continue (if not increase) investment in the future projects, such as the “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan project.

(B) the health of the US troops: As unconventional warfare deployed US soldiers and their families have been treated countless pressures. The possibility of these threats continue to evolve, and the deployment of troops, means that the US Defense Department needs to continue to strengthen the soldiers and their families for the physical and mental health programs. March 2012 occurred in Kandahar, Afghanistan, US soldiers shot and killed civilians, had a negative impact on the US unconventional warfare operations, but also from the broader sense, is not conducive to US foreign policy.

(C) Training and education: especially for US conventional forces, the unconventional warfare military training of a temporary ad hoc in nature. In some core US military agencies, such as the US Army War College, unconventional warfare military training is relatively good. However, the current unconventional warfare military training and investment in danger of being weakened, so some departments and agencies might consider unconventional warfare military training obsolete. After the Vietnam War, and things like that happen, it would be a very serious mistake.

(D) Inter-agency cooperation: Congress may consider supporting one pair of unconventional warfare campaign experience of cooperation across agencies work assessment efforts as they perform operations against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq for cross-agency team made same. Inter-agency cooperation and did not complete the play should have the performance, we should consider an objective, analytical assessments.

Unconventional warfare struggle is a long-term activity, which will continue to be a global battlefield, will extend from the United States, Britain long coastline to Yemen, Pakistan deserted hilltop. This struggle will continue for decades, rather than months or years, this is a concept for most Westerners can not easily handle.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

過去十年內,美國應對了大量非常規戰爭挑戰。以阿富汗戰爭為例,至2012年初期,阿富汗境內共有近432000名反暴亂部隊官兵,其中包括美國官兵近90000人、北約組織官兵近30000人、阿富汗國家安全部隊近300000人、阿富汗地方警察部隊近12000人。另外,美國為此每年花費超過1000億美元,部署了大量各種先進的平台和系統。另一方面,“塔利班”組織部署部隊在20000人至40000人之間(與反暴亂兵力之比為1:11),每年花費額為1億至2億之間(與反暴亂行動資金消耗之比為1:500)。另外,阿富汗暴亂組織主要運用從使用簡易爆炸裝置到因特網作戰的不對稱戰略和戰術。 “塔利班”組織利用有限資源維持較長時間的暴亂活動的能力,凸顯了美國所面臨的非常規戰爭挑戰。因此,本報告主要關注如下三個問題:
•美國未來可能會面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?
•何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?
•哪種現有案例或者模式能夠支持這些戰略、有效應對非常規戰爭挑戰?
和“恐怖主義”、“暴亂活動”極為相似的是,“非常規戰爭”擁有各種定義。從實踐意義上說,非常規戰爭是國家和非政府組織為特定人群的合法性和影響力而進行的暴力鬥爭。非常規威脅包括運用游擊戰、恐怖主義、陰謀破壞、犯罪活動和暴動叛亂等活動方式的國家和組織。本文首先簡要討論非常規戰爭威脅,包括來自國家和非政府組織的威脅。繼而,本文總結了美國在打擊暴亂和支持暴動時可以採取的非常規戰爭戰略。最後,本文以美軍特種部隊在阿富汗進行的“鄉村穩定行動”(Village Stability Operations,VSO)為範例進行探討。
一、非常規戰爭挑戰
美國未來可能面臨何種非常規戰爭挑戰?在下一個十年時間段內,美國將有可能面臨著各種非常規戰爭挑戰,包括恐怖主義集團(如基地組織和真主黨)、毒品走私組織(如墨西哥“卡特爾”販毒集團)、全球暴力活動集團(如無政府主義分子集團)等非政府組織。此外,美國還面臨著出於某些國家(如伊朗)出於自身目的而形成的、某些國家(如墨西哥)因統治力薄弱而造成的非常規戰爭威脅。這些威脅的網絡性、適應性正在逐步提高,而且已借力網絡空間開拓招募人員、收集情報、進行訓練、散佈宣傳、獲得資助和實施行動的新途徑。
為說明未來威脅,有必要突出強調基地組織及其附屬組織,目前他們因遭到巨大打擊而有些神秘的逐步消失。未來由基地組織及其附屬組織造成的威脅可能會取決於以下幾項因素:領導結構的倖存,北非、中東和南亞等地區國家薄弱的統治力,地方組織的某些支持。根據當前趨勢,基地組織很有可能將保存重要領導人(巴基斯坦可能例外),某些國家政府的統治力將依然薄弱,基地組織將在某些國家得到地方性支持。基地組織的目標也可能一如既往:推翻多個政權建立泛伊斯蘭教王權(近敵,或者說是“攘內敵”),對抗美國及其盟友(遠敵,或者說是“抗外敵”)。但是,這些趨勢將如何發展尚不明朗。例如,基地組織作為一種全球性活動可能更加分散,在巴基斯坦的基地核心力量與其在伊朗(伊朗基地組織)、也門​​(阿拉伯半島基地組織)、索馬里(伊斯蘭青年軍)、北非(伊斯蘭馬格里布基地組織)或者其他地區的基地組織關係弱化。這種分散,將使基地組織沿由敘利亞戰略家​​阿布•阿爾蘇里(Abu Mus’ab al-Suri)所設想的方式發展,更多地捲入“個人聖戰”和“小細胞恐怖行動”。
基地組織的泛伊斯蘭教運動意味著美國將需要對抗他們在多外地區的支持力量。基地組織的附屬組織及全球盟友分佈如圖1所示。此圖突出介紹了未來基地組織可能支持暴亂集團的國家。在部分國家(如沙特阿拉伯),基地已經嘗試發起暴亂行動,而且遭到失敗,但他們可能會再次嘗試。在另外一些國家(如也門、伊拉克),基地組織已經協助了暴亂集團。圖中以黑色顯示基地組織將支持或者繼續支持暴亂活動的國家。特別值得注意的是,對於一些非洲國家(如尼日利亞、埃及)和中東國家(如約旦、伊朗),基地組織將抓住一切機會支持暴亂活動。
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除了這些威脅,美國未來非常規戰爭努力將會受到其他各種挑戰的影響。包括:
•跨機構合作。跨機構合作似乎在某些組織之間已經有所提升,如美國特種作戰和中央情報局。但在其他一些組織之間,如國防部和國務院、美國國際開發署(USAID)等政府機構,跨機構合作尚處於一種混沌狀態。不管是在阿富汗還是在也門,這些挑戰經常會在戰略、戰役和戰術層次上造成軍事機構和政府機構之間的關係緊張化。
•越戰綜合症。在伊拉克和阿富汗以及在可能發生於朝鮮和台灣的常規性軍事摩擦中的一些挑戰,可能會使美國軍界部分人忽視未來非常規戰爭的重要性。如約翰•納格爾(John Nagl)在他反暴亂戰爭研究中所總結到的,關於越戰後時代:“美國軍隊認為美國不應當再次自陷於反暴亂作戰,而不是直面美國軍隊反暴亂作戰原則在越戰中遭到失敗這一事實。”不但非常規戰爭對於可預見的未來仍將極為重要,而且還有必要對“應當如何制止暴亂活動”等議題進行更進一步的研究。
•美國部隊的健康度。超過十年時間的戰鬥,已經使深陷非常規戰爭泥淖的美國部隊異常沉重。官兵已經不得不處理其家庭所承受的巨大壓力、創作後應激障礙(PTSD)、戰爭創作和其他無數挑戰。
•技術性挑戰。未來,暴亂分子和恐怖主義集團將更多地利用田因特網和社會媒體論壇進行通信聯繫、散佈宣傳、招募人員、完成其他任務。圖2指出了至2015年全球互聯網流量趨勢。總體上說,互聯網流量將以年復合增長率32%的速度增長,也就是至2015年接入國際互聯網的設備將是全球總人口的兩倍。到2015年,Wi-Fi技術和移動設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的54%,而有線設備的互聯網流量將佔總流量的46%。這一增長將不僅僅發生於西方,而是將以更快的速率發生於拉丁美洲、中東和非洲。這些發展,將有可能會暴亂行動及其戰術產生重大影響,使暴亂分子更輕易的招募人員、散佈宣傳和通信聯繫。
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量2
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量[保存到相冊]

二、戰略
何種戰略最適於解決未來挑戰?美國國防部《2010年四年防務評估報告》​​和《2012年戰略評估》都簡要提及了非常規戰爭。但是,如果我們堅持將“戰略”定義為“運用武裝力量和其他工具達到軍事和政治目標”的話,這些文件報告都沒有總結出非常規戰爭戰略。美國國防部出版物《非常規戰爭:對抗非常規威脅》對非常規戰爭進行了更多實質性研究,但仍然主要集中於美國武裝力量應當如何在未來一場軍事戰役中實施聯合作戰,而不是關於戰略的問題。由於在這些評估工作中缺乏非常規戰爭戰略,我們必須向別處尋求答案。以下我概要介紹幾個範例。
(一)反暴亂
有兩種主要的反暴亂戰略適用於美國的非常規戰爭。
1.人口中心戰略:第一種戰略是在戰地手冊3-24和其他資源中提出的人口中心戰略。戰地手冊3-24從英國在馬來亞、法國在阿爾及利亞的軍事行動中提取了很多具有最佳實踐意義的案例。在這些以及其他案例中,反暴亂也就是治理。但是,在大部分近期案例中,外部勢力很難迫使當地政府作出必要的政治性改變。正如美國在越南和阿富汗所經歷的那樣,外部勢力無法強迫當地政府成為合法政權。另外,部署大量外來兵力也不是總能取得成功。
2.間接戰略:在一些案例中,最好的途徑可能會將主要著力點放在建議、裝備和支援當地常規和非常規部隊和組織之上的間接戰略。這種援助,包括國外內部防禦(Foreign Internal Defense)和非常規戰爭,已經歷史性地成為美國特種作戰部隊和情報機構的任務。美國在20世紀50年代以及自2001年開始對菲律賓、20世紀60年代對泰國、20世紀90年代和21世紀初對哥倫比亞的援助工作,相對成功地削弱或者擊敗了暴亂集團。在每一案例中,美國所採用的都是間接途徑而不是直接途徑。間接途徑意味著美國人員要向作戰中的主辦國部隊提供建議和支持。雖然這一支持有時也會包括戰術領導力問題,但其焦點始終是幫助主辦國而不是美國元素對抗敵人。
(二)暴動
在另外一些時間裡,美國可能會需要支持暴亂集團,可能必須在以下兩種戰略選擇其一。
1.毛澤東主義者的暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第一種戰略是毛澤東游擊戰略,在上世紀80年代的阿富汗戰場上,美國就曾以此戰略對抗蘇聯。這種戰略,組織相當一部分國家人口,為政府帶來巨大消耗。雖然毛澤東游擊戰略的目標是對抗武裝力量及其支持網絡,但其目標是瓦解攻擊者的鬥志,而不一定是對方的作戰實力。這種戰略的目標並不是確保迅速擊潰政府。正如毛澤東所指出的,戰略的目標是消耗敵人使之最終投降,即“要敵進我退,敵駐我擾,敵疲我打,敵退我追。”
毛澤東游擊戰略包括三個順序推進又相互重疊的階段。第一階段是在人民大眾中建立暴動政治和軍事結構。如毛澤東所總結的:“游擊戰的主要特徵就是依靠人民群眾自己建立戰線和其他組織。”第一階段的主要目標之一,是發動盡可能多的人民參加運動。當毛澤東游擊戰略貫徹於農村暴動,也就開始適用於城市暴動。如果暴動可以逐步取得支持並獲得初步勝利,則進入第二個階段,這一最為漫長的階段的主要特點是游擊戰爭和逐步擴張。獲得更多勝利後,游擊戰將使政府軍事力量士氣低落、毫無鬥志、逐漸背叛。如此,戰爭就進入第三階段,即瓦解敵人。暴亂轉變為以政府垮台為目的的大規模常規機動攻擊。
2.常規暴動戰略:美國可以選擇的第二種戰略是常規暴動戰略,美國在2001年打擊“塔利班”行動中採取了這一戰略。這一戰略,跳過毛澤東游擊戰略的前兩個階段,主要以常規軍事行動打擊對方。戰略的內容包括運用武裝力量俘獲或者破壞敵方武裝力量,從而控制其人口、領土、城市或者重要工業中心和通信中心。戰略的目標是以一次決定性行動或者一系列行動,通過擊敗敵人賴以抵抗的物理實力,贏得戰爭。例如,暴動部隊可能會向前推進,奪取防禦方的戰略設施,如首都、通信中心或者基地,而防禦方則也採取行動進行對抗。雙方因此將展開一場戰役或者一系列戰役,直到了一方承認失敗或者形成政治協定。
三、有效的範例
“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的發展是近期反暴亂行動的最有效模式之一。此前三年,美國特種作戰部隊一直在廣大農村發展這一模式。他們的目標是幫助阿富汗人民自覺行動起來,重建傳統性安全機構、經濟發展和與阿富汗歷史、文化相一致的非正式管理。在本質上,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊就具有聯合性和跨機構性的特點。自2009年開始,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊部署阿富汗和美國兵力進入阿富汗農村,幫助地方群落的安全、管理和發展,使他們更好地聯結於中央政府。 “鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的根據點很快在整個國家內蓬勃發展,最終成功從“塔利班”手中奪回了領土。
四、結論
根據美國近期在非常規戰爭和未來威脅的經驗,對以下幾項問題應當加以考慮:
(一)組織:根據當前威脅和挑戰,美國特種作戰部隊司令部(SOCOM)應當在打擊恐怖分子、暴亂分子和其他非常規戰爭威脅中發揮前線“國防部”的作用。儘管美國的經濟形勢較為嚴峻,我們還是應當繼續(如果不是增加)對未來各種項目的投資,如“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊項目。
(二)美國部隊的健康度:由於非常規戰爭部署,美國官兵及其家庭已經處理了無數壓力。這些威脅的可能性繼續發展以及兵力部署,意味著美國國防部需要繼續加強針對官兵及其家庭的身體和心理健康項目。 2012年3月發生於阿富汗坎大哈省的美國士兵槍殺平民事件,為美國非常規戰爭行動帶來了負面影響,而且從更廣泛的意義上說也不利於美國外交政策。
(三)訓練和教育:特別是對於美國常規部隊來說,非常規戰爭軍事訓練具有臨時特設的性質。在一些美國核心軍事機構,如美國陸軍戰爭學院,非常規戰爭軍事訓練相對較好。但是,目前非常規戰爭軍事訓練和投資面臨著被消弱的危險,因此某些部門和機構可能會認為非常規戰爭軍事訓練已經過時。和越南戰爭之後所發生的事一樣,這將是一個極為重大的錯誤。
(四)跨機構合作:國會可能會考慮支持一項對非常規戰爭戰役中的跨機構合作經驗進行評估的工作,正如他們對正在阿富汗和伊拉克執行打擊恐怖主義行動的跨機構團隊所做的努力一樣。跨機構合作並沒有完成發揮出應當具備的效能,我們應當考慮進行一項客觀性、解析性評估。
非常規戰爭鬥爭是一種長期的活動,其戰場仍將是全球性的,會從美國、英國漫長海岸線延伸到也門、巴基斯坦荒無人煙的山頂。這一斗爭將持續數十年,而不是幾個月或者幾年,這是一項對大部分西方人來說都無法輕易處理的概念。

Source:  http://mil.sohu.com/20121026

 

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare 中央军事委员会解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare

中央军事委员解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

2010年12月19日 07:04

解放军报

Winter season, a confrontation exercise started somewhere in the south.

Just started fighting, “blue” group on electronic jamming to capture a group of unidentified electromagnetic signals.

Due operator eager to interfere when the signal was a commander of an emergency stop. He concluded that this group of signals is issued by the “Red Army” senior command authority, premature interference might arouse his suspicions. Right on cue, when the “Red Army” attack battle, they suppress this band in real time, effectively disrupting the “Red Army” combat deployment.

The Commander, General Miaosuan, of the “Blue Army” commander, that army outstanding commanding officers, the head of the Guangzhou Military Region regiment Xie Jinbo.

More than 60 million units of information data, witnessed his dedication and hard

The different kind of exercise summary, attracted the attention of the organizers of a number of exercises: “a certain type of equipment, depending on the conditions under conditions of less than two kilometers through, the interference effect is reduced by 13% ……” opened this up to 14 million words of summary reports, data everywhere so to speak, has changed the traditional reporting “heavy qualitative description, quantitative analysis of light,” the chronic illness.

These years, with the information technology and new equipment to allot troops, Xie Jinbo keen to find, sometimes combat environment, the nuances of equipment performance data are likely to affect the outcome of the war. In one exercise, since some stations no good equipment to control the temperature, humidity, resulting in interference to fail.

Moreover, to improve combat capability-based information system, it is also inseparable from the construction of the battlefield database. In contrast to many of the training 谢金波 found in advance into a battlefield data information technology equipment, compared with no injection data of “bare metal”, the highest combat effectiveness actually thousand fold difference.

Xie Jinbo deeply felt, each data is a valuable resource, he began a long, hard data acquisition. On one occasion, in order to obtain a certain type of equipment interference in different terrain conditions data distance, Xie Jinbo has spent more than two years, after several training, practice exercises, and finally collect the relevant data together. In recent years, in order to gain valuable operational data, he often worked day and night, tirelessly, nearly 300 days a year to soak in the training field.

Today, more than 60 million units of information data added to the database in the regiment of information technology equipment for command and decision automation solidify a solid foundation. Meanwhile, dozens of main equipment in the operating parameters of a variety of conditions are constantly refreshed, the regiment as a basis for improvement and innovation in more than 50 kinds of tactics and training methods.

Let new equipment enter onto the “battlefield,” have courage to play

July 2009, the Central Plains some ancient battlefield. Army fielded some type information equipment unit of soldiers gathered here, in the invisible space heated game.

Military leader far away in Guangzhou was very worried: 谢金波 and his forces can accomplish the task drill? You know, the regiment fielded only 14 days this equipment, this exercise they cannot participate.

At first, the military solicit the views of the regiment, led by Xie Jinbo insisted on participating. Organs Staff Recommendation: Even through emergency training, the soldiers also only master the basic operating, while sister unit has also been fitted out in the shortest one and a half, we have accumulated a wealth of coaching experience, and if a hit on units and individuals are negative.

Getting remark, Xie Jinbo eyes stare: equipped with new equipment as is the future battlefield to defeat the enemy, if you cannot make new equipment onto the “battlefield”, this is our soldier’s dereliction of duty.

In this drill, Xie Jinbo day to lead the troops to engage in combat, in the evening, led cadres backbone fumble summary, truly a “fight a battle further.” Just a few more than 40 days, the soldiers not only mastered this new equipment, but also several times in the walkthrough cornered his opponent. Finally, the regiment was named “advanced unit in the exercise.”

In this exercise, he proposed an idea to give the headquarters of heads and experts highly recognized. He led troops prepared this type of equipment operation manuals and Tactics methods, training materials issued by the headquarters of the army as a similar force. Three years, under the leadership of 谢金波 team constantly explore new equipment group training method summary, prepared more than 30 sets of textbooks, teaching Van and user manual, which is the headquarters of promoting the use of five sets; research and development of the three sets of simulation training software The signal automatic identification software, which obtained two military scientific and technological progress prize.

Xie Jinbo familiar people call him “isolated situation.” This is because in training he always trying to force opponents to find out the problem, just a defeat.

Two years ago, Xie Jinbo that neighbor a unit fielded a new equipment, he immediately with a “gauntlet” to the unit. Thereafter, they are back to back through a field exercise, a powerful increase the combat effectiveness of the two forces.

In recent years, the group has several units and 10 Army, Air Force, Navy established a joint training relationship, master a set to adapt to new equipment, tactics and close combat in a variety of complex conditions emergency support experience.

Usually “seeking abortion” as is undefeated wartime. Because of the technical performance of the equipment war fraternal units more familiar with the training he often felt recruited opponents hard enough, he would for ourselves, “made” opponents.

In 2008, Xie Jinbo well-established group “Blue Army” units, and personally served as commander. Under his leadership, our in-depth study of each of a regional war since the Gulf War, from operational to tactical training principles guiding ideology, means of attack, an action an action before, one would like to set a scenario to pull, so that the “blue army” soon He entered the role as military training of “grindstone.”

In a time of “seeking lost” experience, the team’s fighting again and again to give rise. In recent years, various types of exercises held superiors, they times and successfully complete the task.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

初冬时节,一场对抗演练在南方某地打响。

战斗刚刚打响,“蓝军”电子干扰群就捕捉到一组来历不明的电磁信号。正当操作手急于对信号实施干扰时,被一名指挥员紧急叫停。他断定这组信号是由“红军”高级指挥机关发出的,过早干扰可能会打草惊蛇。果然不出所料,当“红军”发起进攻战斗时,他们实时压制这一频段,有效打乱了“红军”战斗部署。

这位神机妙算的“蓝军”指挥员,就是全军优秀指挥军官、广州军区某团团长谢金波。

60多万组信息数据,见证着他的执著与艰辛

这份别样的演习总结,吸引了多位演习组织者的眼球:“某型装备,在通视条件低于2公里的条件下,干扰效果下降13%……”翻开这份长达14万字的总结报告,处处都是这样用数据说话,改变了传统报告“重定性描述,轻定量分析”的痼疾。

后来,这份由谢金波亲自撰写的演习总结被当成范本下发参演部队传阅。

这些年,随着信息化新装备配发部队,谢金波敏锐地发现,有时作战环境、装备性能一个数据的细微差别都有可能影响战争的胜负。在一次演练中,由于某台站没有控制好装备的温度、湿度,结果导致干扰失败。

不仅如此,提高基于信息系统体系作战能力,也离不开战场数据库的建设。谢金波在多次的训练对比中发现,事先注入了战场数据的信息化装备,与没注入数据的“裸机”相比,作战效能最高时竟相差上千倍。

谢金波深深感到,每一个数据都是一笔宝贵的资源,他开始了漫长、艰辛的数据采集。有一次,为取得某型装备在不同地形条件下干扰距离的数据,谢金波先后花了2年多时间,经过多次训练、演习的实践,终于将相关数据收集齐。几年来,为了取得宝贵的作战数据,他常常夜以继日、不辞辛劳,一年有近300天泡在训练场。

如今,60多万组信息数据充实到该团信息化装备的数据库中,为指挥决策的自动化夯实了坚实的根基。同时,数十种主战装备在各种条件的工作参数被不断刷新,团里以此为依据完善和创新了50余种战法训法。

让新装备走上“战场”,他勇于担当

2009年7月,中原某古战场。全军列装某型信息化装备单位的官兵云集于此,在无形空间展开激烈博弈。

远在广州的军区领导很是担心:谢金波和他的部队能否完成好演练任务?要知道,该团列装这套装备仅14天,这次演练他们完全可以不参加。

当初,军区征求团里的意见,谢金波坚持要求带队参演。机关参谋建议:即便通过应急训练,官兵们也仅掌握基本的操作使用,而兄弟单位列装最短也已有一年半,积累了丰富的训练经验,要是演砸了对单位和个人都不利。

闻听此言,谢金波眼睛一瞪:配备新装备为的是未来战场克敌制胜,如果不能让新装备走上“战场”,这是我们军人的失职。

在这次演练中,谢金波白天带领部队搞对抗,晚上带领干部骨干摸索总结,真正做到了“打一仗进一步”。短短40多天,官兵们不仅熟练掌握了这套新装备,还多次在演练中把对手逼入绝境。最后,该团被评为“演练先进单位”。

在这次演练中,他提出一项构想,得到了总部首长和专家的高度认可。他带领官兵编写的该型装备操作使用手册和战术运用方法,被总部作为训练教材印发全军同类部队。3年来,在谢金波的带领下,团队不断摸索总结新装备组训方法,编写了30多套教材、教范和使用手册,其中5套被总部推广运用;研究开发了3套模拟训练系统软件、信号自动识别软件,其中2项获得军队科技进步三等奖。

在“求败”中砥砺战斗力,是他的制胜之道

熟悉谢金波的人,都叫他“独孤求败”。这是因为他在训练中总是想方设法给部队找对手、出难题,只求一败。

两年前,谢金波得知友邻某部列装了一套新装备,他立即带着“战书”到了该部。此后,他们通过一场场背靠背的演练,有力提高了两支部队的战斗力。

几年来,该团先后与陆军、空军、海军的10几个单位建立起了联训关系,掌握了一套适应新装备,贴近实战的战法和在各种复杂条件下应急保障的经验。

平时“求败”为的是战时不败。由于对兄弟单位装备战技术性能比较熟悉,训练中他常常感到找来的对手还不够硬,他就自己给自己“造”对手。

2008年,谢金波精心组建了团“蓝军”分队,并亲自担任指挥员。在他的带领下,大家深入研究海湾战争以来的每一场局部战争,从作战指导思想到战术训练原则、攻击手段,一个动作一个动作过,一个想定一个想定抠,使“蓝军”很快就进入了角色,成为部队训练的“磨刀石”。

在一次次的“求败”经历中,团队的战斗力一次次得到攀升。在近几年上级举行的各类演习中,他们次次圆满完成任务。

Original Source: 解放军报

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace – 威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace

威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

January 6th 2016

China’s National Defence University

 

Given the recent People’s Liberation Army (PLA) restructuring and renewed emphasis on strategic forces and cyberwarfare units it is no surprise that military experts in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are discussing how to use military force in cyberspace effectively.

when the opposing sides have the ability to ensure invade destroy the other network when you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with and do not attack the other network rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even will form international networks and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.   China Military Online publication Yuan Yi of PLA Military Academy of Sciences, said the article, along with human society’s dependence on cyberspace continues to deepen, cyberspace has become the “fifth dimension of human production and life of the” second class living space “and military confrontation battle space. ” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.   First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace   cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions taken in cyberspace, cyberspace display paralyze enemy control, and cross-domain control of the enemy’s determination and strength of the physical space through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop the enemy in the form of a strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

(A) Advantages of cyberspace deterrence.   Deterrence advantage of cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber-attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value. Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, repeated use, with strong flexibility.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

雙方都具有確保侵入破壞對方網絡的能力時,就可以帶來雙向網絡遏制,使得雙方不得不在一定條件下,遵守互不攻擊對方網絡的遊戲規則,形成一個無形的安全閥,甚至國際上也會形成互不攻擊對方網絡的慣例協議或公約,網絡空間由此成為可以產生巨大威懾效應的戰略領域。網絡空間威懾繼核威懾之後,開始進入大國政治家和軍事家的戰略視野。研究網絡空間威懾的特征、類型和運用要點,成為網絡強國、網絡強軍的必須考量和必要行動。

中國軍網發表中國人民解放軍軍事科學院袁藝的文章稱,隨著人類社會對網絡空間依賴程度的不斷加深,網絡空間成為人類生產生活的“第二類生存空間”和軍事對抗的“第五維作戰空間”。世界各國圍繞網絡空間的主導權、控制權、話語權展開了激烈的爭奪,網絡空間的競爭已達到與人類生存、國家命運和軍事鬥爭成敗休戚相關的程度。思考網絡空間威懾能力建設,具有重大現實和理論價值。

一、網絡空間威懾的優劣分析

網絡空間威懾,是指在網絡空間採取各種行動,展示癱瘓控制敵方網絡空間,並通過網絡空間跨域控制敵方實體空間的決心和實力,從而達到懾敵、止敵、阻敵、遏敵目的的一種戰略威懾形式。網絡空間與實體空間相比所具有的“虛實二相性”,網絡戰與傳統作戰樣式相比所具有的獨特性,決定了網絡空間威懾的優缺點都非常明顯。

(一)網絡空間威懾的優點

網絡空間威懾的優點,主要體現在:一是威懾方式更趨文明和人道。與基於物理、生物、化學殺傷機理的核生化武器相比,網絡戰武器的直接殺傷和破壞效應要遠小於前者,通常不會對自然環境造成永久性破壞和污染,也不會造成大量的人員傷亡,並引發人道主義災難。二是威懾成本低效費比高。網絡戰武器以病毒、木馬等軟件為主,成本相對低廉,技術門檻較低,而造成的破壞效果卻相當驚人。網絡防禦點多面廣,防不勝防,要網絡安全程度每提高一個等級,投入成本會呈指數級增加。網絡進攻的低成本與網絡防禦的高成本對比鮮明,使得網絡攻防呈現“矛尖盾薄”的特點,網絡戰武器因而被稱為“窮國的原子彈”。三是威懾手段多樣實用性強。網絡戰武器多種多樣,網絡攻擊目標多元,決定了有多樣化的網絡空間威懾手段可供選擇。網絡攻擊效果在一定程度上是可恢復的,只要運用實施得當,引發戰爭和促使戰爭升級的風險相對較小。從某種意義上講,核武器的威懾價值遠大於實戰價值,而網絡戰武器則是實戰價值與威懾價值兼具。四是威懾運用可重複靈活性強。“核門檻”一旦跨過就會爆發全面核戰爭,處於核均勢的雙方將陷入相互摧毀狀態,輕易實施核威懾特別是對無核國家進行核威懾,還會招致國際輿論的譴責,這些因素都極大地限制了核威懾手段的使用。而網絡空間威懾軟硬結合、威力可控的特點,決定了其可根據軍事鬥爭形勢的變化和需要,適時調控威懾強度,先期使用、全程使用、反覆使用,具有很強的靈活性。

(B) Lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace is insufficient when it comes to a deterrent effect, mainly reflected in the following:

First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing.

Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, and there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect greatly reduced. For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber-attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.

Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you cannot control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, attack, control, prevention and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace includes the following; there are cyberspace technology test deterrence measures, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence. There are four types of deterrence operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) Technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)網絡空間威懾的不足

網絡空間威懾的不足,主要體現在:一是威懾效果的可信性未得到充分驗證。核威懾的可信度已在實戰中得到了驗證。然而,截至目前,真正意義上的網絡大戰還沒有真正爆發過。人們對網絡戰驚人的破壞力,更多的只是一種猜測和擔憂,網絡戰的真實威力只有經過實戰檢驗後,才能真正令人信服。二是威懾手段的可靠性不太高。網絡戰是敵我雙方網絡攻防持續互動的動態過程,網絡對抗複雜、技術性強的特點,決定了網絡戰攻擊效果具有較大的不確定性,有可能達不到預期作戰目的,使威懾效果大打折扣。例如,對敵實施網絡空間實戰威懾時,敵方若及時採取各種有效防禦手段,就會增加己方網絡攻擊的難度和降低破壞效果,甚至導致攻擊行動的失敗。三是威懾範圍的可控性需進一步改善。病毒武器作為網絡戰的重要武器之一,其傳播性強、可控性較差、影響範圍比較廣,很難針對敵國計算機和網絡發動專門性、針對性極強的攻擊。如果不能控制其有效作用範圍,就會波及第三方中立國家,甚至使自身也成為受害者,因而病毒武器的使用有“投鼠忌器”之患。四是威懾對象的可選擇性受限。核威懾對任何國家都是明確而有效的,而網絡空間威懾的效果與敵國的信息化程度有很大關係。網絡空間威懾對信息化程度高的國家極為有效,而對那些信息基礎設施薄弱,網絡依賴性不強的不發達國家,則很難發揮效果,甚至完全不起作用。五是威懾實施的組織相對複雜。世界各個核國家無不對戰略核力量實施集中統管,指揮控制權高度集中,組織實施核威懾行動時可以準確控制到每一個作戰單元,組織實施十分周密。而網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要涉及偵、攻、控、防等多支力量,人員多、規模大,且分散在軍地不同部門和單位,組織起來非常複雜,形成合力不易。

二、網絡空間威懾的主要類型

網絡空間威懾主要有網絡空間技術試驗威懾、網絡空間裝備展示威懾、網絡空間作戰演習威懾和網絡空間作戰行動威懾四種類型。其中,前三種是示形威懾,後一種是實戰威懾。

(一)網絡空間技術試驗威懾

Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) Deterrence in cyberspace equipment display.

Equipment display deterrence in cyberspace, is planning to develop cyber warfare equipment development, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, appropriate disclosure network warfare equipment models, performance, features needed, parameters and development progress, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaked equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence. Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, played a very good deterrent.

(C) Cyberspace exercise deterrence.

In cyberspace combat exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

網絡空間技術試驗威懾,是在網絡戰領域,經常性地進行新作戰概念的先期探索性試驗、新攻擊機理和戰術的效果印證性試驗、新技術的實用化武器化試驗等,並通過媒體向外界披露,以展現本國雄厚的信息技術基礎研究實力,以及轉化為網絡戰能力的巨大潛力,以達到威懾對手的目的。當前,網絡攻防技術仍在快速發展,一項關鍵性技術的突破,往往會對網絡空間安全和作戰產生重大影響,甚至引發革命性變化。誰搶先占領了網絡攻防技術的戰略制高點,誰就能在未來網絡戰中取得明顯優勢。

(二)網絡空間裝備展示威懾

網絡空間裝備展示威懾,是在網絡戰裝備發展規劃制定、技術開發、打靶試驗、定型生產等各個發展階段,根據需要適當披露網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點、參數以及研製進度等情況,以達到威懾對手的目的。其方式主要有兩種:一種是通過在國防白皮書、外交公報以及報紙、期刊、大型網站等權威媒體從官方渠道公開披露,實施顯性威懾;另一種是通過網絡社交媒體或其他非官方渠道,刻意洩露裝備相關情況,實施隱性威懾。網絡空間裝備展示威懾,一方面可以虛構新機理、新概念的新型網絡戰裝備,並渲染其獨特的作戰能力;另一方面可以刻意誇大已有網絡戰裝備的作戰效能。虛中有實、實中有虛,實施模糊政策,使對方摸不清己方真實情況和實力,產生恐懼和忌憚心理。例如,美軍的“舒特”機載網電一體攻擊系統已多次投入實戰使用,對其敵對國家的防空體系構成了嚴重威脅,但其基本原理、工作機制、戰技指標既沒有公開披露,也沒有被他國完全掌握破解,一直處於保密狀態,令人虛實難辨,起到了很好的威懾作用。

(三)網絡空間作戰演習威懾

網絡空間作戰演習威懾,是以實兵或虛擬的方式在網絡空間展開演習活動,並借助各種媒體渠道,向潛在作戰對手展現本國網絡戰能力、實力與決心,以達到威懾對手的目的。網絡空間作戰演習可分為實兵演習和虛擬演習兩種。前者通常在全國範圍內或與盟國聯合進行,一般以演練軍地聯合網絡空間防禦行動為主。近幾年來,美國及盟國多次舉行“網絡風暴”系列網絡戰演習,以及“施裡弗”系列太空-網絡空間演習,很好展現了網絡戰的動員實力、整體防禦水平,以及實施網絡戰的決心。後者通常在國家大型網絡綜合靶場舉行,一般以演練軍隊專業網絡戰力量的進攻行動為主。

(D) Operations in cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace operations, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter fighting a real opponent deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program, and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace.

Cyberspace deterrence general use requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to demonstrate, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purpose. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) Both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations, “Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially soft and hard analysis to find out the enemy Vulnerability member system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber-attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(四)網絡空間作戰行動威懾

網絡空間作戰行動威懾,是指對特定的網絡目標實施攻擊,以確信的攻擊效果來威懾作戰對手的一種實戰性威懾。其運用的時機有兩個:一是當己方覺察敵方即將對己方發動戰爭時,己方選擇敵方重點防禦的關鍵性網絡目標進行針對性打擊,進行預防性、遏制性威懾;二是當敵方通過對己方發起試探性網絡攻擊,實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應立即進行有效的報復性、懲戒性威懾。具有威懾效果的網絡戰行動有多種。例如,對敵電信網滲透破壞,向敵國民眾手機大量發送宣傳反戰短信;對敵電力網進行攻擊,造成敵重要城市短時間的大面積停電;對敵廣播電視網進行攻擊,在黃金時段插播己方特製的視頻節目等等。

三、網絡空間威懾的運用要點

網絡空間威懾總的運用要求是:懾戰結合,以實力、實戰展示能力和決心,力求以小戰體現威懾、以精打確保威懾,以較小的代價實現威懾目的。具體說來,應做到以下幾點。

(一)平戰結合,長期準備

“冰凍三尺,非一日之寒”。成功實施網絡空間威懾,需要平戰結合,在平時就要進行充分細致的準備。一是要進行全面周密的網絡偵察。要求諜報偵察與技術偵察、無線偵察與有線偵察相結合,對敵網絡目標進行長期持續的網絡偵察,逐步摸清敵網絡基本情況,繪制其網絡拓撲結構圖,尤其是分析查找出敵各種軟硬件系統的漏洞。二是要進行大量有效的戰略預置。採用黑客手段,通過利用系統漏洞或口令破譯等辦法,秘密滲透進入敵各類網絡,留下後門,設置跳板機,埋設邏輯炸彈和木馬,為未來發動網絡攻擊預留突破口。三是進行預有準備的網絡防禦。在對敵實施網絡空間威懾時,己方應提前調整網絡防禦部署,使敵預先設計的攻擊路徑,預期利用的系統漏洞,預定執行的攻擊方案難以實施,或實施效果大打折扣,最大限度地降低敵網絡報復造成的損失。

(B) Careful decision-making.

Control the intensity of decision-making   Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, or their effect may be counterproductive. Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, possibly even nuclear states will be spent on nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) Unity of command, well-organized.

Military organizations implement deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, cannot appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. Should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You cannot select innocuous, the impact was small, and the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you cannot select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.

Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) Actual situation, focusing on strategy.

Sun Tzu said, “it can and cannot be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber-attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber-attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, but no evidence, not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

(二)慎重決策,控制強度

孫子曰:“主不可以怒而興師,將不可以慍而致戰”。網絡空間威懾是國家之間的戰略博弈行為,尤其是實戰威懾,敏感性強,必須做到有理、有利、有節,決不能因為威懾“門檻”較低而濫用亂用,否則其效果可能會適得其反。網絡空間實戰威懾對作戰強度控制的要求很高。一方面,若強度太小,敵國政府和民眾不會產生畏懼心理,起不到應有的威懾效果,對方還可能採取同樣的手段實施反威懾,最終導致對抗升級,使己方威懾失效。另一方面,若強度過大,給敵國造成巨大的經濟損失和人員傷亡,引起國際社會的譴責和敵國政府、民眾的仇恨心理,就可能引發敵國運用常規力量進行大規模報復,有核國家甚至可能會動用核力量,這樣不但不能懾止戰爭,反而會起到戰爭導火索的作用。

(三)統一指揮,周密組織

網絡空間威懾的組織實施,要集中指揮,統一籌劃,搞好協同。一是精心組織力量。統一組織軍隊偵、攻、防、控四支力量,積極協調軍地各方網絡戰力量形成合力。尤其是要組織和協調好民間非專業網絡戰力量特別是愛國黑客,不能出現“盲動”現象,以免引發摩擦,擦槍走火,引起網絡戰的升級,或過早暴露攻擊意圖,授人以柄,導致局勢不可控或行動失敗。二是精當選擇目標。應選擇影響面廣,易產生明顯威懾效果的目標。例如,收視率排名靠前的廣播電視頻道、訪問量巨大的門戶網站、用戶眾多的無線通信網絡等。不能選擇無關痛癢、影響面小、民眾漠不關心的目標進行攻擊,易被誤認為是普通黑客製造的網絡安全事件,起不到應有的威懾效果。此外,還要考慮國際法和戰爭法約束,不能選擇易造成人道主義災難的目標,盡量不選取鐵路、航空、金融、醫療等部門的網絡目標,以免激起國際社會和對方民眾的譴責和反感。三是精確控制進程。實施網絡空間威懾性打擊之前,要通過廣泛的輿論宣傳造勢,向敵國發出打擊警告,並向全世界宣告己方行動的正義性,以爭取國際輿論的理解和支持。為突出威懾效果,己方可以高調宣布要攻擊的敵國網絡目標,再突破敵方層層網絡防禦,實施堅決有效的網絡攻擊,必要時最後還可對網絡攻擊效果進行定時恢復,以展現己方高超的網絡攻擊技術和手段,讓敵方決策者和民眾產生防不勝防、難以招架的心理挫折感,從而形成強烈的震懾效果。

(四)虛實結合,注重謀略

孫子所說的“能而示之不能,用而示之不用”,運用到網絡空間威懾,其要點概括起來就是“示而不宣、宣而不示”。“示而不宣”,就是利用網絡攻擊難以追蹤定位這一點,對特定目標實施網絡攻擊,但不對外宣布是己方所為,既展示了己方能力,又使得敵方雖然懷疑是己方所為,但沒有證據,無法追究。“宣而不示”,就是公開宣傳或不經意透露己方研製或虛構的先進網絡戰裝備的型號、性能、特點,刻意誇大其作戰效能,虛虛實實,虛實結合,使敵摸不清己方真實實力,從而產生威懾效果。網絡戰行動具有追蹤溯源困難、取證複雜的特點,發起方既可以承認,也可以矢口否認,或把責任推給民間黑客組織。

Original Source: www.crntt.iw/888

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

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Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)

中国解放军事科学院_lit

People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces

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Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Source:

http://chinamil.com.cn/news-channels/photo-reports/2016-01/01/content_6840094.htm

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate 中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China

Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate

中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

八一解放軍

China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

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The following highlights at a few key sectors:

A General Staff

General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.

Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.

General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.

A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.

General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.

Second section of the General Staff

Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.

Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, ​​the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, ​​and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)

General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.

A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.

Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.

Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.

Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.

Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.

Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.

Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.

Section II has the following departments:

Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.

Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.

Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.

Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.

In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.

Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.

In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.

Three of the General Staff

Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.

Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.

Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.

Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of ​​prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.

Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.

Four General Staff

Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.

There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.

In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:

◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)

◎ Confidential telephone network

◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)

◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)

Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:

◎ Underground fiber-optic network

◎ Communications satellite

◎ Microwave Communication

◎ Shortwave radio stations

◎ Automatic command and control network

General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:

  1. from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
  2. The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
  3. Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
  4. From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
  5. from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
  6. from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change

General Staff Guard Bureau

People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.

General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.

General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.

In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.

General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).

Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.

Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.

8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.

However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.

General Staff Guard Bureau leaders

SECRETARY: Cao Qing in

Deputy Director:

Major General Li Hongfu

Major General Yan Min

Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard

Major General Zhao Jiang stay

Major General Sun Yuan Gong

Major Jiangguang Qing

Major General Zhou Dongsheng

Major General Ye your new

The leaders of the Central Military Commission

CMC leadership

PRESIDENT: Xi Jinping

Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong

Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian

Former Chief of Staff

Zhou Enlai and chief of staff

Marshal Xu Xiangqian

Marshal Nie

Su Yu

Huang Kecheng general

Lo Jui-ching generals

Yang Chengwu

Admiral Huang Yongsheng

Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff

Admiral Yang Dezhi

Chi Haotian

Zhang Wannian

Fu Admiral

Liang Guanglie

Chen Bingde

Admiral Room Feng Hui

Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff

Nanjing Army Command College

Shijiazhuang Army Command College

Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)

Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)

Shenyang Artillery Academy

Zhenjiang Institute of boats

Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)

Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)

Chongqing Communication Institute

Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)

Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}

Army Missile Academy (Langfang)

Nanjing University of technology & Engineering

Anhui Artillery Academy

Bengbu Tank Institute

Xi’an Communication Institute

Luoyang Foreign Languages ​​Institute

Zhangjiakou Communication Institute

Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College

Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)

Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)

Beijing Army Aviation Academy

National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

中國人民解放軍總參謀部,在中國共產黨中央委員會、中央軍事委員會領導下,負責組織全國武裝力量建設和作戰指揮的最高軍事統率機關。經過精簡調整後,總參謀部下設辦公廳、作戰部、情報部、第三部、信息化部、軍訓部、軍務部、裝備部、動員部、炮兵部、裝甲兵部、工程兵部、防化部、電子對抗雷達部、政治部、機要局、測繪局、外事局、陸航局、管理局等部門。下面重點介紹一下幾個主要部門:

總參一部

總參一部就是“總參作戰部”,是總參序列中的”老大”。一部是總參最最要害的一個部門,全軍所有的軍事命令都是通過一部下達。他是全軍作戰時的總指揮部,在戰爭爆發時,他就代表中央軍委指揮全國的軍事行動,它同時也作為國傢最高軍事指揮部,在總參的層次結構中起首位作用。

白建軍少將是現任總參作戰部部長,曾擔任過濟南軍區第54集團軍副軍長,2008年3月任陸軍第20集團軍軍長,5月率部參加汶川地震抗震救災。2009年任總參謀部作戰部部長。一部還有5個副部長,都是少將,由總參謀長房峰輝上將直接領導。

總參一部是總參最大的一個部門,下轄8個正師級的局級單位,包括作戰計劃局、戰爭環境局、聯合作戰局、作戰組織運籌局、特種作戰局、戰略目標局、戰備局、演習管理局。下轄的二級的單位那就多瞭去瞭,這個部的將軍有幾十人,有笑話,隨便扔個大石頭,就可以砸死幾個將軍。梁光烈總參謀長上臺後搞瞭改革,向美國的參謀長聯席會議制度學習,已經進行瞭編制調整。各軍種,包括陸軍、海軍、空軍、戰略導彈部隊(二炮)–均在作戰部設有相應的軍種局,在平時,這些軍種局負責追蹤其對應的各軍種日常活動情況,並向中央軍委匯報。而戰時,則負責協調各軍種的活動。

一部在職能上相當於五角大樓Joint Staff的J-3。假設解放軍正在擬定一份正式的作戰計劃,或者突發事件的應變計劃,那麼這就是一部幹的活。如果現在日本突然在釣魚島挑起事端,那麼,負責處理就是一部的事情,2001年,南海軍機相撞,就是由一部直接指揮事態處理的。還有神州1號到6號飛船的發射、回收,都由總參一部參與指揮、調度。

總參一部屬於24小時值班的部門,指揮所位於北京頤和園西北的玉泉山附近,俗稱“西山指揮所”,指揮所深處於上百米的地下,通過電梯進出,可以抵禦核打擊;是中國人民解放軍陸、海、空、二炮的作戰神經中樞,類似於五角大樓的國傢軍事指揮中心。其擁有通信中心、情報中心、作戰指控中心等職能。在戰時可以起到“國傢戰爭指揮中心”的作用。與西山指揮所類似的國傢戰備指揮中心,全國還有多處。

總參二部

總參二部就是總參“情報部”,主要負責搜集、分析軍事政治情報,與總參三部和總政聯絡部都屬軍隊情報系統。在某種程度上,其戰略情報方面的工作與國傢安全部(MSS)有部分重迭。二部的主要”客戶”是總參領導,軍委、國防部、軍兵種總部、軍事工業集團的領導,和部隊指揮員。

楊暉少將是現任總參二部的部長,曾先後在中國駐南斯拉夫使館、前蘇聯使館、俄羅斯使館和哈薩克使館工作,後又擔任總參三部副部長、31集團軍副軍長,並兼任任中國俄羅斯東歐中亞學會副會長,中國國際戰略學會反恐怖研究中心主任、高級研究員,南京國際關系學院兼職教授。楊暉少將是網絡戰專傢。(註:最新資料,二部副部長陳友誼晉升部長)

總參二部下設多個局級單位。

其中總參二部一局主要負責香港和臺灣的情報收集。當然,它也負責全世界范圍內的重要目標。一局下面有五個辦事處:廣州工作處、北京工作處、天津工作處、上海工作處、沈陽工作處。而這些工作處都是以駐這個城市的某某辦公室的名義出現。比如說廣州工作處,就是廣州市人民政府第5辦公室。北京工作處就叫北京市人民政府第幾辦公室。現在二部北京工作處的負責人,原來是駐俄羅斯的武官。這五個根據地理分佈配置的工作處也從事海外秘密諜報行動。例如,沈陽工作處負責俄羅斯、東歐、日本的情報收集,廣州工作處看來也是負責其鄰近地區的情報收集。其首要目標是港澳臺地區的人。上海工作處和南京工作處分別負責西歐和美國。

總參二部二局,又稱“戰術情報局”,解放軍七大軍區(廣州、蘭州、南京、成都、濟南、北京、沈陽)各有軍區下轄的情報部,屬正師級。這些部門直接歸口總參二部二局管理。主要負責向七大軍區部隊提供戰術情報並協調其工作。

總參二部為滿足軍事戰略情報需求而派出的軍情人員,屬於總參二部三局,俗稱武官處,有四百多員工,按地理位置和所在地區對特使搜集活動的重要性,又被細分為七個小組。軍情人員主要搜集有關外國武器技術、戰爭規模、軍事學說、經濟和政策方面的情報。很多這種信息都能從公開渠道得到,但敏感技術一般來說還必須采取秘密方式才能獲得。總參二部獲得情報的方式主要有三個途徑:一是向外國派遣以各種身份為掩護的軍事情報人員;二是從外國的公開出版物上分析軍事情報;三是向駐外使館派出武官。中國駐各國大使館的武官都是由總參二部派出,而不是由外交部或國防部。武官是軍職人員,級別最高的是駐美國的武官,正軍級,軍銜是少將。駐其他國傢的武官有些是正軍級,有些是副軍級,但是駐多數國傢的武官,都是正師級,也就是大校。

二部有專門機構培訓軍情人員,培訓項目包括諜報技巧和語言能力。原總參二部部長羅宇棟少將曾擔任南京外交學院院長。南京外交學院現更名為解放軍國際關系學院,該院前身是中國人民解放軍793外國語學院,文革後從張傢口遷至洛陽和南京,分為兩個學院。這就是二部培訓諜報技巧和外語能力的學校。

總參二部還下轄有多個情報分析局,負責對特定地域的目標進行深層次的情報分析:如二部四局負責瞭解獨聯體和東歐的政治軍事政策,五局負責美國和西方國傢的情報搜集分析;而六局則把工作重點放在與中國相鄰的亞洲國傢上。五局在進行政治和經濟分析時主要利用公開渠道得到的出版物。二部駐美國的分析傢常常要在美國工作很多年,因為這一特殊的研究在中國情報圈內享有較高的聲譽。同時可能要花相當多時間和精力來培養語言能力強的分析傢,這樣他才能辨別出美國和歐洲公開出版物中所反映的文化和政治信息。五局最喜歡的兩個美國資料來源就是國會的報告和蘭德公司的文件。

二部七局為科技局,主要負責軍事武器的研究、設計和開發情報。七處瞄準的是國外未來軍事科學技術的情報,和國內武器研發單位有密切的聯系,能夠在武器研發過程中起到很大作用。七局現有六個研究機構屬該局管理:包括開發諜報設備的第五十八研究所、生產技術性援助設備的海鷗電子設備廠、北京電子廠、第五十七研究所、北方交通大學計算機中心和該處自己的計算機中心。

二部還有一個軍控局,專門用來處理國外彈道導彈防禦系統和軍控問題。由於外交部設有一個負責軍控和裁軍的部門,所以解放軍自己也設一個類似的部門。而把軍控機構設在二部之下,則是因為情報和外事方面的工作在總參內部是由同一名副總參謀長來分管。

二部還有以下幾個部門:

檔案局 收藏海外的公開出版物。它的一個下屬單位就是軍事誼文出版社,該公司負責翻譯和重新出版其他國傢的軍事雜志。

機要局 負責處理、傳達和收藏機密文件,也負責為文件制定密級。

綜合局 為工作人員提供後勤服務,如交通、辦公設備、娛樂中心和飲食。

警衛局 負責中央軍委委員和各總部領導的人身安全。在二部各機構的安全工作中它還享有司法權。

另外,總參二部研究機構的對外公開名稱是“國際戰略研究學會”,也就是過去的北京國際研究學會。所以凡是戰略研究協會的專傢學者,都是總參二部的軍官。比如說在陳水扁上臺以後,臺海局勢緊張期間,經常發表針對臺灣講話的一位年輕的學者辛旗,這就是總參二部的一個秀才。總參二部的情報水平比國傢安全部高很多,因為它從紅軍時代一直延續到現在,因而,有中國的CIA(美國中央情報局)之稱。

總參二部的情報人員基本上有三種人:密工、商幹、掛靠。第一種人是總參二部的專職軍情人員,是在編制內的,這種人在圈子裡被叫做“密工”,受過專業培訓。而國安部和公安部的這類人則都叫“密幹”,也是在公安或者國安內部編制裡的。第二種人是半在編的,在圈子裡被稱為“商幹”,說他們是’半在編”,就是因為這些人的名字上瞭情報部的電腦,但是人員並沒有進入軍情系統的行政編制。比如一個叫張鵬的,在廣東出事瞭。不管是打人瞭,搶劫瞭,還是開地下妓院瞭,隻要沒有死人,公安來抓張鵬的時候,張鵬就可以說:你不能動我,我是搞情報的,某某的人。另外,如果張鵬出境時,超過中華人民共和國外匯管理局關於中國公民到香港時隻能帶六千港幣的規定,隨身帶瞭六十萬港幣而被海關抓住的話,張鵬又會告訴海關的人,你不能動我,我是情報口的,是某某的人。這時海關就可能會打個電話到有關部門去問。而因為張鵬的名字是上瞭情報口電腦的,那邊一查就說:張鵬是我們的人。這樣確認瞭之後,海關這時就隻能放人、放錢。

其實在第二種人裡邊,又可以分兩類:一類是比較接近於“密工”的,是既上瞭軍情電腦名單,也正式發瞭軍裝的。並且,在名義上還有一份工資,軍委是認賬的。如果這個人確實是因為搞情報工作犧牲瞭,那麼這筆錢會交給這個人的傢屬。可能平時這份工資並沒領,但是國傢會替這個人存著。另一類人其實並不做情報,也可以說這類人進軍情部門純粹是為瞭平時能夠靠二部的關系作買賣賺很多錢。因為,誰都知道,中國軍情部門有所謂的免檢章,有貨物進口免檢的絕對特權。第三種人被稱為“掛靠”,社會上這種人最多。而這些人當中的絕大部分人是掛靠於軍情在地方上對外的一些辦公室下邊的。比如說:廣州軍區情報部在地方上的身份是“廣東省人民政府第五辦公室”,負責人分主任和政委。原來五辦的政委叫傅軍,級別相當於廣州軍區情報部的副部長,他原來是廣州軍區人事處的處長。

總參三部

總參三部,又稱“監聽部”,主要負責偵聽、處理和轉送國外電臺的通信傳播信號。也就是通過設在各邊境和沿海地區的無數“監聽站”進行電子情報的截收工作。情報人員以前全天24小時監聽監看外國電視,現在又增加瞭對互聯網的監視。這有點類似於美國的國傢安全局(NSA)。三部的“網絡控制中心”位於北京市海淀區。總參三部目前估計有十幾萬人員負責監聽所有國際長途電話。所有的國際長途電話在錄音設備上預先輸入一些關鍵詞匯,例如一些中國領導人的名字、一些敏感的事件名稱、以及一些隱諱的詞語,當錄音機感應到這些詞匯時,就會自動跳起來,這時監聽人員就會立即對這個電話進行跟蹤監聽檢查,而且三部也同時截收海外的傳真。

三部在海外擁有眾多的監聽站,1992年緬甸政府同意中國在安達曼海的島嶼上設立偵聽站,以監視印度洋。1994年老撾政府同意中國在老撾南方占巴塞省(Champasak)設立三個偵聽站,其中一個在Khong。1999年中國在古巴位於盧爾德(Lourdes)的一個偵聽站項目上展開合作,該站最初是由蘇聯援助建立。

三部也負責對國內軍網通信的偵聽工作,各大軍區之間任何有線和無線的通信聯系都無法避過這張偵聽網的耳朵,這有助於對戰備安全的抽查。

與總參二部類似,總參三部在七大軍區也有下設機構,各大軍區防區內負責情報收集和處理的骨幹偵聽站是由各大軍區司令部三局來運作,直接歸口總參三部管理。各大軍區的司令和參謀無權幹預在其防區內展開工作的三部機構。其同所駐紮的省軍區及大軍區之間沒有任何隸屬關系。這些偵聽站在人員、編制、預算、組建方面,完全由總參三部負責。各大軍區的偵聽站有不同的功能和目標區域,例如:蘭州軍區的三局負責偵聽俄羅斯方面的信號通信,並肩負著對俄方導彈攻擊進行早期預警的重要使命。這個部門應該隸屬於三部八局,其”負責截聽前蘇聯地區的電子通信信號”,中亞地區各共和國也是該局的目標范圍,其偵聽對象是中俄邊界地區。三部十二局主要負責”識別和跟蹤外國衛星–即美國軍用衛星”。十二局的一處設施位於西昌。

三部部長為吳國華少將,政治委員:王永生少將.

