Category Archives: Chinese military cognitive warfare

Chinese Military to Emphasize Operational Use of Language Confrontation in Cognitive Domain Operations



The traditional style of language confrontation is a form of game in which the two parties in the struggle focus on specific issues or goals at a specific time and in a specific context, using language as the main medium of expression. In the context of cognitive domain operations, with the upgrading of Internet technology, the rapid development of modern communication technology, the innovation of emerging social media, and the improvement of natural language processing technology, coupled with human beings’ advances in cognitive science, linguistics, and communication With the new progress made in the fields of science, psychology and other fields, people have a deeper understanding and new understanding of language confrontation.

Language confrontation is becoming increasingly precise. The narrative style of discourse is the key to influencing cognition. Cognitive domain operations in the era of intelligence can conduct big data-based analysis of the audience, and through large amounts of text collection and data mining, we can find various opinions, tendencies, and positions that were previously invisible or easily ignored due to limited human power. and demands. By making good use of cognitive computing, you can better choose language types, voice patterns, discourse skills, narrative design, optimize the narrative perspective, theme, style, and the personal emotions, values, ideologies, and standpoint evaluations contained in the narrative, and more We should take into account the differences in communication modes of different languages ​​and cultures, so as to achieve the best, fastest and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. At the same time, cognitive protection can also be provided in a foreseeable and targeted manner.

Language text design customization. Cognitive domain operations fundamentally require the use of information to exert influence, and the unique discourse used in the information text is the main basis for cognitive influence. To target the cognitive domain of people in a specific country or region, we must skillfully use the discourse expressions in the other party’s language and culture, and conduct in-depth research on the stories, myths, proverbs, aphorisms, etc. expressed in the other party’s language, especially the popular topics on the other party’s social media. , characters and their discourse characteristics, and is good at using authentic and novel language expressions of cross-cultural cognition to create a contagious language atmosphere of emotional identification. On this basis, we strive to make innovative expressions, fully grasp the different cognitions and needs of the other audience, organize multi-dimensional discourse power, and design texts in multiple languages ​​to form new impressions and cognitions based on cognitive resonance.

The main style of language is popular. Language is the “cannonball fired at thought” in cognitive domain warfare. The use of language that is creative, expressive and in line with the laws of modern communication can cover a wide range of people and win more audiences. Therefore, popularizing the language subject style is the central link that determines the effectiveness of cognitive domain confrontation, and is also a key factor in winning recognition and winning hearts and minds in cognitive domain operations. Young people are the most active group of people in future wars and are also the main force in cognitive confrontation. The discourse forms and expressions that young people like to hear and see are the key to gaining the advantage of language confrontation in the cognitive domain.

Modeling the effects of language confrontation. Language confrontation in cognitive domain operations requires an in-depth study of the opponent’s main cultural environment, main cognitive narrative models, main cognitive shortcomings and weaknesses, and the characteristics of social media communication discourse, and masters its long-term cognitive models and the connotation of textual expressions. Rules etc. Based on artificial intelligence, modeling and analysis of the cognitive effects of language confrontation on different groups of people will help to conduct timely effect assessments, accurately grasp potential problems, and discover the fulcrum of strength. For example, it is difficult for general qualitative fuzzy assessments to grasp the micro-propagation effect of individual flexible maneuvers and the point-shooting effect of a single “discourse sniper”. The use of modeling analysis methods can provide relatively accurate conclusions. In addition, modeling analysis can also create strategic planning methods for language confrontation that combine long-term and present, macro themes and micro themes, agenda setting and random communication, drips of water piercing the stone and floods, and tolerance and tolerance with active release, which is better. to exert the combat effectiveness of language confrontation.


語言對抗的傳統樣式,是鬥爭雙方在特定時間、特定背景下,圍繞特定議題或目標,以語言為主要表達媒介的賽局形式。 在認知域作戰背景下,隨著網路科技的更新換代、現代通訊科技的快速發展、新興社群媒體的推陳出新,以及自然語言處理科技的提高,再加上人類在認知科學、語言學、傳播 學、心理學等領域所取得的新進步,人們對於語言對抗有了更深入的理解與全新的認知。

語言對抗日益精準化。 話語的敘事方式是影響認知的關鍵。 智能化時代的認知域作戰,可以對受眾進行基於大數據的分析,透過大量文本收集和資料挖掘,尋找以往因人工力量受限而看不到或易被忽略的各種觀點、傾向、立場 及訴求。 運用好認知計算,可以更好地選擇語言種類、語態模式、話語技巧、敘事設計,優化敘事的視角、主題、風格以及敘事所蘊含的個人情感、價值觀念、意識形態、立場評價,更 好地顧及不同語言文化傳播模式的差異,以達到最好最優最快、最精準的打擊與反擊。 同時,也能夠有預見、有針對性地做好認知防護。

語言文本設計客製化。 認知域作戰從根本上需要利用資訊來施加影響,其訊息文本所採用的獨特性論述是認知影響的主要依賴。 針對特定國家、特定地域人群的認知域作戰,要嫻熟運用對方語言文化中的話語表達形式,深入研究用對方語言表達的故事、神話、諺語、格言等,特別是對方社交媒體上流行的話題 、人物及其話語特點,善於運用跨文化認知的道地而新穎的語言表達,營造出富有感染力的情感認同語言氛圍。 在此基礎上,努力做好創新表達,充分掌握對方受眾的不同認知與需求,組織多維話語力量、設計多種語言文本,使之依托認知共鳴形成新的印象與認知。

語言主體風格大眾化。 語言是認知域作戰「射向思想的砲彈」。 富有創意、充滿表現力、符合現代傳播規律的語言運用,可以接觸廣大的人群、爭取更多的受眾。 因此,實現語言主體風格大眾化,是決定認知領域對抗成效的中心環節,也是在認知領域作戰中贏得認同、贏得人心的關鍵因素。 青年是未來戰爭中最活躍的人群,也是認知域對抗的主體力量。 青年喜聞樂見的話語形式和表達方式,是獲得認知域語言對抗優勢的關鍵。

語言對抗效果模型化。 認知域作戰的語言對抗要深入研究對手的主要文化環境、主要認知敘事模式、主要認知短板和弱點以及社交媒體的傳播話語特點,掌握其長期形成的認知模式、文本表達的內在 規律等。 基於人工智慧,對語言對抗作用於不同族群產生的認知效果進行建模分析,有助於及時展開效果評估,準確掌握潛在問題,發現力量支點。 例如,一般定性模糊評估難以把握個人靈活機動的微小傳播作用以及單一「話語狙擊手」的點射作用,採用建模分析手段則可以提供相對準確的結論。 此外,建模分析還可以為語言對抗創造長遠與當下結合、宏大主題與微觀主題結合、議程設定與隨機傳播結合、滴水穿石與大水漫灌結合、包容隱忍與積極釋放結合的戰略統籌手段,更好 地發揮語言對抗的戰鬥力。


认知域作战中的语言对抗. 解放军报.

Chinese Military Strategic Aims Focusing on the Cognitive Advantage Which is Becoming the Winning Advantage in High-End Warfare

中國軍事戰略目標聚焦認知優勢 正成為高階戰爭制勝優勢


Cognition is the process by which people obtain, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually attracted attention from all countries. With the development of the technological revolution and the expansion of warfare practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerated evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming a fundamental driving force in the evolution of warfare. Technology changes the form of warfare and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become A sign of maturity in driving cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies such as cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, and artificial intelligence will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Humanity is entering the era of universal communication, and global cyberspace is becoming highly interconnected. The Internet has become a battle space for all-round competition between state actors and non-state actors. Communication disputes and communication wars have become part of the level of high-intensity military operations. At present, major countries in the world are deploying at the forefront of cognitive technology and launching cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control human brain networks, information networks and social networks; through deep calculations, actuarial calculations, clever calculations, etc., they aim to maximize Gain control over people’s cognitive world and cognitive domains.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the era of intelligence, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication has given way to more online communication, various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The spatial domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep ground, while the logical domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and counter-blockade, dominance and counter-dominance around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare. Using information as ammunition to fight for control of international discourse has become the main method of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of winning in small battles or even without fighting through comprehensive gaming methods such as cognitive warfare. Attack and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released. .

Cognitive superiority is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of conduct in war is the lifeblood of the military. From a cognitive perspective, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the greater the freedom of action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in wars, commanders have begun to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time to help commanders get rid of cognitive overload and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantages will dominate decision-making advantages, and decision-making advantages will dominate action advantages. Cognitive advantages have four key indicators: stronger information acquisition capabilities, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling capabilities, and higher capabilities to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with new characteristics of data-driven intelligent communication and traditional military operations have been highly coordinated and integrated. This combat style that integrates virtual and real operations has stronger combat effectiveness than pure military operations, fundamentally changing traditional combat methods. Change. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become the fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the frontier of gaming to win the war. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control of cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field, and concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion are being introduced. , has appeared frequently in the field of cognitive warfare research abroad. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict fields” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theoretical innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars. Cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation. Cognitive technology will accelerate cognitive warfare and become an important “tipping point” for the intelligent military revolution. As new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are being incubated at an accelerated pace, perhaps future warfare will take on a surprising new situation.


認知是人們獲得、加工及應用資訊和知識的過程。 當前,認知域逐漸成為角逐的新戰場,認知戰也逐漸受到各國重視。 隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的拓展,認知戰正呈現加速演變趨勢。

認知科技正成為戰爭演進的基本動力。 科技改變戰爭形態,也改變認知戰方式。 如果資訊網路的大規模普及,推動了資訊域成為作戰域,資料和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊域成熟的標誌,那麼認知科技的大規模應用,認知技術不斷迭代發展,將成為 推動認知戰成熟的標誌。 未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等方面技術,將折射出認知技術對社會認知對抗、軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。 人類正進入全民傳播時代,全球網路空間正納入高度連動,網路已成為國家行為體和非國家行為體全面博弈的作戰空間,傳播之爭和傳播之戰已成為高烈度軍事行動層面的一部分。 當前世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,開展認知技術競賽,透過建模和分析,謀求滲透控制人腦網絡、資訊網絡和社會網絡;透過深算、精算、妙算等,旨在最大限度 把握人們的認知世界和認知域的控制權。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。 智慧時代,人類溝通方式正發生複雜深刻變化。 離線交流更多讓位於線上交流,各種新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地。 因此,未來戰爭的作戰域將不斷拓展,空間域從陸海空天網向深空、深海、深地拓展,而邏輯域則從物理域向資訊域、認知域拓展。 戰爭不再侷限於傳統戰爭的實體威脅,而是轉向大眾媒體、科技進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。 圍繞傳播平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰爭奪的焦點,以資訊為彈藥進行國際話語控制權爭奪成為當今認知對抗的主要方式。 在混合戰爭視角下,意識形態宣傳與灌輸、價值觀與文化的滲透、傳統的輿論心理與法律攻防與資訊網絡戰等,都成為認知戰的重要面向。 混合戰爭可透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,實現小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的,而認知領域攻防將是一場不間斷的、常態化的鬥爭,作戰效能也將持續累積、逐步釋放 。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的勝利優勢。 戰爭行動自由是軍隊的命脈。 從認知維度來看,對戰場環境、作戰對手認知越深,行動越自由,相對優勢就越大。 但隨著戰爭中作戰資料指數級成長,指揮人員開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境,擁有資訊優勢並不等於擁有認知優勢。 人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向,就是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮人員擺脫認知過載,快速形成認知優勢。 在智慧化戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢主導行動優勢。 認知優勢有4個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的突發事件處理能力和更高的開發應用新技術新知識的能力。 例如,以數據驅動的智慧傳播為新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動已經高度協同與融合,這種虛實一體的作戰樣式具備了比單純軍事行動更強的作戰效能,使傳統作戰方式發生根本性 改變。 認知優勢的連動與疊加,將加速推進作戰效能轉化,成為戰爭制勝的根本優勢。

認知理論正成為打贏戰爭的博弈前線。 認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。 目前,認知空間的滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的爭奪激烈,認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念 ,已高頻度出現於國外認知戰研究領域。 外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“交織的衝突領域”中的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。 顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點,認知理論已成為理論創新前沿領域,認知科技將加速推進認知戰成為智慧化軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。 由於認知戰的新技術、新理論、新樣式正處於加速孵化之中,也許未來戰爭將會呈現出令人驚詬的全新景況。




作者李明海 单位:国防大学国家安全学院战争与危机应对训练中心

Chinese Military’s Consideration of How to Win Intelligent Warfare – Dominance in Cognitive Confrontation



The evolution of war patterns always goes hand in hand with the industrial revolution. In recent years, the wave of intelligence has surged and has been widely and deeply applied in the military field, ushering in intelligent warfare for human society. Intelligent warfare is rooted in the intelligent society, with “human-machine intelligence fusion” as its main feature. The empowerment of intelligence makes the role of cognition in combat more prominent, and cognitive-led victory will become an important mechanism for winning wars.

  The history of the development of war naturally pushes cognition to the dominant position

  War in the information age occurs simultaneously between the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. It should be pointed out that the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain are not the exclusive domain of war in the information age. All wars and even all history are derived from the joint action of the three. They have come and gone in the long history of war, and have alternately become the dominant force in winning battles. elements.

  (1) Energy dominates playing speed and strength. When the form of war changes, the mobility, lethality and protective power in the physical domain increase, often becoming the key to victory in combat. This is true for iron weapons and war horses in cold weapon warfare, muskets and artillery in hot weapon warfare, and ships, tanks, and aircraft in mechanized warfare. To sum up, it is energy dominance. Energy dominates the game with speed and strength. Whoever has a better, faster, and stronger main battle platform is often more likely to win. However, the effectiveness of weapons cannot be infinitely developed. Nowadays, platform mobility has been limited by human physiological limits and has encountered a bottleneck. Nuclear weapons also tell us that regardless of whether there is an upper limit to the development of firepower, its use will be strictly limited.

  (2) Information takes the lead to achieve accuracy and integrity. The information domain focuses on the transmission and sharing of information. The development of information warfare has caused the confrontation between the two combatants to “gradually change from a problem of intensity, material and energy to a problem of structure, organization, information and control.” Information replaces energy and becomes the key to victory in combat. Information dominance means focusing on precision and overall control. Whoever’s weapon platform has higher strike accuracy and whose combat system has stronger information sharing capabilities will be more likely to win. However, the relationship between information advantage and decision-making advantage is not linear. As the amount of information continues to increase, the formation of decision-making advantage must also resort to intellectual support in the cognitive domain.

  (3) Cognition-led development of intelligence and design. The cognitive domain includes perception, judgment and decision-making, etc., and has been a must for military strategists since ancient times. Ancient military classics such as “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” contain rich ideas of wisdom and victory such as “predicting victory first” and “attacking with troops through strategy”. In the history of war, there are countless examples of winning by relying on strategy. Cognition leads the development of intelligence and design. Especially when the form of war matures, confrontation between evenly matched opponents will always be dominated by cognition. If we look at the development level of energy and information in the past, there are still great constraints on commanders’ planning and design of operations. So today’s great development of the two provides conditions for them to effectively achieve their intentions. Being able to do it as soon as you think of it is naturally shifting the dominant factor in winning battles to cognition. The side with higher intelligence and stronger design capabilities can often dominate the development of the battle situation.

  Intelligence will give cognitive dominance a special era connotation

  Intelligence is not about letting machine intelligence surpass, replace or eliminate humans, but rather using it to assist, liberate and enhance humans, and achieve human self-transcendence through the integration of human-machine intelligence. It enables humans, who have been using cognition to transform the world and change wars for thousands of years, for the first time to have the ability to transform cognition itself. This transformation is no longer the accumulation of knowledge, but a leap in ability; it is no longer the patent of a few elites. Rather, it is a characteristic of society as a whole. When it widely penetrates into the combat field, the form of war will enter the intelligent war, and cognitive dominance will take on a new connotation.

  (1) Expansion of cognitive space. In today’s era, human factors and weapon factors are becoming more and more closely integrated. The most typical examples are drones and intelligence. “Intelligence” mainly refers to autonomous systems, that is, simulating and materializing human intelligence and transplanting it into machines. Machine intelligence empowerment will allow autonomous systems to easily break through human physiological limits, enter environments that humans cannot bear at a speed beyond human reach, and rely on a certain amount of “on-site intelligence” to complete tasks that humans are unable or unwilling to complete. It may not really improve people’s cognition, but it will definitely extend people’s cognition in space and expand the combat space to extreme areas such as deep space, deep sea, and deep earth.

  (2) Improvement of cognitive efficiency. There are countless examples of cognitive victory, but there are only two reasons for this. Either rely on perceptual cognition, that is, intelligence. In the age of information scarcity, the level of decision-making is positively correlated with the amount of information. From small to large amounts of information, the quality of decision-making improves almost linearly. It is said that “if you know your enemy and yourself, victory is not in danger; if you know the sky and the earth, victory is endless.” Either rely on rational cognition, that is, judgment and strategy. Clausewitz said: “Three-quarters of the situations on which actions are based in war seem to be hidden in the clouds and are more or less unreal.” Excellent commanders can always reveal ” The information behind “The Mist” is what is said to be “what everyone knows, it has already been written; what I see, it has not yet been formed.” But when information moves from scarcity to overload or even “explosion”, the function curve between decision quality and information quantity begins to decline, making it increasingly difficult to use complex information to form accurate judgments. At this time, intelligence seems to be coming as planned. Computational intelligence may not surpass humans in terms of logical capabilities, but its powerful processing speed can solve the decision-making dilemma caused by information overload.

  (3) Cognitive interconnection and sharing. Combat is a violent confrontation between armed groups. Regardless of decision-making or actions, timely and effective communication between combatants is required. The advantage of information dominance is information sharing. However, due to the subjectivity of cognition, people often have different understandings of information, or even completely different opinions. The same information does not mean that the same information works in the same direction. With the development of machine intelligence, brain-computer interface and other technologies, their “silicon brains” will rely on the linkability that is significantly better than that of the human brain to promote the evolution of the network form from the Internet of Things to the Internet of Brains, and combat interaction will subsequently be based on information sharing. Moving towards situation sharing and decision-making sharing, the combat system will truly be realized and exerted.

  Cognitive dominance will be widely used in intelligent warfare

  Winning by instant advantage means “having the comprehensive capabilities and favorable situation to defeat the opponent at the moment when force is launched against the enemy, at the decisive point of the war.” It is the fundamental winning mechanism of war. The dominant factor in seizing and maintaining immediate advantages varies with changes in war forms. In intelligent warfare, cognition dominates.

  (1) Relying on the advantage of cognitive control of time to predict and strike preemptively to a new level. Time is the only irreducible factor in combat, and preemption is the eternal winning mechanism. Intelligent warfare will increasingly seize control of time advantage. First, you must first sense the enemy. In 2017, the US military proposed the concept of “algorithmic warfare”, which is to use intelligent analysis technology to quickly extract high-value intelligence from massive amounts of data. The popularization of intelligence in the future will push forward the intelligent perception of intelligence to ensure that enemies are discovered from the source. Secondly, we must make decisions before the enemy. The hybrid intelligence of human-machine integration and the network intelligence of up-down linkage will help realize distributed synchronized combat planning, and all levels within the organization can realize the integrated generation of combat plans. The third is to act before the enemy. The troops can prepare for combat in advance according to the specific process of joint decision-making. Once the combat plan is generated, they can immediately switch to combat.

  (2) Relying on cognition to create military superiority, unmanned swarms and group operations will become typical new tactics. Victory with more and less is the embodiment of “victory with instant advantage” in the use of combat forces. In intelligent warfare, victory with more and less is mainly the use of cognitive materialization, that is, machine intelligence, to shape military superiority and implement unmanned swarm or group operations. . First of all, the development of intelligent and additive manufacturing technologies has enabled autonomous systems to achieve cost savings and gain an absolute advantage over the enemy in terms of the number of platforms with the same investment. Secondly, when autonomous systems enter the battlefield, no matter how brave or tenacious they are, even the best soldiers cannot match them. Unmanned or manned-unmanned coordinated swarm operations will be both violent, saturated, and economical. In addition, the unmanned group combat formed by the combination of machine intelligence and bionics will demonstrate powerful systematic combat capabilities through self-learning, self-collaboration, self-healing and even self-evolution capabilities.

  (3) Relying on cognition to expand spatial advantages, cross-domain efficiency enhancement and global integration will reach a new level. Intelligence will not only create a new combat space, but also expand the breadth and depth of joint operations. Autonomous systems with certain cognitive capabilities can secretly maneuver to deep space and deep sea space near key targets or important passages to conduct infiltration and latent operations, forming a new cross-domain check and balance advantage against the enemy. “The defenders’ towers are silent and their traces are gone. They are more mysterious than ghosts and gods. They are underground and cannot be seen. The attackers are fast and fierce, as fast as thunder and lightning. They are in the sky and cannot be caught and prepared.” It can form a new asymmetry to the enemy. Advantage. Use intelligent sensing to form a more accurate understanding of the combat environment, use intelligent decision-making to implement a more reasonable allocation of combat resources, use intelligent networks to provide more flexible access to combat platforms, and achieve flexible deployment of combat forces, full-domain linkage, and efficient energy release.

  (4) Aiming at the enemy’s cognition, attacking the mind and controlling the brain, control replaces destruction as a new way to win. Compared with the traditional “conquering the enemy without fighting”, intelligent warfare has greatly expanded its ability to attack the mind and control the brain. The former puts more emphasis on “win on the road” and focuses on deterring opponents; the latter focuses more on influencing and controlling opponents. In December 2017, Russia’s base in Syria was attacked by a “swarm” of 13 small drones. Russia controlled 6 of them using electronic warfare means, which was the prototype of mind control. One is to fabricate information to influence. In the future, real-life audio and video synthesis, pervasive network attacks, and immersive virtual reality will provide more effective means to influence the opponent’s cognition. The second is to tamper with the program to influence. Such as using “core attack warfare” to tamper with the algorithm of the enemy’s command and decision-making system. The third is to directly control the enemy’s decision-making. Use cyber warfare, electromagnetic warfare and other methods to control the enemy’s “brain” attacks to achieve the goal of stopping and winning the war at the minimum cost.


戰爭形態嬗變總是與產業革命相伴相生。 近年來,智慧化浪潮洶湧而來,並在軍事領域廣泛深入應用,使人類社會迎來智慧化戰爭。 智能化戰爭根植於智慧社會,以「人機智能融合」為主要特徵,智能的賦能使認知在作戰中的地位更加凸顯,認知主導制勝將成為戰爭制勝的重要機制。


  資訊時代戰爭同時發生在物理域、資訊域和認知域之間。 需要指出,物理域、資訊域和認知域都不是資訊時代戰爭的專屬領域,一切戰爭甚至一切歷史,都源自於三者的共同作用,它們在戰爭歷史長河中此起彼伏,交替成為作戰制勝的主導 要素。

  (一)能量主導打速度、打力量。 當戰爭形態發生嬗變,物理域的機動性、殺傷力和防護力的躍升,經常成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 冷兵器戰爭的鐵器、戰馬,熱兵器戰爭的火槍、火砲,機械化戰爭的船、坦克、飛機都是如此,概括起來就是能量主導。 能量主導打速度、打力量,誰的主戰平台更好、更快、更強,往往誰就更容易取勝。 但武器效能不能無限發展,如今平台機動力已經囿於人的生理極限而遭遇瓶頸;核武又告訴我們,不管火力發展有無上限,使用必將嚴格受限。

  (二)資訊主導打精度、打整體。 資訊域重點在於資訊的傳輸和共享。 資訊化戰爭的發展,使作戰雙方的對抗“逐漸從強度、物質和能量問題轉變為結構、組織、資訊和控制問題”,資訊取代能量成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 資訊主導就是打精度、打整體,誰的武器平台打擊精度更高,誰的作戰體系資訊共享能力更強,誰就更容易取勝。 但資訊優勢到決策優勢的關聯也並非線性,隨著資訊量的持續提升,決策優勢的形成還要訴諸認知域的智力支撐。

  (三)認知主導打智能、打設計。 認知域包括感知、判斷和決策等,自古以來便為兵家之所必爭。 《孫子兵法》等古代兵經有「廟算先勝」「上兵伐謀」等豐富的智勝思想,戰爭史上依靠謀略取勝的戰例更是不勝枚舉。 認知主導打智能、打設計。 尤其是當戰爭形態趨於成熟,勢均力敵的對手之間的對抗,總是會以認知為主導。 如果說過去能量和資訊的發展水平,對指揮官籌劃設計作戰還有很大限制。 那麼今天兩者的極大發展,則為他們有效達成意圖提供了條件。 想到即能做到,正在使作戰制勝的主導要素自然地向認知轉移,智能水平更高、設計能力更強的一方,往往就能主導戰局發展。


  智能化不是要讓機器智能超越、取代或淘汰人,而是用它輔助、解放和增強人,透過人機智能融合,實現人的自我超越。 它使千百年來一直利用認知改造世界、改變戰爭的人類,首次有能力改造認知本身,這種改造不再是知識的積累,而是能力的躍升;不再是少數精英的專利, 而是整個社會的特徵。 當它廣泛滲透到作戰領域,戰爭形態便跨入智能化戰爭,認知主導也有了新的內涵。

  (一)認知空間拓展。 在當今時代,人的因素、武器因素結合得越來越緊密。 最典型的例子就是無人機、智慧化。 「智能化」主要指自主系統,即模擬、物化人的智能,並移植到機器中。 機器智能賦能將使自主系統輕鬆突破人的生理極限,以人類無法企及的速度,進入人類無法承受的環境,並憑藉一定的“現場智能”,完成人類不能或不願完成的任務。 它未必能真正提升人的認知,但卻一定會在空間上延伸人的認知,使作戰空間向深空、深海、深地等極限領域拓展。

  (二)認知效率提升。 認知制勝的戰例不可勝數,但個中原因不外有二。 要么靠感性認知,即情報。 資訊匱乏年代,決策水準與資訊量成正相關,資訊量由小到大,決策品質幾乎線性提升,所謂「知彼知己,勝乃不殆;知天知地,勝乃不窮」。 要麼靠理性認知,即判斷和謀略。 克勞塞維茲說:「戰爭中行動所依據的情況有3/4好像隱藏在雲霧裡一樣,是或多或少不真實的。」優秀指揮官總是能夠憑藉經驗和推理,揭示出「 迷霧」背後的訊息,所謂「眾人所知,已成已著也;我之所見,未形未萌也」。 但當資訊從匱乏走向過載甚至“爆炸”,決策品質與資訊量間的函數曲線也開始下滑,利用繁雜資訊形成準確判斷變得難上加難。 此時,智能化似乎如約而至,計算智能未必可在邏輯能力上逾越人類,但其強大的處理速度,卻恰好使資訊過載帶來的決策困境迎刃而解。

  (三)認知互連共享。 作戰是武裝團體間的暴力對抗,無論決策或行動,都需要作戰人員之間進行及時有效地交流。 資訊主導的優點是資訊分享,但由於認知的主觀性,人們對資訊的理解往往見仁見智,甚至大相逕庭,相同資訊並不意義相向而行。 隨著機器智慧、腦機介面等技術的發展,它們的「矽腦」將憑藉明顯優於人腦的可連結性,推動網路形態由物聯網向腦聯網演進,作戰互動將隨之由資訊共享 邁向態勢共享、決策共享,作戰體系將真正實現並向發力。


  即時優勢制勝,就是“在向敵發力的那一時刻,在戰爭決定點的對抗,具有能戰勝對方的綜合能力和有利態勢”,它是戰爭的根本製勝機理。 奪取和維持即時優勢的主導要素因戰爭形態變化而不同,在智慧化戰爭中是認知主導。

  (一)依靠認知奪控時間優勢,先知先決、先發制人達到新境界。 時間是唯一不可還原的作戰要素,先發制人是亙古不變的致勝機理,智慧化戰爭對時間優勢的奪控將更趨激烈。 首先要先敵感知。 2017年美軍提出「演算法戰」概念,就是要利用智慧分析技術,從海量資料中快速擷取高價值情報。 而未來智能的普及,將前推情報的智能感知,從源頭確保先敵發現。 其次要先敵決策。 人機融合的混合智能,上下連動的網路智能,將協助實現分散式的作戰同步籌劃,編成內各層級可實現作戰方案一體生成。 第三要先敵行動。 部隊可依連動決策的具體進程,緊前展開作戰準備,一旦作戰方案生成,可立即轉入作戰。

  (二)依靠認知塑造兵力優勢,無人集群、族群作戰將成為典型新戰法。 以多勝少是「即時優勢制勝」在作戰力量運用上的具體化,智能化戰爭的以多勝少,主要是利用認知物化,即機器智能,塑造兵力優勢,實施無人集群或族群作戰 。 首先,智慧和積層製造技術的發展,使自主系統實現成本跳水,可在同等投入獲取平台數量的對敵絕對優勢。 其次,自主系統走上戰場,無論勇敢或堅韌,即使最優秀的士兵也無法比肩,無人或有人—無人協同集群作戰將兼具猛烈性、飽和性和經濟性。 此外,機器智能與仿生學結合形成的無人族群作戰,將透過自我學習、自我協同、自我療癒甚至自我進化能力,展現強大的體系化作戰能力。

  (三)依賴認知拓展空間優勢,跨域增效、全域融合將升至新境界。 智慧化不僅會催生新的作戰空間,同時帶來聯合作戰在廣度和深度上的拓展。 具備一定認知能力的自主系統,可秘密機動至重點目標或重要通道附近的深空、深海空間,實施滲透潛伏作戰,對敵形成新的跨域制衡優勢。 「守者韜聲滅跡,幽比鬼神,在於地下,不可得而見之;攻者,勢迅聲烈,疾若雷電,如來天上,不可得而備也”,可對敵人形成新的非對稱 優勢。 利用智慧感知對作戰環境形成更精準認知,利用智慧決策對作戰資源實施更合理調配,利用智慧網路為作戰平台提供更靈活接入,實現作戰力量彈性部署、全域連動、高效釋能。

  (四)瞄準敵方認知攻心控腦,控制取代摧毀成為制勝新途徑。 較之傳統的“不戰而屈人之兵”,智能化戰爭的攻心控腦大有拓展。 前者更強調“道勝”,重視嚇阻對手;後者更多的是影響和控制對手。 2017年12月,俄羅斯駐敘利亞基地遭受13架小型無人機「蜂群」攻擊,俄以電子戰手段控制其中6架,即為攻心控腦之雛形。 一是虛造訊息來影響。 未來,以假亂真的聲像合成,無孔不入的網路攻擊,身臨其境的虛擬現實,將為影響對手認知提供更多有效手段。 二是篡改程序來影響。 如利用「攻芯戰」來篡改敵方指揮決策系統的演算法。 三是直接控制敵方決策。 利用網路戰、電磁戰等方式對敵實施控「腦」攻擊,以最小代價實現止戰、勝戰之目的。

2019年12月24日 11:00:48 資料來源: 解放軍報 作者:董治強

Chinese Military Decisions and Perspectives Supporting Cognitive Confrontation


中國軍網 國防部網

2022年12月6日 星期二


Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its role. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of cognitive domain combat, the spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there had been no Allied Forces, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the “Operation Overlord Plan” strategy of “building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses secretly”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military actions in the physical domain, and then the specific military actions in the physical domain realize the material transformation of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, but without the implementation of the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our military’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough, and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of conjoining warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, but did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness.