總參四部

總參四部為“電子雷達對抗部”,組建於1990年,主要負責電子戰,包括電子情報、電子對抗、雷達管制等。總參四部部長為曾占平少將。近年來,解放軍在戰術技偵和電子戰方面得到瞭加強。在總參四部組建之前,電子戰是二部的一項職責。除瞭執行解放軍電子戰理論政策所規定的內容之外,四部也向戰略目標提供電子防禦,例如位於北京西山的軍事指揮控制中心的C4I系統。在向國傢重要目標提供電子保護措施的同時,總參四部也掌管全軍下至師級單位所屬的電子戰分隊。同時也管理和領導海空軍部隊的信號情報和電子戰的運作,如機載情報收集系統、海軍艦載設施。

四部裡還設有一些局,分別對陸海空三軍部隊在業務上提供指導,對直屬該部的電子對抗部隊和雷達兵部隊進行垂直領導,或負責一些對口研究所的工作。主要包括西南電子研究所(即成都第29研究所),負責雷達幹擾發射臺的研發。總參第54研究所,該所專門”為電子對抗與雷達兵部研制分析雷達脈沖參數的數字電子情報信號處理器。” 合肥第36研究所,負責研發通信幹擾發射臺。此外,總參四部還有自己的軍事院校,其中包括安徽合肥解放軍電子工程學院。

除瞭管理解放軍的軍事通信系統之外,總參通信部也在全中國的通信基礎設施現代化建設方面扮演瞭領頭作用。主要包括以下一些項目:

◎軍用電話網(非密)

◎保密電話網

◎全軍數據通信網絡(可能就是上述的”全軍公共數據交換網絡”)

◎野戰通信系統,它”整合瞭聲、光、電信號,利用空中、地下、潛艇數據鏈。”(就像戰術/作戰網絡系統,整合瞭光纖通信和衛星通信。)

另一個關於解放軍通信系統的項目包括:

◎地下光纖網絡

◎通信衛星

◎微波通信

◎短波廣播站

◎自動指揮和控制網絡

總參通信部設有很多建制內的單位和人員從事著固定通信設施(例如高頻通信、微波通信、衛星通信、電話交換系統、對流層散射通信)以及移動戰略通信設備。總參四部下設大量建制內的維護和後勤部隊,以對相關設備進行修理、供給、維護、測試、校準,並執行總務方面的職能。總之,總參通信部肩負的主要軍事使命是:規劃和實現解放軍作戰指揮及行政管理通信網絡的現代化。目前總參通信部正負責建設一個長途通信網絡,以滿足打一場”高技術條件下局部戰爭”的需要。在這點上,通信部正著力於實現軍事通信的”六大轉變”。這些轉變包括:

1.從模擬通信向數字通信的轉變

2.從電纜向光纜的轉變

3.從單用途終端向多用途終端轉變

4.從機電交換系統向自動交換系統的轉變

5.從單任務網絡向多任務網絡的轉變

6.從人工系統管理向自動以及智能系統管理的轉變

總參警衛局

總參警衛局是解放軍編制,也就是中央辦公廳警衛局,負責指揮中央警衛團,俗稱8341部隊。

總參警衛局是正軍級編制,下設8個正師級單位,負責人是上將軍銜,與總參謀長平級。局長兼任中央辦公廳第一副主任(正部級) ,副局長包括常務副局長均為少將。負責具體指揮協調各位國傢領導人的安全。

總參警衛局主要負責保衛黨中央領導機關(政治局常委)和軍委領導的安全。此外還包括國傢副主席、人大副委員長、政協副主席、中紀委副書記、高檢院長、高法院長及其以上領導人。國傢領導人幾乎都生活在中南海和中南海附近,總參警衛局無疑是位高權重。一個警衛團的團長,授予上將軍銜,說明中央的對這個部隊的重視,舉個例子,如果現在中南海出瞭什麼事,是中央警衛團來的快,還是駐紮在北京郊區的第38集團軍來的快。因此1976年,黨中央粉碎四人幫,就是由中央警衛團(8341部隊)完成的。中央警衛團負責中央領導的保安工作,這是一個很重要的也很政治敏感的職位,擔任此職者必是中央領導最信任的人。

在我軍諸多部隊番號中,8341可以說是最出名的。它是1953年以中央警衛師一團為基礎組建起來的,當年6月9日在中南海正式成立。8341部隊初建時隻有1000多人,主要任務是保衛五大領袖–毛澤東、劉少奇、朱德、周恩來、陳雲。歸公安部第九局領導。當時的公安部部長是羅瑞卿,九局局長是汪東興,副局長是張耀祠。”文革”期間8341部隊改由中央辦公廳領導,汪東興具體負責領導、指揮。編制不斷擴大達8000多人,轄7個大隊、36個中隊。部隊人數已相當於一個師的兵力。”913″事件後,針對林彪一夥企圖用飛機轟炸中南海、釣魚臺的陰謀活動,又成立瞭第八大隊,即機炮大隊,佈置在中南海周圍以確保其上空的安全,但時間不長就撤銷瞭。8341初建時警衛單位或目標較為集中,主要有玉泉山;新六所、中南海等地,後來擴大到北戴河、天安門、人民大會堂、釣魚臺等。”文革”期間由於種種原因警衛范圍更是大大地增加瞭,又多瞭昌平農場、北京植物園、花園村、東官房等地。

總參警衛局下轄部門主要有:辦公廳、政治部、政策研究部、行動部(指揮協調中心)、情報部、技術部、通信部、訓練部(幹部訓練大隊)、生活保障部、建設審查部、聯絡部、幹部隊(衛士大隊)、機關服務中心一大隊(中南海)二大隊(人民大會堂)三大隊(新六所)四大隊(玉泉山)五大隊(北戴河)六大隊(特種作戰大隊)七大隊(幹部大隊)八大隊是(工程維護大隊)。

領導警衛標準分為:政治局常委為一級警衛。

政治局委員、候補委員、中央書記處書記、全國人大副委員長、國務委員為二級警衛(中國國民黨連戰主席至大陸訪問采用二級加強警衛)。全國政協副主席、最高人民法院院長、最高人民檢察院檢察長為三級警衛,以上領導如果退休之後,仍按原警衛標準警衛。省、自治區、直轄市的黨政主要領導人員也是警衛目標,各地、市、州的書記可以視情況決定警衛級別,通常是三級警衛等。

8341部隊的警衛工作組織相當嚴密,部隊主要領導都有分工,毛澤東的警衛工作由汪東興、張耀祠具體負責,警衛大隊是一大隊,中南海甲區的警衛部隊是一大隊的一中隊;林彪的警衛工作由副團長張宏負責,警衛大隊是二大隊,警衛中隊是二大隊的一中隊;周恩來因住在中南海,警衛大隊也是一大隊,警衛中隊是一大隊的三中隊,由楊德中負責。其他政治局常委也都有具體警衛大隊和中隊及負責人。當時一大隊負責中南海及周圍地區,二大隊負責毛傢灣及周圍地區,四大隊負責玉泉山及周圍的警衛,七大隊負責北戴河中央首長療養地及周圍地區,五大隊負責釣魚臺及周圍地區,其他幾個大隊是機動大隊。此外,每個警衛區又具體分為外圍和內圍,內圍又分甲、乙、丙區。甲區的人可以自由出入乙、丙區,但乙、丙區的人不能隨便出入甲區。上世紀70年代到過北京的人都知道或看到人民大會堂周圍拉著線繩,有警衛站崗,行人是不能進入警衛區的。中南海的紅墻外也有固定哨和遊動哨,當然還有便衣哨。中南海、人民大會堂除門口有哨兵外,門裡還有警衛區,外人、生人是根本就進不去的。在毛澤東、周恩來等人的住地周圍及生活區還有多道門衛,無關人員,包括8341部隊的一些領導幹部不經批準和同意也根本不允許出入,這是嚴格規定的。8341的幹部戰士因工作需要出入中南海,哨兵認識的可以放行,不認識的要和所在連隊進行聯系,確保無誤的情況下才能放行。

不過,8341這個番號在有段時間來回變動過。在1975年,那時全軍部隊的番號都由4位數上升為5位數,但中央警衛團仍然是4位數,後來番號對外由8341改為57001,對內仍然不變,但不久部隊又接到通知,把57001改回叫8341,直到1976年毛主席逝世後不久,8341才又改為57003,2000年10月改為61889部隊。

總參警衛局領導人

局長:曹清中將

副局:

李洪福少將

顏 敏少將

馬金虎少將 負責全國人大常委會委員長吳邦國警衛

趙留江少將

孫元功少將

薑廣清少將

周冬生少將

葉貴新少將

軍委領導人

中央軍委領導

主席:習近平

副主席:范長龍 許其亮

委員:常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和

歷任總參謀長

周恩來 兼總參謀長

徐向前 元帥

聶榮臻 元帥

粟裕 大將

黃克誠 大將

羅瑞卿 大將

楊成武 上將

黃永勝 上將

鄧小平 兼總參謀長

楊得志 上將

遲浩田 上將

張萬年 上將

傅全有 上將

梁光烈 上將

陳炳德 上將

房峰輝 上將

隸屬於總參的軍校

南京陸軍指揮學院

石傢莊陸軍指揮學院

信息工程學院(河南鄭州)

炮兵指揮學院(河北宣化)

沈陽炮兵學院

鎮江船艇學院

工程指揮學院(江蘇徐州)

通訊指揮學院(湖北武漢)

重慶通信學院

電子工程學院(安徽合肥)

國際關系學院(江蘇南京}

陸軍導彈學院(河北廊坊)

南京理工大學

安徽炮兵學院

蚌埠坦克學院

西安通信學院

洛陽外國語學院

張傢口通信學院

鄭州防空兵學院

體育(通信)學院(廣州)

防化指揮工程學院(河北昌平)

北京陸軍航空兵學院

國防大學和國防科技大學直接隸屬中央軍委,不向地方高考招生

 

Original Source: http://www.81.cn/jwgd/index.htm

 

China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争

China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争

2016年01月05日來源:人民網-軍事頻道手機看新聞

December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted to the Army flag, rocket forces, strategic support troops and caused precepts. This is Xi Jinping will flag solemnly granted Takatsu strategic support troops commander, political commissar Liu Fu Company. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Gangshe

People, Beijing, January 5 (by Qiu Yue) December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main strategic support mission task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and will integrate with the armed actions and rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support troops is to maintain national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability, mainly to strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

Yin 卓介绍 that strategic support mission task force is to support the main battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support task force include: Return on target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation action, as well as the Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means of management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission . “These are decisions on the future of our military battlefield victory of the ability to obtain new areas.”

In times of war, reconnaissance forces cyberspace can help grasp the movements of the enemy army, Assistance Force to develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory. In peacetime, with the national level of information increasing, safety electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in the private sector application, the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities, these facilities for our socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of a lot of hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation, such as important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to implement a network attack, which requires that we must be equipped with the appropriate defenses. Strategic support troops in the protection of the country’s financial security of nuclear people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support troops is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic forces will support reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, digital ocean, digital construction and other aspects play an important role in the earth, and will provide strong support for the joint operations battlefield various branches of the military, in order to achieve the objectives under win local wars in conditions of informationization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support troops are not a separate fighting force, it will work with armed, rocket forces and other branches of the military action integrated to form an integrated joint operations, strategic support troops fighting throughout the whole process, penetration every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词。这是习近平将军旗郑重授予战略支援部队司令员高津、政治委员刘福连。新华社记者 李刚摄

人民网北京1月5日电 (邱越)2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆海空和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。

国防部新闻发言人杨宇军指出,战略支援部队是维护国家安全的新型作战力量,是我军新质作战能力的重要增长点,主要是将战略性、基础性、支撑性都很强的各类保障力量进行功能整合后组建而成的。成立战略支援部队,有利于优化军事力量结构、提高综合保障能力。我们将坚持体系融合、军民融合,加强新型作战力量建设,努力建设一支强大的现代化战略支援部队。

尹卓介绍称,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。具体地说,战略支援部队的任务包括:对目标的探测、侦察和目标信息的回传;承担日常的导航行动,以及北斗卫星和太空侦察手段的管理工作;承担电磁空间和网络空间的防御任务。“这些都是决定我军在未来战场上能否取得胜利的新领域。”

在战争时期,电子空间的侦察力量可以帮助我军掌握敌人的动向,协助部队制定作战行动,确保取得战场胜利。在和平时期,随着国家信息化程度日益提高,电磁空间和网络空间的安全也日益重要。尹卓指出,随着卫星导航设施在民间的应用,今后高铁、轮船、飞机、汽车都会配备车载或机载的定位设施,这些设施对我国的社会主义建设将起到重要的作用。此外,面对诸多黑客在互联网上针对我国实施的非法行动,比如对重要政府设施、军队设施、重要民用设施实施的网络攻击,这要求我们必须配备相应的防御力量。战略支援部队在保障国家金融安全核人民日常生活安全等方面将起到重要作用。

“战略支援部队是联合作战行动的重要力量。”尹卓说,如今任何作战行动都离不开电子空间攻防,战略支援部队将对侦察、预警、通信、指挥、控制、导航、数字化海洋、数字化地球建设等方面发挥重要作用,并将为各军兵种的联合作战行动提供有力的战场支持,以实现打赢信息化条件下局部战争的目标。

尹卓指出,战略支援部队不是一支单独的作战力量,它将与陆海空、火箭军等军兵种的行动融为一体,形成一体化的联合作战行动,战略支援部队贯穿于作战的全过程,渗透到每一个作战行动中,将成为战争制胜的关键力量。

Original Source: http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0105/

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy 国家信息化战略中的军民结合

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy

国家信息化战略中的军民结合

“中辦發〔2006〕11號各省、自治區、直轄市黨委和人民政府,中央和國家機關各部委,解放軍各總部、各大單位,各人民團體: 《2006—2020年國家信息化發展戰略》已經黨中央、國務院同意,現印發給你們,請結合實際認真貫徹落實。”

中共中央辦公廳

國 務 院 辦 公 廳

China Communist Party

“Affecting all Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Communist Party of China, all committees and governments, central ministries and state organs, the People’s Liberation Army headquarters, major units, and people’s organizations:” This 2006–2020 National Informatization Development Strategy applies effective immediately”

[Foreign military and civilian strategy [1] ]

(A) legal form of integrating the armed forces to implement the strategy

The United States and other developed countries attach great importance to integrating the armed forces of institutional strengthening to the people, as a national strategy and to promote it in the form of legislation. After the Cold War, according to changes in the international situation, the US Congress and the Department of Defense issued a “National Defense Authorization Act ( 1993 ) “and” streamlining of the Federal Acquisition Act ( 1994 ), “affirmed the principle of legal form of military and civilian integration. The United States has enacted the “Defense transition strategy”, “National Security Strategy of Science and Technology ( 1995 ) “and” National Defense Science and Technology Strategy ( 2000 ) “, the strategic goal is:” to create a both to meet military requirements and meet the business needs of advanced national technology and industrial base. ” US Department of Defense in 2003, released in a new version of DOD5000.1 , stressing that “give priority to civilian products, technology and services”, provides that “to the extent feasible, the task can be modified requirements to facilitate civilian products, technology and services,” the procurement . British Ministry of Defense in 2001 for the promulgation of the 21 century national defense science and innovation strategy, clearly the long-term development of national defense science and technology point of view, the Ministry of Defence must attract the world advanced technology in the civilian sector to participate in defense research and development, accelerate weapons Update pace. French 1994 annual defense white paper also clearly announced that “the defense industry to consider the direction of the dual-use and military research and civilian research to combine as far as possible.”

(B) to promote the development of dual-use technology from both the investment and organization

The main countries in the world to start and accelerate new revolution in military affairs and military information technology, which is to implement the military strategy of the important people skills background. US Department of Defense in 1995 and published in “dual-use technology, aimed at obtaining affordable cutting-edge technology of the national defense strategy” and proposed to have important military needs but also has the potential transfer of dual-use technology, do need government intervention, clear by the government to invest in development. In 1998 the US Department of Defense promulgated the “National Defense Authorization Act”, asked the military to increase investment in the development of dual-use technology, and provides dual-use technology sharing principle of project funds. From the 20 century, 90 years began, the United States has implemented a variety of special programs to support the development of dual-use technology. In recent years, a substantial increase in the US defense budget, the 2007 fiscal year reached 5064 billion US dollars, compared with 2003, an increase of one-third of the defense budget in the 30-40% invested in the defense industry, it is worth noting that the US Department of Defense 20 Century 90 ‘s end total annual investment in IT is about 500 billion dollars in 2006 increased in 742 million US dollars, focus on supporting the development of dual-use of information technology. US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) attaches great importance to the development and application of dual-use technology, which is half of the office responsible for the development of dual-use technology.

In order to facilitate the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States in 1993, including the establishment of the armed forces and the Ministry of Commerce, the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (year NASA ) and the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) and other units’ defense technology transition committee ” . The United States also developed a joint research and development agreement ( CRADA ), to support the development of federal technology transfer to the private sector, encouraging joint investment with industry to develop dual-use technologies and projects. If we say that the era of mechanization technologies accounted for all military and civilian technology military equipment 30-40% , then the era of military and civilian integration of information technology will account for 80-90% . In enhancing the economic competitiveness of key technologies and key defense technologies listed in the US Department of Defense Department of Commerce elected in respect of about 80% overlap. British Ministry of Defense and Trade and Industry jointly invest in the development of dual-use technology, including a number of areas, including aviation, the British set up a special bureau defense technology transfer, scientific research institutions engaged in management of civil defense projects and funding contracts, using competitive mechanisms to encourage having strong technical force of civilian institutions to develop military technology. France through the implementation of the space program, space program, nuclear programs and electronic, information and communication plans a number of projects to develop dual-use technology. Japanese defense procurement is mainly aimed at using defense contracts as a means to promote the development of advanced technologies, especially having a civilian or dual use of advanced technologies.

Accelerate the development of dual-use technologies in the military, while information technology and services in the national economy, resulting in huge economic benefits, a study reported that the US Congress, the second application of space technology, each invested one dollar, we can produce seven dollars efficiency [2] . 2006 early American NASA Goddard Space Flight Center will be awarded the development of a simple, safe and low cost of the patent license single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing method of ISM company, formed a production capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these Nanotubes can be widely used in various fields of medical, fuel cells, video displays, solar batteries, etc., to promote the economic development of the United States [3] .

Management and equipment procurement mechanisms (iii) the reform of research projects, encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment

Civilian high-tech enterprise innovation system and a flexible, quick response, the results of many. Supporting civilian enterprises to develop products for the military, it has become the guidelines of the US military. 2003 introduced the “defense industrial transformation roadmap,” emphasized the need to change the main contractor control defense market situation, through the bidding and government procurement forms to encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment, guide and encourage enterprises to master the innovative technology into the civil defense thereby forming the size of both, the new defense market structure of many vendors. For example, the US communications equipment maker Motorola Inc. have independent military communications equipment manufacturing sector, both the production of Boeing civil aviation with the machine also produces military aircraft, Lockheed – Martin, the company’s main business is system integration, aviation, aerospace and technical services, are dual-use technology. To support SMEs, the United States has enacted the Small Business Innovation program. The US scientists, engineers, nearly half of military-related research, about one-third of enterprises and military production, whereas the Ministry of Defence orders for the total order amount accounts for 90% . British military research facilities management reform measures, encourage the use of military research facilities in the civilian sector technology development. France set up an integrated project team from the Department of Defense Weaponry Department, the military services Staff, industry composition, management of weapons and equipment procurement program development and projects. French Defense Weaponry Department promptly inform the military to SMEs development plan, acquisition plan set aside 10% for small and medium enterprises, to encourage them to participate in the competitive procurement of weapons and equipment. German weaponry annual plan by the General Armament Department operations departments, the services bureau, defense technology and industry cooperation Acquisition Department developed together. Germany developed a “Federal Republic of Germany ordered assignments principles” clearly defined weaponry defense contractor general contractor in the task, the task must be assigned to military orders to subcontractors by means of competition, in the form of legislation to protect small and medium enterprises to participate in defense research mission competition. Note that the Japanese government has the military capacity to foster private enterprise, the Japanese are eligible to receive military orders of enterprises has reached two thousand, basically formed a technologically advanced, wide range and great potential of military research and production system. Russia’s two ways to establish the defense industry system integration of military and civilian, in the implementation of the defense industry group, the formation of large-scale military company at the same time, part of the military enterprises demutualization, privatization, so that military enterprises retain the core military production capacity at the same production civilian.

A greater proportion of military production undertaken by civilian enterprises, contribute to the formation of military bidding competition mechanism, thereby reducing costs, improving quality and production of military enterprises to civilian products companies face appeared, facilitate international technical exchange and absorption of foreign advanced technology. Military through purchase orders, to strengthen cooperation with the civilian high-tech enterprises, to provide abundant funds or venture capital, which has become a developed country WTO era important mode of government to support their strategy of industrial development, enhance international competitiveness, in addition, military and technical performance of the process of challenging requirements, promote the growth of civilian high-tech enterprise technological innovation and high-quality scientific and technological talents. The development of civilian high-tech enterprises to grow, for the defense industry has laid a solid foundation, also contributed to the national economic development, and enhance the strength of the country.

(Iv) open defense procurement, maximize the use of civilian norms and standards

In order to promote the development of civil-military integration, many countries have carried out reforms to military standards, the equipment acquisition process and vigorously promote the use of civil standards and commercial specifications. US forces continue to pursue the reform of military standards, based on the past all military standards and specifications to conduct a comprehensive clean-up review, the repeal of the 4000 military specification remainder (including single-piece specification) and 300 remainder military standards, adopted the 1784 item civilian standards ( non-governmental standard), the equipment acquisition process, limit the use of military norms and standards, not only does the civil standard is available to meet the military requirements when considering the use of military standards, and the use of military standards must be approved or existing civilian standards can not. UK Equipment Acquisition management, not to military standards and military specifications and performance-based specifications proposed procurement requirements, given enough freedom and flexibility contractor. Japan 1999-2002 years, a total amend or repeal the military technical standards and technical specifications 10231 , accounting for all military technical standards 74 percent . In 2003 , the Defense Agency also proposed in its new weapons and equipment procurement policy making, instead of using civilian technology standard about 18,000 entries Defense Agency dedicated military standards and norms.

US defense scientist famous Gansler estimate, the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States Department of Defense Department of Defense procurement could save the equivalent of the total annual fee of 20% or more. Although the US military R & D expenditure of the United States the proportion of total funding from the last century, 60 years of 50% is reduced to the current 15% , but the US military technology but gained rapid development, mainly due to integrating the armed forces of the new system.

[To change the information into a new military and civilian military features, integrating the armed forces]

A new era of international competition, information into the characteristics of modern military equipment is becoming one of the core content of the new revolution in military affairs of States. An information era notable feature is the combination of surface defense economy and social economy more widely, military technology and civilian technology deeper degree of integration, association technological innovation and new revolution in military affairs increasingly tight. Developed countries have the information technology as a strategic national research priorities, the United States and Japan in the field of R & D investment in information separately account for the total R & D investment of 40% or more, the United States Department of Defense 2005 budget on science and technology information systems and sensors accounted for 35.7% .

(A) information technology in all areas of civil industrial technology is the most easy to achieve also the people’s army also

Information industry is large in scale compared to other industrial sectors and technology updates quickly, there is no other information technology fields like civil industry as more people realize also the military also. The United States since 1999 years has launched the “fast bird”, “Ikonos” and other dual-use high-resolution satellite, in 2001 in Afghanistan, “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US “fast bird” and “Yi Kenuo Sri Lanka “satellite to 20 US dollars / km ² price to US Department of Defense provides photographic reconnaissance image related operations area. IT-based civilian battlefield information network in the Iraq war also played an important role, via satellite, drones and other airborne sensors to obtain information on a computer map updated every friendly and enemy positions every five minutes. The Pentagon claims that China and the US Air Force, the war in Iraq, the extent of information the Navy reached 70% , ground forces also up 50 percent or more. US information technology has made ​​such rapid progress, China has played an important role in military technology.

(B) in the civilian market-wide test of IT applications in the military low-cost and reliable utility

Dedicated to the military use of information technology, although in training and military exercises, but without a real baptism after the test is limited. Civil information products market is large, hundreds of millions or even billions of people subjected to extensive tests using its technology, fierce competition in the market also contributed to accelerate its improvement and perfection, easy-to-use products, the cost to decline rapidly. From the military GPS and the Internet is a good example, which after a civilian market competition and popularity improvement to mature and reliable and cost-effective way reflect the greater value in military applications.

(C) Information technology can rapidly increase the combat effectiveness of military applications

Performance information weaponry is much higher than the mechanized weaponry, but the development of high risk, high investment, an increase in its cost of IT accounts for a large proportion. Many civilian high-tech product development of low cost, standard upgrade quickly, just put a small amount of money to improve its performance can meet the requirements of military systems, make full use of civilian IT achievements can significantly reduce costs. United States, Britain, Japan and other developed countries in the development of information technology weaponry and equipment system, especially when a variety of military information systems, directly from the market civilian technology sector and corporate purchasing high-tech equipment, such as communications equipment, all kinds of computers, all kinds of computer software, security anti-virus software, satellite image analysis equipment to minimize the risk of national defense research and development investment. US Department of Defense contractor is due to the direct use existing commercial software and hardware, greatly reducing development time information Weapon System.

In addition, the use of information technology to transform and upgrade weapons systems is rapidly effective measures to improve the combat effectiveness. A typical weapon system development cycle for up to 7-15 years, the high cost of its replacement. The typical development cycle civilian IT hardware and software business a few months to a few years, mobile phones and PC replacement is faster, with a civilian rapid development of information technology to transform weapons and equipment, only a few funds, Every few years the performance of existing weapons and equipment will be able to a higher level, thereby prolonging the service life. Western countries show a measure of existing mechanized weaponry information transformation, the development time and cost required, roughly equivalent production of new weaponry 1/4 to 1/3 .

 

(D) The information construction in the military use of civil IT and products beneficial to the national defense mobilization

Army civilian information technology products through the use of these technologies to deepen understanding, familiar with the use of these products, once wartime there is a need to quickly collect a large number of civilian products, and in the armed forces of these products can be quickly effective. US troops in 95 percent of the computer is in the civilian military communications conducted online, with commercial networks linked up to 15 million units changed hand, the Iraq war, the US military also requisitioned and rented some commercial satellites and civilian information networks, in order to bridge the information transfer capability deficiencies. IT complexity it becomes replace the faulty equipment maintenance module, civilian technology products helps to reduce the use of troops and equipment spare parts inventory. In addition, the use of civil information technology products also provide the possibility for civilian IT enterprises to participate in military equipment maintenance, thus reducing maintenance costs of troops and equipment. 2003 , the United States in the Iraq war, has with the world’s four 10,000 manufacturers signed a 50 million copies of material support contract, “the contractor battlefield” socialization of military logistical support.

(E) The development of intellectual property in the competition for civil defense information technology helps improve information security

IT field of international, market-oriented walking in front of other areas, competition is quite fierce patents, the United States, Japan and other developed countries to ten in 2005 by the end of the cumulative patent applications in China in 46.27% concentrated in the field of information. Many IT even basic technology is also likely to be used in the military field, the developed countries are often incorporated into this limit exports of the column, especially China, and therefore unable to equip our troops or through the introduction of foreign advanced weapons systems procurement. At a critical time in international politics, the military situation changes, do not rule out the possibility of the introduction of certain key parts weaponry stuck or certain functional failure exists. On the other hand, China’s civilian IT through international competition, hard work, has been the rapid development, the domestic IT companies are also corresponding increase innovation capability, some of the technology has reached the world advanced level, such as third generation mobile communication TD-SCDMA . In order to compete and reduce costs needs, many domestic enterprises have developed information technology products dedicated chip, to change the long-standing dependence on foreign chip status, while developing the capability to rapidly increase, to undertake the task of developing national defense to lay a good foundation dedicated chip . These chips use civilian high-tech and specialized in military equipment in the army would avoid the kinds of information security with its own technology.

(F) make full use of local advantages of network professionals prepared to deal with cyber warfare preparation

Information is double-edged sword, information technology to improve the combat capability of the armed forces but also requires special attention to the information network security. An essential feature of cyberwarfare is asymmetric, low cost and easy to attack and attack and hard to defend, particularity cyber warfare means will lead to future war ” civilians ” trend, “hackers” may become a war hero. To prevent ” network’9.11′ incident , ” President George W. Bush early in 2002 on the release of the first 16 numbers , ” National Security Presidential Directive , ” the history of the formation of the US military is the world’s first network hacker troops – cyber warfare capabilities constitute the Joint Command, The Army and Navy also have a computer emergency response unit, the Air Force is responsible for the implementation of the establishment of a network of Air Force attack these troops from the world’s top computer experts and ” hacker ” , and currently has formally incorporated into the order of battle in Las Vegas on the largest computer exhibition, former US Assistant Secretary of Defense Sihamoni had in his speech on the ” hacker ” who said: ” If you considered the rest of his life to doing, make sure you do not forget the Department of Defense. ” In addition, the US military also hired some hackers specialize in computer vulnerability testing. 2004 In September , the US set up by 28 international industry consortium composed of major companies specialized home – NCW Industries Alliance, to strengthen the military and civilian aspects of the field of information technology coordination.

(G) make full use of scientific and technological resources of a strong army and civil service

It was reported that the US Air Force in terms of the lack of high-tech professional officer Capt up to two-thirds of the Army Navy also facing the same problem. US Department of Defense, NASA and other very seriously the role of the United States Academy of Engineering and universities and other research institutions and companies in the defense consulting RAND research and personnel training. According to foreign military experts estimate that the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other major developed countries developing high-tech weapons and equipment information required for 80-90% from local businesses, 10-20% from their military research institutes that the basis of dual-use items and technology sector may bear the civil, defense, science and technology department and the military technology sector specializing in purely military projects, and overall system project. US military reconnaissance plane EP-3 electronic information system consists of a variety of functional equipment components, many of them readily available on the market and are not necessarily technologically advanced products, but its integrated performance of the system on a higher level, visible integrated innovation You can increase the value.