現代戰爭根據物質形態的特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域和認知域。 這三個領域相互作用,形成軍事對抗的場域和土壤。 認知域操作雖然發生在認知領域,但其操作支援往往跨越各領域。 戰爭實踐表明,隨著物理領域硬打擊效能的增強,往往可以加速認知形成,認知實現更能滿足作戰需求。


當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界。 相互連結的不同物體的集合極大地增強了獨立個體單獨行動的功能。 認知域操作從來都不是認知載體之間孤立的操作。 將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合,與整個作戰體系緊密結合,才能充分發揮戰鬥力。

認知的起點。 存在決定意識。 思維和認知不是天上來的仙女,而是現實世界的真實或曲折的反映。 離開了物質世界的基礎,思考和認知就會失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的基礎、決策和行動的準確性,使人難以信任、認知、依賴。 即使是最迷幻的科幻戰爭,仍然會參考真實的作戰目標、具體的作戰目標以及相應的作戰路徑。 因此,情報偵察分析成為指揮組織部隊、規劃不可或缺的重要環節。 「沒有調查就沒有話語權」被視為決策必須遵循的金科玉律。 戰場模擬模擬已成為作戰行動成功的重要一步。 歷史上,大部分功將的作戰指揮和經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,都是建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析的基礎上的。 沒有現實世界的硬派支撐,「人類一思考,上帝就笑」。

認知效應的基礎。 認知領域作戰的一條黃金法則是,認知層面的軟實力必須有實體層面的硬實力支撐,才能確保並強化其作用。 強大的軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上的持續勝利是贏得認知戰爭的核心支撐。 如果美國沒有超強的綜合國力和優越的技術的高壓壓力,其「星際大戰計畫」可能無法真正發揮作用。 認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的支撐,永遠不會產生疑、迷、震懾、克敵的良好效果。 要掌握思維認知的主動權,掌握認知域作戰的主動權,不僅要加強認知本體建設,提高直接運用策略和技術手段加強自我保護、幹預和影響對手的能力。思維和認知,還積極努力在物理領域利用軍事行動在物理領域的傳導效應,增強思維和認知。

認知實現的起點。 馬克思主義認為,理論一旦掌握了群眾,也就成為物質力量。 從認知域戰鬥的角度來看,認知上層建築層面的精神創造並不會自動轉化為物質力量。 只有依附於一定的物質載體和實踐把握,才有可能實現精神到物質、意識的轉變。 實現的關鍵飛躍。 正如二戰時,如果德軍沒有繞過馬其諾防線,突破阿登森林,向法國腹地發起奇襲,就不可能展現「德軍認知成就」的先見之明。曼斯坦計畫」; 同樣,如果沒有盟軍,軍隊在東西兩進的諾曼第成功登陸,也未能凸顯出「霸王計畫」「明修棧道、暗藏倉庫」策略的巧妙之處。 思維認知透過人傳遞到物理領域的具體軍事行動,再由物理領域的具體軍事行動實現齒輪的物質轉化



物理領域軍事打擊支持認知攻防所採用的手段和方式,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般法則。 基本方式可分為增強支援、確認支援和變現支援。

增強支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊加強了思維和認知的形成和發展。 思維認知雖然依賴認知載體本身的品質,但如果沒有物理領域軍事行動的支持,就很難實現。 物理領域軍事行動在認知領域最基本的作用就是為思考認知的形成與發展提供堅實的支持。 思考和認知只有建立在真實的身體行動的基礎上,才能穩定、深遠。 例如,朝鮮戰爭初期,朝鮮人民軍勢不可擋時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島戰局、地理、天氣特點,準確預測了美軍登陸,尤其是當時美軍和韓國軍隊的各種行動等等時間地點。 同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇偉也根據志願軍的後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,對「拜拜攻勢」做出了判斷,用「磁性戰術」與我作戰。 這些都是物理領域的戰鬥對思維認知的形成與發展的增強。

確認類型支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊證實了預設的思維、預知和預判。 認知攻防不僅發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。 戰爭是「生死之地,生存之道」。 如果一個人的認知決策無法在實踐層面得到多方位的驗證,那麼輕舉妄動就是對戰爭最大的不負責任。 革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層始終處於整體戰略的掌控之中,賦予第一線指揮官依照整體戰略方向原則酌情行動的權力。 這是對戰略思維的正面肯定。 二戰期間,盟軍利用「虛假事實」進行誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍對歐洲大陸盟軍登陸地點的誤解,最終以最小的成本成功登陸諾曼第。 這是一次反擊。 確認。

實施支援。 為思維、認知、判斷和決策的實現提供直接的物質支持。 思維和認知必須轉化為改變世界的實際結果。 作用於對手的思維和認知不是終點而是新的起點。 接下來,必須透過「巧手」和「勇敢的心」在物質世界中付諸行動。 換句話說,簡而言之,就是為思考認知的價值實現提供直接的身體行動支撐。 這正如諸葛亮的巧妙計劃,但沒有「五虎將」等蜀漢將士的實施,只能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 無論“OODA”循環的前三部分運行得多麼高效,如果缺少執行環節“A”,那麼這將是一個“死循環”。 同樣,我軍指揮決策的結果也取決於官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性執行。 執行的品質和效率直接決定指揮決策的執行效果。 就此而言,執行層面的身體動作具有極為重要的現實意義。


思考和認知必須依靠身體動作的支持,這是不依賴人的意志的客觀規律。 加強思考認知與身體打擊的溝通互動,使我們的思維和決策更加具有針對性、客觀性和可操作性,從而更好地將認知優勢轉化為行動優勢和製勝優勢,是一項極其重要的任務。 。

更加積極主動並鞏固您的認知基礎。 思維認識是否正確,從根本上取決於它是否符合客觀現實,是否適用於打擊對手。 只有建立在充分的思考和認知的基礎上

調查研究、實事求是、比較優勢,是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的。 實行絕對的、神聖的、虛無的思想或將軍的天才、智慧、靈感,是唯心主義的、片面的、有害的。 這就要求我們必須努力把思維認識建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析的基礎上,真正了解敵情、我情、他人情,真正知己知彼、知己知彼。應該了解並因地制宜。 相機移動。 同時,要把閱讀無字書與有字書結合起來,把間接理論與不斷發展變化的生活實踐結合,辯證地認識過去的經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為我們自己的經驗教訓。知識。 幫助而不是束縛,協助而不是支配。

更積極主動,強化認知理性。 經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認識來自於實踐,並透過實踐的回饋得到強化。 認知實務經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料。 形成科學認知,需要在意識與物質、思考與存在的反覆碰撞與驗證中進一步去偽存真,以提高認知理性。 認為只有從局部情況、碎片資訊和個別時期才能一勞永逸地獲得真正的知識是錯誤的,甚至是致命的。 在中國古代的赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從常識中得出了連體戰船的認識,即鐵纜可以平衡船體的晃動,但並沒有從實戰效果或連體後果中證實這一點。軍艦。 如果不懂得再造,很容易就會用鐵繩把船綁起來,把自己綁起來,最後落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗。 時代變遷,現代戰場敵情瞬息萬變。 從來沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成就。 它只能從物質中剔除雜質,提取精華,去認知,去物質確認,重新認知。 ,我們能否回歸理性。

更主動地客觀化認知結果。 認知成就只是認知載體中孕育思考和意識的結果。 如果沒有及時有效的物質改造,就會像穿著錦衣走夜路或藏寶藏山一樣,很難展現出自身的價值。 思維和認知是以物理行為為基礎的,最終要依靠物理領域的具體行為才能具體化,轉化為改變主觀世界和客觀世界的實際結果。 這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策和規劃的可操作性,為更順利的物化和轉化打開大門。 同時,要努力提高決策部署執行者的執行能力,使他們能夠正確理解決策意圖,根據具體實際創造性地採取適當的方法,最大限度地落實認知結果和經營決策計劃進行到底。 當好認知結果與戰鬥力銜接轉化的「擺渡人」、「過河橋樑」。


(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute, Academy of Military Sciences)


Chinese Military Analysis : Characteristics and Development Trends of Cognitive Domain Operations



Cognitive domain operations take people’s will, beliefs, thinking, psychology, etc. as direct combat objects, and then affect their decisions and actions by changing the opponent’s cognition. Entering the era of information-based and intelligent warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become an important form of great power game, with all parties striving to achieve political goals in a relatively controllable manner. Gaining insight into the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations is of urgent and important practical significance for winning future wars.

At present, the cognitive domain has entered the war stage as an independent domain, and has increasingly become a common domain, a battleground, and a weight for victory in the game between great powers. Analyze the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations, which are reflected in at least the following eight aspects.

The cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory.

On the surface, military confrontation is a confrontation between the hard power of both sides. On a deeper level, no matter what the nature of the war is and for what purpose, it is ultimately a contest of human wills. The key to victory is the ability to impose your will on your audience. As long as the enemy’s will to fight is deprived and defeated, the war is won. Cognitive domain warfare uses human will, spirit, psychology, etc. as the target of confrontation, strengthening one’s own will while weakening the enemy’s will, thereby achieving the political goal of conquering the heart and mind. In this sense, the cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory. As war accelerates its evolution toward intelligence, cognitive quality advantages bring decision-making and action advantages, which can not only occupy the moral and legal high ground and create a favorable situation of justice and legality, but also realize small wars through hybrid warfare and comprehensive game means. Even the purpose of winning without fighting. Especially in the context of great power competition, the cost of war is high. All parties hope to intensify the competition for cognitive domains and force their opponents to retreat in a “humane” and “economic” manner.

By changing the opponent’s perception, it can change its decisions and actions

The purpose of implementing cognitive attacks is to use an “invisible hand” to control the opponent’s will, making the opponent feel “I can’t” and “I dare not”, and then achieve the effect of “I don’t want to”. Foreign military practice has shown that cognitive attacks on people’s will, beliefs, thinking, and psychology can be long-term cultural implantation, information suppression in the form of “information ocean + covering one’s mouth to silence”, or preemptive speech. Active shaping of political power can also use historical grievances to provoke the outbreak of conflicts. At present, information technology, artificial intelligence technology, and media technology have strengthened their direct effects on the cognitive domain. Using intelligent generation software, a large amount of cognitive “munitions” can be produced to accurately act on the cognitive layer of combat targets, directly imposing “will” to rivals” and quickly change the strategic situation. Looking forward to the informationized and intelligent battlefield, situational awareness forces and platforms are widely distributed in combat domains such as land, sea, air, and space networks. Cognitive behaviors such as planning, decision-making, and control dominate operations in various combat domains, especially the cognition of human-machine hybrids in future intelligent warfare. Advantages will dominate the battlefield. Cognitive interference, cognitive confusion, cognitive blocking and other means can be used to create a “fog” of war cognition, inducing opponents to misjudge the situation and make wrong decisions and actions.

Cognitive domain operations are full-time offense and defense, full personnel coverage, full use, full domain shaping, and full government action

Cognitive domain operations are all-round, multi-level, hyper-temporal, and cross-domain. They blur the boundaries between wartime and peacetime, front and rear, cross battlefields and national boundaries, go beyond the pure military field, and widely penetrate into politics. , economy, diplomacy and other social fields, showing the characteristics of “five completes”. Full-time offense and defense, there is no distinction between peacetime and wartime, and there is no difference between the front and the rear. It is expressed as being online all the time and in war all the time. Covering all personnel, anyone, including intelligent robots, may become the target of cognitive domain operations. It is used throughout the whole process of joint operations before and during the war. Before the joint military operation is launched, the cognitive shaping operation has begun and will accompany the military operation and will not stop with the military operation. Global shaping, cognitive shaping runs through all levels of strategy, operations, and tactics, and its scope covers all domains of land, sea, air, and space networks. Cross-domain empowerment has an impact on all-domain operations. As a whole-of-government action, cognitive shaping is naturally strategic and requires consistent and coordinated actions across departments, fields, military and localities, and levels to achieve the best communication effect.

The key is to seize control over the right to define the nature of an action or activity, the right to dominate the process, and the right to judge the outcome.

The cognitive game struggle involves multiple opposing parties and seems complicated. The key is to compete for the “three powers” in the cognitive domain. First, fight for the right to define the nature of the event. That is, how to view this incident, whether it is just or unjust, legal or illegal. Usually, pre-emptive definitions, group alliances and forced definitions, information suppression and unilateral definitions, setting issues and applying definitions are usually adopted to guide and shape the public to form qualitative perceptions. Second, compete for dominance over the event process. That is, how to do something, how not to do it, who did it right and who did it wrong, usually by setting up a trap and other methods, trying to dominate the development direction of the target event according to the state that one’s own side expects. Fast and slow, pause, continue and end. Third, compete for the right to judge the outcome of the incident. That is, how to evaluate this matter, who is the gainer and who is the loser, who is the immediate loser, who is the long-term loser, etc. All parties are trying to control the outcome of the incident by amplifying the advantages to themselves and the disadvantages to the enemy. The purpose is to use the extended effect of the incident to continue to harm the enemy and benefit themselves.

Morality and legal principles are the focus of contention between all parties

Military operations have always paid attention to the principle of “discipline and reputation”. Although the shape of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, the essential nature of war as subordinate to politics will not change; the nature of war and the support of people’s hearts are still the key factors that affect the outcome of a war. On the battlefield in the cognitive domain, by occupying the commanding heights of politics, morality, and law, we can win the hearts and minds of the people and moral support, create a public opinion atmosphere in which moral support is abundant, and then seize the opportunity to defeat the enemy. In every war or conflict, whether it is the strong or the weak, whether the attacker, the defender, or a third party, all parties will try their best to seize cognitive dominance and the initiative of public opinion. They will do everything possible to package themselves with morality, focus on declaring a just position, and try to find ways to defend themselves. Qualify the war, justify the action, eliminate resistance, increase support, and create a favorable situation in which “righteousness” defeats “unrighteousness”. The strength balance between the two sides in the war is different, and the cognitive confrontation methods aimed at occupying the moral and legal high ground will also be different. Recent wars have shown that when a party has strong soft and hard power, that is, it has strong military strength, many allies and partners, and a large share of international voice, it often declares war in a high-profile manner; when military actions may trigger chain reactions, it is often handled in a vague manner. The word “war”.

Information is the basic “ammunition” for cognitive attack and defense

In the network information age, the way humans communicate continues to undergo complex and profound changes. On-site interactive interactions have gradually given way to online connections. Some large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for cognitive games and the main channels for influencing public cognition. Using information as ammunition to fight for the right to block international networks and control discourse has become a common practice today. One of the main actions of confrontation. On these platforms, various short videos have become the “first scene” for the public to understand the war situation, and information travels faster than cannonballs. The use and blocking, dominance and regulation of platforms have become the focus of battles in the cognitive domain. All parties strive to spread and amplify their own propaganda, denounce and suppress the other party’s propaganda by manipulating social platforms, forming a “I say more, you say less” “A situation where “I’m right and you’re wrong” and “I can only say it and you’re not allowed to say it”. As users of large-scale social platforms, the public is influenced by and affects others in the process of “listening”, “speaking” and even “doing”, and unknowingly becomes the agents and attack props of those behind the scenes.

Military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition

The history of human war shows that military warfare is always the basic support of political contests, while psychological warfare is the effectiveness multiplier of military warfare. What cannot be retrieved on the battlefield cannot be expected to be retrieved at the negotiation table, let alone in the field of public opinion. In modern warfare, cognitive communication operations always go hand in hand with joint military operations. Mental warfare and military warfare influence and support each other. The trend of military warfare becoming mental warfare and mental warfare becoming military warfare is more obvious. From the perspective of war practice, it is absolutely impossible without military strength, but military actions alone are not omnipotent. Multiple victories on the battlefield are not a sufficient condition for victory in war. In the Vietnam War, although the United States “won every battle, it lost the entire war.” At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States fought successive wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, winning battlefield victories but not political victory. By the same token, military victory does not mean winning public opinion, and winning the battlefield does not mean winning strategic victory. In modern warfare, two types of people play an increasingly important role: those who win by writing thousands of lines of code, and those who win by writing thousands of messages. The side with superior quantity and quality of these two types of personnel will often have a higher probability of winning.

Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly used directly in warfare

In past wars, the influence and effect on the cognitive domain were mainly transmitted to the cognitive domain level by level through a large number of damaging actions in the physical domain. With the development and breakthroughs of information communications, artificial intelligence, biocrossing, brain science and other technologies, new cognitive warfare tools and technologies are directly targeting military personnel. Cognitive countermeasures use not only traditional information warfare weapons, but also an arsenal of neural weapons that target the brain. By then, machines will be able to read human brains, and human brains will also be able to directly control machines. Intelligent command and control systems can directly provide battlefield situation and decision-making assistance. Realistic cognitive ammunition and precise audience placement will greatly enhance the social impact. Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly being used directly in warfare. The indirect cognition implicit in informatization is gradually transforming into a direct influence and control of people’s cognition. It can be said that with the support of advanced technology, cognitive domain operations can achieve political goals more directly and efficiently by building a modern network architecture and developing a data visualization platform to quickly understand the information environment and effectively influence target groups.

(Author’s unit: Institute of War Studies, Academy of Military Sciences)


認知域作戰以人的意志、信仰、思考、心理等為直接作戰對象,進而透過改變對手的認知來影響其決策與行動。 進入資訊化、智慧化戰爭時代,認知域戰爭成為大國博弈的重要形式,各方力爭以相對可控的方式實現政治目標。 洞察認知域作戰的特徵和發展趨勢,對於贏得未來戰爭具有迫切而重要的現實意義。

目前,認知領域已作為獨立領域進入戰爭階段,日益成為大國博弈的共同領域、戰場、制勝砝碼。 分析認知域維運的特徵和發展趨勢,至少反映在以下八個面向。


從表面上看,軍事對抗是雙方硬實力的對抗。 從更深層次來說,無論戰爭的本質、目的是什麼,最終都是人類意志的較量。 勝利的關鍵是將你的意志強加給觀眾的能力。 只要剝奪並擊敗敵人的戰鬥意志,戰爭就勝利了。 認知域戰以人的意志、精神、心理等為對抗目標,強化己方意志,削弱敵方意志,進而達到征服人心的政治目標。 從這個意義上講,認知域是軍事優勢轉化為政治勝利的關鍵領域。 隨著戰爭加速向智慧化演進,認知品質優勢帶來決策和行動優勢,不僅可以佔領道德和法律制高點,創造正義合法的有利局面,還可以透過混合戰爭和綜合戰爭實現小規模戰爭。遊戲的意思。 甚至以不戰而勝為目的。 尤其是在大國競爭的背景下,戰爭成本高。 各方都希望加劇認知領域的競爭,以「人道」和「經濟」的方式迫使對手退卻。


實施認知攻擊的目的是用一隻“看不見的手”控制對手的意志,讓對手感到“我不能”、“我不敢”,進而達到“我不想”的效果”。 國外軍事實踐表明,對人的意志、信仰、思維、心理的認知攻擊可以是長期的文化植入、「資訊海洋+摀嘴沉默」形式的資訊壓制,或是先發制人的言論。 主動塑造政治權力也可以利用歷史恩怨來挑起衝突的爆發。 目前,資訊科技、人工智慧科技、媒體科技對認知領域的直接作用加強。 利用智慧生成軟體,可生產大量認知“彈藥”,精準作用於作戰目標的認知層,直接將“意志”強加給對手,快速改變戰略態勢。展望信息化、智能化戰場態勢感知部隊和平台廣泛分佈於陸、海、空、天網絡等作戰領域,規劃、決策、控制等認知行為主導各作戰領域的作戰行動,尤其是人機認知未來智能戰爭中,優勢將主導戰場,可以利用認知幹擾、認知混亂、認知封鎖等手段製造戰爭認知“迷霧”,誘導對手誤判形勢,做出錯誤決策和行動。


認知域操作是全方位、多層次、超時空、跨域的。 它們模糊了戰時與平時、前方與後方的界限,跨越戰場與國界,超越純粹的軍事領域,廣泛滲透到政治領域。 、經濟、外交等社會領域,呈現「五個全面」的特質。 專職攻防,無平時戰時之分,無前線後方之別。 表現為一直在線,一直處於戰爭狀態。 涵蓋所有人員,包括智慧機器人在內的任何人都可能成為認知域作戰的目標。 它貫穿戰前和戰中聯合作戰的整個過程。 之前

聯合軍事行動啟動,認知塑造行動已經開始,並將伴隨軍事行動,不會隨著軍事行動而停止。 全球塑造、認知塑造貫穿戰略、作戰、戰術各個層面,範圍涵蓋陸、海、空、天網絡各領域。 跨域賦能對全局營運產生影響。 認知塑造作為政府整體行動,自然具有戰略性,需要跨部門、跨領域、跨軍隊、跨地方、跨層級一致協調行動,才能達到最佳傳播效果。


認知博弈鬥爭涉及多個對立方,看起來很複雜。 關鍵是認知領域的「三權」爭奪。 首先,爭取事件性質的界定權。 就是如何看待這起事件,正義或不正義,合法或非法。 通常採取先發制人的定義、群體聯盟與強制定義、資訊壓制與單邊定義、提出問題與應用定義等方式來引導和塑造大眾形成定性認知。 其次,爭奪賽事進程的主導權。 即某件事如何做,如何不做,誰做對了,誰做錯了,通常透過設置陷阱等方法,試圖根據自己的狀態來主導目標事件的發展方向。己方所期望的。 快、慢、暫停、繼續、結束。 第三,爭奪事件結局的判斷權。 也就是如何評價這件事,誰是獲益者,誰是受損者,誰是眼前的受損者,誰是長期的受損者等等。各方都在試圖透過放大優勢來控制事件的結果對自己不利,對敵人也不利。 目的是利用事件的延伸效應,持續損敵利己。


軍事行動歷來講究「紀律和信譽」的原則。 儘管戰爭形態正在加速演變,但戰爭服從政治的本質不會改變; 戰爭的本質和人心的支持仍然是影響戰爭勝負的關鍵因素。 在認知域戰場上,透過佔領政治、道德、法律的製高點,贏得民心和道義支持,營造道德支持充沛的輿論氛圍,進而搶佔先機。擊敗敵人的機會。 每一次戰爭或衝突,無論是強者或弱者,無論是攻擊者、防禦者或第三方,各方都會竭盡全力搶佔認知主導權和輿論主動權。 他們會千方百計用道德包裝自己,專心宣示正義立場,並想辦法為自己辯護。 限定戰爭,正當化行動,消除阻力,加大支持,創造「義」戰勝「非義」的有利局面。 戰爭雙方的實力對比不同,旨在佔領道德和法律制高點的認知對抗方式也會不同。 近來的戰爭表明,當一方軟硬實力較強,即軍事實力強大,盟友和夥伴眾多,國際話語權較大時,往往會高調宣戰; 當軍事行動可能引發連鎖反應時,往往會以模糊的方式處理。 一個「戰」字。


在網路資訊時代,人類的溝通方式不斷發生複雜而深刻的變化。 現場互動逐漸讓位給線上連線。 一些大型社群平台已成為認知博弈的主戰場和影響大眾認知的主要管道。 以資訊為彈藥,爭取封鎖國際網絡和控制話語權,已成為當今的常見做法。 對抗的主要動作之一。 在這些平台上,各種短視頻成為公眾了解戰情的“第一現場”,信息傳播得比砲彈還快。 平台的使用與屏蔽、主導與監管已成為認知領域爭奪的焦點。 各方透過操縱社群平台,努力傳播和放大自己的宣傳,譴責和打壓對方的宣傳,形成「我說多,你說少」的局面

其中「我是對的,你是錯的」和「我只能說,你不可以說」。 大眾作為大型社群平台的用戶,在「聽」、「說」甚至「做」的過程中,受到他人的影響和影響,不知不覺地成為幕後黑手的代理人和攻擊道具。


人類戰爭史表明,軍事戰爭始終是政治較量的基礎支撐,而心理戰則是軍事戰爭效能的倍增器。 戰場上救不回來的,在談判桌上也無法救回來,更不可能在輿論場上救回來。 在現代戰爭中,認知通訊行動總是與聯合軍事行動並進。 心理戰和軍事戰相互影響、相互支持。 軍事戰變心理戰、心理戰變軍事戰的趨勢更加明顯。 從戰爭實踐來看,沒有軍事實力是絕對不行的,但單靠軍事行動也不是萬能的。 戰場上的多次勝利並不是戰爭勝利的充分條件。 在越戰中,美國雖然「百戰百勝,卻輸掉了整場戰爭」。 21世紀初,美國連續打伊拉克、阿富汗戰爭,取得了戰場勝利,但沒有取得政治勝利。 同樣的道理,軍事上的勝利並不意味著贏得輿論,贏得戰場並不意味著贏得戰略上的勝利。 在現代戰爭中,有兩種​​人扮演著越來越重要的角色:一種是透過編寫數千行程式碼獲勝的人,一種是透過編寫數千條訊息獲勝的人。 這兩類人員數量和品質都更勝一籌的一方往往獲勝的機率更高。


過去的戰爭,對認知域的影響和作用,主要是透過物理域的大量破壞行為,逐級傳遞到認知域。 隨著資訊通訊、人工智慧、生物交叉、腦科學等技術的發展和突破,新的認知戰工具和技術直接針對軍事人員。 認知對抗不僅使用傳統的資訊戰武器,還使用一系列針對大腦的神經武器。 屆時,機器將能夠讀取人腦,人腦也將能夠直接控制機器。 智慧指揮控制系統可以直接提供戰場態勢和決策輔助。 真實的認知彈藥和精準的受眾投放將極大提升社會影響力。 認知對抗技術越來越多地直接用於戰爭。 資訊化隱含的間接認知正逐漸轉變為對人們認知的直接影響和控制。 可以說,在先進技術的支持下,認知域作戰透過建構現代化網路架構、開發資料視覺化平台,快速了解資訊環境,有效影響目標群體,可以更直接、有效率地實現政治目標。



Chinese Military Will Identify Key Targets for Cognitive Domain Operations



The target of cognitive domain operations refers to the specific direction of cognitive domain operations. In cognitive domain operations, compared with combat objects, the problem solved by combat targets is precise targeting, which allows commanders to understand the exact coordinates of what to hit, where to hit, and to what extent. Only by deeply understanding the connotative characteristics of cognitive domain combat targets can we accurately find key targets through appearances and seize the opportunity in future operations.

Cognitive focus that affects behavioral choices

The cognitive center of gravity is the “convergence point” of the diverse thinking and cognition of cognitive subjects in war activities. As an active factor, it affects the cognitive process and behavioral results. Generally speaking, the cognitive factors that influence individual behavioral choices in war activities mainly include cognition of political attributes, cognition of interest associations, cognition of group belonging, cognition of risk and loss, cognition of emotional orientation, cognition of war ethics, etc. For war activities and the groups or individuals concerned about war activities, the cognitive focus that affects their attitudes, tendencies, and behaviors is not the same. Judging from the local wars and regional conflicts in the world in recent years, there are obvious differences in the cognitive focus of different groups or individuals. Politicians pay more attention to the recognition of political attributes and the recognition of interest connections, while those who may be involved in the war pay more attention to the recognition of risk and loss. And interest-related cognition, ordinary people pay more attention to interest-related cognition and emotion-oriented cognition, while people in other countries outside the region generally pay more attention to war moral cognition and group belonging cognition because their own interests will not suffer direct losses. In combat practice, foreign military forces are good at targeting the cognitive focus of different objects, accurately planning themes, and pushing relevant information to induce specific behavioral choices. For example, before the Gulf War, Hill Norton Public Relations Company concocted the non-existent “Incubator Incident”, using the daughter of Kuwait’s ambassador to the United States, Naila, as a “testimony” to show the “inhumanity” of the Iraqi army and induce the United States to The public’s understanding of ethics and morality further supported the US government in sending troops to participate in the Gulf War.

Style preferences that constrain command decisions

Cognitive style directly affects decision-making behavioral preferences. Cognitive style refers to an individual’s typical way of cognition, memory, thinking, and problem solving. According to command decision-making style preferences, commanders can be divided into calm cognitive styles and impulsive cognitive styles. Commanders with a calm cognitive style value accuracy but not speed in the decision-making process. They make high-quality decisions, but they are prone to falling into comparative analysis of various intelligence information sources and overemphasize the accuracy and objectivity of information analysis. Commanders with a calm cognitive style are often easily disturbed by numerous and diverse information stimulations during cognitive offensive and defensive operations on the battlefield, and their mental energy is easily disrupted and dissipated, which may delay combat opportunities. Commanders with an impulsive cognitive style value speed but not accuracy. They make decisions quickly but with low quality. They are easily agitated and prone to conflicts with team members. Commanders with an impulsive cognitive style are also prone to over-interpretation of ambiguous external security environments, and constantly look for “evidence” to strengthen and verify individual erroneous thinking, narrowing individual attention and leading to biased command decisions. In combat practice, foreign militaries pay more attention to analyzing the decision-making style of the commanders of combat opponents, and then select specific information to psychologically influence them. For example, during the U.S. invasion of Panama, when they besieged Panamanian President Noriega’s hiding place, the U.S. military repeatedly played rock and heavy metal music and used language that stimulated and humiliated Noriega to carry out cognitive attacks and psychological attacks, which devastated Noriega physically and mentally. Gradually collapse.

Backdoor channel to control thinking and cognition

Once a computer is infected with a “Trojan horse” virus, it will send a connection request to the hacker’s control terminal at a specific time. Once the connection is successful, a backdoor channel will be formed, allowing the hacker to control the computer as he wishes. Similarly, the human brain also has cognitive “backdoors” that can also be controlled by others. Cognitive psychologists have found that by sending information to the target object’s audio-visual perception channel, carefully pushing the information content recognized and accepted by the target object, catering to the target object’s existing experience memory, complying with the target object’s thinking habits, and stimulating the target object’s emotions Pain points can be controlled to interfere with the target object’s cognition and promote its instinctive emotional and behavioral reactions. With the support of cutting-edge cognitive science and technology, using two modes of automatic start-up and controlled processing of brain information processing, the target object can easily fall into a “cognitive cocoon”. In cognitive domain operations, individuals are immersed in a massive amount of artificially constructed information and are continuously provided with “evidence” to prove that their judgment and cognition are “correct”. Over time, an individual’s cognitive vision becomes smaller and smaller, and his ability to perceive the external environment gradually decreases. Eventually, he will not be able to see the truth of things, and he will be addicted to the “cognitive cocoon” and cannot extricate himself. In operations in the cognitive domain, foreign military forces often respond to the opponent’s cognitive bias on a certain issue and continue to push situational information and intelligence information through multiple channels that support the opponent’s “correct perception”, allowing the opponent to make command decisions. Mistakes and deviations occur.

attention-inducing sensory stimulation

Effective sensory stimulation is the primary prerequisite to attract the attention of the target object. The human brain will detect stimuli within the range of perception and respond in various ways. Experimental research in cognitive psychology has found that dynamic, dangerous, interest-related, survival safety, contrast and other types of information are more likely to attract the attention of the human brain. In the era of intelligence, the target object’s psychological cognitive process often follows the rules of “attracting attention, cultivating interest, actively searching, strengthening memory, actively sharing, and influencing others”. In combat, foreign troops often use exclusive revelations, intelligence leaks, authoritative disclosures, on-site connections, etc., and skillfully use exaggeration, contrast, association, metaphor, suspense, foil and other techniques to push information that subverts common sense, cognitive conflict, and strong contrast. information to attract the attention of the target audience. For example, the “Rescue of Female Soldier Lynch Incident” portrayed by the US military in the Iraq War and the “Gaddafi Golden Toilet” in the Libyan War were mostly based on stories familiar to the audience. The purpose and point of view were integrated into the storyline, which attracted a large number of audiences. people’s attention. In addition, the human brain also processes stimuli outside the range of sensory perception. In recent years, the military of Western countries has attached great importance to the research of subliminal information stimulation technology, and has developed subliminal visual information implantation technology, subliminal auditory information implantation technology, subliminal information activation technology, nervous system subconscious sound control technology, etc. , and continue to expand the application scope of neurocognitive science and technology in the military field.

A meta-value concept that generates cognitive resonance

In cognitive theory, cognitive resonance refers to information that crosses the cognitive gap between the two parties and can arouse the ideological, psychological and cognitive resonance of both parties, thereby achieving the deconstruction and reconstruction of the other party’s cognitive system. In cognitive domain operations, this cognitive energy concentration effect is not a concentration of power in a simple sense, but an internal accumulation of the combined force of the system. Under the diffusion of modern information media, this cognitive resonance effect can quickly spread to all parts of the world in a short period of time, and produce secondary indirect psychological effects or more levels of derivative psychological effects, showing a cumulative and iterative effect. Once the state exceeds the psychological critical point, it will show a state of psychological energy explosion, thereby changing the direction or outcome of the event. The targets that can induce this kind of cognitive resonance include value beliefs, moral ethics, common interests, etc. In a war, if one party touches or violates human meta-values, common emotional orientation, etc., it can easily trigger collective denunciation, bear the accusation of violating human morality, and fall into a moral low. For example, a photo from the Vietnam War showed a group of Vietnamese children, especially a 9-year-old girl, running naked on the road after being attacked by napalm bombs from the US military. In 1972, this photo caused a huge sensation after being published, setting off an anti-war wave in the United States and even around the world, accelerating the end of the Vietnam War.