The total amount of scientific and technical personnel and research and development staff accounted for the world’s first and second place, to make good use of the intellectual resources will significantly enhance our military’s strength in the balance of forces. Establish civil-military integration of scientific and technological innovation system, the development of military and civilian science and technology co-ordinate the project and reasonable deployment of dual-use items, do not repeat and can complement each other to achieve the optimal combination of scientific and technological resources of the country, at the same time vigorously develop local resources by means of force personnel to ensure national defense construction in a strategic initiative. The Central Military Commission in 2007 issued a “attract and retain high-level military professional and technical personnel provisions”, the increased focus on the introduction and use of high-quality human resources community efforts to further improve the policy mechanism innovation. System established academicians, academicians hired as technical adviser, full use of the state’s top talent and intelligence resources to better serve the army major decision-making advice, major scientific research and high-level personnel training; in preparation for military struggle and closely related major research projects (project) and key disciplines, a chief expert positions, for the community to hire high-level professional and technical personnel.

[Seize the opportunities of information technology, to promote civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces]

China’s national defense scientific research and industrial system is set up on the basis of the planned economy, the planned economy of management concepts and tools still play a leading role in the management and self-contained closed hinder the establishment of a market-oriented philosophy, is not conducive to cooperation and innovation culture the formation, performance assessment indicators of military units rely on the lack of industrial development and promote the civil requirements or mission, in research programs and equipment procurement in military and civilian disjointed. Since reform and opening, the defense industry began with the development of a single military structure structure change, the nuclear industry, shipbuilding industry, information industry to the military and civilian, to benefit from the transfer of military technology to civilian use, the radiation leading role in the defense industry to the local economy and society significantly enhanced, but these transfers have not yet risen to the institutional level. On the other hand, our country has grown to a group of innovative and industrial capacity of civilian high-tech enterprises, capable military mission, but the lack of demand for military communication channels norms, policies and regulations related to the imperfection of reason, basically it less involved in national defense tasks. If there are no civilian technology sector urgent national security needs, it is impossible to obtain in the areas of national defense and security level of strong support, it is difficult to play a greater role in supporting the civilian sectors to support and not to assume the task of training defense, nor conducive to its development and growth. Compared with developed countries, China’s military and civilian from positive interaction and coordinated development goals are still many gaps, more prominent is the lag corresponding laws and regulations and institutions. Military and civilian national behavior and reflects the will of the state, not only to rely on technological innovation, but also to rely on innovation and institutional innovation to achieve.

In the CPC Central Committee and State Council in 2006 issued in ” 2006-2020 National Information Development Strategy “, pointed out the global information technology are causing profound changes in today’s world, reshaping the world political, economic, social, cultural and military a new pattern of development. Accelerate the development of information technology, it has become the common choice of all countries. And clearly put forward the development of China’s information technology strategic approach – the overall planning, resource sharing, deepen the application, seek practical, market-oriented, based on innovation, military and civilian, safe and reliable.

In the implementation of the national development strategy, we need to learn from foreign ideas, to address the constraints of institutional issues from military and civilian regulations, coordination mechanisms, standards and procurement policies and other strategic height. The current need to establish and improve the bidding system, the formation of fair and equitable competition, maximize the use of mature private standards, guidance and encouragement to master innovative technology enterprises, especially small and medium sized companies to enter the defense sector, so as to form a new multi-vendor defense industry system, led military mission to enhance the level of civilian development, adding vitality to economic development, to achieve military and civilian interaction.

In an important experience in promoting foreign military and civilian aspects of the information is from the start. Revolution in military affairs in the world today, is the rapid development of information technology and its wide range of applications in the military field for direct power, high-tech advantages of local wars in conditions of informationization to be achieved, relying solely on national defense science and technology sector and the military system itself to be ineffective, soldiers and civilians combined, integrating the armed forces is the key, information technology is one of the important starting point. In the task of industrialization, information technology integration and development of our country with the military mechanization and informatization complex development goals, information technology has become a very good combination of points overall economic construction and national defense construction. In particular, most of the reform of the State Council, gave birth to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, not only from the organic unity of the organization will be industrialization and information management, and the civilian industry and the defense industry closely, from the institutional to seize information strategic opportunity to strengthen civil-military integration provides an important guarantee. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology at the same time implementation of national information technology and new industrial development strategy, will give full consideration to the development needs of the defense industry and the development of weapons and equipment, the establishment of military and civilian national level to promote policies and coordination mechanisms to promote industrialization, information technology and defense comprehensive and coordinated development and enhance the independent innovation capability of science and technology industry, and actively explore market-oriented approach combining military and civilian, military and civilian industries planning to achieve convergence between supply and demand docking and resource sharing [4] , two-way play the leading role, promoting the national economy and national defense modernization.

Seventeenth Party Congress report pointed out that “national defense and army building, we must stand on national security and the development of strategic height, overall economic development and national defense building” . “To attain the building computerized armed forces and winning the information war strategic objectives, accelerate composite development of mechanization and information, and actively carry out military training under conditions of informationization, build a modern logistics, intensify training a large number of qualified military talent, effectively change the mode of generating combat. ““Reform of the defense industry to adjust and of weapons and equipment procurement, improve weapons and equipment developed by independent innovation capability and quality benefits. Establish and improve military and civilian, combine military weaponry and equipment research and production system to the people, military personnel training and military security system , adhere to thrift and hard work, out of a Chinese characteristics, civil-military integration path of development. “Discuss these important military and civilian strategic approach is to achieve scientific development. We must seize the opportunities of information technology, integrating the armed forces to do this great article, make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

【國外軍民結合的戰略[1]】

(一)以法律形式落實寓軍於民戰略

美國等發達國家十分重視寓軍於民的體制建設,將其作為國家戰略並以立法的形式加以推動。冷戰結束後,根據國際形勢的變化,美國國會和國防部出台了《國防授權法(1993)》和《聯邦採辦精簡法案(1994)》以法律形式肯定了軍民一體化的原則。美國先後頒布了《國防轉軌戰略》、《國家安全科學技術戰略(1995)》和《國防科學技術戰略(2000)》,其戰略目標是:“建立一個既滿足軍事需求又滿足商業需求的先進的國家技術和工業基礎”。美國防部於2003年發布了新版的DOD5000.1,強調“優先採用民用產品、技術和勞務”,規定“在可行的情況下,可修改任務要求,以促成民用產品、技術和勞務”的採購。英國國防部於2001年頒布了面向21世紀的國防科技和創新戰略,明確提出從國防科技的長遠發展來看,國防部必須吸引世界範圍內技術先進的民用部門參與國防科研開發,加快武器裝備的更新步伐。法國1994年公佈國防白皮書也明確提出“國防工業要考慮向軍民兩用方向發展,軍用研究和民用研究要盡可能結合”。

(二)從投資和組織機構兩方面促進軍民兩用技術的發展

世界主要國家啟動和加速推進新軍事變革和軍隊信息化建設,這是推行民技軍用戰略的重要背景。美國國防部於1995年發表《兩用技術,旨在獲取經濟可承受的前沿技術的國防戰略》,提出了對有重要軍事需求同時又具有轉移潛力的兩用技術,確實需要政府介入的,明確由政府進行投資開發。 1998年美國國防部頒布的《國防授權法》,要求軍方必須加大對兩用技術開發的投資,並規定了兩用技術項目經費的分攤原則。從20世紀90年代開始,美國還實施了多種專項計劃,支持軍民兩用技術開發。美國近年來大幅度增加國防預算,2007財年達到5064億美元,比2003年增加了1/3,國防預算中30-40%投資到國防工業,值得注意的是,美國國防部20世紀90年代末每年對信息技術的投資總額約為500億美元,2006年增至742億美元,重點支持軍民兩用信息技術的開發。美國國防部國防先進技術研究計劃局(DARPA)十分重視軍民兩用技術的開發和應用,其半數辦公室負責軍民兩用技術的發展。

為了推動軍民一體化的實施,美國於1993年成立了包括三軍和商務部、能源部、運輸部、國家航空航天局(NASA)以及國家科學基金會(NSF)等單位的“國防技術轉軌委員會” 。美國還制定了聯合研究和發展協議(CRADA),支持聯邦開發的技術轉讓給私營部門,鼓勵與工業界聯合投資和合作開發兩用技術項目。如果說機械化時代軍民技術結合占到全部軍事裝備技術的30-40%,那麼,信息化時代軍民技術融合將會占到80-90%。在美國國防部推選的國防關鍵技術與商務部列出的提高經濟競爭力的關鍵技術中就有約80%是重疊的。英國國防部與貿工部聯合投資開發包括航空領域在內的多項軍民兩用技術,英國還專門成立國防技術轉化局,管理民用科研機構從事國防項目的合同和經費,採用競爭機制,鼓勵具有較強技術力量的民用機構開發軍用技術。法國通過實施航天計劃、航空計劃、核能計劃和電子、信息與通信計劃等多項計劃來開發軍民兩用技術。日本國防採購主要著眼於利用國防合同作為一種手段,促進先進技術特別是具有民用或兩用用途的先進技術的發展。

發展軍民兩用技術在加速軍隊信息化建設的同時,服務於國民經濟,產生巨大的經濟效益,美國國會一份研究報告稱,航天技術的二次應用,每投入1美元,能產出7美元的效益[2]。 2006年初美國NASA戈達德航天飛行中心將所開發的一種簡單、安全且費用較低的單壁碳納米管製造方法的專利許可權授予ISM公司,形成了單壁碳納米管生產能力,這些納米管可廣泛應用於醫療、燃料電池、視頻顯示器、太陽能電池等各個領域,推動了美國經濟的發展[3]。

(三)改革科研項目的管理和裝備採購機制,鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產

民用高新技術企業創新體系機制靈活,反應快,成果多。扶持民用企業為軍方開發產品,已成為美軍方的指導方針。 2003年出台的《國防工業轉型路線圖》強調,必須改變主承包商控制國防市場的局面,通過招標和政府採購形式鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的民用企業進入國防領域,從而形成大小兼備、眾多供應商的新型國防市場格局。例如,美國的通信設備生產商摩托羅拉公司就有獨立的軍事通信設備生產製造部門,美國波音公司既生產民航用機也生產軍用機,洛克希德-馬丁公司的主營業務就是系統集成、航空、航天和技術服務,都是軍民兩用的技術。為了扶持中小企業,美國還專門製定了小企業創新計劃。目前美國的科學家、工程師中有近半從事與軍事有關的研究,約有1/3的企業與軍工生產有關,而訂貨量約佔國防部總訂貨量的90%。英國改革軍用科研設施管理辦法,鼓勵民用部門利用軍用科研設施進行技術開發。法國成立了由國防部武器裝備總署、軍種參謀部、工業界組成的一體化項目小組,參與武器裝備採辦計劃的製定和項目的管理。法國國防部武器裝備總署及時向中小企業通報軍品發展計劃,專門留出採辦計劃的10%給中小企業,鼓勵他們參加武器裝備採辦的競爭。德國的武器裝備年度計劃是由總裝備部各業務局、各軍種局、國防技術採辦總署和工業界一起合作制訂的。德國製訂了《聯邦德國訂貨任務分配原則》,明確規定武器裝備的總承包商在承包國防任務後,必須用競爭手段向分包方分配軍工訂貨任務,以法規形式保護中小型企業參與國防科研任務的競爭。日本政府注意扶植有軍工生產能力的民間企業,日本有資格接受軍品訂貨的企業已達兩千餘家,基本形成了一個技術先進、門類齊全、潛力巨大的軍事科研生產體系。俄羅斯從兩方面建立軍民一體化國防科技工業體制,在實行國防工業集團化、組建大型軍工集團公司的同時,將部分軍工企業股份化、私有化,讓軍工企業在保留核心軍工生產能力的同時生產民品。

較大比例的軍工生產由民用企業承擔,有助於形成軍品招投標競爭機制,從而降低成本,提高質量,生產軍品的企業以民用產品公司面貌出現,便於進行國際技術交流,吸收國外先進技術。軍方通過採購訂貨,加強與民用高技術企業的合作,為其提供雄厚的資金或風險投資,這已成為發​​達國家在WTO時代政府支持本國戰略產業發展、提高國際競爭力的重要模式,另外,軍品對產品的工藝和技術性能提出挑戰性的要求,促進了民用高技術企業技術創新和高素質科技人才的成長。民用高新技術企業的發展壯大,為國防工業打下了堅實的基礎,也推動了國民經濟發展,增強了國家的實力。

(四)開放國防採購,盡量採用民用規範和標準

為了推動軍民一體化的發展,許多國家都紛紛對軍用標准進行了改革,在裝備採辦過程中大力倡導利用民用標準和商業規範。美軍不斷推行軍事標準改革,在對過去所有軍用標準和規范進行全面清理審查的基礎上,廢止了4000餘項軍用規範(含單篇規範)和300餘項軍用標準,採納了1784項民用標準(非政府標準),在裝備採辦過程中,限制使用軍事規範和標準,只有在確實沒有民用標準可用,或現有民用標準不能滿足軍事要求時才考慮使用軍用標準,而且使用軍用標準必須經過批准。英國在裝備採辦管理中,不以軍用標準和軍用規範而以性能規範為主提出採購要求,給予承包商足夠的自由度和靈活性。日本1999-2002年間,共修改或廢止軍事技術標準及技術規範10231項,佔所有軍事技術標準的74%。 2003年,防衛廳在其製定的新武器裝備採辦政策中又提出,用民用技術標準取代約18000項防衛廳專用的軍品標準和規範。

美國著名防務學家Gansler估計,實行軍民一體化,美國國防部每年能節省相當於國防部採辦費總額的20%以上。雖然美國軍事研發經費占美總經費的支出比例從上世紀60年代的50%減到現在的15%,但美國的軍事技術反而獲得了突飛猛進的發展,主要就是得益於寓軍於民的新型體制。

【以信息化為新軍事變革特徵的軍民結合、寓軍於民】

面對新時代的國際競爭,以信息化為特徵的軍事裝備現代化正成為各國新軍事變革的核心內容之一。信息化時代的一個顯著特點是國防經濟與社會經濟的結合面越來越廣、軍用技術與民用技術融合度越來越深,科技創新和新軍事變革的關聯越來越緊。發達國家紛紛將信息技術作為國家研究戰略重點,美國和日本在信息領域的研發投入分別占到總研發投入的40%以上,美國國防部2005年科技預算中信息系統與傳感器佔35.7%。

(一)信息技術是所有民用工業技術中最容易實現亦軍亦民的領域

信息產業規模大而且相比其他工業領域技術更新快,沒有其他民用工業領域的技術像信息領域那樣更易實現亦軍亦民。美國自1999年先後發射了“快鳥”、“伊科諾斯”等高分辨率軍民兩用衛星,在2001年的阿富汗“持久自由行動”中,美國的“快鳥”和“伊科諾斯”衛星以20美元/km²的價格向美國防部提供了有關作戰地區的照相偵察圖像。基於民用信息技術的戰場信息網絡在伊拉克戰爭中也發揮了重要作用,通過衛星,無人機和其他機載傳感器獲得情報,在計算機地圖上每五分鐘更新一次友軍和敵軍位置。美國五角大樓聲稱,伊拉克戰爭中美空軍、海軍的信息化程度達到70%,地面部隊也達50%以上。美軍信息化建設取得如此迅速的進展,民技軍用扮演了重要角色。

(二)在民用市場廣泛考驗的信息技術在軍事上應用成本低且可靠實用

專用於軍事的信息技術雖然在訓練和軍事演習中也使用,但未經實戰洗禮畢竟考驗有限。民用信息產品市場規模大,上億人甚至數十億人的使用使其技術經受廣泛考驗,市場的激烈競爭也促使其加快改進和完善,產品方便易用,成本迅速下降。源於軍用的GPS和互聯網是一個很好的例子,它們在經過民用市場的競爭和普及完善後,以成熟可靠和低成本的方式在軍事應用中體現更大的價值。

(三)信息技術的軍事應用可以迅速提高戰鬥力

信息化武器裝備的性能要比機械化武器裝備高得多,但開發風險高、投資大,在其增加的造價中信息技術佔很大比重。很多民用高技術產品開發成本低廉,標準升級迅速,只需投入少量資金提高其性能指標就能達到軍用系統的要求,充分利用民用信息技術成果可以顯著降低成本。美、英、日等發達國家在發展信息化武器裝備體系,特別是各種軍事信息系統時,都直接從市場上民用科技部門和企業採購高技術設備,如通信器材、各種計算機、各類計算機軟件、安全防病毒軟件、衛星圖像分析設備等,最大限度地減少國防科研開發投資的風險。美國防部承包商就是由於直接採用現成的商用軟硬件,大大縮短了信息化武器系統的研製時間。

另外,利用信息技術改造和升級武器系統是迅速提高戰鬥力的有效措施。典型的武器系統的研製週期長達7-15年,其換代的成本很高。典型的民用信息技術商業硬件和軟件的研製週期是幾個月到幾年,手機和PC的更新換代就更快,用快速發展的民用信息技術對武器裝備進行改造,僅需很少的經費,每隔幾年原有武器裝備的性能就能上一個台階,從而延長了服役年限。西方國家的一項測算表明,對現有機械化武器裝備進行信息化改造,其研製時間和所需的費用,大約只相當於生產新型武器裝備的1/4至1/3。

(四)在軍隊信息化建設中民用信息技術和產品的使用有利於國防動員

軍隊通過使用民用信息技術產品加深了對這些技術了解,熟識這些產品的使用,戰時一旦有需要可以迅速徵集大量民用產品,而且在部隊中這些產品能迅速發揮效用。美軍中95%的軍事通信是在民用網上進行的,與商業網相聯的計算機達15萬台之多,伊拉克戰爭中美軍還徵用和租用了部分商業衛星和民用信息網絡,以彌補信息傳輸能力的不足。信息技術的複雜性使其裝備的維修變為故障模塊的更換,民用技術產品的採用有利於減少部隊裝備備件的庫存。另外,民用信息技術產品的使用也為民用信息技術企業參與部隊裝備維修提供了可能,從而也降低了部隊裝備的維修費用。 2003年,美國在伊拉克戰爭中,先後同全球4萬個生產商簽訂了50萬份物資保障合同,“承包商上戰場”實現軍隊後勤保障的社會化。

(五)在競爭中發展的民用信息技術的自主知識產權有助於改進國防信息安全

信息技術領域國際化、市場化走在了其他領域的前面,在專利方面的競爭也相當激烈,美日等十個發達國家到2005年底累計在華申請的發明專利中46.27%集中在信息領域。很多信息技術即便是基礎技術也很可能用在軍事領域,發達國家往往將此編入限制出口之列,尤其是對中國,因此無法通過引進或採購國外先進的武器系統來裝備我們的部隊。在國際政治、軍事形勢變化的關鍵時候,不排除存在引進的武器裝備某些關鍵配件被卡或某些功能失效的可能性。另一方面,我國民用信息技術經過國際競爭的打拼,得到了快速發展,國內信息技術企業創新能力也相應提高,一些技術已經達到了世界領先水平,例如第三代移動通信的TD-SCDMA。為了競爭和降低成本需要,國內很多企業的信息技術產品都有自主開發的專用芯片,改變了長期以來依賴國外芯片的狀況,同時開發能力迅速提高,為承接國防任務開發專用芯片打下很好的基礎。這些民用高技術和專用芯片在部隊裝備中的使用將以其自主技術避免我軍信息安全受制於人。

(六)充分利用地方網絡人才的優勢做好應對網絡戰的準備

信息化是雙刃劍,軍隊的信息化建設在提高作戰能力的同時也需要特別關注對信息網絡的安全防護。網絡戰的一個基本特點是不對稱性,攻擊成本低且易攻難守,網絡戰手段的特殊性將導致未來戰爭的“平民化”趨勢,“黑客”有可能成為戰爭的主角。為了防止出現“網絡’9·11’事件”,布什總統早在2002年就發布了第16號“國家安全總統令”,組建美軍歷史上也是世界上第一支網絡黑客部隊——網絡戰聯合功能構成司令部,陸軍和海軍也各有電腦應急反應分隊,空軍則建立了專門負責實施網絡進攻的航空隊。這些部隊由世界頂級電腦專家和“黑客”組成,目前已經正式編入了作戰序列。在美國拉斯維加斯最大的計算機展覽上,美國前助理國防部長莫尼曾在演講中對“黑客”們說:“如果你們考慮過餘生要幹些什麼,請務必不要忘記國防部。”此外,美軍還僱用一些黑客專門從事計算機漏洞測試工作。 2004年9月,美國成立了由28家專業化大公司組成的國際工業財團——網絡中心戰工業聯盟,加強信息技術領域方面的軍民協調。

(七)充分利用民用科技資源為強軍服務

據報導美國空軍在高科技專業方面缺少的上尉軍官多達2/3,陸軍海軍也面臨同樣的問題。美國防部、航天局等很重視發揮美國工程院和高校等科研機構及蘭德公司等在國防諮詢研究和人才培養的作用。據國外軍事專家估計,美、英、法、德、日等世界主要發達國家發展信息化武器裝備所需要的高新技術80-90%來自地方企業,10-20%來自軍方自己的科研院所,即基礎和兩用項目可由民用科技部門承擔,國防科技部門和軍隊科技部門專攻純軍事項目以及系統總體項目。美軍的偵察機EP-3的信息電子系統由多種功能設備組成,其中不乏市場上隨手可得的且技術上不見得先進的產品,但其集成後系統的性能上了一個台階,可見集成創新能提高價值。

我國科技人員和研發人員總量分別佔世界第一位和第二位,利用好這一智力資源將在敵我對比中顯著增強我軍的實力。建立軍民融合的科技創新體系,統籌軍民科技項目的發展,合理地部署軍民兩用項目,做到既不重複又能互補,在全國范圍內實現科技資源的優化組合,同時藉助地方資源大力培養部隊人才,保證國防建設處於戰略主動地位。中央軍委於2007年發出《軍隊吸引保留高層次專業技術人才的規定》,著眼加大引進和利用社會優質人才資源力度,進一步創新完善政策機制。建立院士顧問制度,聘請兩院院士擔任技術顧問,充分利用國家頂尖人才和智力資源,更好地為軍隊重大決策諮詢、重大科技攻​​關和高層次人才培養提供服務;在與軍事鬥爭準備密切相關的重大科研項目(課題)和重點建設學科,設立首席專家崗位,面向社會聘用高層次專業技術人才。

【抓住信息化機遇,促進軍民結合、寓軍於民】

我國的國防科研與工業體係是在計劃經濟基礎上建立起來的,計劃經濟的管理理念和手段仍然發揮著主導作用,封閉管理和自成體系妨礙了市場化理念的建立,也不利於合作創新文化的形成,軍工單位的績效考核指標中缺乏依靠和帶動民用產業發展的要求或使命,在科研計劃和裝備採購中軍品和民品脫節。改革開放以來,國防工業開​​始由單一軍品結構向軍民結合型結構的轉變,核工業、船舶工業、信息產業等的發展,受益於軍事技術向民品的轉移,國防工業對地方經濟社會的輻射帶動作用明顯增強,但是這些轉移還未上升到製度層面。另一方面,我國國內已經成長了一批具有創新和產業能力的民用高新技術企業,能夠勝任軍品任務,但因缺乏規範的軍品需求信息溝通渠道、有關的政策法規不完善等原因,基本上很少介入國防任務。民用科技部門如果沒有國家安全的迫切需求,也不可能在國防安全領域方面得到國家層次的有力支持,難以發揮更大的支撐作用,民用產業部門得不到承擔國防任務的扶持和鍛煉,也不利於其發展壯大。與發達國家相比,我國離軍民良性互動、協調發展的目標尚有不少差距,更為突出的是相應的法規和製度的滯後。軍民結合是國家行為和國家意志的反映,不僅要依靠技術創新,而且要依靠體制創新和機制創新來實現。

在中共中央辦公廳、國務院辦公廳2006年印發的《2006-2020年國家信息化發展戰略》中,指出全球信息化正在引發當今世界的深刻變革,重塑世界政治、經濟、社會、文化和軍事發展的新格局。加快信息化發展,已經成為世界各國的共同選擇。並明確提出了我國信息化發展的戰略方針——統籌規劃、資源共享,深化應用、務求實效,面向市場、立足創新,軍民結合、安全可靠。

在落實國家信息化發展戰略中,我們需要藉鑒國外思路,從法規、協調機制、標準和採購政策等戰略高度解決制約軍民結合的體制問題。當前需要建立健全招投標制度,形成公正公平的競爭態勢,盡量採用成熟的民間標準,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的企業特別是中小型公司進入國防領域,從而形成多供應商的新型國防產業體系,以軍工任務帶動民品開發​​水平提升,為國民經濟發展增添活力,實現軍民良性互動。

國外在促進軍民結合方面的一個重要經驗是從信息化入手。當今世界軍事變革,是以信息技術的飛速發展及其在軍事領域的廣泛應用為直接動力,信息化條件下局部戰爭所要達成的高技術優勢,單純依靠國防科技部門和軍隊系統自身難以奏效,軍民結合,寓軍於民是關鍵,信息技術是其中的重要抓手。在我國國家工業化、信息化融合發展的任務與軍隊機械化、信息化複合的發展目標中,信息化成為統籌經濟建設和國防建設的很好結合點。特別是國務院的大部製改革,催生了工業與信息化部,不但從組織上將工業化與信息化的管理有機統一,而且將民用產業與國防科技工業緊密結合,從體制上為抓住信息化戰略機遇加強軍民結合提供了重要保證。工業和信息化部在落實國家信息化和新型工業化發展戰略的同時,將充分考慮國防工業和武器裝備研製的發展需要,建立國家層面的軍民結合促進政策和協調機制,促進工業化、信息化和國防科技工業的全面協調發展和自主創新能力的提高,積極探索軍民結合市場化途徑,實現軍工與民用工業的規劃銜接、供需對接和資源共享[4],發揮雙向輻射帶動作用,推進國民經濟和國防現代化。

黨的十七大報告指出,“國防和軍隊建設,必須站在國家安全和發展戰略全局的高度,統籌經濟建設和國防建設”。 “堅持科技強軍,按照建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭的戰略目標,加快機械化和信息化複合發展,積極開展信息化條件下軍事訓練,全面建設現代後勤,加緊培養大批高素質新型軍事人才,切實轉變戰鬥力生成模式”。 “調整改革國防科技工業體制和武器裝備採購體制,提高武器裝備研製的自主創新能力和質量效益。建立和完善軍民結合、寓軍於民的武器裝備科研生產體系、軍隊人才培養體系和軍隊保障體系,堅持勤儉建軍,走出一條中國特色軍民融合式發展路子”。上述重要論述是實現軍民結合科學發展的戰略方針。我們要抓住信息化的機遇,做好寓軍於民這篇大文章,在全面建設小康社會進程中實現富國和強軍的統一。

Original Source(s)

(1) http://www.cia.org.cn/subject/subject_08

(2) http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2006/content

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department” 鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department”  鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

Within the People’s Republic of China is the little known “Central Investigation Unit”, this cadre generates strategic intelligence for economic, military and Communist Party leadership strategic decision-making.

The following article comes from the Communist Party of China News website and the Chinese Military portion of Sohu.com.

八一解放軍

Original Modern English (loose translation):

Recently we saw a material, referred to the Party after the founding of new China an institution called the “Central Investigation Department,” but not too clear on the presentation. Asked colleagues around, it was said “in tune unit” is the former “central social unit”, it was considered by the restructuring from. So, it really is what kind of organization? What are its main functions? When it is established? Could the experts answer?

Daxing District, Zhang Xinyu Readers

Speaking of the central social unit, people still know the big end, and for the Central Investigation Department, is known to only a handful, and some even thought that the central social unit which consists of the establishment of Sino-Japanese War came directly reorganization. History, however, is not true.

First, the “Central Investigation Department” is not the “central social unit

Central Social Department in 1939 to set up the “Central special working committee”, management and leadership intelligence and security work, stating that “the CPC Central Intelligence Department,” outside “the CPC Central Committee Working Committee enemy territory”, but in the preparation of new China namely revocation of the occasion. However, the Central Social Work Department revoked, defending section included in the Ministry of Public Security (normalized before the government established the Central Military Commission formed), is set to change the intelligence part of the Liaison Department of the Central Military Commission, former Secretary-General of the Central Social Department 邹大鹏 minister, and former Central Minister of Social Affairs, when he was minister in charge of the Central Military Commission General Intelligence Department of LI.

October 1949, the third meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee adopted 邹大鹏 Director of Intelligence, to August 1952, due to intelligence agencies Administration revoked the Seventeenth Meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee approved the Department dismissed 邹大鹏length and level of the Deputy Director of 王少春. These show that the intelligence agencies after the founding of New China in the Ministry of Personnel and the Central Social closely linked, and in the affiliation by the CPC Central Committee and State Council on site were transferred to the Central Military Commission. However, the State Council’s Information Department only existed for three years, after intelligence work has focused on the Central Military Commission.