The cognitive gap that splits the cognitive system

In daily life, seemingly hard steel is easily broken due to the brittleness of the material due to factors such as low-temperature environments, material defects, stress concentration, and so is the cognitive system. Cognitive gaps refer to the cracks, pain points, weaknesses and sensitivity points in the cognitive thinking of the target object. It is mainly manifested in the individual’s worry that he or she is unable to cope with or adapt to the environment, and under the influence of anxiety, it constitutes cognitive vulnerability. . The experience of security threats, loose group structure, confusion of beliefs and ideals, and the loss of voice of authoritative media, etc., will all cause cognitive conflicts and tears among the target objects. In cognitive domain operations, sometimes a seemingly powerful opponent has a lot of mental gaps and psychological weaknesses hidden behind it. Often a news event can shake the opponent’s cognitive framework and burst the cognitive bubble. In addition, this kind of cognitive and psychological conflict will also cause moral damage and psychological trauma to individuals. In recent years, U.S. and Western military forces performing overseas missions have faced “enemies disguised as civilians” appearing anytime and anywhere. Their uncertainty about the battlefield environment has continued to increase. They generally lack a sense of the significance of combat and are filled with guilt and guilt. A large number of soldiers develop war post-traumatic stress disorder, self-injury on the battlefield, post-war suicides and crime surge, and the number of suicides among war veterans even exceeds the number of battlefield deaths.

(Author’s unit: School of Political Science, National Defense University)


認知域作戰的目標是指認知域作戰的具體方向。 在認知域作戰中,與作戰對象相比,作戰目標解決的問題是精準瞄準,指揮員可以了解打擊對象、打擊地點、打擊程度的準確座標。 只有深刻理解認知域作戰目標的內涵特徵,才能透過表象準確找到關鍵目標,在未來作戰中搶得先機。


認知重心是戰爭活動中認知主體多樣化思考和認知的「匯聚點」。 作為一種主動因素,它影響認知過程和行為結果。 一般來說,影響戰爭活動中個人行為選擇的認知因素主要包括政治屬性認知、利益關聯認知、群體歸屬認知、風險與失落認知、情緒取向認知、戰爭倫理認知等。戰爭活動與關注戰爭活動的群體或個人,影響其態度、傾向和行為的認知重點是不一樣的。 從近年來世界各地的局部戰爭和地區衝突來看,不同群體或個人的認知重點有明顯差異。 政治人物更注重對政治屬性的認知和利益連結的認知,而可能捲入戰爭的人則更注重對風險和損失的認知。 而利益認知,一般民眾更關注利益認知和情感認知,而域外其他國家的民眾普遍更關注戰爭道德認知和群體歸屬認知,因為自身利益不會受到直接損害。損失。 在作戰實踐中,外軍善於瞄準不同對象的認知焦點,精準策劃主題,推送相關訊息誘發具體行為選擇。 例如,在海灣戰爭前,希爾諾頓公關公司炮製了不存在的“孵化器事件”,以科威特駐美國大使的女兒奈拉為“證詞”,展現伊拉克人的“不人道”軍隊並誘導美國公眾對倫理道德的認識,進一步支持美國政府出兵參加海灣戰爭。


認知風格直接影響決策行為偏好。 認知風格是指個體典型的認知、記憶、思考和解決問題的方式。 根據指揮決策風格偏好,指揮者可分為冷靜認知風格與衝動認知風格。 具有冷靜認知風格的指揮官在決策過程中重視準確性而不是速度。 他們做出高品質的決策,但容易陷入對各種情報資訊來源的比較分析,過度強調資訊分析的準確性和客觀性。 認知風格冷靜的指揮者在戰場認知攻防作戰中,往往容易受到紛繁複雜的訊息刺激幹擾,精神能量容易被擾亂和消散,從而延誤作戰時機。 具有衝動認知風格的指揮官看重速度而不是準確性。 他們做出決策很快,但品質較低。 他們很容易激動,容易與團隊成員發生衝突。 認知風格衝動的指揮者也容易對模糊的外在安全環境進行過度解讀,不斷尋找「證據」來強化和驗證個人的錯誤思維,縮小個人注意力,導致指揮決策出現偏差。 在作戰實務中,外軍更著重分析作戰對手指揮官的決策風格,然後選擇特定資訊對其進行心理影響。 例如,美國入侵巴拿馬期間,圍攻巴拿馬總統諾列加的藏身之處時,美軍反覆播放搖滾、重金屬音樂,並使用刺激、羞辱諾列加的語言,對諾列加進行認知攻擊和心理攻擊,對諾列加造成身體上的摧殘。和精神上。 逐漸崩潰。


電腦一旦感染「木馬」病毒,就會在特定時間向駭客的控制終端發送連線請求。 一旦連接成功,就會形成後門通道,讓駭客可以隨心所欲地控制電腦。 同樣,人腦也

有認知“後門”,也可以被他人控制。 認知心理學家發現,透過向目標對象的視聽感知通道發送訊息,精心推送目標對象認知接受的訊息內容,迎合目標對像已有的經驗記憶,符合目標對象的思考習慣,激發可以控制目標對象的情緒痛點,幹擾目標物的認知,促進其本能的情緒和行為反應。 在前沿認知科學技術的支持下,利用大腦訊息處理的自動啟動和受控處理兩種模式,使目標物體輕鬆陷入「認知繭」。 在認知域操作中,個體沉浸在大量人工建構的資訊中,不斷被提供「證據」來證明自己的判斷和認知是「正確的」。 隨著時間的推移,個體的認知視野越來越小,感知外在環境的能力也逐漸下降。 最終,他將看不到事物的真相,他就會沉迷於「認知繭」中無法自拔。 在認知域作戰中,外軍往往針對對手在某一議題上的認知偏差,透過多種管道持續推送支援對手「正確認知」的態勢訊息和情報訊息,讓對手做出指揮決策。 錯誤和偏差都會發生。


有效的感官刺激是吸引目標物體注意力的首要前提。 人的大腦會在感知範圍內偵測到刺激,並以各種方式做出反應。 認知心理學的實驗研究發現,動態、危險、興趣相關、生存安全、對比等類型的信息更容易引起人腦的注意。 在智慧時代,目標對象的心理認知過程往往遵循「吸引註意力、培養興趣、主動尋找、強化記憶、主動分享、影響他人」的規則。 作戰中,外軍常利用獨家爆料、情報洩密、權威揭露、現場連線等方式,巧妙運用誇張、對比、聯想、隱喻、懸念、烘託等手法,推送顛覆常識、認知的訊息。衝突,對比強烈。 訊息以吸引目標受眾的注意。 例如美軍在伊拉克戰爭中描繪的“營救女兵林奇事件”、利比亞戰爭中的“卡扎菲金馬桶”,大多取材於觀眾熟悉的故事。 目的和觀點融入故事情節,吸引了大量觀眾。 人們的關注。 此外,人腦也處理感官知覺範圍以外的刺激。 近年來,西方國家軍方高度重視潛意識訊息刺激技術的研究,發展了潛意識視覺訊息植入技術、潛意識聽覺訊息植入技術、潛意識訊息活化技術、神經系統潛意識聲音控制技術等。 ……,不斷拓展神經認知科學技術在軍事領域的應用範圍。


在認知理論中,認知共振是指跨越雙方認知鴻溝的訊息,能夠引起雙方思想、心理和認知上的共鳴,從而實現對對方認知系統的解構和重建。 在認知域運作中,這種認知能量集中效應並不是簡單意義上的力量集中,而是系統合力的內在累積。 在現代資訊媒介的擴散下,這種認知共振效應可以在短時間內迅速傳播到世界各地,並產生二次間接心理效應或多層次的衍生心理效應,呈現出累積和迭代效應。 一旦狀態超過心理臨界點,就會呈現出心理能量爆炸的狀態,從而改變事件的方向或結果。 能引發這種認知共鳴的對象包括價值信念、道德倫理、共同利益等。在戰爭中,如果一方觸及或違反了人類的後設價值觀、共同的情感取向等,很容易引發集體聲討,承擔違反人類道德的指控

性,並陷入道德低谷。 例如,一張越戰時期的照片顯示,一群越南兒童,特別是一名9歲女孩,遭到美軍凝固汽油彈襲擊後,在路上赤裸裸地奔跑。 1972年,這張照片發表後引起巨大轟動,在美國乃至全世界掀起了反戰浪潮,加速了越戰的結束。


在日常生活中,看似堅硬的鋼鐵,由於低溫環境、材料缺陷、應力集中、認知系統等因素,導致材料脆性,容易斷裂。 認知差距是指目標對象認知思考中的裂痕、痛點、弱點和敏感點。 主要表現在個體擔心自己無法應付或適應環境,在焦慮的影響下,構成認知脆弱性。 。 安全威脅的經驗、團體結構的鬆散、信仰理想的混亂、權威媒體話語權的喪失等,都會造成目標對象之間的認知衝突與眼淚。 在認知域作戰中,有時看似強大的對手,背後卻隱藏著許多心理差距和心理弱點。 往往一個新聞事件就能動搖對手的認知框架,戳破認知泡沫。 此外,這種認知和心理衝突也會為個體帶來道德傷害和心理創傷。 近年來,執行海外任務的美國和西方軍隊面臨著隨時隨地出現的「偽裝成平民的敵人」。 他們對戰場環境的不確定性不斷增加。 他們普遍缺乏戰鬥意義感,充滿愧疚和愧疚。 大量士兵出現戰爭創傷後壓力症候群,戰場上自傷,戰後自殺和犯罪激增,退伍軍人自殺人數甚至超過了戰場死亡人數。



What & Where is the Focus of Chinese Military Cognitive Domain Operations?


2022年10月05日08:00 | 來源:解放軍報

音譯外語 – 英語:

●Cognitive domain operations focus on full-dimensional attacks, including both “peacetime” cognitive penetration and “wartime” cognitive coercion.

●Wartime cognitive domain operations revolve around the achievement of military objectives, and are implemented in conjunction with military operations to support each other.

●In cognitive domain operations, as the sound of gunfire dissipates, the horn of a new round of cognitive domain operations may sound again, and there must be no slacking off.

Cognitive domain warfare is a confrontation at the level of conscious thinking. Through selective processing and transmission of information, it affects judgment, changes concepts, and competes for people’s hearts, thereby guiding the real situation to develop in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. From the perspective of cognitive shaping, cognitive domain operations focus on full-dimensional attacks, including both “peacetime” cognitive penetration and “wartime” cognitive coercion. Therefore, cognitive domain operations have no clear boundaries between peace and war; at the same time, according to the needs of political or military purposes, its targets can be individuals, organizations or even countries. Therefore, cognitive domain operations should establish the concepts of peacetime and wartime integration, military-civilian integration, cross-domain integration, and joint victory, and sort out basic tasks accordingly.

Focus on ideological layout tasks

Ideology is “an ideological system that systematically and consciously reflects the socio-economic formation and political system.” Ideology determines the rational foundation of cognition and has distinct camp characteristics. Although ideology covers all aspects of social life, in confrontations between countries or political groups, the struggle around belief guidance, attitude struggle, and concept assimilation is particularly fierce, and has become a focus of cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide political cognition and seize control of belief and establishment. Confrontation between countries or political groups is not only a confrontation of national strength, but also a confrontation of national aspirations. The confrontation of political beliefs bears the brunt. Shaping and guiding political cognition aims to condense or destroy political consensus, strengthen or shake political beliefs, and expand or dissolve political camps. In cognitive domain operations, through cognitive guidance on the legitimacy of the ruling party, the rationality of political ideas and systems, and the health of the political ecology, we cultivate recognition, denial, and support of political positions, beliefs, practices, etc. Or hatred and other emotions, laying out a political cognitive layout that is beneficial to oneself and detrimental to the enemy. Political cognition is related to the survival foundation of a country or organization and is the primary focus of cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide war cognition and seize the right to lead war attitudes. A country can be without war, but it cannot be without a sense of war. War cognition is the basis for the formation and development of the will, concepts, psychology, and thinking of individuals, organizations, and countries in the war cycle. Through cognitive guidance on the essence, nature, legal concepts, etc. of war, we build a war cognitive thinking system, guide the evaluation direction of the rationality, justice, and legality of war, promote the formation of support or opposition attitudes towards possible wars, and regulate The rise and fall of willingness to assume war obligations is a key issue in cognitive guidance of war. War cognition affects war attitudes, and the struggle for its control is a task that must be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide value cognition and seize control of emotions and will. Values ​​influence people’s judgment of beauty and ugliness, right and wrong, and social behavior orientation. In terms of identifying things and judging right and wrong, human emotions always tend to support claims with similar values. Value cognition permeates every corner of life. Through the dissemination of ethical concepts, standards of beauty, ugliness, good and evil, literary and artistic opinions, etc., competition for the right to guide values, the right to guide life patterns, and the right to judge traditional inheritance is frequent and fierce. . In real life, different values ​​often interpenetrate and entangle with each other. The essence of shaping and guiding value cognition is to strive for social and emotional recognition, which is a regular task in cognitive domain operations.

Pay close attention to social psychology and the task of building momentum

Social psychology provides a perceptual and experiential basis for cognition. It is formed on the basis of daily life, social activities, practical insights and other experiences. Social psychological guidance often promotes unpredictable changes in the actual situation. It is one of the usual modes of confrontation between the two sides, especially during non-military conflicts. It is also a task that must be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Guide national psychology and regulate national emotions. National psychology is one of the social psychology that is most likely to cause conflicts and confrontations. Attacking national self-esteem can breed national inferiority complex and easily lead to disintegration. Improving national self-esteem can enhance national cohesion, but the expansion of national self-esteem can easily lead to the emergence of extreme racism, national chauvinism, etc.; the status, interests, and culture of different ethnic groups within the country Differences in people, customs, and lifestyles provide opportunities for people with ulterior motives to stir up ethnic antagonisms, while the same living space and cooperation process lay the foundation for eliminating prejudice and even cohesion and tolerance among ethnic groups. The result depends on the perception. Know the guide. National psychological guidance is sensitive and easy to lose control, and has a direct impact on social stability. It is a task that needs to be focused on in cognitive domain operations.

Guide group psychology and increase and eliminate oppositional consciousness. Groups generally refer to people of the same type, such as ethnicity, region, class, professional groups, even civil society groups, non-governmental organizations, etc. If groups are subjectively defined based on “convergence”, then the “differences” between groups exist objectively. This difference may be political and economic status, cultural thought, regional concept or other factors. Inducing the perception of differences and promoting the antagonism between different groups such as party opposition, regional opposition, professional opposition, rich and poor opposition, etc. will not only damage the internal unity of the country, but also accumulate and increase the dissatisfaction of all sectors of society against the political authorities, and instigate social mobilization. The turbulence and division left behind a foreshadowing. In cognitive domain operations, this kind of social psychology needs to be paid attention to.

Guide individual psychology and influence social emotions. In cognitive domain operations, individual psychological guidance is divided into two situations. One is the psychological guidance of important figures, such as sensitive professionals, public intellectuals, academic elites, successful business people, etc. The struggle for their political positions, emotional attitudes, etc. is an issue that both sides of the confrontation need to focus on. One is the use of phenomena that easily trigger individual psychological resonance. Such as public crises, major accidents, natural disasters and even some crimes and emergencies in life, intentionally inducing certain emotions may cause group polarization due to the herd effect of individuals, thus triggering changes in public opinion and even social unrest. Both of these aspects need to be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Targeting the critical mission of wartime cognition

Cognitive domain operations begin before military operations and end after military operations. Wartime cognitive domain operations revolve around the achievement of military objectives, are implemented in conjunction with military operations and support each other, and are characterized by violent coercion. In this stage of cognitive domain operations, “offensive” and “defensive” actions are carried out simultaneously, the influence of weapons and propaganda effects are comprehensively effective, and methods such as “lure”, “attack”, “deception” and “control” are emerging one after another. This is the key to cognitive domain operations. critical stage.