Central Investigation Department at the Central Social Department is not being withdrawn directly established on its basis, but in the Central Military Liaison Department of the Army transferred from within the party sometimes formed together. According to the 2001 book “Yang Shangkun diary” recorded February 23, 1955, when he was Deputy Minister Liaison Department of Lo long, green and Secretary-General Ma times wait until Mao Cheng Yang Shangkun place on “liaison department of ‘fate’ problem ‘ . February 28, Yang Shangkun about when he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA LI “On the section on the political situation where the problem.” LI advice is: “entirely on the good organization within the party, you can set up one.” About the name and personnel issues of this section, Yang Shangkun contained in the diary: “name for ‘investigation unit’, Comrade Enlai Interested by the gram farming and Minister for unified management. “Subsequently, Yang Shangkun reported the matter to the Zhou Enlai. March 4, Yang Shangkun to Zhou Enlai at the “political situation the organization’s decision to participate in the” discussion, “decided to separate the military from the Central Military Commission, the party set up a ‘research department’, by the gram farming and Minister Zhou reported by the Secretariat decision. “That night, Secretariat meeting held in the office of Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai decided to agree on the establishment of the Ministry of the opinion survey, reported Chairman Mao Zedong decided. April 8, Yang Shangkun recorded in his diary: “The central and the President has approved the establishment of the Central Investigation Department of the LI was appointed by the minister, please contact the Department of the Central Military Commission of existing transfer system into the CPC Central Committee..” And contains: “to be in After the formal transfer of 1 July. ”

Second, the “Central Investigation Department” is to adapt to the actual needs of the construction and the establishment of new China, is an exploration and development on the organizational structure of the military.

Central Investigation Department to “investigation” is named, is the nature of intelligence work by the party under the leadership of the decision, but also with the CPC Central Committee issued the “Decision on investigation and study” on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding, in order to strengthen research, realize intelligence work from the collection of alert and defend the military strategic intelligence gathering intelligence to turn the inseparable. At that time, the central authorities set up the Central Investigation Bureau of Investigation, under a Ministry of Information, etc., whose function is to collect political, military, economic, cultural and social class relations and other aspects of domestic and foreign materials, to research, that the central work Direct assistant. Central Investigation Department inherited this work is the “investigation” of history and tradition and the basic spirit and adapt to the actual needs of the construction of the new China and in the organizational structure of an exploration and development.

On the working mechanism of the Central Investigation Department, Yang Shangkun in his diary records, daily work by his contact with the LI, big things consult Deng Xiaoping resolved. LI is the first Secretary of the Central Investigation Department was established. Incumbent Minister of tone in the hole after LI. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the ministry also failed from the impact. June 13, 1969, the Central People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department of the decision by the Second Investigation Department took over, gradually returning to normal until after 1971. To 1983, in view of the Central Investigation Department of historical issues in the “Cultural Revolution”, as well as adapt to the new situation of reform and opening up of intelligence work, the central government decided to revoke the unit formed, and its main body, with the Ministry of Public Security’s counterintelligence department and other parts of the relevant units merged to form the Ministry of National Security.

Third, the “Central Investigation Department” on the front to provide decision-making information secret for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee and his assistant staff

Central Investigation Department of the existence of nearly 30 years, as the organizers and perpetrators of the specific period since the new Chinese intelligence work, through painstaking research, on major issues related to the party and national security interests, and often at a critical moment provide decision-making information for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee staff and assistants.

First, the anti-peaceful evolution, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. After the founding of New China, the anti-peaceful evolution related to the new Chinese regime and consolidate the party’s ruling position, on this issue, Mao Zedong attached great importance to study the political situation in the United States, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. In autumn 1958, the US Congress elections, the ruling Republican Party defeated Democrats. On the US domestic political situation after the elections, the Central Investigation Department to write a report, noting that in the case of a severe economic crisis, the United States within the ruling class and national conflicts intensified, people from all walks widespread fear of war, internal political atmosphere bright side development. November 27, Mao Zedong when reviewing this report, will be subject to “political climate in the United States for the better development”, and instructed to say: The Central Investigation Department of the analysis is very interesting, at the same time he was appointed charge d’affaires in the British Embassy official township British diplomatic situation and analyze the situation in Western Europe is similar is a good article. He added: “In short, the Western world for the better day by day in terms of change, direct and indirect allies allies in the development of the proletariat.” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Mao’s comments on the issuance and the Central Investigation Department The analysis report.

Second, in the development and expansion of patriotic united front staff played a role. The mid-1960s, the Central Investigation Department involved in the fight on behalf of the former Kuomintang government of President Li Tsung-jen Nanjing returning to work, and staff play an important role. July 9, 1965, the Central Investigation Department in writing to return to the central reporting jen comments on issues raised could be considered two options: First, do not need to enter the country on a statement to be issued a statement after returning to discuss; two I agree to enter the country on a written statement at the airport and met with reporters, but the statement is issued in advance with domestic suppliers properly. July 12, Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “like a second program for the better, the manuscript beforehand good providers, there is no harm.” July 20, Mrs. Li Tsung-jen kai Guode Jie arrived in Beijing, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen at the airport welcome, which bore the original, Zou Dapeng, like Feng hyun, head of tune also meet personnel of the column.

In short, the Central Investigation Department in secret front for the new construction and development of China made a historic contribution to the party and the country’s intelligence has accumulated rich historical experience.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

编辑同志:

近日看到一则材料,提到新中国成立后党的一个机构叫“中央调查部”,但对之介绍不甚了了。问及周围的同事,有人说“中调部”就是以前的“中央社会部”,也有人认为是由其改组而来。那么,它究竟是一个什么样的机构?其主要功能是什么?它是什么时候组建的?能否请专家解答一下?

大兴区读者 张新宇

说起中央社会部,人们还是知其大端的,而对于中央调查部,则知者寥寥,有的甚或以为它由抗日战争时期成立的中央社会部直接改组而来。然而,历史事实并非如此。

一、“中央调查部”并非“中央社会部

中央社会部于1939年由“中央特别工作委员会”改设,管理和领导情报与保卫工作,内称“中共中央情报部”,外称“中共中央敌区工作委员会”,但在筹建新中国之际即被撤销。但是,中央社会工作部撤销后,保卫部分归入了公安部(在政府建立之前归军委建制),情报部分改设为中央军委联络部,原中央社会部秘书长邹大鹏任部长,并由原中央社会部部长、时任中央军委总情报部部长李克农主管。

1949年10月,中央人民政府委员会第三次会议通过邹大鹏为情报总署署长,至1952年8月,因情报总署机构撤销,中央人民政府委员会第十七次会议批准免去邹大鹏的署长和王少春的副署长之职。这些表明,新中国成立后的情报机构在人事上与中央社会部有着密切的联系,而在隶属关系上则由党中央内设分别转至中央军委与政务院。但是,政务院的情报总署只存在了三年之久,之后情报工作主要集中在了中央军委。

中央调查部并不是在中央社会部被撤销后在其基础上直接成立的,而是在中央军委联络部由军内转入党内时而组建起来的。根据2001年出版的《杨尚昆日记》记载,1955年2月23日,时任联络部副部长的罗青长、马次青和秘书长毛诚等到杨尚昆处谈“联络部的‘归宿’问题”。2月28日,杨尚昆约时任中国人民解放军副总参谋长的李克农“谈政情部放在哪里的问题”。李克农的意见是:“以完全放在党的组织内为好,可成立一部。”关于这个部的名称和人事问题,杨尚昆在日记中载:“名称可为‘调查研究部’,恩来同志有意由克农兼部长,以便统一管理。”随后,杨尚昆将此事呈报给了周恩来。3月4日,杨尚昆到周恩来处“参加对于政情组织的决定”,经讨论,“决定把军情由军委分开,在党内成立一‘调查部’,由克农兼部长,由周呈报书记处决定。”当晚,书记处会议在刘少奇办公室召开,决定同意周恩来关于成立调查部的意见,报毛泽东主席决定。4月8日,杨尚昆在日记中记载:“中央和主席已批准成立中央调查部。由李克农同志任部长,请现有的军委联络部转移到党中央系统内来。”并载:“拟在7月1日之后正式转移。”

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

二、“中央调查部”是为适应新中国建设的实际需要而设立的,是在组织体制上的一种探索与发展

中央调查部以“调查”命名,是由党领导下的情报工作的性质所决定的,也是与中共中央在建党20周年之际发出《关于调查研究的决定》,以加强调查研究,实现情报工作由搜集警报性和保卫性的情报向搜集军政战略性情报的转折所分不开的。当时,中央设置的调查研究机关即中央调查研究局,下设有情报部等,其职能是收集国内外政治、军事、经济、文化及社会阶级关系等各方面材料,加以研究,以为中央工作的直接助手。中央调查部正是继承了这一工作“调查研究”的历史传统与基本精神,并适应新中国建设的实际需要而在组织体制上的一种探索与发展。

关于中央调查部的工作机制,杨尚昆在日记中记载,日常工作由他与李克农联系,大的事情请示邓小平解决。李克农是中央调查部成立后的第一任部长。李克农之后,孔原任中调部部长。“文化大革命”期间,该部也未能免于冲击。1969年6月13日,中央决定由中国人民解放军总参谋部二部接管调查部,至1971年后逐渐恢复正常。至1983年,鉴于中央调查部在“文革”中的历史遗留问题,同时为适应改革开放以来情报工作的新形势,中央决定撤销该部建制,并以其为主体,同公安部的反间谍部门及其他部分相关单位合并,组成了国家安全部。

三、“中央调查部”在隐秘战线上为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手

中央调查部存续近30年,作为新中国一个时期以来情报工作的具体组织者和实施者,它通过艰苦细致的调查研究,在事关党和国家安全利益等重大问题上,而且往往在关键时刻,为党和国家提供决策情报,成为党中央工作的重要参谋与助手。

其一,在反和平演变上,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。新中国成立后,反和平演变关系到新中国的政权和党的执政地位的巩固,在这一问题上,毛泽东十分重视研究美国的政治局势,中央调查部起到了重要智囊作用。1958年秋,美国国会举行选举,执政的共和党败于民主党。就这次选举后的美国国内的政治局势,中央调查部写了一个报告,指出在严重的经济危机情况下,美国统治集团内部和国内的阶级矛盾加剧,各阶层人民普遍恐惧战争,国内政治气氛在往好的方面发展。11月27日,毛泽东在审阅此报告时,将题目改为《美国政治气氛向好的方面发展》,并批示说:中央调查部这个分析,很有意思,同时任中国驻英国大使馆代办宦乡对英国外交形势与西欧形势的分析相似,都是好文章。他还说:“总之,西方世界一天一天地在向好的方面变,无产阶级的直接同盟军和间接同盟军都在发展。”中共八届六中全会上印发了毛泽东的批语和中央调查部的分析报告。

其二,在发展壮大爱国主义统一战线上起到了参谋作用。20世纪60年代中叶,中央调查部参与了争取原国民党南京政府代总统李宗仁回国的工作,并发挥了重要的参谋作用。1965年7月9日,中央调查部以书面形式向中央报告李宗仁回国有关问题的意见,提出两个可以考虑的方案:一是不必一进国门就发表声明,待回国商量后再发表声明;二是同意一进国门就在机场发表书面声明并接见记者,但声明稿应事先同国内商妥。7月12日,毛泽东批示周恩来总理:“似以第二方案为较好,稿子事前商好,并无坏处。”7月20日,李宗仁偕夫人郭德洁抵达北京,周恩来、彭真等到机场欢迎,其中孔原、邹大鹏、冯铉等中调部负责人也在迎接人员之列。

总之,中央调查部在隐秘战线为新中国的建设和发展作出了历史性贡献,为党和国家的情报工作积累了丰富历史经验。

 

Source: 战略决策情报支撑

Major PLA Structural Announcements on a weekend?

Is anyone else out there wondering why China would make significant military announcements when the USGOV isn’t paying attention?

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China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces

China on Friday unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars.

Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing.

This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

Rocket force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert.

The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said.

The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy.

Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security.

“We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Cyber and space forces

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces.

But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security.

Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

Army command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department.

The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song.

At Thursday’s conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics.

It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting.

According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development.

The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

Xinhua contributed to this story


The General Command of Army Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.


The PLA Rocket Force Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.
 

The PLA Strategic Support ForceBadge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.

China’s Military Industry – 12 stocks worth reviewing

China’s Military Industry – 12 stocks worth reviewing

Category: Research institutions: Thailand Securities Co. Researcher: Benedict Hui, Guo Hao Date: 2015-10-08

China Nuclear Power Vision: The reason why the future of nuclear power is good, because it is not subject to the constraints of traditional domestic economic cycle, while executive power is coming to strongly promote things. To achieve the 2030 non-fossil energy sources accounted for 20% of target, nuclear power installed capacity will require 150 million to 200 million kilowatts, the next 15 years to build each year 10-15 million-kilowatt nuclear power generating units. This building is a great strength, because the Qinshan nuclear power plant since 1991 and has total domestic power generation nuclear power generating units put into operation, but 26 units. Conservative estimates now and the end of 2020 intends to start building nuclear power plants to 30 units, averaging approximately six, in addition if inland nuclear icebreaker (possibility of a large), the more the number of starts;

Technological catch-up, the efficiency of repression, the share of overseas expansion: Whether it is 1995 textile exports, the export of electromechanical products in 2005, or the export of nuclear power in 2015, are in fact Chinese technical standards in the cost efficiencies brought about essentially Global market share expansion. Although there is not much difference in the economic essence, but technically is leaps and bounds. China Manufacturing 2005 is the end of the world to catch up with the trend of the manufacturing sector, 2025 is made in China to catch up with high-end manufacturing. World Nuclear Association estimates that 2015–2030 years overseas in around 160 new nuclear power plants, investment $ 1.5 trillion, a huge market space. One of Hualong situation from signing, the Chinese technology to countries in Asia obviously attractive future with the promotion and CAP1400 Hualong One independent technology matures, China’s nuclear power in the global market share is expected to be further improved;

Nuclear main pump housing – casting industry the highest technical: should flow in 2014 namely, the production of China’s first nuclear CAP1400 blasting a stainless steel valve body, and then again to complete the CAP1400 nuclear localization of the main pump housing. Pump housing is one of the core components of the main pump and the nuclear island, manufacturing is extremely difficult, represents the highest technology in the world casting production. Prior to the domestic nuclear power plant main pump casing has been monopolized by overseas foundry, should flow to achieve import substitution has entered the post-production stage, becoming the third generation nuclear power main pump unit housing the only domestic suppliers;

Spent fuel and neutron absorbing material huge market: China’s nuclear power development has led to a top-heavy nuclear spent fuel reprocessing nuclear power plant construction than the broader market, we estimated 2015 domestic capacity of spent fuel unloaded 625 tons by 2020 could increase to 1450 tons. Much larger global market, in 2015 the world spent fuel discharged amount estimating at 9,442 tons, 15 times the Chinese market. Neutron absorbing material mainly used in the field of spent fuel storage, fuel storage pool grids and storage containers are required to set a neutron absorbing material, it is expected from 2016 onwards neutron absorbing material domestic demand will be explosive growth. Physics Institute should flow together engineering industrial projects expected to be completed in the next year, when the spent fuel storage container with the localization of products will be quickly occupied the domestic market. With the cost advantage of domestic equipment at the same time, the product is expected to enter the domestic market, 15 times the global market blue ocean;

Traditional product cycle end, new business space large: Yingliu traditional business earnings affected by fluctuations in oil prices, the number of US shale gas drilling rig at the bottom of the sharp drop in oil prices imply coming period, already greater than the risk of future opportunities. The new nuclear main pump housing business, neutron absorbing material, aviation engine / gas turbine blades and other projects to benefit from the expansion of the market at the same time, import substitution will occupy the domestic market share, and have the potential to open overseas markets, the growth of broad space. Companies on the performance of new products, good elasticity, fundamentals about to enter the fast climbing period;

Predict trends and investment advice: the future in favor of the company’s stock price positive factors include 1) the nuclear power industry in the fourth quarter a number of catalysts, including nuclear thirteen Five-Year Plan, dense nuclear power projects approved and started ice-breaking progress inland nuclear power, nuclear power and other exports continue to break ; 2) after the market attention on the subject of spent fuel is low, and the enormous market potential of spent fuel will eventually lead to financial concerns, then the valuation premium is expected to expand; 3) If the future of A shares switched from the outflow of funds to the stock of game, then about to break out of the nuclear power industry funds will become the focus of concern, nuclear power is expected to become the subject of high-quality construction market in the stock of game highlights. We believe that in the short term is still a good time to layout positions, taking into account the short-term A-share funds overall environmental stability to be confirmed, temporarily still maintain the company “overweight” rating, to be confirmed after the release of large environmental risks for further increase.

Integrated into electronic : strong growth in the main business transformation and distribution, energy internet layout Weiweitaiguan

Category: Research institutions: Ping An Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Yu Bing Date: 2015-09-21

Performance solid growth, expense control flat: During the reporting period, the company achieved revenues of 407 million yuan, an increase of 33.14%; attributable to shareholders of listed companies net profit 020 million yuan, an increase of 15.31%; fee rate of 32.8 percent during the company, unchanged compared with last year, of which financial expense ratio increased 0.98 percentage points, mainly due to higher interest expenses of bank loans.

Transformation and distribution have been strong primary industry, utilities continue to develop: During the reporting period, the State Grid Corporation of bidding and batch number has declined, tender situation continued centralization, the company seize the national network set to recruit foreign market opportunities and industry the new contract amount of 518 million yuan. 1H15 company substations / distribution of electricity business to achieve revenue 1.38 / 163 million yuan, respectively, an increase of 47.0% / 69.5%, gross profit margin of 40.42% / 36.91%, an increase of 5.89 / -1.98 percentage points. Under the overall investment in the grid field in the first half stage presentation sluggish situation, the company is still the main industry transformation and distribution to achieve rapid growth, market share continued to increase. Public utilities, the company successfully develop Wuhan, Chongqing and other urban water market, market holdings intelligent remote meter break 3 million, the market share ranking first; smart gas solution has been to provide one-stop service for gas customers.

Energy Internet more arrows shot, Zhanyi military field: the report period, the Company together with China Mobile, Lenovo Group to build together the wisdom of energy on public service cloud platform line, becoming the first regional (Shandong Province) Smart Energy Public Service Cloud platform, the platform now has access to cover gas, water, energy and other industrial sectors over 26,000 points of data; collaboration with Intel, Shandong Union City, expanding energy Internet, smart city integrated service operational areas; invest 4,116 million acquisition of Fujian Austria 70% of the shares through a step wins, wins Austrian Mai commitment of 15 to 17 years is not less than the net profit after deduction of non-respectively 0.1 / 0.13 / 017 million yuan, to further improve the urban distribution network operations; have set up the plot into energy, integrated into software company, involved in the establishment of one billion yuan of new energy industry guide funds, short-term and Guangxi Guidong Electric Power DSM micro-grid applications in cooperation, but also because of the change in the situation should be changed under the new situation electricity. Military field, the company set up military cooperation with Beijing long buyout funds; invest 30 million yuan to acquire a 30% stake in Rio Ningbo resources, in order to enter the ultrafine metal powder-based material 3D printing market.

Profit forecasts and ratings: the company expects EPS of 15 to 16 years 0.52,0.78 yuan, corresponding to August 28 closing price of PE were 33.9,22.6 times, we are optimistic about the company’s first-mover advantage and military fields in the energy field of the Internet to expand outreach , to maintain “recommended” rating.

Risk Warning: electricity reform program is lower than expected risk; military business development slow.

Weihai Guangtai : fourth-quarter results would speed; military / civilian UAV leading professional benefit civil-military integration, general aviation

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-10-19

1. Event.

The company issued three quarterly, the first three quarters of 2015 to achieve revenue 908 million yuan, an increase of 29.52%, net profit of 98.8057 million yuan, an increase of 33.92%, EPS of 0.30 yuan.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) Increasing profitability, performance will be further accelerated.

Soon the company mid-year report the first three quarters, an increase of 20% -50%, and the actual results in line with our expectations. Enhance the company’s gross margin and net margin were up 1.1pct, 0.9pct, profitability continued to rise.

Since Yingkou new Eagle and sheet effects, the company’s third quarter alone, revenue and performance year respectively 73% and 60% longer. Soon the company full-year results up 40% -80%, reaching 156 million -2 billion, calculated accordingly, the fourth quarter alone, results need to reach 56.76 million yuan -1.01 billion yuan, an increase of 52% -171%, performance will be further accelerated.

(B) The proposed acquisition of the whole of China era, is expected to create “UAV first unit.”

The company previously announced intends to raise not more than 540 million yuan for the acquisition, the increase of the whole era and put UAVs China (1.5 billion) and to supplement working capital, capital increase is completed the company will have a 69.34% stake in the whole of China era.

China Times is the first full-UAV R & D, production and sales and service integration of private enterprises, the main products include fixed wing, helicopter, multi-rotor and other military and civilian UAV and UAV applications, in # 1 of UAV technology invention patent applicant in the main office, after two universities nationwide.

Full Hua era in the field of application services mainly include police, fire, police, marine maritime, electricity, Tianjin TV and other sectors, has been invited as the only private enterprise involved in the PLA at the “Four Seas armed forces’ military exercises, and in August 2015 to participate in “8.12” Shaanxi Sanyo landslides survey relief efforts.

The acquisition agreement, if the whole of China era in actual net profit is higher than the commitment period, total net profit of 92.21 million yuan commitment, then over 50% of the net profit will be used to reward the whole China era, management and staff . Expected 2016 net profit is expected to reach full Hua era 1500-2000 yuan, 2015–2018 consecutive year performance is expected to double the growth.

The company November 28, 2014 with a unit signed a “series UAS development and cooperation agreement,” now have a strong business strength in military UAV. We believe that this acquisition will bring the whole China Times significant industrial chain, market and customer synergies, particularly in the era of all-China military UAV military part of the company’s existing business will bring promoted. After this offering, the company will enter the UAV industry, military business will rapidly development, the company is expected to become a military / civilian professional UAVs leading enterprises, leading to standard consumer UAVs “Dajiang Innovation” (according to media reported Dajiang Innovation’s market capitalization exceeded $ 8 billion).

(C) Military UAV / military integration scarce subject, the rapid development.

Companies series of unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs primarily for high-speed military supplier, the company is the subject of civil-military integration. UAV aircraft is the future trend, according to planning future fighter United States, Israel, the future will be more than manned aircraft drones. We estimate that over the next 15 years China military UAV market demand for nearly 200 billion yuan, the needs of the civilian professional UAVs over 100 billion yuan, civilian consumer UAVs (domestic demand) over 30 billion yuan.

Domestic listed companies involved in military UAV development business has Hongdu Aviation , Zongshen , Loncin General , Shandong Mining Machinery , Industries and other listed companies have begun to involve unmanned aircraft business, but clearly involves military UAV rarely. In addition, there is only the beginning of many listed companies involved in UAV, some companies just developed only 1-2 prototypes started testing. The company is very scarce military UAV subject, age and the proposed acquisition of the whole of China is the industrialization of the UAV giant, is the quality subject has a production capacity of UAVs.

The company has hired former Xi’an Aircraft International, the aircraft fly through, the aircraft heavy machine Mengxiang Kai, chairman of the independent directors, and Mengxiang Kai has a wealth of experience in the aerospace, military business. We judge the company UAVs, especially the rapid development of the future military UAV business.

(Iv) The inclusion in the defense industry sector MIC Association, is expected to continue over the military expected.

July 7, 2015, the China Association of listed companies to publish a list of the military committee of the Association of National Defence on the military sector, Weihai Guangtai selected. 2014 military company sales income reached 164 million yuan, representing a substantial increase of 88%. Meng Yan, general manager of the State Council special allowance granted in recent years undertaken 12 national projects, military projects 10, presided over the development of a number of products to fill the domestic and international blank. Military aspects of the company actively participate in the development of forward-looking volume, high-value new project, there are several projects have been recognized; some of the key research projects achieved initial results, at the same time to focus on opening up new markets and achieved good development . We determine the company’s future military development will exceed market expectations, bringing double the performance of the valuation increase.

3. Investment advice.

The company has military and civilian UAV + Fusion + GA + smart home, such as multiple themes, military business development will exceed market expectations, benefiting shipping industry development. We determine the company’s future in the military (not just military UAV), fire-fighting equipment in the field continue to overweight, through independent research and development, mergers and acquisitions and other measures to strengthen the company’s position and influence in the fire-fighting equipment, military field; Yingkou new Eagle results will exceed expectations.

Does not consider the non-public issuance matters, is expected to 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.63 / 0.82 / 1.06 yuan, PE is 49/38/29 times; consider this non-public offering of matter (according to 30 yuan issuance price estimates), is expected to 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.61 / 0.84 / 1.10 yuan, PE is 50/37/28 times, has raised the potential for future performance, the recommended duration.

Risk Warning: shipping policy than expected, military business development than expected, lower than expected industry consolidation.

Hite high : a certain type of engine project won the “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” award, the depth of integration of military and civilian benefit

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-10-14

Investment Highlights

1. Event

Company announcement “a certain type of engine engineering” won Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People’s Republic of China, “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” rating for the first prize winner.

2. Our analysis and judgment

(A) Eligible for the “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” award

National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award is to reward outstanding contributions in the promotion of scientific and technological progress in the defense units and individuals, to encourage independent innovation, promote the development of national defense modernization and the national economy.

The company’s award-winning project “a certain type of engine project,” the company is in the depth of integration of military and civilian weapons and their supporting product research, production, testing and related work in the scientific and technological achievements. The winning project is the company’s constant pursuit of technological innovation achievements, the company has reflected a high level of technological innovation capability.

(B) Aviation Development: Aircraft engine and control system, the business continued to force helicopter winch

The company has been a traditional aviation maintenance business aviation technical services to an integrated enterprise strategic shift since 2012 air power control system, and the development of the core business to take off, the performance of high growth into the fast lane. The company aeronautical military (mainly for helicopter-related) results accounted for about 60%. The company’s largest customer sales in 2014 amounted to 187 million yuan, mainly for us to judge the development of core military business, revenue accounting for close to 40%.

Aviation new technology development, and manufacturing business segment has formed mass production, a variety of new models in the research, as well as a plurality of pre-research project to comprehensively promote good situation. Certain air power control system is mass production; development work in other multi-model air power control system project is an orderly way; and can meet the needs of multi-use helicopter electric rescue hoist and oxygen systems development project is about to enter flight test phase.

Aviation power core control system as the core of military, technical content and high barriers. According to the company 2014 annual report, the current aviation new technology development, and manufacturing business has become an important business segment for the formation of both mass production, there are a variety of new models in the study, and there are more than a good pre-research project research and production situation.

Currently, the company has successfully developed the technical foundation for a model project on the engine power transfer, carried out on “a new air power control system development and manufacturing projects,” three new models (401,402,403) air power control system derived from research and development.

According to the company announcement, the power control system are the main components of aircraft engines, an essential part of belonging to the whole industry chain, accounting for about 10% -20% of the overall value of the engine. Benefit from the growth of the domestic aviation engine market, power control system market will exhibit steady growth. In addition, the development of civil aviation engine market, military and civilian areas of the market and gradually expand overseas markets for air power control industry will also have some role in promoting.

(Iii) Chip project involves national defense information security, strategic significance

Ltd. The company invested 555 million yuan to acquire a stake in Chengdu-chia stone technology and capital increase, after the transaction is completed, holders of its 52.91% stake. Ka Technology has independently developed an international leading level of the third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit technology from abroad and the second generation of semiconductor integrated circuit technology, which will be put into operation to become the first 6-inch second-generation / third generation The semiconductor integrated circuit production lines, can effectively grasp the market demand, to fill gaps in the market, the market prospect is broad. As a former state-controlled national strategy of information industry companies, this holding company Ka stone technology into high-end chip design industry, is holding a model of mixed ownership private cases.

Hite has been with CLP Section 29 signed a “strategic cooperation letter of intent,” the company and CLP Section 29 will Airborne and testing equipment joint project, development, joint production, among others. The two sides will carry out in-depth cooperation with the other priority.

CLP Section 29 is the earliest establishment, specializing in electronic warfare technology research, a class of the National Institute of Systems Engineering equipment model development and production, over the years been responsible for the national key projects, major basic national, national security and other major engineering tasks, to design and development and production land, sea, air, space, playing a variety of platforms and other electronic information systems equipment. CLP Section 29 and Section 14 (Glarun Technology largest shareholder), CLP Section 38 (Create Electronics major shareholder) par. Hite Holdings Ka by entering the high-end scientific and technological research in the field of semiconductor integrated circuit chip, we determine the Ka stone technology products will be mainly used in the early 29 high-end electronic equipment, the “Made in China 2025” in the field of next-generation IT focus on the development of integrated circuits and special equipment, national defense information related to security, with a high strategic position and importance; market prospects for the future.

Jia Shi registered capital of 1.049 billion yuan of Science and Technology, located in Chengdu Shuangliu County, West Southern Airport Economic Zone within the networking industry park; Hite and four Electronic (29 wholly-owned subsidiaries, the parent company of 29 civilian industry, the Ministry of satellite navigation application standards working group members) shares accounted for 52.91%, 36.61% respectively. Hite high in the holding position, the project is the central enterprises and private enterprises (military enterprises) mixed ownership model in private holdings.

According to “Chengdu Jia Shi Technology Co., Ltd. 6-inch second-generation / third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit chip production line project environmental impact report” The total investment of 2.092 billion yuan. Sichuan Provincial Economic and Information Technology Commission of Sichuan Province has put this project as a strategic emerging industries to support the project.

High power electronic applications Ka-Technology 6-inch second-generation / third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit chips used in microwave and millimeter wave frequencies sophisticated electronic equipment, military applications and motor drive, a wireless communication base stations, high frequency satellite communications, smart phones and wireless communications. Ka Technology For details, see Annex.

(Iv) Common shares of established ocean, explore navigable mixed ownership

Through subsidiaries Hai Teya beauty and Kunmingfeian to its own funds invested 124 million yuan shares of Ocean General Aviation Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Universal Ocean”), acquired 31% stake in GM Ocean. Ocean General business scope covers all types of general aviation services according to flight merchant training, aircraft rental hosting, operations and other shareholders except the United States and Kunmingfeian 海特亚, but also including Chang Fei AVIC Jiangxi Kevin technology, Jiangxi Intertek Navigation, Central Asia Property Group and Jiangxi military Sibo general aviation services. Under the agreement, General Board of the ocean by the seven directors, 海特亚 beauty and Kunmingfeian will each nominate a director; in addition, ocean common financial officer will recommend 海特亚 United States.

Further progress in the establishment of the ocean common shares of the company in the general aviation sector of a powerful exploration of mixed ownership, the company is also the depth of integration of military and civilian. Each ocean common shareholders have good industry resources and financial strength, will effectively play their respective advantages in resources, and promote the sound development of ocean common. Meanwhile, the company further deepen the shipping industry layout, the company will optimize aviation industry chain, improve profitability, and expand the company’s shipping industry development.

(V) Aviation Maintenance: large aircraft machine overhaul, Jet / helicopter / engine maintenance Breakthrough

The company’s traditional aviation maintenance business is mainly airborne equipment, two turboshaft engine maintenance business, a leading domestic position. In 2014, the company aviation maintenance business development in both depth and breadth directions were achieved significant results, business scope covers transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, and helicopters machine maintenance, engine maintenance and Attachment maintenance and technical services.

Tianjin Hite As the first private trunk aircraft overhaul the whole platform (previously domestic-led joint venture with foreign capital), has completed the first phase of the project. The company Tianjin base two hangars have been put into operation, can repair 2-3 frame A320 / B737 series aircraft and three executive jets. January 2015, Tianjin Hite successfully completed Juneyao Airlines B-9978 & B-9957 two A320 family aircraft scheduled inspection and maintenance work for the first time. The company has made CAAC issued by Airbus A320 aircraft 4C inspection maintenance license, is actively apply for A320 aircraft to CAAC 8C inspection maintenance license.

Tianjin base future Phase II, Phase III project after completion, is expected to form 5 hangar, can be nine A320 / B737 aircraft, four executive jets, two wide-body aircraft (B747 / B777, etc.) while the depth of the regular inspection business, will become the domestic large-scale, improve the supporting facilities of third party aircraft maintenance base.

In addition, the company shares of the company, Sichuan Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Company Limited 2015 will achieve the scale of production and profit. Company and Sichuan Airlines Group, Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co., Taikoo (Xiamen) Aircraft Engineering Co., Ltd. joint venture in Sichuan Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Co., Ltd., is specialized in domestic and modification of Airbus aircraft overhaul base. The company is its second largest shareholder, with the completion of the second phase of investment in 2015 will achieve the scale of production and profit.

We determine the future of the company will obtain a large machine repair business development (some models of large aircraft overhaul the whole of about 80 million yuan, aviation maintenance business is usually more than 50% gross margin).

On the aviation maintenance breadth, companies involved in many types of aircraft business aircraft, helicopters, aircraft engines, APU, and many more equipment maintenance.

(1) business jet maintenance: Tianjin should 捷海特 General Aviation Services Limited is a company with the world’s third largest business jet service providers Rui Shiyi, Czech Republic, a joint venture specializing in general aviation services company, after the formal operation in 2014, it has completed 64 sorties regional aircraft, business jets scheduled inspection maintenance and line maintenance tasks.

(2) Helicopter maintenance: base is located in Tianjin, Tianjin Xiangyu Aviation Maintenance Engineering Co., Ltd. is a company approved by the China Civil Aviation specializes in the overhaul of Mi-17 series helicopters. Tianjin Xiangyu will resume operations in 2015, will work with new partners era wing day the company increased the intensity of cooperation, give full play to its advantages in resources in the field of Russian Helicopters, will resume expanding rice series helicopters and helicopter maintenance card production capacity and actively expand nine straight, straight eight, EC-135 helicopter maintenance capability and so on.

(3) aircraft engines, auxiliary power units (APU) repair: steady growth, in 2014 nearly complete overhaul and testing work station engines and auxiliary power unit, and continue to promote the aviation engine maintenance capacity-building efforts, the company has carried out three The new model aero engine maintenance capacity development work. As national ministries approved aero engine maintenance base, the company has built, including the United States GE, SAFRAN, Pratt & Whitney Canada, the United States HONEYWELL, PBS and other Czech factory production seven series of more than 20 types of engines and auxiliary power units (APU) repair capacity, is authorized Czech PBS overhaul base; Pratt & Whitney Canada has been calibrated integrated engine test stand, according to the United States has HONEYWELL, US Hansheng standard construction of an auxiliary engine test stand, for direct -8, straight -9 straight -19, -171 meters, transport -12 to provide engine repair and modernization, for B737, -171 meters to provide auxiliary engine maintenance.

(F) To enter the aircraft dismantling, huge market potential in the aircraft market

The first half of 2015, Tianjin Hite foreign aircraft undertook the first aircraft dismantling work in Tianjin. The proposed dismantling of the aircraft for the Beijing Ji’an aviation asset management company to buy from abroad, 27-year-old machine B767 aircraft, aircraft parts will be renovated after the removal and re-use, completion time of three months. July 6, the aircraft parking bays at the handover ceremony.

Tianjin Hite Aircraft Engineering Company is mainly engaged in large aircraft, business jets depth overhaul of the whole business, the company is a large aircraft carrier machine repair business; the whole overhaul of large aircraft has been eligible for qualification in November 2014 opened. After the dismantling of the task to carry out marking the company’s formal entry into the aircraft market, is another milestone in Tianjin Hite made following the overhaul of civil aircraft machine, and to prepare for helicopter maintenance business jet overhaul after qualification. We believe the future of Tianjin Hite repair business will further diversify the company to large aircraft maintenance strategy to upgrade the machine will steadily fall.

The rapid development of the air transport industry today, the disposal of retired aircraft have become increasingly prominent. It is understood that, because there is no professional dismantling base, China’s retired aircraft dismantling basically have to dispose of the United States. According to some media reports, in the course of our aircraft fly more than 200 aircraft, each year the number of imported 300 increments; 80-100 aircraft each year about retired aircraft, the number of aircraft will be retired after increasing every year. If you take into account overseas aircraft dismantling market, the market bigger.

According to media reports, in the international aviation market, the recycling of used parts is a common pattern, in general, the total price of $ 50 million an aircraft, to use the term, the recovery rate is one tenth, i.e. about $ 5 million after dismantling into parts market, may sell $ 10 million. More importantly, driving around value, such as logistics, maintenance, etc., will create 10 times to 20 times the value of the enterprise.

Dismantling aircraft aviation materials can increase, decrease pressure Spare Parts, resulting in greater economic benefits. China does not rule out the future of the world’s aircraft dismantling, material trading base, aircraft dismantling, after the aircraft market has great potential.

(Vii) Aviation Training: Formation of Kunming, Singapore, Tianjin, three major aviation training base layout

Aviation Training business layout in Kunming, Singapore, Tianjin and three aviation training base. In many fields (air transport, general aviation), many types of aircraft (trunk aircraft, general aviation aircraft, helicopters) covering domestic and foreign aviation training market.

Singapore base by the end of 2014 the company has been completed, the first two simulators have been installed tuning is completed, will be officially put into operation in 2015, will expand in Southeast Asia and West Asia aviation training market. Singapore Airlines is the company’s practice training base of high-quality results “along the way” of the national strategy, the domestic aviation industry is also an important foreign investment projects, the company has completed initial training in the aviation market at home and overseas distribution, the company in the aviation training market competitiveness and possession rate will further enhance the overall strength will be enhanced.

In 2014 the company invested in the construction of Tianjin Free Trade Zone in Tianjin Airport flight safety, layout NORTH aviation training market, upon completion, will have 7-10 analog machines running capacity (including A320, B737 and EC-135 helicopter simulator class D), wherein EC- 135 Level D helicopter simulator is the model of China’s first high-level simulator.

Aviation Training business currently operates a total of five Kunmingfeian simulator, including two A320 Level D flight simulator, three B737 aircraft FFS. The company Singapore base 2 analog machines already in place, there is a base station in Kunming, Tianjin base EC-135 helicopter simulation machine 1 on the way in which the acquisition is expected four new contribution to the performance simulator will begin in 2015. Singapore Airlines training base company plans to invest 580 million yuan, to June 2014 has invested 120 million yuan. January 2015, Hite Singapore flight training center B737-800W and two A320-200 full flight simulator passed the China Civil Aviation Administration and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore initial identification.

The future of the company will also expand aviation training business from the civil aviation field to the helicopter. In June 2013, the company announced the purchase EC-135 helicopter flight simulators and ancillary equipment, a total price of not more than 10 million euros, has signed a contract to purchase intent. The company helicopter training business will be placed Tianjin base.

We determine the number of companies planning simulator future can reach the size of 20 units (about six Kunming, Singapore 6 or so, Tianjin 7-10 units). If each simulator operating 20 hours per day, according to 3000 yuan (or US $ 400-500 / hour) calculated per hour, according to the utilization rate of around 80%, the income of each simulator nearly 18 million yuan, the company Aviation Training gross margin of around 50%.

Aviation training future business if it reaches 20 analog machines, only simulator aviation training services revenue (excluding crew training and other services) to reach 360 million yuan.

(Viii) The aviation finance lease: aircraft machine, engine, flight equipment financing and leasing business is about to break

The company will cover the future of the aviation leasing business machine large aircraft, engines, aircraft timber leasing business.

In 2013 the company funded the establishment of Sichuan Hite Leasing Co., Ltd., began to get involved in aircraft leasing services. July 2014, the company was approved by the Ministry of Commerce, State Administration of Taxation of the National Twelfth domestic financial leasing pilot enterprises, will help the company to optimize the business aviation service business model to achieve diversified development of the aviation industry, and the integration of resources, to Integrated development of aviation technology services direction, to achieve the purpose to promote the company’s main business aviation development. Financial leasing company Aviation Services business is advancing according to plan, the whole aircraft, engines, and aircraft leasing business structure material formed.

(Ix) To raise 1.66 billion ECU to develop new air power and other main industry

The company has completed the set by the matter, the additional price of 20 yuan, issued a total of 8282 shares, the total funds raised 1.66 billion yuan, and the new shares were listed on September 2. The company will expand the air power control system development capabilities.

Fund-raising project of this issue is “Tianjin Hite aircraft maintenance base on the 2nd maintenance hangar construction project,” “new air power control system development and manufacturing projects,” “new aviation engine repair technology development and industrialization projects” “Tianjin Aviation Flight Safety training base construction project” and “add liquidity.”

3. Investment Advice

Expected 15–17 years EPS of 0.16 / 0.36 / 0.56 yuan, PE is 114/51/33 times the expected performance of the company next year after the high-speed growth. The company has more than 50 percent of military accounting, valuation of the company will be the next country Rui Technology, Create Electronics, Aviation moving control , Naoto shares close; maintain “recommended” rating.

Risk Warning: military delivery times of uncertainty, and the new model helicopter winch ECU production time of uncertainty, the issuance of equity dilution thickening performance, integration risk.

Tianqi shares : M Floor, automotive after-market official force

Category: Research institutions: GF Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Luo Libo, Liu Zhijun date: 2015-10-26

The company issued a notice by the China Securities Regulatory Commission mergers and acquisitions of listed companies audit committee review, the company issued shares to buy assets and raise matching funds by connected transaction matters unconditional.

M implement dismantling the whole industry chain layout, automotive after-market official force. The acquisition of 100% stake in Yichang Dili and recovered 66.5% stake in Ningbo officially landed the company in the car dismantling market segment, “the three recycling centers + two + two operators dismantling center platform,” the whole industry chain layout began to take shape, The acquisition landing next year, the three companies will collectively dismantling plate and table, consider the performance commitment and their stake next year (Yichang Lidi net profit of 47 million yuan next year commitment, holding 100%; Suzhou regeneration promised 20 million yuan ; holding 70% recovery of about 20 million yuan in Ningbo, holding 66.5%), with the ability to automate dismantling strengthened after the market next year will form a significant support on performance.

Yellow car out of standard policies, accelerate the dismantling of the window period to come. As of September, the national yellow car out of the amount of 820,000, less than expected. Currently the ministry has increased the policy efforts of the yellow car out, environmental protection and other five departments jointly issued a document to promote the yellow car out of the policy, the implementation of monthly briefings phase-out system. Emission vehicles will be phased out in the next 1–2 years to accelerate the dismantling of scrap car recycling volume will usher in short-term peak.

Main business sufficient orders, next year the main industry is expected to strongly upward. The company’s main business of automotive logistics automation equipment business is currently sufficient orders in hand, up more than 30%, consider the confirmation period and base year, the main industry is expected next year the real positive growth. Coupled with the company automated warehousing business breakthroughs in the electricity business, medicine, cold chain and other areas next year, the main industry is expected to strongly upward.

Investment suggestion: We forecast the company 2015–2017 annual revenues and 2,882 one million yuan for the 1, 999, 2,573, EPS, respectively 0.21, 0.37 and 0.46 yuan. The company has in the field of automotive logistics automation equipment outstanding advantages, has a good industrial layout in intelligent storage systems and vehicle dismantling market, combined with performance and valuation, we maintain the company a “buy” rating.

Risk Warning: automotive automation equipment requirements that affect car sales and investment uncertainty; yellow car out of policy implementation is uncertain; scrap price fluctuations affect profits for dismantling operations.

Xiamen Engineering shares : seize all the way along the core area, the Air shares into the military

Category: Research institutions: State Securities Corp. researcher: After Li Yao Date: 2015-04-08

Event.

Vision and action along the way files released, infrastructure interconnection boot priority. Files will determine Fujian and Xinjiang as the core area of ​​the Maritime Silk Road between Asia and Europe, Guangxi and Yunnan respectively and radiation portal area. The same period, the Asian investment bank continued to expand around and under the Boao Forum for Asia held dual catalysis, “along the way” continue to strengthen the concept of regional development.

The evening of March 30, the central bank, the Ministry of Housing, Banking Regulatory Commission jointly issued “on the individual housing loan policy issues related to notice”, to improve the demand for individual housing loans lowered the down payment ratio to not less than 40%. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation jointly issued “on the adjustment of individual housing transfer business tax policy notice”, significant debt relief for part qualified housing foreign sales business tax levy. With the real estate policy followed deregulation, housing needs to improve usher in a major positive.

Company performance forecast 2014 annual operating results compared with last year, there will be profitable, is expected to achieve attributable to shareholders of listed companies net profit of zero to $ 10 million; total annual government subsidy received by the Company 2014 Total 47,648.56 ten thousand yuan , resulting in a larger increase in operating income.

Comment.

The core area of the Maritime Silk Road construction machinery enterprises, overseas assembly plant was built to cater to the area all the way: focus on planning the direction of the Maritime Silk Road in the 21st century is over from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean coastal ports in China, extending to Europe, and over the South China Sea to China’s coastal ports South Pacific . The Fujian and Xinjiang have been identified for the 21st century to build the core area of the Maritime Silk Road. Xiamen regional obvious advantages, Xiamen Engineering shares all the way along the core area is located in Xiamen, Fujian Province, currently accounting for 15 percent of export business. The company has established assembly plants in Pakistan, in order to meet all the way along and Fujian FTA construction has laid a good foundation engineering machinery and equipment exports preferred targets.

Guangdong, Fujian and Tianjin free trade zone by the overall scheme, the Xiamen Municipal SASAC key support: March 24, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping hosted a Politburo meeting by Guangdong, Tianjin, Fujian pilot zones free trade overall program, further Shanghai Free Trade Experimental Area deepen reform and opening up program. FTA second quarter starting gun fired, Fujian FTA much attention at home and abroad, the two programs are expected to be available in the near future official text, FTA listing has officially entered the countdown stage. Xiamen, Xiamen Engineering shares is focused on supporting the manufacturing enterprises SASAC, terms of scale, the company is currently in the second-tier position in the industry, the company’s main products accounted for 60% of revenue loader in the domestic market share of about 16%, ranking the first three levels of the industry. 2010 nine Chinese construction machinery manufacturers, including companies into the top 50 global construction machinery.

AVIC shares, civilian integration model: the aircraft industry with engineering machinery products the core components of hydraulic technology research and development capabilities, AVIC shares Xiamen Engineering shares, in its capacity as the industrial development platform, with its R & D strength, enhance the technological level of construction machinery products extending “Four Wheels” and other key parts of construction machinery industry, but to build aviation maintenance and mechanical base, into military areas greatly enhance the company in the domestic construction machinery core competitiveness. The company is currently doing property transfer, the actual control may become more of AVIC, AVIC systems become the model of civil-military integration. AVIC’s move will strengthen the company’s military background, the general secretary in learning to adapt to the requirements of its mission to accelerate the construction requirements of the equipment system backdrop, company valuation is expected to improve.

Deregulation to promote real estate investment pick up, looking forward to 2015 results appear reversed: investments in infrastructure, equipment investment, mainly in construction machinery. Because of China’s fixed asset investment, especially real estate investment growth slowed, leading to lower purchasing power cranes, excavators, loaders and other construction machinery major products continued to decline, the company’s performance was in a slump. The company’s annual results notice said the company in 2014 net profit compared with a year earlier appeared a turnaround, but mainly from the government subsidy of 476.48 million yuan operating income, results did not show a fundamental improvement.

With the real estate policy followed deregulation, housing needs to improve usher in a major positive. Liberalization of real estate control policies will help real estate new projects starts to rise, thereby stimulating market demand gradually pick up equipment. Judging from construction machinery is expected to benefit from the area all the way to help digest excess capacity and double positive recovery in the domestic real estate investment is expected to decline in equipment sales will tend to narrow this year, industry continues to inventory deleveraging situation also will be in the second quarter improved significantly. We look forward to the construction machinery industry in the second and third quarter results can show substantial reversal.

Looking ahead a few years, the construction machinery industry or market holdings are still a large amount of excess capacity, competition and other issues, the pattern of market reshuffle and survival of the fittest is difficult to avoid. Some enterprises will fully benefit “along the way”, in a favorable position in the competitive landscape changes. The company’s main business market share among the industry forefront loaders, large-scale effects appear. With infrastructure investment is expected to pick up at home and abroad, the company’s main business sales will follow the construction machinery market demand overall stabilized.

Investment advice.

We were the first company earnings forecasts net profit forecast 2015/2016 attributable to the parent company 0.89,2.11 one hundred million yuan, EPS were 0.09,0.22 yuan (after taking into account dilution), to give a “buy” rating, target price of the year 17.7 yuan.

Wisesoft Daily News Review: The image of new business sales, promote the growth of diversified development

Category: Research institutions: Sealand Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Generation Pengju Date: 2015-08-28

Event: newspaper publishing company, achieved total revenue of 82.572 million yuan, representing an increase of 22.30 percent over the same period last year; to achieve operating profit of 15.018 million yuan, representing an increase of 65.79 percent over the same period last year. 2015 January-September attributable to shareholders of listed company’s net profit change interval 1840.3 to 22,084,000 yuan.

Earnings growth in line with expectations and look forward to the military aviation tube large single floor. Company after deduction of non-net profit rose 79.8%. In the context of actively promoting new products, management fees and cost of sales did not grow significantly. Company revenue and profit growth in line with a quarterly forecast. ATC automation project gross margin over 48%. Full-year net profit growth is expected to up to 500%, mainly determined bid 238 million in 2013 ATC automation project landing. Based on past experience of military tenders, we believe that successful project for two years, this year the possibility of large floor.

Diversified development, the image performance of the new product is expected to become the gearbox. 1, the new product controllers experience Level D flight simulator and flight simulator visual systems have sales or bid. With the domestic general aviation open and the rise of a huge domestic market space pilot training in the future. 2, large panoramic interactive experience systems has signed its first contract, using the company’s three-dimensional high-definition LED display, interactive panorama experience programs and a number of graphics technology, the future will be in the country to promote education and science sectors. 3, based on the integration of a new generation of panoramic video aerodrome activity intelligent monitoring and management systems are actively construction and sales. New company image classes with more than 65% of the high gross margins and broad market space, the future is expected to become a new source of power .

3D face recognition test is installed, future industrialization of infinite space. The adoption of Intel’s low-cost sensors, successfully developed the first set of three-dimensional face recognition system and shows in the 2015 Intel Developer Forum. The three-dimensional face recognition system to achieve significant cost reductions and greatly reduced volume. 3D face recognition technology company is different from the traditional two-dimensional recognition, unique technology advantages. The future will be like a three-dimensional face recognition fingerprint recognition, bar code and RFID identification technology, widely used in national defense, public safety, information security, financial payment security and other fields. Future based on national security considerations, the three-dimensional human face requires a full set of equipment and basic software localization. The company first entered the field and occupy technological advantage. The future, as market volume, three-dimensional recognition technology industry is expected to bring huge benefits.

Optimistic about the company’s future, to maintain “overweight” rating. The company has high barriers to high-margin core business of ATC automation, performance and stable high growth. We are optimistic about the future of the company’s current diversified development. Key layout graphic image business, part of the new business gradually force. 3D face recognition enormous future industrial space. 2015 ~ 2017 EPS of 0.33, 0.54, 0.79 yuan, the corresponding PE of 82, 50, 35 times, to maintain “overweight” rating.

Risk Warning: the company’s new products do not reach the expected air traffic control projects delayed or discontinued.

Mastery Power : Boots final landing, to the transition of military information technology and automation, the future will become the core of the military company

Category: Research institutions: Shun Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Zourun Fang, Wangshu Wei Date: 2015-04-22

In line with expectations, first quarter net profit increased significantly.

The company in 2014 operating income of 1.052 billion yuan, an increase of 14.62%, net profit attributable to the parent company of -1659.5 million yuan, down 263%; EPS -0.1 yuan, results in line with expectations. Net profit substantially reduced, mainly due to the decline in gross margin and impairment losses on assets due.

The company in 2015 to achieve 175 million yuan in the first quarter, down 27.86%, net profit attributable to parent company 117 million yuan, an increase of 83.61 percent, in line with expectations.

Traditional main business profitability declined, 15 years is expected to bounce back.

The company in 2014 gross profit margin was 12.84%, compared with last year fell 2.4 percent, gross margin declined mainly due to the overall industry still faces overcapacity, lower prices.

Companies actively promote the traditional main industry upgrading efficiency through downsizing, adjust the product structure to enhance performance, while the new company Jiangsu 苏富松 mold factory, Jiangsu and pass Electric Co., have been successfully put into operation, a new industry to create new long-term growth, 15 Traditional main industry is expected to bounce back.

Full transition of military information technology and automation, will become the core of military companies.

The company continued to promote military information and intelligence equipment transformation. Has signed Weir made Shenzhen billion Information Technology Co. 60% stake in the letter of intent, to enter the radar and the information security market, such as the successful acquisition of the company will become the main platform for the development of military information technology; establishment of Tianjin-Dadar in Tianjin Science and Technology Co., In “artillery multifunction Maintenance Unit” and “light armored vehicle at the sudden rapid” two technology as a breakthrough into the army and armed police vehicle market, and as a major platform for the company’s development of military intelligence. The future of the company will continue to perform military information and intelligence core development strategies and technology integration through mergers and acquisitions and other means.

Recommendation: Buy -A investment rating, 6-month target price of 40 yuan. We expect the company in 2015 –2017 year EPS were 0.35,1,1.25 yuan, the company firmly transformation of military information technology and automation, will continue to promote transformation through mergers and acquisitions and other means.

Risk Warning: Transition not up to expectations, results have fallen sharply

Yaxing anchor : Leading global chain performance inflection point appeared, holding 1.2 billion in cash will actively open a second primary industry

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun, Chen Xianfan date: 2015-04-29

1. Event.

The company released 2014 annual and 2015 quarterly. In 2014 the company achieved revenues 1.528 billion yuan, an increase of 8.46%, net profit attributable to shareholders of listed companies 29.88 million yuan, an increase of 47.34 million yuan, EPS of 0.06 yuan.Company bonus plan for every 10 shares 0.5 yuan increase by transferring 10 shares, cash dividends 0.50 yuan (including tax).

2015 first quarter the company achieved operating income of 415 million yuan, an increase of 8.46%, attributable to shareholders of listed company’s net profit of 30.83 million yuan, down 3.65%, EPS of 0.07 yuan.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) Performance inflection point is now in line with expectations, sustained growth is guaranteed.

The company previously released 2014 annual results notice, actual results in line with expectations. Companies marine business income accounted enhance 4.6pct, along with continued growth in the company’s profitability, in 2015 first quarter consolidated gross margin reached 23.31%, the highest level in nearly four years, an upgrade 1.6pct.

The company plans to complete 2015 annual revenue of 1.65 billion. The company in 2014 to take orders 1.922 billion yuan, an increase of 6.6%, as of December 31, 2014 orders in hand the company 1.516 billion yuan, up 19.8 percent, the company in 2015 sustained growth performance is guaranteed.

(B) 海工系 mooring chain world-class, conquer the world’s five largest customers.

Company Hai Gongji mooring chain product structure upgrade, in 2014 gross profit margin increase 8.64pct.

In 2014 the company achieved Hai Gongji mooring system connector output of 2,000 tons in 2015 plans to increase production to 4000 tons; ultra-high-level R & D R6 mooring chain has entered the pilot phase; the company involved in the development of “ultra-deepwater semi-submersible drilling platform development and application “project won the 2014 annual national science and technology progress awards. The company is actively connected to the mooring system accessories extend outside member.

Company in the world’s top five oil companies have obtained the ocean four (France’s Total, Statoil, Royal Dutch Shell, Petrobras) supplier qualification, Mobil Oil also plans in May to inspect the company certification, the company in the field of mooring chains and attachments Marine Department has reached world-class level; marine equipment industry, the long-term to short-term pressure is good, the company will continue mooring chain business development, and further enhance the market share in the marine field.

(C) Cash on hand of nearly 12 billion, will be actively open a second main industry.

Currently nearly 1.2 billion yuan cash on hand. The company had purchased about 140,000 square meters of land, in addition to the company before the IPO equity investment projects 30,000 tons of ultra-high-strength remainder of the project R5 offshore mooring chain transformation projects, we judge still more abundant, with sufficient epitaxial conditions for development. The company clearly stated, “Will actively develop second primary industry, planned for the next two to three years to determine, in order to further enhance the company’s size and competitiveness.” We judge the company does not rule out a second extension of the main ways to develop the industry.

3. Investment advice.

The company expects 2015 will be 33.57 million yuan for bad debts reversal, 2015-2017 results will achieve rapid growth, performance flexibility, the future does not rule out the extensional development. 2015-2017 is expected EPS of 0.32 / 0.39 / 0.47 yuan, PE is 50/42/35 times. Excluding cash in hand after the company’s market capitalization is only 1.2 billion yuan 6.4 billion yuan, PB only 2.3 times, with good margin of safety, to maintain “recommended” rating. Risk factors: lower than expected recovery ship anchor chain; oil prices continued to fall; extensional development than expected.

Lijum shares : the proposed acquisition of Chengdu three military aircraft business continued to overweight, resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-09-09

1. Event.

The company announced the proposed acquisition of Chengdu Sanhang Electrical Co., Ltd. (hereinafter: “Chengdu Sanhang”) of equity, the company stock since September 8 date for restoration.

According to the company prior to the announcement, the controlling shareholder, actual controller and its shareholders and other persons acting resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) The proposed acquisition of Chengdu three aircraft, military operations continued overweight.

The proposed acquisition of Chengdu Sanhang main business includes the production of aerospace equipment, research and development, aviation aircraft external devices; have “military product quality system certification”, “three secret unit qualification certificate”, “weaponry research and production licenses card “,” equipment manufacturing units registration certificate “and other relevant qualifications required for the production and operation. The company’s aircraft hangar common project was included in 2014 in Chengdu strategic new product development projects subsidized project, the company also was recognized as 2015 Chengdu enterprise technology center.

According to the company announcement, Chengdu Sanhang year 2014 achieved total revenue of 072 million yuan, net profit of 027 million yuan, net profit margin reached 37.5%, strong profitability. The company has basically completed the preparatory work for Chengdu three aircraft acquisitions, ongoing negotiations on transaction programs to communicate with the Chengdu Sanhang shareholders. If the acquisition is successful, on the one hand it is expected to enhance the company’s overall profitability, on the other hand is expected to generate synergies with the previously announced acquisition of Dekun aviation for the company to bring new profit growth point.

(B) The resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings.