Attack the mind and seize the will, force and induce cognition. Wartime cognitive attacks are mainly carried out to weaken the enemy’s will to resist and induce the enemy to make wrong decisions. Targeting the enemy’s decision-makers, front-line commanders, etc., use targeted attacks to shake the will to resist, and use information deception and interference to induce decision-making. Targeting armed forces, mainly the military, use force to shock and deter, and comprehensively use operations such as public opinion warfare and emerging technologies. Means are used to shake their belief in participating in the war, trigger their panic, undermine their military morale, and dominate their action patterns; targeting social support forces, conveying tough messages to undermine confidence through large-scale military exercises, equipment testing, propaganda of weapon lethality effectiveness, etc., and through selective Target strikes and dissemination of war situations can induce panic, and efforts can be made to gain understanding by publicizing one’s own humanitarian actions in the war and relevant international comments.

Build a strong line of defense and control the situation with concentration. The focus of cognitive defense in wartime is to build a strong defense line of “heart”, “will” and “intellect” to prevent the loss of fighting spirit under the stimulation of drastic changes in the situation or environment. Education and publicity are the basic approaches to cognitive defense in wartime. For the forces participating in the war, stimulate enthusiasm for participating in the war through mobilization and encouragement, clarify the truth by refuting rumors, establish the belief in victory by publicizing the results of the war, mobilize morale by setting examples, etc.; for the supporting forces, educate the justice, rationality, and legality of the war. Propaganda is used to establish a sense of mission, responsibility, and obligation among the people, to inspire a sense of hatred and hatred by exposing the enemy’s brutal behavior, to stimulate enthusiasm for supporting operations by publicizing the deeds of local governments participating in the war and supporting frontline operations, and so on.

Expand your camp and eliminate hidden dangers. Creating a favorable cognitive atmosphere and providing support for the expansion of one’s own camp is an important aspect that must be achieved in wartime cognitive domain operations. In particular, the fight for international support is mainly through political, diplomatic and other activities, but the widespread diffusion of one’s own positions, ideas, attitudes, etc. often leads to changes in international civil attitudes, which in turn affects decision-making at the political level. Provide support for your own camp expansion. In addition, wartime cognitive domain operations also have an important task throughout the war, which is to eliminate the adverse hidden dangers caused by various accidents in the war. Especially in the later stages of the war, as the destructive effects of war appear and spread, people’s cognitive system will be repeatedly impacted by different information. During this period, ideological guidance, social psychological shaping, and individual psychological counseling are required to work together to ensure the consolidation of the results. In cognitive domain operations, as the sound of guns dissipates, the horn of a new round of cognitive domain operations may sound again, and there must be no slacking off.





認知域戰是意識思維層面的對抗。 透過對訊息的選擇性加工和傳遞,影響判斷,改變觀念,爭奪人心,從而引導現實形勢向有利於自己的方向發展。 從認知塑造的角度來看,認知域作戰著重全維度攻擊,既包括「和平時期」的認知滲透,也包括「戰時」的認知強制。 因此,認知域作戰在和平與戰爭之間沒有明確的界線; 同時,根據政治或軍事目的的需要,其目標可以是個人、組織甚至國家。 因此,認知域作戰應樹立平戰融合、軍民融合、跨域融合、共同勝利的理念,並相應梳理基礎任務。


意識形態是「系統性地、自覺地反映社會經濟形態和政治制度的思想體系」。 意識形態決定認知的理性基礎,具有鮮明的陣營特質。 儘管意識形態涵蓋了社會生活的各個層面,但在國家或政治團體之間的對抗中,圍繞著信仰引導、態度鬥爭、觀念同化的鬥爭尤為激烈,成為認知域作戰的焦點。

塑造和引導政治認知並掌控信仰和體制。 國家或政治團體之間的對抗,不僅是國家實力的對抗,更是民族願望的對抗。 政治信仰的對抗首當其衝。 塑造和引導政治認知,旨在凝聚或破壞政治共識、強化或動搖政治信念、擴大或消解政治陣營。 在認知域操作中,透過對執政黨合法性、政治理念和製度合理性、政治生態健康狀況的認知引導,培養對政治立場、信念、實踐等的認可、否定和支持。或仇恨等情緒,佈置出有利己不利敵的政治認知佈局。 政治認知關係到一個國家或組織的生存基礎,是認知領域運作的首要關注。

塑造和引導戰爭認知,掌握戰爭態度引領權。 一個國家可以沒有戰爭,但不能沒有戰爭意識。 戰爭認知是個人、組織、國家在戰爭週期中意志、觀念、心理、思考形成和發展的基礎。 透過對戰爭的本質、性質、法律概念等的認知引導,建構戰爭認知思維體系,引導對戰爭合理性、正義性、合法性的評價方向,促進對可能發生的戰爭形成支持或反對態度。承擔戰爭義務意願的盛衰是戰爭認知引導的關鍵問題。 戰爭認知影響戰爭態度,對其控制權的競爭是認知域作戰必須重視的任務。

塑造和引導價值認知,抓住情感和意志的控制。 價值觀影響著人們對美醜、是非的判斷以及社會行為取向。 在辨識事物和判斷是非方面,人類的情感總是傾向於支持具有相似價值觀的主張。 價值認知滲透到生活的各個角落。 透過倫理觀念、美醜善惡標準、文學藝術觀點等的傳播,對價值引導權、生活方式引導權、傳統傳承判斷權的爭奪頻繁而激烈。兇猛的。 。 現實生活中,不同的價值觀常常互相滲透、糾纏。 塑造和引導價值認知的本質是爭取社會和情感認可,這是認知領域中運作的常規任務。


社會心理學為認知提供了感性和經驗基礎。 它是在日常生活、社會活動、實踐感悟和其他經驗的基礎上形成的。 社會的

心理疏導往往會促使實際情況發生不可預測的變化。 這是雙方通常的對抗模式之一,特別是在非軍事衝突期間。 這也是認知域操作中必須重視的任務。

引導民族心理,調節民族情緒。 民族心理是最容易引起衝突和對抗的社會心理之一。 攻擊民族自尊,會滋長民族自卑感,容易導致民族解體。 提高民族自尊可以增強民族凝聚力,但民族自尊的膨脹很容易導致極端種族主義、民族沙文主義等的出現; 國內不同民族的地位、利益、文化、民俗、生活方式的差異,為別有用心的人煽動民族對立提供了機會,而相同的生存空間和合作進程,則為消除偏見和發展奠定了基礎。甚至族群之間的凝聚力和包容性。 結果取決於感知。 了解指南。 國民心理疏導敏感、容易失控,直接影響社會穩定。 這是認知域操作中需要重點關注的任務。

引導群體心理,增加和消除對立意識。 群體一般指同一類型的人,如種族、地區、階級、職業群體,甚至民間團體、非政府組織等。如果群體是基於「趨同」來主觀定義的,那麼群體之間的「差異」群體是客觀存在的。 這種差異可能是政治經濟地位、文化思想、地域觀念或其他因素。 誘導差異認知,助長黨派反對派、地區反對派、職業反對派、貧富對立等不同群體之間的對立,不僅會損害國家內部的團結,還會積累和增加各方的不滿情緒。社會各界反對政治當局,並煽動社會動員。 動盪和分裂留下了伏筆。 在認知域操作中,需要關注這種社會心理。

引導個體心理,影響社會情緒。 在認知域操作中,個別心理引導分為兩種情況。 一是重要人物的心理疏導,如敏感專業人士、公共知識分子、學術精英、成功商界人士等,他們的政治立場、情感態度等鬥爭是對抗雙方都需要重點關注的問題。 一是利用容易引發個體心理共鳴的現象。 例如公共危機、重大事故、自然災害甚至生活中的一些犯罪和突發事件,刻意誘發某些情緒可能會因個體的羊群效應而造成群體極化,從而引發輿論變化甚至社會動盪。 認知域操作中需要注意這兩方面。


認知域操作在軍事行動之前開始,在軍事行動之後結束。 戰時認知域作戰圍繞著實現軍事目標,與軍事行動結合實施、相互支持,具有暴力強制的特質。 此階段的認知域作戰,「進攻」和「防禦」行動同時進行,武器影響力和宣傳效果綜合有效,採用「誘」、「攻」、「欺騙」、「控制」等手段。 」紛紛湧現。 這是認知域操作的關鍵。 關鍵階段。

攻心奪意志,強行誘發認知。 戰時認知攻擊主要是為了削弱敵方抵抗意志、誘導敵方做出錯誤決策而進行的。 針對敵方決策者、第一線指揮等,利用定向攻擊動搖抵抗意志,利用資訊欺騙和乾擾誘導決策。 針對以軍隊為主的武裝力量,以武力震懾、威懾,綜合運用輿論戰、新興技術等作戰手段。 用手段動搖他們的參戰信念,引發他們的恐慌,削弱他們的軍心,主導他們的行動模式; 針對社會支持力量,透過大規模軍事演習、裝備測試、武器殺傷效能宣傳等方式傳遞強硬訊息,破壞信心,透過選擇性地進行目標打擊、傳播戰況,引發恐慌,努力


構築堅固防線,集中力量掌控事態。 戰時認知防禦的重點在於建構「心」、「意志」、「智」的堅固防線,防止在局勢或環境急劇變化的刺激下喪失鬥志。 教育和宣傳是戰時認知防禦的基本途徑。 對參戰力量,透過動員激勵激發參戰熱情,透過闢謠澄清真相,透過宣傳戰爭成果樹立勝利信念,透過樹立榜樣調動士氣等; 對支援部隊進行戰爭正義、合理、合法性教育。 宣傳是為了在人民群眾中建立使命感、責任感、義務感,透過揭露敵人的殘暴行徑,激發仇恨感和仇恨感,透過宣傳地方政府參戰事蹟,激發支援作戰熱情以及支援前線行動等等。

擴大你的營地並消除隱患。 營造良好的認知氛圍,為己方陣營的擴張提供支持,是戰時認知領域作戰必須做到的重要面向。 特別是,爭取國際支持主要是透過政治、外交等活動,但自身立場、理念、態度等的廣泛傳播,往往會導致國際民間態度的變化,進而影響各國的決策。政治層面。 為您自己的營地擴展提供支援。 此外,戰時認知域作戰還有一項貫穿整場戰爭的重要任務,就是消除戰爭中各種意外事件造成的不良隱患。 尤其是在戰爭後期,隨著戰爭破壞性效應的顯現和蔓延,人們的認知系統會一再受到不同資訊的衝擊。 在此期間,需要思想引導、社會心理塑造、個人心理疏導等共同努力,確保成果的鞏固。 在認知域作戰中,隨著槍聲消散,新一輪認知域作戰的號角可能會再次吹響,絕不能有絲毫懈怠。


Chinese People’s Liberation Army Exploring Ways to Win in Cognitive Domain Operations



Judging from the latest local war practice, cognitive domain operations have become an important variable that profoundly affects the direction of war. In cognitive domain operations, all parties compete fiercely for control of public opinion, information guidance, and cognitive shaping. There are not only physical confrontations, but also competitions in virtual space, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of “technology +” in the digital era. Exploring the way to win in cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for controlling the initiative in cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Seizing control of the brain has become the ultimate goal of cognitive domain operations

The brain is the material basis of all thinking activities and the command center that influences and controls human behavior changes. Feeling, perception and consciousness constitute the three aspects of the world that the brain reflects. How to win the right to control the brain has increasingly become the focus of research and attention by all warring parties in the field of cognitive domain operations.

Actively fight for sensory control. Feeling is the reaction caused by the characteristics of objective things in the human brain, and is the basis for various complex psychological processes. With the rapid development of brain science, molecular biology, neurochemistry and other disciplines, humans have gradually gained the ability to intervene and control the brain at the physiological level. According to foreign experimental results, inhaling oxytocin will make people more trusting of others and more empathetic, thereby affecting a person’s prosociality and moral performance. In future operations, the warring parties will use physical stimulation such as sound, light and electricity, or chemical drugs to act on the target’s hearing, vision, smell and other sensory systems. They may even directly act on the human brain to stimulate the target’s brain. Specific emotional reactions can achieve cognitive influence and control on the physiological level.

Effective competition for perceptual suppression. Perception is a psychological process formed on the basis of sensation and reflects the overall image and surface connection of objective things. Among them, the individual’s attitude, motivation, interest, as well as past experience and future expectations are the key variables that affect the individual’s perception of the perceptual target. During wartime, warring parties aim at the target’s psychological doubts, weaknesses, and needs, seize favorable opportunities, and use specific information to emotionally influence, mentally induce, or disrupt the target’s perception in order to increase the target’s perception of the target. The expectation of war risks weakens their will to resist and their determination to fight, thereby achieving the purpose of subduing the enemy with a small war, less fighting or even no fighting.

Comprehensive competition for the right to shape consciousness. Consciousness is realized through psychological processes such as feeling, perception, and thinking, and is manifested as the unity of knowledge, emotion, and intention. The fundamental purpose of war is to force the enemy to surrender. Judging from the war practice at home and abroad in ancient and modern times, in order to win the right to shape consciousness, the warring parties will do their best to mobilize all available military power and comprehensively use political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other means to carry out political disintegration and diplomatic measures against the enemy. Isolation, guidance of public opinion, and declaration of legal principles can trigger rational thinking, ethical resonance, or value recognition of target individuals or groups, thereby changing their worldview, outlook on life, and values, forming a relatively stable and long-term cognitive influence or control, thereby achieving “complete victory.” “the goal of.

Controlling information becomes the key to cognitive domain operations

The weapon and ammunition of cognitive domain operations is information. Mastering the initiative in the generation, identification, acquisition, dissemination and feedback of information is the key to gaining battlefield advantage in the cognitive domain.

Actively implement strong psychological stimulation to promote information penetration. Modern warfare is fierce and complex, with various elements of confrontation unfolding in multi-dimensional and multi-domain contexts, and fighter jets fleeting. The forces and methods acting in the cognitive domain must keep up with the development and changes of the battlefield situation, and make extensive use of strong psychological stimulation methods such as subliminal information implantation, acousto-optical electromagnetic psychological nuisance damage, and non-contact emotional control to take the initiative to induce the target. The subject’s emotions, will, thoughts, beliefs, etc. appear chaotic, confused or radically changed, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling and influencing the cognitive system of the target subject.

Extensive use of intelligent algorithms to achieve accurate push. As the Internet penetrates into every aspect of human life, everyone will leave massive amounts of data and information online. During wartime, warring parties will use modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to analyze the target’s social data, trajectory data, financial data, online shopping records, search records, personal communication records and other network data. The information is deeply mined and associated to achieve a “cognitive portrait” of the target object, and the target object’s interest preferences, behavioral trends, interpersonal relationships and value orientations are systematically analyzed, thereby three-dimensionally grasping the characteristics of relevant individuals or specific groups. Then, with the help of intelligent algorithm technology, personalized and customized cognitive information is accurately pushed to the target object, thereby affecting the target object’s attitude, emotion and value judgment towards the war, thereby promoting the realization of one’s own combat objectives and political intentions.

Effectively aggregate social support systems to achieve overall linkage. The social support system is the material and spiritual help and support that a person can obtain from others in his or her social network. It is a key factor that affects and determines the emotional support and cognitive direction of an individual. It can be said that for the success of cognitive domain operations, it is crucial to obtain the support and assistance of the target’s social support system. With the help of modern information technology, we can effectively connect to the target’s relatives, friends, classmates, partners and other specific social relations. By exerting targeted influence on the above-mentioned relations, we can gain the understanding, support and trust of the other party, and mobilize the specific relations to When the target object exerts influence, it is easier to win the trust and acceptance of the target object, and it is easier for the target object to undergo cognitive changes, thereby achieving the purpose of cognitive influence and control on the target object.

Virtual space becomes the main battlefield for cognitive domain operations

With the continuous expansion of human virtual space, virtual space is becoming the main battlefield of modern warfare, especially cognitive domain warfare, which determines the outcome of future wars to a certain extent.