According to the company prior to the announcement, the controlling shareholder, actual controller, chairman of Mr. He Yamin and concerted action, Vice Miss He Jia company intends to apply through the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, securities stock to resume trading within five days from the date of trading system by way of auction total holdings of the market value of not less than 250 million yuan of funds to buy company stock.

Shareholders, vice chairman and general manager of Mr. Wei Yong intends to resume trading from the date of the Company’s shares within five trading days the market value of holdings by way of auction by the Shenzhen Stock Exchange securities trading system of not less than 036 million yuan of funds to buy the company’s stock .

The three people currently holds 80.45% of total equity. According to maintaining the company’s share price stabilization program announcement, the above-mentioned three commitments: from July 7, 2015, within 12 months, no holdings of shares of shares held by beneficial monarch, not to transfer or entrust others to manage their holdings of shares Lijun shares.

(Iii) Sufficient cash on hand, will accelerate the transformation of the military, it is expected to become a model of civil-military integration.

The company previously announced will be 370 million yuan in cash to acquire 100% stake Dekun aviation. Dekun Airlines is one of the aircraft industry to fly the most important structural parts Waixiejiagong manufacturing enterprises; products used in many models of military aircraft, large transport aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, missiles, etc., and for the large passenger and cargo aircraft and domestic regional aircraft (ARJ project), China Commercial Aircraft C919 to provide ancillary products.

1.34 billion yuan in cash in hand, major shareholders and persons acting has 65% of the shares of listed companies, the company is expected to create an important platform for the integration of the military service. September 2014 the company announced the proposed shares tomorrow Aerospace (new research shares acquisition targets, supporting the well-known domestic aerospace parts manufacturer). We believe that the company locked the transformation of military areas, and the acquisition of the subject are very good.

We judge the rich companies to track project, the future is likely to continue to accelerate the transformation of the military field, with the acquisition of a larger scale, better performance potential military operations, civil-military integration will become a model.

(Iv) Energy saving equipment little giant, strong profitability.

The company for the cement, mining and grinding system leading enterprises, outstanding profitability, cash generation ability, consolidated gross profit margin for many years maintained at about 50%, net profit margin over 35% for many years. Company old business cement roller press market share ranking first in the world. New Business mines roller mill can reduce power consumption and metal consumption, significantly reducing water pollution, a key state to encourage the development of energy-saving and environmentally friendly products. Expected future mine roller mill will get better development.

3. Investment advice.

Does not consider the extension is expected to 15–17-year EPS of 0.36 / 0.39 / 0.40 yuan, PE is 71/66/64 times; consider Dekun aviation, expected 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.45 / 0.51 / 0.58 yuan, PE 57 / 50/45-fold. Valuation of the company is expected to move closer to the military unit (military unit 2015 nearly 80 times the average PE). We determine the company’s future will continue to overweight the military business, performance is expected to achieve a larger increase, valuations are expected to move closer to the military unit, to maintain recommended. Risk Warning: shrinking demand for cement equipment, mining and marketing progress than expected, the transition of military progress than expected.

Zongshen Power: the small loan business steadily, UAV production soon

Category: Research institutions: Joaquin Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Zhang Zhongjie Date: 2015-06-19

Investment Highlights

Motorcycle engine industry cyclical adjustment: in 2014 the company issued a motorcycle Mai machine business sales revenue 2.74 billion yuan, an increase of 1.68%, currently SMEs Mai machine business basic motorcycle made in low-profit status, large displacement three-wheeled motorcycle slight increase four-wheel vehicle market is starting Mai. Rural market is still able to maintain a large sales YingYing mold, it is estimated the company in 2015 revenue decline at around 5%. Electric powered car is the future direction of the transformation, in 2015 the trend better estimate sales will grow substantially.

General machinery business to maintain growth momentum: 2014 annual sales of 1.23 billion yuan of general machinery, up 30%, mainly due to increase the company’s export sales, small aircraft in the United States through the larger market, with the growth of the US natural gas production, electrically Mai forces unit as general machinery market is being nurturing. Clear development trend of this business, we expect growth in this business in 2015 more than 20%.

Small loan company business steadily: To take advantage of Zongshen Group and the Company on the downstream industry chain resources, while controlling risk, the company microfinance industry chain around 80% of business conduct, such as household pet Group receivables, in the back section before providing credit risk control. Follow the company also plans to gradually expand in small loans companies on the basis of factoring, P2P, equity investments, the future is expected to achieve 30 billion yuan YingYing mold around. At present, the business development of better, faster earnings growth, future business is expected to become one of the pillars of the four companies.

Sales service market model innovation: Left master company has 575 Direct, the joint venture does not store in the chain, the initial formation of a “service + spare parts sales” business model, take it as a basis, Jian use Lynx and Taobao Internet platform, active sales of all types of end products, in 2014 net profit rose 152%. The company is also trying to intervene car after-market services, not the Internet companies to open two stores in Chongqing, in order to point the online business is expected to quickly carry out.

UAV business will become a new growth point: The company does not Qingdao Wang rivers recently co-invested $ 50 million to establish Chongqing Zongshen Tianyi Aviation Technology Co., Ltd., which the company invested 3,350 ten thousand yuan accounted for 67% stake. The company is actively pushing Zhong Zong project the company’s production area location, production line layout, model selection, sales and service network construction and other related work. Is expected to be in September 2015 to achieve small batch production, the original shareholders of the company Qingdao Wang rivers commitment from 2015 to 2017 the company achieved net profit accumulated less than 132.5 million yuan Ji. Given the broad market prospects UAV business, the business is expected to become a new growth point.

Investment suggestion: We forecast 2015 –2017 company earnings per share were 0.41, 0.51 and 0.71 yuan. We obituary small loan business for the company in good shape, volume sales of UAV operations soon, the company thereby forming a new growth point performance, prospects. “Buy -A” investment rating, 6-month target price of 33.15 yuan, corresponding to 65 times 2016 PE.

Risk Warning: industry does not lead to changes in the company’s fundamentals Ji reach the expected results.

New research shares: Acquisition tomorrow Aerospace approved the text, into the rapid development of the new era

Category: Research institutions: Southwest Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Pang Linlin Date: 2015-10-28

Performance Summary: 2015 third quarter, the company achieved operating income of 515.2 million, an increase of 12.44%, operating profit of 90.3 million, an increase of 3.58%, net profit of 85.5 million, an increase of 5.60%; earnings per share 0.095 yuan.

Used main business running smoothly. 2015 changed the agricultural subsidies continued growth, down 100 million yuan, the demand for agricultural products was significantly weaker, agricultural business critical. With excellent product quality, the company first three quarters of revenue growth of 12.44%. Gross margin for the first three quarters of the company 34.12%, down 4.33 percentage points, the expense ratio 14.95%, down 2.32 percentage points (mainly cost of sales rate fell 3.26 percentage points); sales margin of 16.46%, a slight decrease year on year 1.21 percentage points.

Merger reorganization approved by the Commission approval. 2015 companies active epitaxial mergers and acquisitions, the company issued shares and pay cash to buy Shifang City tomorrow Industry Co., Ltd. 100% stake in aerospace, currently the major asset restructuring has received China Securities Regulatory Commission Audit Committee mergers and acquisitions by 2015 October 26 approved by China Securities Regulatory Commission approval. After the completion of the reorganization, the company will become a farm, military dual main listed companies, and the rapid development in agricultural machinery, military two areas.

Tomorrow Aerospace is “people to join the army,” the best subject, there is a performance-than-expected capacity and power. 1. From the production point of view, all current production tomorrow aerospace investment value may reach 4 billion +; 2, from order point of view, with the acceleration of the main models fitted (military aircraft orders into the release), military orders from 2013–2014 years Trial gradually small batches, with high growth potential; 3, from the equipment capacity, the company has formed advanced, large-scale lead, and continues to expand; 4, net profit margin, the company’s gross profit margin remained stable There liters of situation, the financial costs the company after the acquisition of aerospace parts business will be lower than the current 11%, taking into account technical upgrade, orders, and production release of scale brought net profit margin is expected from the current less than 20% increased to more than 25%.

Earnings forecast and rating the following table: earnings forecast considering only farm the main industry. Tomorrow’s Aerospace 2015-2017 annual results for the deduction of non-commitment should reach 170 million yuan net profit (+55.96%), 2.4 million (+ 41.18%) and 400 million yuan (66.67%), the next three years compound annual growth rate of 55%, However, we believe the company than-expected performance in 2017 is very large probability estimate in 2017 is expected to reach 735 million yuan, three-year compound growth rate of over 86%.

Tomorrow, after the acquisition of the aerospace company, people join the army as a clear target, in large-scale development of the people expected to join the army background deserve high valuations, coupled with the re-acquisition of more specific expectations, maintaining a “buy” rating.

Risk Warning: agricultural machinery industry or continue to decline, tomorrow aerospace integration progress and performance or lower than expected and other risks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

軍工行業12只概念股價值解析

 应流股份:铸技顶峰、核电蓝海

类别:公司研究 机构:中泰证券股份有限公司 研究员:笃慧,郭皓 日期:2015-10-08

中国核电远景:未来核电之所以好,是因为它不受国内传统经济周期制约,同时是行政力量未来要极力推动的事情。要达到2030年非化石能源占比20%的目标 ,届时核电装机规模需要1.5亿至2亿千瓦,即未来15年每年要建10到15个百万千瓦级的核电机组。这个建设强度是极大的,因为从1991年秦山核电站并网发电以来至今国内累计投运核电机组不过26台。保守预估目前至2020年底拟开建核电机组为30台,年均约6台,此外若内陆核电破冰(可能性大),则开工数量更多;

技术追赶、效率压制、海外份额扩张:无论是1995年的纺织品出口、2005年的机电产品出口,或是2015年的核电出口,其实本质上都是中国在技术达标后成本效率提升所带来的全球市场份额扩张。尽管在经济本质上没有太大区别,但是在技术上已经是飞跃式的发展。中国制造2005是中端制造业赶上世界潮流,中国制造2025则是高端制造业的赶超。世界核能协会估算2015-2030年间海外新建核电站在160座左右,投资额1.5万亿美元,市场空间巨大。从华龙一号的签单状况来看,中国技术对亚非拉国家吸引力明显,未来未来随着华龙一号的推广和CAP1400自主技术的成熟,中国核电在全球市场份额有望进一步提升;

核主泵泵壳——铸造业最高技术:应流于2014年即生产出国内首台CAP1400核一级不锈钢爆破阀阀体,继而又完成CAP1400核主泵泵壳国产化。泵壳是主泵乃至核岛的核心部件之一,制造难度极大,代表了目前世界铸造生产的最高技术。此前国内核电机组主泵泵壳一直由海外铸造厂垄断,应流实现进口替代后已进入批量生产阶段,成为目前三代核电机组主泵泵壳唯一国内供应商;

乏燃料与中子吸收材料市场广阔:中国核电发展的头重脚轻导致核电乏燃料后处理市场较核电站建设更为广阔,我们测算2015年国内乏燃料卸出量625吨,到2020年可增长至1450吨。全球市场更为庞大,2015年世界乏燃料卸出量估算在9442吨,是中国市场的15倍。中子吸收材料主要用在乏燃料贮运领域,燃料贮存水池格架和贮运容器中均需要设置中子吸收材料,预计自2016年起国内中子吸收材料需求将出现爆发式增长。应流联手工程物理研究院的产业化项目预计将在明年建成,届时配合乏燃料贮运容器的国产化,产品将快速占领国内市场。同时凭借国产设备性价比优势,产品有望进入15倍于国内市场的全球市场蓝海;

传统产品周期底、新业务空间大:应流传统业务盈利受油价波动影响,美国页岩气钻机数量剧降暗示油价周期底部来临,未来机会已然大于风险。而新业务核主泵泵壳、中子吸收材料、航空发动机/燃气轮机叶片等项目在受益于市场规模扩大的同时,进口替代将占领国内市场份额,而且具备打开海外市场的潜力,增长空间广阔。公司对新产品的业绩弹性好,基本面即将进入快速爬坡期;

趋势预判与投资建议:未来有利于公司股价的积极因素包括1)四季度核电行业催化剂众多,包括核电十三五规划、核电项目密集批复和启动、内陆核电破冰进展、核电出口继续突破等;2)此前市场对乏燃料题材关注度偏低,而乏燃料市场的巨大潜力终将会引起资金关注,届时估值溢价有望扩大;3)若未来A股从资金流出切换至存量博弈,那么即将爆发的核电行业必将成为资金重点关注对象,核电优质标的有望成为存量博弈结构行情中的亮点。我们认为中短期仍是布局建仓的好时机,考虑到短期A股整体资金环境稳定性有待确认,暂仍维持公司“增持”评级,待大环境风险释放确认后再作进一步上调。

积成电子:变配电主业强势增长,能源互联网布局蔚为大观

类别:公司研究 机构:平安证券有限责任公司 研究员:余兵 日期:2015-09-21

业绩稳健增长,费用管控持平:报告期内,公司实现营收4.07亿元,同比增长33.14%;实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润0.2亿元,同比增长15.31%;公司期间费用率达32.8%,与去年同比持平,其中财务费用率同比增长0.98个百分点,主要系本期银行借款利息支出较多所致。

变配电主业增势强劲,公用事业持续开拓:报告期内,国网公司集中招标批次及数量均有所下降,招标形势持续集中化,公司抓住国网集招与行业外市场机会,新签订合同额5.18亿元。1H15公司变电站/配用电业务实现营收1.38/1.63亿元,分别同比增长47.0%/69.5%,毛利率达40.42%/36.91%,分别同比增加5.89/-1.98个百分点。在上半年电网领域总体投资呈现阶段性低迷的形势下,公司变配电主业仍实现快速增长,市场份额持续提升。公用事业方面,公司成功开拓武汉、重庆等城市水务市场,智能远传水表市场保有量突破300万只,市场占有率排名第一;智能燃气解决方案已可为燃气领域客户提供一站式服务。

能源互联网多箭齐发,展翼军工领域:报告期内,公司联合中国移动、联想集团一起打造的智慧能源公共服务云平台上线,成为国内首家区域性的(山东省)智慧能源公共服务云平台,目前该平台已接入涵盖燃气、水务、工业节能等行业超26000个点的数据;与英特尔、山东城联合作,拓展能源互联网、智慧城市综合服务运营领域;投资4,116万元收购福建奥通迈胜70%的股权,奥通迈胜承诺15~17年扣非后净利润分别不低于0.1/0.13/0.17亿元,进一步完善城镇配电网业务;相继成立积成能源、积成软件公司,参与设立10亿元新能源产业引导基金,近期与广西桂东电力在电力需求侧的微网应用合作,更因应了电改新形势下的变局。军工领域,公司与北京久远合作成立军工并购基金;投资3000 万元收购宁波中物力拓30%的股权,进军以超微金属粉末为基础材质的3D 打印市场。

盈利预测与评级:预计公司15~16 年EPS 为0.52、0.78 元,对应8 月28 日收盘价PE 分别为33.9、22.6 倍,我们看好公司在能源互联网领域的先发优势及军工领域的外延拓展,维持“推荐”评级。

风险提示:电改方案低于预期的风险;军工业务拓展缓慢。

威海广泰:四季度业绩将提速;军用/民用专业级无人机龙头受益军民融合、通用航空

类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-10-19

1.事件。

公司发布三季报,2015年前三季度实现收入9.08亿元,同比增长29.52%,实现净利润9880.57万元,同比增长33.92%,EPS为0.30元。

2.我们的分析与判断。

(一)盈利能力不断上升,业绩将进一步提速。

公司中报中预告前三季度业绩同比增长20%-50%,实际业绩符合我们的预期。公司毛利率和净利率分别同比提升1.1pct、0.9pct,盈利能力不断上升。

由于营口新山鹰的并表效应,公司第三季度单季收入和业绩同比分别长73%和60%。公司预告全年业绩同比增长40%-80%,达到1.56亿-2亿元,据此计算,第四季度单季业绩需达到5676万元-1.01亿元,同比增长52%-171%,业绩将进一步提速。

(二)拟收购全华时代,有望打造“无人机第一股”。

公司此前公告拟募集不超过5.4亿元,用于收购、增资全华时代并投入无人机项目(1.5亿元)及补充流动资金,增资完成后公司将拥有全华时代69.34%的股权。

全华时代是国内最早实现无人机研发、生产和销售及服务一体化的民营企业之一,主要产品包括固定翼、直升机、多旋翼等军用、民用无人机及无人机应用服务,在无人机技术专利主要职务发明申请企业中排名第1,全国范围内仅次于两所高等院校。

全华时代在应用服务领域的主要服务对象包括武警、消防、公安、海洋海事、电力、天津电视台等部门,曾作为唯一一家民营企业受邀参与了中国人民解放军举行的“四海三军”军事演习,并于2015年8月参与“8.12”陕西山阳山体滑坡勘测救援工作。

本次收购中约定,若全华时代在盈利承诺期内合计实际净利润高于承诺净利润9221万元,则超额净利润部分的50%将用于向全华时代、管理层及员工进行奖励。预计2016年全华时代净利润有望达到1500-2000万元,2015-2018年业绩有望连续翻倍增长。

公司2014年11月28日与某单位签订《系列无人机系统开发合作协议书》,目前已经在军用无人机业务具备较强实力。我们认为,本次收购全华时代将带来显著的产业链、市场及客户协同效应,特别是全华时代的军用无人机对公司现有部分军品业务将带来促进。本次发行后,公司将全面进入无人机行业,军品业务将快速发展,公司有望成为军用/民用专业级无人机龙头企业,对标消费级无人机龙头“大疆创新”(根据媒体报道,大疆创新的市值已超80亿美元)。

(三)军用无人机/军民融合稀缺标的,将快速发展。

公司系列无人机、高速无人机主要为军方供货,公司为军民融合标的。无人机是未来飞机发展趋势,据美国、以色列未来战机规划,未来无人机将超过有人机。我们测算未来15年中国军用无人机市场需求接近2000亿元,民用专业级无人机需求超1000亿元,民用消费级无人机(国内需求)超300亿元。

目前国内上市公司涉及军用无人机研制业务的有洪都航空宗申动力,隆鑫通用山东矿机通裕重工等上市公司也开始涉及无人机业务,但是,明确涉及军用无人机的极少。此外,目前很多上市公司仅仅开始涉及无人机,部分公司仅刚刚研制出1-2架样机开始做试验。而公司为非常稀缺的军用无人机标的,且拟收购的全华时代已是产业化的无人机巨头,是具有批量生产能力的优质无人机标的。

公司已聘用前西飞国际、中航通飞、中航重机董事长孟祥凯为独立董事,孟祥凯在航空航天、军品业务领域具备丰富的经验。我们判断公司无人机、特别是军用无人机业务未来将快速发展。

(四)入选中上协军工委国防军工板块,军品有望持续超预期。

2015年7月7日,中国上市公司协会发布了中上协军工委国防军工板块名单,威海广泰入选。2014年公司军品销售收入达到1.64亿元,同比大幅增长88%。公司总经理孟岩获批享受国务院特殊津贴,近年来承担国家级项目12项,军工项目10项,主持开发的多项产品填补国内、国际空白。公司军品方面积极参与研制具有前瞻性的批量大、价值高的新项目,目前有多个项目已经获得认可;一些重点科研项目取得阶段性成果,同时有重点地开拓新的市场领域,取得良好发展。我们判断公司军品未来发展将超市场预期,带来业绩估值双提升。

3.投资建议。

公司具备无人机+军民融合+通用航空+智能家居等多重主题,军品业务发展将超市场预期,受益通航产业大发展。我们判断公司未来将在军品(不仅仅是军用无人机)、消防设备领域持续加码,通过自主研发、兼并重组等措施,强化公司在消防设备、军品领域中的地位和影响力;营口新山鹰业绩将超预期。

不考虑本次非公开发行事项,预计15-17年备考EPS为0.63/0.82/1.06元,PE为49/38/29倍;考虑本次非公开发行事项(按照30元增发价测算),预计15-17年备考EPS为0.61/0.84/1.10元,PE为50/37/28倍,未来业绩具有上调潜力,持续推荐。

风险提示:通航政策低于预期、军品业务发展低于预期、产业整合低于预期。

海特高新:某型发动机工程荣获“国防科学技术进步奖”一等奖,受益军民深度融合

类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-10-14

投资要点

1.事件

公司公告“某型发动机工程”荣获中华人民共和国工业和信息化部“国防科学技术进步奖”,获奖等级为一等奖。

2.我们的分析与判断

(一)获“国防科学技术进步奖”一等奖

国防科学技术进步奖是为了奖励在推动国防科学技术进步中做出突出贡献的单位和个人,鼓励自主创新,促进国防现代化建设和国民经济的发展。

本次公司获奖项目“某型发动机工程”,是公司军民深度融合中武器装备及其配套产品的科研、生产、试验及相关工作中取得的科技成果。本次项目获奖是公司不断追求技术创新的成果,是公司具备高等级技术创新能力的体现。

(二)航空研制:航空发动机及控制系统、直升机绞车业务持续发力

公司已由一家传统航空维修企业向综合航空技术服务企业战略转变,2012年以来航空动力核心控制系统等研制业务起飞,业绩驶入高增长快车道。 目前公司航空军品(主要为直升机相关)业绩占比约60%。公司2014年第一大客户销售金额为1.87亿元,我们判断主要为核心军品研制业务,收入占比已接近40%。

公司航空新技术研发制造业务板块已形成产品量产、多种新型号在研,以及多个项目预研全面推进的良好局面。某型航空动力控制系统正批量化生产;其他多型号航空动力控制系统项目的研制工作正在有序推进中;可满足多型直升机使用需求的电动救援绞车研制项目和氧气系统即将进入试飞测试阶段。

公司航空动力核心控制系统为核心军品,技术含量和壁垒极高。根据公司2014年年报,目前航空新技术研发制造业务已成为公司重要的业务板块,形成了既有产品量产、又有多种新型号在研,还有多个项目预研的良好科研生产局面。

目前,公司在已研发成功的某型号发动机电调项目的技术基础之上,开展对“新型航空动力控制系统的研发与制造项目”三种新型号(401、402、403)航空动力控制系统的衍生研发。

根据公司公告,动力控制系统是航空发动机的主要组件,在整个产业链条中属于必不可少的部分,约占发动机整体价值的10%-20%。受益于国产航空发动机市场的增长,动力控制系统市场也将呈现出稳定的增长态势。此外,民用航空发动机市场的发展、军民结合领域市场以及海外市场的逐步拓展,对航空动力控制产业也将具有一定的带动作用。

(三)芯片项目涉及国防信息安全,战略意义重大

公司投资5.55亿元收购成都嘉石科技有限公司部分股权并增资,交易完成后,持有其52.91%的股权。嘉石科技拥有自主研发具备国际领先水平的第三代半导体集成电路工艺以及从国外引进的第二代半导体集成电路工艺,其建成投产后将成为国内第一条6吋第二代/第三代半导体集成电路生产线,能有效抓住市场需求,填补国内市场空白,市场前景广阔。作为原国有控股的信息产业国家战略型公司,本次公司控股嘉石科技进军高端芯片研制产业,是混合所有制民企控股典范案例。

海特高新已与中电科29所签署了《战略合作意向书》,公司和中电科29所将就航空机载及检测设备开展联合立项、研制、联合生产等合作。双方将优先与对方开展深度合作。

中电科29所是我国最早建立、专业从事电子战技术研究、装备型号研制和生产的国家一类系统工程研究所,多年来一直承担着国家重点工程、国家重大基础、国家重大安全等工程任务,能够设计开发和生产陆、海、空、天、弹等各种平台的电子信息系统装备。中电科29所和中电科14所(国睿科技大股东)、中电科38所(四创电子大股东)齐名。海特高新通过控股嘉石科技进入高端半导体集成电路芯片研制领域,我们判断嘉石科技产品前期将主要应用于29所高端电子装备中,是“中国制造2025”中新一代信息技术领域重点发展的集成电路及专用装备,事关国防信息安全,具有极高的战略地位和重要性;未来市场前景看好。

嘉石科技注册资本10.49亿元,位于成都市双流县西南航空港经济开发区物联网产业园区内;海特高新和四威电子(29所全资子公司,29所民品产业母公司,工信部卫星导航应用系统标准工作组成员)分别占股52.91%、36.61%。海特高新处于控股地位,该项目是民企和央企(军工企业)混合所有制中民企控股的典范。

根据《成都嘉石科技有限公司6 吋第二代/第三代半导体集成电路芯片生产线项目环境影响报告书》,该项目总投资达20.92亿元。四川省经济和信息化委员会已经把本项目列为四川省战略性新兴产业支持项目。

嘉石科技6吋第二代/第三代半导体集成电路芯片用于微波毫米波频段尖端电子装备、军事应用和电机驱动器的高功率电子应用、无线通信基站、高频卫星通信、智能手机及无线通信等。嘉石科技详细情况请参见附件。

(四)参股设立大洋通用,探索通航混合所有制

通过子公司海特亚美和昆明飞安,以自有资金1.24亿元参股投资设立大洋通用航空有限公司(以下简称“大洋通用”),取得大洋通用31%的股权。大洋通用经营范围包括飞行私商照培训、航空器租赁托管、运营等各类通用航空服务业务,股东除海特亚美和昆明飞安外,还包括中航工业昌飞、江西凯文科技、江西天祥通航、中亚置业集团和江西军工思波通用航空服务等。根据协议,大洋通用董事会由7名董事组成,海特亚美和昆明飞安将各推荐一名董事;此外,大洋通用财务负责人将由海特亚美推荐。

参股设立大洋通用是公司在通用航空领域混合所有制的一次有力探索,也是公司军民深度融合的又一进展。大洋通用各股东方具备良好的行业资源和资金实力,将有效发挥各自资源优势,促进大洋通用良好发展。同时,公司进一步深化通航产业布局,将优化公司航空产业链,提升盈利能力,拓展公司通航产业发展空间。

(五)航空维修:大飞机整机大修、公务机/直升机/发动机维修获突破

公司传统航空维修业务主要为机载设备、涡轴发动机维修两大业务,处于国内领先地位。2014年,公司航空维修业务在深度和广度两个方向上的拓展均取得明显成效,业务范围覆盖运输飞机、通用飞机、直升机整机维修、发动机维修和部附件维修以及技术服务。

天津海特作为国内第一批民营干线飞机整机大修平台(之前国内以外资合资为主导),目前已完成第一期项目建设。目前公司天津基地2个机库已经投产,可同时维修2-3架A320/B737系列飞机及3架公务机。2015年1月,天津海特顺利完成吉祥航空B-9978 & B-9957两架A320系列飞机首次定检维修工作。公司已经取得CAAC颁发的空客A320机型4C检维修许可证,正积极向CAAC申请A320机型8C检维修许可。

未来公司天津基地二期、三期工程完工后,预计将形成5个机库,可同时进行9架A320/B737飞机、4架公务机、两架宽体机(B747/B777等)深度定检业务,将成为国内规模宏大,配套设施完善的第三方飞机维修基地。

此外,公司参股公司四川飞机维修工程有限公司2015将实现规模生产并盈利。公司与四川航空集团、香港飞机工程有限公司、厦门太古飞机工程有限公司共同组建的四川飞机维修工程有限公司,为国内专门从事空客飞机大修与改装基地。公司是其第二大股东,随着二期工程投资完成,2015将实现规模生产并盈利。

我们判断未来公司整机维修业务将获得大发展(部分机型大飞机整机大修一次约8000万元,航空维修业务通常毛利率50%以上)。

在航空维修广度上,公司涉及公务机、直升机、航空发动机、APU等多机种、多装备维修。

(1)公务机维修:天津宜捷海特通用航空服务有限公司是公司与全球第三大公务机服务商瑞士宜捷合资成立的专业通用航空服务公司,2014年正式运营后,已完成64架次支线飞机、公务机定检维修以及航线维护任务。

(2)直升机维修:基地位于天津的天津翔宇航空维修工程有限公司为经中国民航批准专业从事米-17系列直升机大修的公司。天津翔宇将在2015年恢复运营,将与新的合作伙伴时代翼天公司加大合作力度,充分发挥该公司在俄罗斯直升机领域的资源优势,陆续恢复扩大米系列直升机和卡型直升机维修生产能力,并积极拓展直九、直八、EC-135等直升机维修能力。

(3)航空发动机、辅助动力装置(APU)维修:业务稳定增长,2014年完成近百台发动机和辅助动力装置的大修和检测工作,并继续推进航空发动机维修能力建设工作,公司已经开展三种新的型号航空发动机维修能力开发工作。作为国家部委批准的航空发动机维修基地,公司已经建成了包括美国GE、法国赛峰、加拿大普惠、美国HONEYWELL、捷克PBS等制造厂生产的7个系列的20余种型号的发动机和辅助动力装置(APU)大修能力,是捷克PBS公司授权的大修基地;拥有经过加拿大普惠标定的发动机综合试车台,拥有按美国HONEYWELL、美国汉盛标准建设的辅助发动机试车台,可为直-8、直-9、直-19、米-171、运-12等提供发动机维修改装,可为B737、米-171等提供辅助发动机维修。