Emerging communication forms have become new means of warfare in the cognitive domain. With the continuous development of mobile Internet technology, emerging communication forms represented by social media have gradually become a new platform and mainstream position for cognitive confrontation. Judging from recent local wars, the status and role of social media has become more and more prominent. All warring parties use personal blogs, forums and other platforms to publish battlefield pictures, videos, and comments in real time, which has not only become a global mobile online media terminal. It has also become the main battleground for the value perception game among different countries and different factions around the world. Emerging communication forms such as social media, with their unique decentralization and interactivity characteristics, have broken the information monopoly and information control in traditional communication methods and spawned numerous product styles. While meeting people’s information needs, they are also Unknowingly changing people’s perceptions. It is foreseeable that social media will play an increasingly prominent role in cognitive domain operations in the future.

Cyberspace has become a new space for cognitive domain operations. Under the conditions of informatization and intelligence, the threshold of network technology has been greatly reduced, making it possible to watch the game in real time around the world. Modern warfare has developed from “living room warfare” in the television era to “handheld warfare” in today’s all-media era. Online live broadcast is more intuitive and richer than any form of battlefield reporting, and “global synchronicity” has become a prominent feature. Through live broadcasts on the Internet, videos and pictures of fierce battles between the two warring parties, as well as numerous burned tanks and armored vehicles, as well as homes destroyed by the war and refugees fleeing their homes, can be visually presented. People can see the micro-state of individual civilians and soldiers on both sides through the Internet. The “transparency” of the battlefield makes any attempt to conceal the truth and false statements more and more difficult. But on the other hand, the emergence of technologies such as intelligent voice cloning and video portrait simulation replacement means that what people see may not necessarily be “as seen” and what they hear may not be “as heard”. Cognition under online live broadcasts Domain operations add more room for possibility and imagination.

The intelligent network army has become a new force in cognitive domain warfare. The development of information networks has broken through the authenticity limitations of interpersonal communication, and it is difficult for us to determine whether the other end of the network is a real person. Based on the needs of large-scale interaction, intelligent, automated, and large-scale cyberspace robots are emerging. They are widely active in every corner of cyberspace. These intelligent network armies have the capabilities of intelligent recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. They are tireless and work around the clock. Intelligent network armies are becoming an important force in future cognitive domain operations. Judging from the current development trends of related technologies, major countries and even business organizations in the world are focusing on the potential prospects of network robots in group penetration, live broadcast follow-up, shaping public opinion, and managing network crises. In the flexible guidance of network intelligent robots, Increase research and development efforts on key technologies such as automatic acquisition of technology groups, automatic cultivation and group penetration, and provide intelligent and efficient technical support for public opinion guidance, cognitive shaping, and behavioral guidance and control by discovering and effectively utilizing the behavioral patterns of network users.



從最新的局部戰爭實踐來看,認知域作戰已成為深刻影響戰爭走向的重要變因。 在認知域作戰中,各方對輿論控制、資訊引導、認知塑造等方面展開激烈競爭。 不僅有實體對抗,還有虛擬空間的較量,展現出數位時代「科技+」的鮮明特質。 探索認知域作戰的致勝之道,對於掌控認知域作戰主動權、贏得未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。


大腦是一切思考活動的物質基礎,是影響和控制人類行為改變的指揮中心。 感覺、知覺和意識構成了大腦反映的世界的三個面向。 如何贏得大腦的控制權,日益成為認知域作戰領域交戰各方研究與關注的焦點。

積極爭取感官控制。 感覺是人腦對客觀事物特徵所引起的反應,也是各種複雜心理過程的基礎。 隨著腦科學、分子生物學、神經化學等學科的快速發展,人類逐漸具備了在生理層面介入和控制大腦的能力。 根據國外實驗結果,吸入催產素會使人更信任他人,更有同理心,進而影響一個人的親社會性和道德表現。 在未來的行動中,交戰雙方將利用聲音、光、電等物理刺激或化學藥物作用於目標的聽覺、視覺、嗅覺等感覺系統。 它們甚至可能直接作用於人腦,刺激目標大腦。 特定的情緒反應可以在生理層面上實現認知影響和控制。

知覺抑制的有效競爭。 知覺是在感覺基礎上形成的心理過程,反映客觀事物的整體形象和表面連結。 其中,個體的態度、動機、興趣以及過去的經驗和未來的期望是影響個體對感性目標感知的關鍵變數。 戰時,交戰雙方針對目標的心理疑慮、弱點和需求,抓住有利時機,利用特定訊息對目標進行情緒影響、精神誘導或擾亂感知,以增加目標對目標的感知。 對戰爭風險的預期削弱了他們的抵抗意志和戰鬥決心,從而達到以小戰、少戰甚至不戰克敵的目的。

全面競爭塑造意識。 意識是透過感覺、知覺、思考等心理過程實現的,表現為知、情感、意圖的統一。 戰爭的根本目的是迫使敵人投降。 從古今中外的戰爭實踐來看,交戰雙方為了贏得意識塑造權,都會竭盡全力調動一切可以動用的軍事力量,綜合運用政治、經濟、文化、外交等多種手段。手段是對敵人實施政治瓦解和外交措施。 隔離、輿論引導、法理宣示,可以引發目標個人或群體的理性思考、倫理共鳴或價值認同,從而改變其世界觀、人生觀、價值觀,形成相對穩定、長期的認知。影響或控制,從而取得“完全勝利」。 “的目標。


認知領域作戰的武器和彈藥是資訊。 掌握資訊產生、辨識、獲取、傳播和回饋的主動權,是認知領域中獲得戰場優勢的關鍵。

積極實施強烈的心理刺激,促進訊息滲透。 現代戰爭激烈複雜,對抗要素多維度、多領域,戰機瞬息萬變。 作用於認知域的力量和方式必須跟上戰場情勢的發展變化,廣泛運用潛意識訊息植入、聲光電磁心理滋擾傷害、非接觸情感等強心理刺激手段。控制主動誘導目標。 時間


大量運用智慧演算法,實現精準推送。 隨著網路滲透到人類生活的各個層面,每個人都會在網路上留下大量的數據和資訊。 戰時,交戰雙方會利用大數據、雲端運算、物聯網、區塊鏈等現代資訊技術,分析目標的社交數據、軌跡數據、金融數據、網購記錄、搜尋記錄、個人通訊記錄等網路數據。 對資訊進行深度挖掘和關聯,實現目標對象的“認知畫像”,對目標對象的興趣偏好、行為傾向、人際關係、價值取向進行系統分析,從而三維掌握相關個體或特定對象的特徵。組。 接著藉助智慧演算法技術,將個人化、客製化的認知訊息精準推送給目標對象,進而影響目標對象對戰爭的態度、情感和價值判斷,進而促進自身作戰目標和政治意圖的實現。

有效聚合社會支持系統,實現整體連結。 社會支持系統是一個人在自己的社交網絡中能夠從他人那裡獲得的物質和精神上的幫助和支持。 它是影響和決定個別情緒支持和認知方向的關鍵因素。 可以說,認知域行動的成功,獲得目標社會支持系統的支持和幫助至關重要。 借助現代資訊技術,我們可以有效連結目標對象的親人、朋友、同學、合作夥伴等特定的社會關係。 透過對上述關係施加有針對性的影響,可以獲得對方的理解、支持和信任,調動具體關係向目標對象施加影響時,更容易贏得目標對象的信任和接受目標對象更容易發生認知變化,從而達到對目標對象進行認知影響與控制的目的。



新興的通信形式已成為認知領域的新戰爭手段。 隨著行動互聯網技術的不斷發展,以社群媒體為代表的新興傳播形式逐漸成為認知對抗的新平台和主流陣地。 從最近的局部戰爭來看,社群媒體的地位和角色越來越凸顯。 交戰各方利用個人部落格、論壇等平台即時發布戰場圖片、影片和評論,不僅成為全球行動網路媒體終端。 也成為全球不同國家、不同派系價值認知賽局的主戰場。 社群媒體等新興傳播形式以其獨特的去中心化、互動性特點,打破了傳統傳播方式中資訊的壟斷與資訊控制,催生了眾多的產品樣式。 在滿足人們資訊需求的同時,也不知不覺改變人們的認知。 可以預見,未來社群媒體將在認知領域運作中發揮越來越突出的作用。

網路空間已成為認知域作戰的新空間。 在資訊化、智慧化的條件下,網路科技的門檻大大降低,使得全球各地即時觀看比賽成為可能。 現代戰爭已從電視時代的「客廳戰」發展到當今全媒體時代的「手持戰」。 線上直播比任何形式的戰地報道都更直觀、更豐富,「全球同步」成為顯著特徵。 透過網路直播,交戰雙方激烈戰鬥的影片和圖片,以及無數被燒毀的坦克和裝甲車,以及被戰爭摧毀的家園和逃離家園的難民的影片和圖片都可以直觀地呈現。 人們可以透過網路看到雙方個別平民和士兵的微觀狀態。 戰場的「透明」使得任何企圖隱瞞真相和虛假言論的行為

越來越困難。 但另一方面,智慧語音克隆、視訊人像模擬替換等技術的出現,意味著人們看到的不一定是“所見”,聽到的也不一定是“所聞”。 線上直播下的認知領域運作增加了更多可能性和想像空間。

智慧網路軍隊已成為認知域戰爭的生力軍。 資訊網路的發展突破了人際互動的真實性限制,我們很難判斷網路的另一端是否是真人。 基於大規模互動的需求,智慧化、自動化、大規模的網路空間機器人不斷湧現。 他們廣泛活躍在網路空間的各個角落。 這些智慧網路軍隊具備智慧辨識、智慧響應甚至類腦思維的能力。 他們不知疲倦,日夜不停地工作。 智慧網路軍隊正成為未來認知域作戰的重要力量。 從目前相關技術的發展趨勢來看,全球主要國家甚至商業組織都在關注網路機器人在群體滲透、直播跟進、輿論塑造、網路危機管理等方面的潛在前景。 在網路智慧機器人彈性引導方面,加大科技群自動取得、自動培育、群體滲透等關鍵技術的研發力度,為輿情引導、認知塑造、行為引導等提供智慧高效的技術支援。透過發現並有效運用網路使用者的行為模式進行控制。


孫志友  孫海濤

Chinese Military Focusing on Future Wars and Fighting the “Five Battles” of Cognition



Most of the local wars and armed conflicts in recent years have been “hybrid” confrontations carried out in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, economic and other means to implement systematic control in the dimension of comprehensive decision-making, creating all kinds of chaos in the dimension of international communication, and creating various chaos in the dimension of international communication. Conduct targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shape the battlefield situation, and seek to seize the strategic initiative. In future wars, in order to successfully fight political and military battles and military and political battles, we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of offensive and defensive operations in the cognitive domain and improve our ability to fight the “five battles” well.

Be proactive in cognitive operations, shape the situation and control the situation, and fight proactively. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of war forms, the status and role of cognitive domain operations continue to be highlighted. Aiming to win future wars, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance. Through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive factors of target objects should be affected, intervened and manipulated, and cognitive attack and defense should be used to cover military operations and accurately Efficiently dominate cognitive space. Fully understand the importance of being first, grasp the definition and interpretation power of “narrative” flexibly and autonomously, emphasize pre-emption to win the initiative in the cognitive narrative struggle dimension, create a favorable situation in which legal principles are in hand and morality is on our side, and occupy the moral commanding heights.

Cognitive operations focus on attacking the heart, and implement layered strategies to fight precise battles. “Those who are good at fighting will benefit others without killing them.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will present the characteristics of being extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent and uninhabited, invisible, and silent. We should keep a close eye on cognitive gaps to improve effectiveness, and use methods such as big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, and psychological model evaluation to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects to achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. Closely focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, target the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual pillar points that maintain the unity of powerful enemy alliances to carry out effective strikes, and use their cognitive differences and interest conflicts to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategies, we must penetrate the entire territory and fight for deterrence and control. In future wars, the strategic competition and tactical confrontation between the two warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should pay close attention to the decision-making process and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we must pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike methods to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we must pay more attention to the “soft kill” effects of cognitive shaping, cognitive induction, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, which not only creates a strong deterrent through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, but also integrates new qualities The combat power is expanded to the cognitive dimension, thus forming an asymmetric check and balance advantage.

Cognitive combat information is king, expand the field and fight for support. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and system integration should be accelerated to gain data advantages. First of all, speed up the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive operations theory library, database, talent library, case library, and tactics library, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive operations capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, speed up the creation of the integrated media communication matrix, improve the self-owned platform system, speed up the deployment of network platforms, focus on system integration and collaboration, break down the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and achieve cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive results. Thirdly, accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making, psychological attack and defense, mine and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to win the future. War provides “clairvoyance” and “early ears”.

Cognitive combat coordination is the key, and multi-dimensional efforts are used to fight the overall battle. Future wars are joint operations carried out in land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic and other fields. System thinking should be adhered to, the awareness of collaboration should be strengthened, and the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations and other military operations should be improved. For example, it can integrate human intelligence, geographical intelligence, open source intelligence, etc., quickly collect and process massive data, remove falsehoods while retaining truth, seize cognitive space accurately and efficiently, achieve complementary advantages, and form cognitive advantages through full domain coverage. By networking dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish an all-domain joint force with high connectivity, collective action, and overall attack to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence.” By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, using cognitive momentum to amplify the effects of political disruption, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and cooperating with military operations to put pressure on target targets in an all-round way, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)


近年來的局部戰爭和武裝衝突大多是多維度、多領域開展的「混合型」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段在綜合決策維度實施系統控制,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂。 戰略重點維度精準打擊,主動塑造戰場態勢,尋求奪取戰略主動權。 在未來戰爭中,要打好政治軍事鬥爭、軍事政治鬥爭,就必須深刻掌​​握認知域攻防作戰的特徵和規律,提升打好「五個戰役」的能力。

認知作戰主動出擊,塑造局勢、掌控局面,主動出擊。 在戰爭開始之前,認​​知是第一位的。 隨著戰爭形式的不斷發展與演變,認知域作戰的地位與角色不斷凸顯。 為了贏得未來戰爭,必須事先進行認知部署。 透過策略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知因素進行影響、介入和操控,以認知攻防覆蓋軍事行動,精準高效主導認知空間。 充分認識先行的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義和解釋權,強調先發制人,贏得認知敘事鬥爭維度的主動權,營造法理在手、道德在手的良好局面就在我們這邊,佔據道德高點。

認知作戰重在攻心,實施分層策略打精準戰。 “善戰者,利人而不害人。” 未來戰爭,作戰空間將延伸至深海、深空、深網等領域,戰場時空將呈現極遠、極小、極智、無人、隱形、無聲的特徵。 資訊. 緊緊圍繞認知盲點增強穿透力,針對維護強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差異和利益衝突實現差異化和戰略性打擊。各個層面的瓦解。

基於認知作戰策略,我們必須滲透全境,爭取威懾和控制。 未來戰爭中,交戰雙方的戰略競爭和戰術對抗將會異常激烈。 要密切注意決策過程,綜合發力,增加對手決策困境,形成自己的決策優勢。 一方面,要更重視敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等關鍵節點,採用先進打擊手段對這些節點進行物理摧毀。 另一方面,要更重視認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入、認知控制的「軟殺傷」作用,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬殺傷」中,不僅透過精準打擊形成強大威懾。以高科技武器打擊的同時,也將新素質的戰鬥力擴展到認知維度,進而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓展領域,爭取支援。 未來戰爭離不開強大的資訊支撐,應加快系統整合以獲得數據優勢。 首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰術庫建設,動態收集和更新敵方認知攻防作戰能力現狀,提供全方位對認知進攻和防禦行動的全面支持。 二是加快打造綜合媒體傳播矩陣,完善自有平台體系,加速網路平台部署,聚焦系統

各方融合協作,盡快打破資訊互聯互通的“壁壘”,實現認知融合共享、綜合成果。 第三是加速資訊與認知域運算耦合連結,大力發展神經網路系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策、心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨領域、異質認知訊息,完善認知手段資訊融合體系,贏得未來。 戰爭提供了「千里眼」和「早耳」。

認知作戰協同是關鍵,多維度發力打好整體戰。 未來戰爭是在陸、海、空、太空、網路、電磁等領域進行聯合作戰。 要堅持系統思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性和協調性。 例如,可以融合人類智慧、地理智慧、開源智慧等,快速擷取處理大量數據,去偽存真,精準高效搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補,透過全域形成認知優勢覆蓋範圍。 透過將分散的多域力量聯網,建立高度連結、集體行動、整體出擊的全局聯合部隊,達到「一體化威懾」的效果。 透過整合國家資源,加強戰略溝通,利用認知動能放大政治擾亂、經濟制裁、外交攻勢的效果,配合軍事行動,全方位對目標對象施壓,力爭戰勝敵人不戰而屈人之兵。