(六)进军飞机拆解、飞机后市场,市场潜力巨大

2015年上半年,天津海特承担了首架境外飞机在天津的拆解工作。本次拟拆解的飞机为北京集安航空资产管理公司从国外购买的有27年机龄的B767客机,飞机零部件将在拆除后进行翻修和重新利用,完成时间为3个月。7月6日,飞机在停机位进行了交接仪式。

天津海特飞机工程公司主要从事大飞机、公务机整机深度大修业务,是公司大飞机整机维修业务载体;已经获大飞机整机大修资质,于2014年11月开业。本次拆解任务的开展标志着公司正式进入飞机后市场,是天津海特继取得民航飞机整机大修、公务机大修并筹备直升机维修资质之后的又一里程碑。我们认为,天津海特维修业务未来将进一步多元化,公司向大飞机整机维修的战略升级将稳步落地。

在航空运输业发展迅速的今天,退役飞机的处置问题日渐突出。据了解,由于没有专业的拆解基地,中国的退役飞机基本都要到美国进行拆解处置。根据部分媒体报道,我国在航线执飞的飞机200多架,每年以进口300架的数量递增;每年退役飞机80-100架左右,以后退役飞机的数量还将逐年增加。如果考虑到海外飞机拆解市场,则市场更大。

根据媒体报道,在国际航空市场,循环使用二手零部件是普遍模式,一般来说,一架总价5000万美元的飞机,到使用期限后,回收价格为十分之一,即500万美元左右,拆解后,进入零件市场,可卖出1000万美元。更重要的是拉动周边产值,如物流、维修等,将创造企业产值的10倍至20倍。

拆解飞机可以增加航材,减少航材备件压力,从而产生较大的经济效益。未来中国不排除成为全球飞机拆解、航材交易基地,飞机拆解、飞机后市场潜力巨大。

(七)航空培训:形成昆明、新加坡、天津三大航空培训基地布局

公司航空培训业务布局于昆明、新加坡、天津三大航空培训基地。多领域(运输航空、通用航空)、多机种(干线飞机、通用飞机、直升机)覆盖国内外航空培训市场。

2014年底公司新加坡基地已建成,首批2台模拟机已经安装调式完毕,2015年将正式投入运营,将拓展东南亚及西亚地区航空培训市场。新加坡航空培训基地是公司践行“一带一路”国家战略的优质成果,也是国内航空产业重要的海外投资项目,目前公司已初步完成海内海外的航空培训市场布局,公司在航空培训市场竞争力和占有率将进一步提升,综合实力将得以增强。

2014年公司在天津空港保税区投资建设天津飞安,布局华北航空培训市场,建成后将具备7-10台模拟机运行能力(包括A320、B737和EC-135直升机D级模拟机),其中EC-135直升机D级模拟机是该机型国内首台高级别模拟机。

公司航空培训业务目前昆明飞安共运营5台模拟机,包括2台D级A320飞行模拟机、3台B737机型全动模拟机。目前公司新加坡基地2台模拟机已经到位,还有昆明基地1台、天津基地EC-135型直升机模拟机1台在购途中,预计新的4台模拟机将在2015年开始贡献业绩。公司新加坡航空培训基地计划投资5.8亿元,至2014年6月已投入1.2亿元。2015年1月,海特新加坡飞行训练中心B737-800W和A320-200两台全动飞行模拟机顺利通过中国民航总局和新加坡民航局初始鉴定。

未来公司还将航空培训业务从民航拓展至直升机领域。2013年6月,公司发布公告购买EC-135型直升机飞行模拟机及其附属设备,总计价格不超过1000万欧元,已签订购买意向合同书。公司直升机培训业务将放在天津基地。

我们判断公司规划模拟机数量未来可达到20台的规模(昆明6台左右,新加坡6台左右、天津7-10台)。如果每台模拟机平均每天运作20小时,每小时按照3000元(或者400-500美元/小时)计算,如果按照80%左右的利用率,则每台模拟机收入接近1800万元,公司航空培训业务毛利率在50%左右。

未来公司航空培训业务如果达到20台模拟机,仅模拟机航空培训业务收入(不计乘务员培训等其他业务)即可达到3.6亿元。

(八)航空融资租赁:飞机整机、发动机、航材融资租赁业务即将突破

公司航空租赁业务未来将覆盖大飞机整机、发动机、航材的租赁业务。

2013年公司出资设立四川海特租赁有限公司,开始涉足航空租赁服务业务。2014年7月,公司被商务部、国家税务总局批准为全国第十二批内资融资租赁试点企业,该项业务有利于公司优化航空服务商业模式,实现航空产业多元化发展,并整合资源,向综合航空技术服务方向发展,达到促进公司航空主营业务发展的目的。目前公司航空融资租赁服务业务正按计划推进,飞机整机、发动机、航材的租赁业务架构初步形成。

(九)募集16.6亿发展新型航空动力ECU等主业

公司已完成定增事项,增发价为20元,共发行8282万股,募集资金总额16.6亿元,新增股票已于9月2日上市。公司将拓展航空动力控制系统研制能力等。

本次发行的募集资金项目为“天津海特飞机维修基地2号维修机库建设项目”、“新型航空动力控制系统的研发与制造项目”、“新型航空发动机维修技术开发和产业化项目”、“天津飞安航空训练基地建设项目”和“补充流动资金”。

3.投资建议

预计15-17年EPS为0.16/0.36/0.56元,PE为114/51/33倍,预计公司明后年业绩将高速增长。公司军品占比已经超过50%,预计未来公司估值将向国睿科技、四创电子、中航动控、中直股份等靠拢;维持“推荐”评级。

风险提示:军品交付时间不确定性、直升机绞车和新型号ECU量产时间的不确定性、增发股本增厚摊薄业绩、整合风险。

天奇股份:并购落地,汽车后市场正式发力

类别:公司研究 机构:广发证券股份有限公司 研究员:罗立波,刘芷君 日期:2015-10-26

公司发布公告,经中国证监会上市公司并购重组审核委员会审核,公司发行股份购买资产并募集配套资金暨关联交易事项获得无条件通过。

并购落实拆解全产业链布局,汽车后市场正式发力。本次收购宜昌力帝100%股权和宁波回收66.5%股权正式落地,公司在汽车拆解后市场领域“三大回收中心+两大拆解中心+两大运营平台”全产业链布局开始成型,此次并购落地,明年拆解板块三大公司将集体并表,考虑明年业绩承诺及各自持股比例(宜昌力帝明年承诺净利润为4700万元,持股100%;苏州再生承诺2000万元;持股70%,宁波回收约为2000万元,持股66.5%),随着自动化拆解能力加强,后市场明年将会对业绩形成显著支撑。

黄标车淘汰政策,加速拆解窗口期来临。截至9月,全国黄标车淘汰量为82万辆,未达预期。目前环保部加大了对黄标车淘汰的政策力度,环保部等五部门联合发文推进黄标车淘汰政策,实行每月通报淘汰量制度。黄标车淘汰将会在未来1-2年内加速,废旧汽车回收拆解量也会迎来短期峰值。

主业订单充足,明年主业向上预期强烈。公司主业汽车物流自动化装备业务目前在手订单充足,同比超过30%,考虑其确认周期和今年基数,明年主业有望实正增长。加上公司自动化仓储业务在电商、医药、冷链等领域的突破,明年主业向上预期强烈。

投资建议:我们预测公司2015-2017年营业收入为1,999、2,573和2,882百万元,EPS分别为0.21、0.37和0.46元。公司在汽车自动化物流装备领域具有突出优势,在智能仓储系统和汽车拆解市场具有良好的产业布局,结合业绩和估值情况,我们维持公司“买入”评级。

风险提示:汽车自动化装备需求受汽车销量和投资影响的不确定性;黄标车淘汰政策执行具有不确定性;废钢价格波动对于拆解业务利润影响较大。

厦工股份:抢占一带一路核心区域,中航参股进军军工

类别:公司研究 机构:国金证券股份有限公司 研究员:后立尧 日期:2015-04-08

事件。

一带一路愿景与行动文件正式发布,基础设施互联互通优先启动。文件确定将以福建和新疆作为中亚欧海上丝绸之路核心区,广西和云南则分别是门户和辐射区域。同期,在亚投行不断扩围和博鳌亚洲论坛召开的双重催化作用下,“一带一路”区域发展概念不断强化。

3月30日晚,央行、住建部、银监会联合下发《关于个人住房贷款政策有关问题的通知》,为改善性需求的个人住房贷款下调了首付款比例至不低于40%。同一时间,财政部和国家税务总局联合下发《关于调整个人住房转让营业税政策的通知》,大幅度减免了对部分符合条件的住房对外销售的营业税征收。随着房地产松绑政策接踵而至,住房改善性需求迎来重大利好。

公司业绩预告2014年年度经营业绩与上年同期相比,将出现扭亏为盈,预计实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润为0到1,000万元;公司2014年度累计收到政府补助共47,648.56万元,导致营业外收入有较大增幅。

评论。

海上丝绸之路核心区工程机械企业,海外建组装厂迎合一带一路:21世纪海上丝绸之路规划的重点方向是从中国沿海港口过南海到印度洋,延伸至欧洲,以及从中国沿海港口过南海到南太平洋。现已确定将福建和新疆打造为21世纪海上丝绸之路核心区。厦门区域优势明显,厦工股份地处一路一带核心区福建厦门,目前出口业务占比15%。公司已在巴基斯坦建立了组装厂,为迎合一路一带和福建自贸区建设奠定了良好基础,是工程机械设备出口首选标的。

粤津闽自贸区总体方案通过,厦门市国资委重点扶持:3月24日,中共中央总书记习近平主持召开中共中央政治局会议,审议通过广东、天津、福建自由贸易试验区总体方案、进一步深化上海自由贸易试验区改革开放方案。自贸区第二季发令枪打响,福建自贸区备受海内外的瞩目,预计两大方案正式文本将在近期内面世,自贸区挂牌也正式进入倒计时阶段。厦工股份是厦门市国资委重点扶持的制造业企业,就规模而言,公司目前在业内处于第二梯队位置,公司的主营产品装载机占收入60%左右,在国内市场份额约16%,居行业前三水平。2010年包括公司在内的9家中国工程机械制造商进入全球工程机械50强。

中航工业参股,军民融合典范:中航工业拥有工程机械产品核心零部件液压技术的研发能力,中航工业参股厦工股份,以其作为产业发展平台,凭借其技术研发实力,提升工程机械产品的技术水平,延伸“四轮一带”等工程机械关键零部件产业,同时打造航空维修及机电基地,进军军工领域大大提升公司在国内工程机械领域的核心竞争力。公司目前正在做产权划转,实际控制人可能会变更为中航工业,成为中航工业系统内军民融合的典范。中航工业的入驻将加强公司军工背景,在习总书记要求加快构建适应履行使命要求的装备体系大背景下,公司估值水平有望提高。

政策松绑推动房地产投资回暖,期待2015年出现业绩反转:基础设施建设投资中,设备投入主要在工程机械。由于我国固定资产投资,尤其是房地产投资增速的放缓,导致起重机、挖掘机、装载机等工程机械主要产品的下游购买力持续下降,公司业绩一度陷入低谷。公司年度业绩预告称,公司2014年净利润与上年同期相比出现了扭亏为盈,但主要来源于政府补助476.48百万元的营业外收入,业绩并未出现根本性好转。

随着房地产松绑政策接踵而至,住房改善性需求迎来重大利好。房地产调控政策的放开将有助于房地产新建项目开工量上升,从而拉动设备市场需求逐步回暖。由此判断,工程机械有望受益于一带一路帮助消化过剩产能以及国内地产投资复苏的双重利好,预计今年设备销量降幅将趋于收窄,产业持续去库存去杠杆化的情况也将在二季度将得到明显改善。我们期待工程机械行业在二、三季度能出现实质性的业绩反转。

展望未来几年,工程机械行业或仍存在的市场保有量较大、产能过剩、竞争加剧等问题,市场洗牌和优胜劣汰的格局难以避免。一部分龙头企业将充分受益“一带一路”,在竞争格局变化中处于有利地位。公司主营业务装载机的市占率位居行业前列,规模化效应显现。预计随着海内外基建投资回暖,公司主营业务销售情况也将随工程机械市场需求整体企稳。

投资建议。

我们首次对公司进行盈利预测,预测2015/2016年归属于母公司的净利润为0.89、2.11亿元,EPS分别为0.09、0.22元(考虑摊薄后),给予“买入”评级,年内目标价17.7元。

川大智胜中报点评:图像新业务实现销售,多元化发展推动增长

类别:公司研究 机构:国海证券股份有限公司 研究员:代鹏举 日期:2015-08-28

事件:公司中报发布,实现营业总收入8257.2万元,较上年同期增长22.30%;实现营业利润1501.8万元,较上年同期增长65.79%。预计2015年1-9月归属于上市公司股东的净利润变动区间1840.3至2208.4万元。

业绩增长符合预期,期待军航空管大单落地。公司扣非后净利润同比增长79.8%。在积极推广新产品的背景下,管理费用和销售费用同比没有出现大幅增长。公司营业收入和利润增长符合一季报预测。空管自动化项目毛利率超过48%。全年净利润增长预计最高为500%,主要决定于2013年中标2.38亿空管自动化项目落地。根据以往军队招标项目的经验,我们认为项目中标已有两年,今年落地可能性大。

多元化发展,图像新产品有望成为业绩增速器。1、新产品管制员体验飞行模拟机和D级飞行模拟机视景系统均已实现销售或中标。未来随着国内通用航空开放和兴起,国内飞行员培训市场空间巨大。2、大型全景互动体验系统已签订首份合同,采用了公司的高清LED立体显示、全景互动体验节目和多项图形图像技术等,未来将在国内教育和科普行业推广。3、基于全景视频融合的新一代机场场面活动智能监控和管理系统正在积极建设和销售。公司图像类的新产品具有超过65%的高毛利率和广阔的市场空间,未来有望成为新动力源

三维人脸识别正在装机测试,未来产业化空间无限。公司采用英特尔公司的低成本传感器,成功开发出国内第一套三维人脸识别系统,并在2015年英特尔信息技术峰会展示。该三维人脸识别系统实现了成本大幅降低和体积大幅减小。公司三维人脸识别技术是有别于传统二维识别,技术独特优势明显。未来三维人脸识别将会像指纹识别、条型码和RFID等识别技术一样,广泛应用于国防军事、公共安全、信息安全、金融支付安全等领域。未来基于国家安全考虑,三维人脸设备和基础软件要求全套国产化。公司最早进入该领域并占据技术优势。未来随着市场放量,三维识别技术产业化将有望给公司带来巨大的效益。

看好公司未来,维持“增持”评级。公司拥有高壁垒、高毛利率的空管自动化核心业务,业绩稳定高增长。我们看好公司当前多元化发展的未来。重点布局图形图像业务,部分新业务逐步发力。未来三维人脸识别产业化空间巨大。预计2015~2017年EPS为0.33、0.54、0.79元,对应的PE为82、50、35倍,维持“增持”评级。

风险提示:公司新产品不达预期,空管项目延迟或中止。

通达动力:靴子终落地,全力转型军工信息化和自动化,未来将成为核心军品公司

类别:公司研究 机构:安信证券股份有限公司 研究员:邹润芳,王书伟 日期:2015-04-22

业绩符合预期,一季度净利润大幅增长。

公司2014年实现营业收入10.52亿元,同比增长14.62%,实现归属于母公司的净利润-1659.5万元,同比减少263%;EPS为-0.1元,业绩符合预期。净利润大幅减少,主要原因为公司毛利率下降及计提资产减值损失所致。

公司2015年一季度实现1.75亿元,同比减少27.86%,实现归属母公司净利润为117万元,同比增长83.61%,符合预期。

传统主业盈利能力下降,15年有望触底反弹。

公司2014年综合毛利率为12.84%,较去年同期下降2.4个百分点,毛利率下降主要原因为行业整体仍旧面临产能过剩、产品价格下降。

公司积极推动传统主业升级,将通过减员增效、调节产品结构提升业绩,另外公司江苏富松模具、江苏和传电气有限公司的新工厂均已顺利投产,新产业打造新的长期增长点,15年传统主业有望触底反弹。

全力转型军工信息化和自动化,将成为核心军品公司。

公司持续推进军工信息化和智能化装备转型。已经签订取得深圳市亿威尔信息技术股份有限公司60%股权意向书,进军雷达和信息安全市场,如顺利收购将成为公司发展军工信息化的主要平台;在天津成立天津通达达尔力科技有限公司,以“火炮多功能维护保养单元”和“轻型装甲快速处突车”两项技术为突破口进军陆军和武警车辆市场,并作为公司发展军工智能化主要平台。未来公司仍将通过收购兼并和技术整合等方式执行军工信息化和智能化核心发展战略。

投资建议:买入-A投资评级,6个月目标价40元。我们预计公司2015年-2017年的EPS分别为0.35、1、1.25元,公司坚定转型军工信息化及自动化,将通过收购兼并等方式持续推进转型。

风险提示:转型不达预期,业绩大幅下滑

亚星锚链:全球锚链龙头业绩拐点显现,手持12亿现金将积极开辟第二主业

类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君,陈显帆 日期:2015-04-29

1.事件.

公司发布2014 年年报和2015 年一季报。2014 年公司实现收入15.28亿元,同比增长8.46%,实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润2988 万元,同比上升4734 万元,EPS 为0.06 元。公司分红预案为每10 股送0.5 元转增10 股,派发现金股利0.50 元(含税)。

2015 年第一季度公司实现营业收入4.15 亿元,同比增长8.46%,实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润3083 万元,下滑3.65%,EPS 为0.07 元。

2.我们的分析与判断.

(一)业绩拐点已现符合预期,持续增长有保障.

公司此前已发布2014 年度业绩预告,实际业绩符合预期。公司海工业务收入占比提升4.6pct,公司盈利能力随之持续增长,2015 年第一季度综合毛利率达到23.31%,为近四年最高水平,同比提升1.6pct。

公司2015 年度计划完成营业收入16.5 亿。公司2014 年承接订单19.22 亿元,同比上升6.6%,截至2014 年12 月31 日公司在手订单15.16亿元,同比增长19.8%,公司2015 年业绩持续增长有保障。

(二)海工系泊链全球一流,征服全球前5 大客户.

公司海工系泊链产品结构不断升级,2014年毛利率同比大增8.64pct。

2014 年公司实现海工系泊系统连接件产量2000 吨,2015 年计划将产量提高到4000 吨;超高级别R6 系泊链研发已进入中试阶段;公司参与研制的“超深水半潜式钻井平台研发与应用”项目获得了2014 年度国家科学技术进步特等奖。公司正积极向系泊系统连接件以外的附件产品延伸。

公司在全球前五大海洋石油公司中已获得四家(法国道达尔公司、挪威国家石油公司、荷兰皇家壳牌集团、巴西国家石油公司)供应商资格认证,美孚石油也计划在5 月对公司进行考察认证,公司在海洋系泊链及附件领域已经达到全球一流水平;海工装备行业短期承压中长期向好,公司系泊链业务将持续发展,并进一步提升在海工领域市场占有率。

(三)手持现金近12 亿元,将积极开辟第二主业.

公司目前手持现金近12 亿元。公司此前购置的约14 万平方米土地,除了公司之前IPO 募投项目年产3 万吨超高强度R5 海洋系泊链技术改造项目的剩余部分项目外,我们判断仍有较多富余,具备充足的外延式发展条件。公司明确提出“将积极开辟第二主业,计划在未来两到三年内确定,以进一步提升公司规模及竞争力”。我们判断公司不排除以外延方式实现第二主业的开拓。

3.投资建议.

预计公司2015 年将有3357 万元坏账准备冲回,2015-2017 年业绩将实现较快增长,业绩弹性大,未来不排除外延式发展。预计2015-2017 年EPS 为0.32/0.39/0.47 元,PE 为50/42/35 倍。剔除在手12 亿元现金后公司市值仅64 亿元,PB 仅2.3 倍,具有较好的安全边际,维持“推荐”评级。风险因素:船舶锚链复苏低于预期;油价持续下跌;外延式发展低于预期。

利君股份:拟收购成都三航持续加码军工业务,复牌5交易日内增持不低于2.86亿元

类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-09-09

1.事件。

公司公告拟收购成都三航机电有限责任公司(以下简称:“成都三航”)股权,公司股票自9月8日起复牌。

根据公司之前的公告,公司控股股东、实际控制人及其一致行动人等股东复牌5交易日内增持不低于2.86亿元。

2.我们的分析与判断。

(一)拟收购成都三航,持续加码军工业务。

本次拟收购的成都三航主营业务包括航空航天设备生产、研发、航空飞行器外挂装置等;拥有《军工产品质量体系认证证书》、《三级保密资格单位证书》、《武器装备科研生产许可证》、《装备承制单位注册证书》等生产经营所需的相关资质。公司的飞机通用挂架项目被列入2014年成都市战略性新兴产品研发补贴立项项目,公司同时被认定为2015年成都市企业技术中心。

根据公司公告,成都三航2014年度实现营业总收入0.72亿元,净利润0.27亿元,净利润率达到37.5%,盈利能力较强。公司已基本完成了对成都三航收购的前期准备工作,正就交易方案等与成都三航股东进行沟通谈判。如果本次收购成功,一方面有望提升公司整体盈利能力,另一方面有望与此前公告将收购的德坤航空产生协同效应,为公司带来新的利润增长点。

(二)复牌5交易日内增持不低于2.86亿元。

根据公司之前的公告,公司控股股东、实际控制人、董事长何亚民先生及其一致行动人、副董事长何佳女士拟于公司申请股票复牌交易当日起的五个交易日内通过深圳证券交易所证券交易系统按竞价的方式合计增持市值不低于2.5亿元的资金购买公司股票。

公司股东、副董事长、总经理魏勇先生拟于公司股票复牌之日起五个交易日内通过深圳证券交易所证券交易系统按竞价的方式增持市值不低于0.36亿元的资金购买公司股票。

上述3人目前持有公司总股本的80.45%。根据维护公司股价稳定方案的公告,上述3人承诺:自2015年7月7日起12个月内,不减持所持有利君股份的股份,不转让或者委托他人管理其持有利君股份的股份。

(三)在手现金充裕,将加快转型军工,有望成军民融合典范。

公司此前公告将以3.7亿元现金收购德坤航空100%股权。德坤航空是中航工业成飞最主要的结构件外协加工制造企业之一;产品应用于多型号军用飞机、大型运输机、无人机、导弹等,并为各大型客、货机及国内支线飞机(ARJ项目)、中国商飞C919等提供配套产品。

公司在手现金13.4亿元,大股东及一致行动人拥有上市公司65%的股份,公司有望打造军工业务整合重要平台。2014年9月公司公告拟参股明日宇航(新研股份并购标的,国内著名航空航天配套零部件制造商)。我们认为公司锁定转型军工领域,且收购标的均非常优秀。

我们判断公司跟踪项目丰富,未来可能持续加快转型军工领域,具备收购规模较大、业绩较好的军工业务的潜力,将成为军民融合典范。

(四)节能环保装备小巨人,盈利能力强。

公司为水泥、矿山粉磨系统龙头企业,盈利能力突出,现金创造能力强,综合毛利率多年保持在50%左右,净利润率多年超35%。公司老业务水泥辊压机市场份额稳居全球第一。新业务矿山辊磨机能够降低电耗和金属消耗,大幅减少水污染,属于国家重点鼓励发展的节能降耗和环保类产品。预计矿山辊磨机未来将获得较好发展。

3.投资建议。

不考虑外延,预计15-17年EPS为0.36/0.39/0.40元,PE为71/66/64倍;考虑德坤航空,预计15-17年备考EPS为0.45/0.51/0.58元,PE为57/50/45倍。公司估值有望向军工股靠拢(军工股2015年平均PE接近80倍)。我们判断公司未来将持续加码军工业务,业绩有望实现较大提升,估值有望向军工股靠拢,维持推荐。风险提示:水泥设备需求萎缩、矿山市场开拓进度低于预期、转型军工进度低于预期。

宗申动力:小贷业务稳步推进,无人机量产在即

类别:公司研究 机构:华金证券有限责任公司 研究员:张仲杰 日期:2015-06-19

投资要点

摩托车发动机行业周期性调整: 2014年公司摩托车发劢机业务销售收入27.4亿元,增长1.68%,目前中小型摩托车发劢机业务基本在微利状态,大排量三轮摩托车小幅增长,四轮车市场正在启劢。农村市场还是能够保持较大的销售觃模,估计公司2015年收入降幅在5%左右。电劢车是未来转型方向,2015年态势较好,销量估计会有大幅增长。

通用机械业务保持增长态势:通用机械2014年销售额12.3亿元,同比增长30%,公司销量增加主要得益于出口,小型通机在美国有较大的市场,随着美国天然气产量的增长,以电劢机作为劢力的通用机械的市场正在培育之中。这块业务发展态势明确,我们预计该项业务2015年增速在20%以上。

小贷公司业务稳步推进:为充分利用宗申集团及公司上下游产业链资源,同时控制风险,公司小额信贷业务80%业务围绕产业链开展,例如集团宠户的应收款,在回款之前提供信贷,风险可控。后续公司也计划在小贷公司的基础上逐步扩张,开展保理、P2P、股权投资等,未来觃模可望做到300亿元左右。目前该业务发展较好,盈利增长较快,未来有望成为公司四大业务支柱之一。

销售服务市场模式创新:左师傅公司有575家直营、合资不加盟连锁门店,初步形成了“售后服务+零配件销售”的商业模式,以之为基础,幵利用天猫和淘宝互联网平台,积极销售各类终端产品,2014年净利润同比增长152%。公司也在尝试介入汽车后市场服务,不互联网公司合作在重庆开设2家门店,以点带面线上业务将有望快速开展。

无人机业务将成为新的增长点:公司最近不不青岛宏百川公司共同出资5,000万元设立重庆宗申天翼航空科技有限公司,其中公司出资3,350万元占67%股权。目前公司正积极推迚宗项目公司的生产区域选址、生产线布局、机型选择、销售服务网络建设等相关工作。预计可于2015年9月实现小批量生产,青岛宏百川公司原股东承诺2015年至2017年宏百川公司实现的净利润累计丌低于1.325亿元。鉴于无人机业务的广阔市场前景,预计该项业务将成为公司新的增长点。

投资建议:我们预测2015年-2017年公司每股收益分别为0.41、0.51和0.71元。我们讣为公司小贷业务发展态势良好,无人机业务批量销售在即,公司由此形成新的业绩增长点,前景广阔。给予“买入-A”投资评级,6个月目标价为33.15元,对应2016年65倍PE。

风险提示:行业不公司基本面变化导致业绩丌达预期。

新研股份:收购明日宇航获批文,跨入高速发展新时期

类别:公司研究 机构:西南证券股份有限公司 研究员:庞琳琳 日期:2015-10-28

业绩总结:2015年前三季度,公司实现营业收入515.2百万元,同比增长12.44%,营业利润90.3百万元,同比增长3.58%,净利润85.5百万元,同比增长5.60%;每股收益0.095元。

农机主业运行平稳。2015年农机补贴一改持续增长的态势,同比减少1亿元,农机产品需求明显变弱,农机企业经营严峻。凭借过硬的产品质量,公司前三季度收入实现12.44%的增长。公司前三季度毛利率为34.12%,同比下降4.33个百分点,期间费用率14.95%,同比下降2.32个百分点(主要是销售费用率同比下降3.26个百分点);销售净利率为16.46%,同比微降1.21个百分点。

并购重组事项获证监会核准批复。2015年公司积极开展外延式并购,公司以发行股份及支付现金方式购买什邡市明日宇航工业股份有限公司100%股权,目前本次重大资产重组已获得中国证监会并购重组委审核通过,于2015年10月26日获得中国证监会核准批复。重组完成后,公司将成为农机、军工双主业上市公司,并将在农机、军工两个领域得到快速发展。

明日宇航为“民参军”最优标的,业绩存在超预期能力和动力。1、从产值角度,明日宇航目前所有产能投入可达到产值40亿+;2、从订单角度,配合主要机型的加速列装(军机订单进入释放期),军工订单将从2013-2014年的试制逐渐走向小批,具有高速成长潜能;3、从设备能力看,公司已形成了先进性、规模化的领先优势,并仍在不断扩大;4、净利润率看,公司毛利率维持稳中有升的态势,收购后公司航空航天零部件业务的财务费用将低于现在的11%,再考虑到技术提升、订单和产能释放带来的规模效应,净利率有望从目前的不到20%提高到25%以上。

盈利预测及评级:下表盈利预测仅考虑农机主业。明日宇航2015至2017年度业绩承诺为扣非净利润应达1.7亿元(+55.96%)、2.4亿元(+41.18%)和4.0亿元(66.67%),未来三年复合增长率55%,但我们认为公司2017年业绩超预期概率非常大,估算2017年有望达到7.35亿元,三年复合增长率超过86%。

公司收购明日宇航后,作为明确的民参军标的,在民参军大发展的预期背景下理应享有高估值,加之较明确的再并购预期,维持“买入”评级。

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