來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍喜 編輯:王峰 2022-10-08


Integration of “Three Modernizations” within the Chinese Military Focusing on Exploring Combat Effectiveness Generation



●戰鬥力生成模式的轉變不是“你唱我就出現”,而是新戰鬥力因素與原有戰鬥力因素相互作用的過程。 這種交互過程會因新戰力因素的不同特性而改變。

●隨著智慧無人武器平台不斷進入戰爭舞台,人工智慧決策和演算法對抗為戰鬥力的生成增添了新的智慧因素。 作戰體系的對抗方式也從資訊主導的火力平台轉向以人、網路和機器的群體智慧引發認知對抗,推動「資訊×(火力+機動性)」的戰鬥力生成模式和進化到更高級的「【資訊×(火力+機動性)】」智能。

目前,現代戰爭正處於機械化、資訊化、智能化(以下簡稱「三化」)融合發展的十字路口。 探索「三化」融合條件下戰鬥力生成模式的內在規律,對於洞察新的戰爭制勝機制、掌握未來戰場主動權至關重要。 權利具有重要意義。


戰鬥力生成模式的轉變不是“你唱我上台”,而是新戰鬥力因素與原有戰鬥力因素相互作用的過程。 這種交互過程因新的戰鬥力要素的不同特性而改變。

機械化時代之前的疊加模式。 縱觀人類歷史,戰力的生成模式一直以「+」的方式演變。 從石器時代人的體力和技能的疊加,到冷兵器時代刀劍穿透力的加成,再到火藥時代火力的注入,再到機械化時代機動性的產生,軍事戰鬥力生成模型遵循疊加法。 形成了「體力+穿透力+火力+機動性」的發揮方式。 這種以疊加為特徵的戰鬥力生成模式,使人多勢眾的軍隊在戰場上具有壓倒性的優勢。 同時,雖然資訊的力量在戰場上一直起著決定性的作用,諸如「知己知彼,百戰不殆」就體現了資訊在古代戰場上的重要性。 但由於種種條件,“知己知彼”並不能完全保證“知己知彼”,“知己知彼”則更難。 資訊力量成為戰鬥力因素中最不可控的環節,從而在戰鬥力的生成中發揮從屬作用。

資訊時代的資訊乘數模型。 網路資訊時代,泛在網路提供了無所不包的訊息,促進了資訊的無所不在。 也將人們在資訊互動過程中引入「網路-資訊」空間; 而資訊單元的嵌入、智慧微塵的分散、微納感測器的部署,將坦克、戰鬥機、火砲、船等機械系統轉變為「資訊物理」系統。 在此過程中,資訊力、火力、機動性跨界鏈接,在戰鬥力的生成方式上產生疊加之外的乘法關係,呈現出「資訊×(火力+機動性)」的新方式。 這種以資訊力量為乘數因素的戰鬥力模型,首先是由資訊力量滲透火力和機動性的特徵決定的; 其次,資訊力量的地位高於火力和機動性; 第三,資訊力的強弱,可能由戰鬥力倍增或負荷銳減決定。 這遵循資訊力量的不確定性,取決於資訊與戰場情勢的匹配程度。

智慧時代的智慧指數模型。 人類從未停止對戰鬥力生成規律的探索。 近年來,隨著智慧無人武器平台不斷進入戰爭舞台,人工智慧決策和演算法對抗為戰鬥效果的生成增添了新的智慧化因素。

文尼斯。 作戰系統的對抗方式也從資訊主導的火力平台轉變為基於人、網路和機器的群體智慧所能獲勝的認知對抗,推動「資訊×資訊」的戰鬥力生成模式。(火力+機動性)」並進化到更高級的「【資訊×(火力+機動性)】智能」階段。 這種以「智力」為指數因子的戰鬥力生成模式的核心,是從最初的火力、機動性、資訊的對抗走向人類最高層次的對抗——認知對抗。 雖然現階段這種戰鬥發電模式尚未大規模應用於實戰,但未來它將成為高強度對抗的主角。 其對戰鬥力的影響源自於人工智慧,表現在三個方面:一是把人類從越來越礦山的「資訊困境」中解放出來; 其次,賦予無人系統武器自主攻擊和防禦能力; 第三,機器學習和演算法最佳化提供了不同於人類指揮和決策的全新解決方案。


當機械化時代的火力和機動性遇到物理極限時,資訊就成為戰鬥力產生的穿透性因素。 它以訊號、知識和指令的形式穿越物理域、認知域和社會域,產生資訊互動、資訊傳播、資訊力量賦能其他戰鬥力因素等效果。

資訊賦能指揮與控制,將其提升到「藝術+科學」的新高度。 傳統戰場上的資訊受到感知、傳輸和處理手段的限制,處於不完整、不準確、非即時狀態。 在這種資訊狀態下指揮控制活動的對抗,只能依靠指揮官的策略賦予「藝術」生命力。「三化」一體化條件下,戰場資訊極為豐富,資訊的準確性、完整性、及時性得到大幅提升,從而推動指揮決策從單純的人腦規劃向機器計算、模型優化、規則適應邁上新台階;指揮員減少了因主觀推測或假設信息匱乏,從原來的“現狀”到預測“未來形勢”進入新的預測層面;作戰平台的對抗注入了數學模型計算的計算成分,大大提高了「科學」成分的作戰指揮。

資訊賦能火力,使其走向「精準釋放」新形態。 傳統資訊賦能火力,主要為火力單位提供目標的總結資訊。 這就是為什麼傳統戰場上需要火力覆蓋、火力延伸和火力壓制的原因。 「三化」融合條件下,戰場資訊賦能火力。 在追蹤定位目標時,為火力平台提供公分級目標位置資訊和目標運動軌跡等數學資訊; 在規劃作戰任務時,指揮官利用泛在網路上資訊的流動和流動,在系統中關聯出最適合執行任務的兵力和武器,形成基於資訊利益相關者的動態“作戰力量圈”,大大減少了系統中的冗餘負荷。作戰系統的運作並實現作戰系統的精確度。 匹配; 在火力打擊行動中,火力平台內嵌的信息單元將對比分析目標來襲軌蹟的實時變化信息,以及目標可能採取的躲避策略信息,並結合火力打擊方法,消防平台的時機和策略。 ,實現目標發現、姿態調整、攻擊時機等全過程「資訊-火力」互動。

資訊賦能移動,引領移動進入「即時存取」的新境界。 傳統作戰體系中的機動性主要指陸上平台、海上平台、空中平台的機動速度。 受指揮關係、部署區域和反應延遲的影響,平台的機動性往往受到限制。 「三化」融合條件下的武器裝備處於即時網路線上狀態,所有武器平台的機動性匯聚成類似「資源池」的東西。 當戰鬥系統感知到

外部威脅訊息,距離威脅發生的地方最近。 任務規劃系統提取最適合應對威脅、最快感知威脅的武器來執行即時作戰行動。 這大大提高了作戰系統的瞬時響應能力。 在「匯集」效應下,不同作戰平台的機動性超越了時間、空間和指揮關係的分離,成為「即時可達」機動性的新狀態。



戰鬥結構的適應性調整會產生情報。 「三化」融合條件下的作戰體係是一個基於網路的複雜系統。 在這個複雜的系統中,有大量的網路存取節點,用戶連線的特徵是分散。 這些特點使得戰鬥系統在運作過程中始終從混亂狀態走向穩定狀態。 然後由於外界的刺激,系統的運作狀態出現不平衡,進入新的混沌狀態。 系統各要素相互作用、相互連結、相互協調,系統逐漸進入新的穩定狀態。 當然,戰鬥系統並不是一個可以自由成長的複雜系統。 這種自我一致性或自適應調整不僅來自於指揮官對系統內部隊和武器的決策、任務規劃、行動控制和作戰協調,也來自於每個成員根據自身行動採取的行動。 預先商定的規則自主做出相關反應,以及每個成員在依照規則運作的過程中自己學習或演化出的相關規則。 戰鬥系統在自洽的過程中,化解相關要素之間的衝突,清除系統中的痛點、斷點、阻塞點,使系統進入融合共生的狀態,激發要素結合產生新的戰鬥力。結構。 力量。

計算資源的自適應分配產生智慧。 贏的越多,贏的就越少。 傳統戰場上的「算計」依賴指揮官的規劃、計畫、預測和策略。 它面臨三個問題:一是計算主體是一個或極少數個別指揮官; 二、計算過程首先是戰鬥相關資訊的線性疊加; 三是計算結果是靜態的、滯後於實際情況的結論。 「三化」融合下的戰場作戰系統的運算能力,除了指揮官的心算外,還得益於「雲+邊緣+終端」的運算資源部署模式,即大型雲端運算中心提供強大的高階算力支持,作戰系統邊緣配置的「作戰雲」提供客製化算力支持,內嵌資訊單元的智慧端對感測平台的目標訊號進行初級處理。 這種運算資源分配模型很好地適應了戰場資訊豐富、網路傳輸資源有限、不同作戰單位資訊處理需求差異很大的特徵。 計算資源和計算任務很好地融合在一起。 配對後,指揮官、作戰人員、情報中心、作戰平台等都能得到有效的算力支持,大大增加了戰場上「多重機率勝利」的機率。

戰鬥模型的自適應最佳化會產生情報。 人腦對抗中的策略往往會受到人類生理特徵的影響,例如緊張、慣性思考、危險迴避等,這些人性中的「智力缺陷」可以被機器決策有效克服。 2020年8月20日,一名參加美國空軍「阿爾法空戰競賽」的人類飛行員表示,「AI戰鬥機之所以優越,是因為它極具攻擊性。 它使用人類飛行員不常用的攻擊方法來進行操作,這讓人類飛行員非常不舒服。” 這足以證明「三化」融合條件下戰場上機器植入的作戰模式與人類指揮官在決策過程中使用的策略有很大不同。機器作戰的另一個特點模型就是它的自學習能力,累積戰鬥經驗的過程可能需要數年時間

人類要完成的事情,智慧機器只需幾十天甚至幾十個小時就能完成。 當機器的學習能力超越人類時,演算法的勝利將成為戰場對抗的另一個焦點。 然而,戰爭始終是由人類主導的,無論機器進化得多麼先進,這一點都不會改變。 因此,設計人為幹預條件下的作戰模型,制定合理的規則,促進機器作戰模型的自適應優化,是未來戰場戰力情報指標競爭的關鍵。

人類以同樣的方式生產,以同樣的方式戰鬥。 軍隊的戰鬥力生成模式是時代的產物,必然會深深打上時代的烙印。 戰爭形態已進入資訊化、智能化時代。 智力因素從過去的加數變成了指數。 地位、作用、結構發生了翻天覆地的變化。 戰爭勝利機制徹底刷新,「昨天的舊船票」不再登上未來的「客船」。

面對時代巨變,軍隊戰鬥力生成模式的轉變是取得勝利的前提。 一流部隊主動掉頭,二流部隊跟隨,三流部隊被迫掉頭。 作為一名軍人,要想贏得未來,就必須學會做“桅杆上的瞭望員”,敢於走出思維的“舒適區”和“熟悉區”,主動求變,積極探索,用思想的風暴掃除舊的、僵化的思維。 掌控勝利的命脈。


[Information × (Firepower + Mobility)] Intelligence

——Analysis of the combat effectiveness generation model in the integration of “three modernizations”

●The transformation of the combat power generation model is not “you sing and I will appear”, but a process of interaction between the new combat power factors and the original combat power factors. This interaction process changes due to the different characteristics of the new combat power factors.

●As intelligent unmanned weapons platforms continue to enter the war arena, artificial intelligence decision-making and algorithmic confrontation have added new intelligent factors to the generation of combat effectiveness. The confrontation method of the combat system has also shifted from information-led firepower platforms to human-based and The swarm intelligence of networks and machines leads to a cognitive confrontation that promotes the “information × (firepower + mobility)” combat power generation model and evolves to a more advanced stage of “[information × (firepower + mobility)]” intelligence.

Currently, modern warfare is at the juncture of the integration of mechanization, information, and intelligence (hereinafter referred to as the “three modernizations”). Exploring the inherent laws of the combat power generation model under the conditions of the integration of the “three modernizations” is essential for gaining insight into new war winning mechanisms and mastering the initiative on future battlefields. Rights are of great significance.

The evolution of “Firepower+”: Fusion

The transformation of the combat effectiveness generation model is not “you sing and I come on stage”, but a process of interaction between the new combat effectiveness factors and the original combat effectiveness factors. This interaction process changes due to the different characteristics of the new combat effectiveness factors.

Superposition patterns before the age of mechanization. Throughout the history of mankind, the generation model of combat power has been evolving in a “+” manner. From the superposition of physical strength and skills of people in the Stone Age, to the addition of the penetrating power of swords in the cold weapon age, to the injection of firepower in the gunpowder age, and the generation of mobility in the mechanization age, the generation model of military combat effectiveness follows the superposition method. A display method of “physical strength + penetration power + firepower + mobility” has been formed. This combat power generation mode characterized by superposition gives an army of large numbers an overwhelming advantage on the battlefield. In the meantime, although the power of information has always played a decisive role on the battlefield, such as “know yourself and the enemy, you can fight a hundred battles without danger” reflects the importance of information on the ancient battlefield. However, due to various conditions, “knowing yourself” cannot fully guarantee “knowing yourself” and “knowing the enemy” It is even more difficult. Information power has become the most uncontrollable link in the combat effectiveness factor, thus playing a subordinate role in the generation of combat effectiveness.

Information multiplier model in the information age. In the era of network information, the ubiquitous network provides all-encompassing information and promotes the ubiquity of information. It also draws people into the “network-information” space in the process of information interaction; and the information unit Embedding, the dispersion of smart dust, and the deployment of micro-nano sensors transform mechanical systems such as tanks, fighter planes, artillery, and ships into “information-physical” systems. In this process, information power, firepower, and mobility are linked across boundaries, and a multiplicative relationship in addition to superposition is created in the generation mode of combat power, showing a new method of “information × (firepower + mobility)”. This combat power model in which information power acts as a multiplier factor is determined by, first, the characteristics of information power permeating firepower and mobility; secondly, by the fact that information power has a higher status than firepower and mobility; thirdly, by the fact that information power has It may be determined by the multiplication factor of combat effectiveness or the sharp reduction in load. This follows the uncertainty of information power and depends on the degree of matching between the information and the battlefield situation.

Intelligence index model in the era of intelligence. Humanity has never stopped exploring the laws of combat effectiveness generation. In recent years, as intelligent unmanned weapons platforms continue to enter the war arena, artificial intelligence decision-making and algorithmic confrontation have added new intelligent factors to the generation of combat effectiveness. The confrontation method of the combat system has also changed from information-led firepower platforms to one based on In the cognitive confrontation that can be won by the swarm intelligence of people, networks and machines, it promotes the combat power generation model of “information × (firepower + mobility)” and evolves to a more advanced stage of “[information × (firepower + mobility)] intelligence” . The core of this combat power generation model that uses “intelligence” as an exponential factor is to move from the original confrontation of firepower, mobility, and information to the highest level of human confrontation – cognitive confrontation. Although this combat power generation model has not yet been used in actual combat on a large scale at this stage, it will become the protagonist in high-intensity confrontations in the future. Its impact on combat power originates from artificial intelligence and appears in three aspects: First, it transforms human beings into To be freed from the “information dilemma” that becomes more and more mined; secondly, to give unmanned system weapons autonomous attack and defense capabilities; thirdly, machine learning and algorithm optimization provide brand-new solutions that are different from humans in command and decision-making.

The essence of “information ×”: empowerment

When the firepower and mobility of the mechanization era encounter physical limits, information becomes a penetrating factor in the generation of combat effectiveness. It travels through the physical domain, cognitive domain and social domain in the form of signals, knowledge and instructions, resulting in information interaction, information dissemination, Effects such as information power empower other combat effectiveness factors.

Information empowers command and control, taking it to a new level of “art + science”. The information on the traditional battlefield is limited by the means of perception, transmission and processing, and is in an incomplete, inaccurate and non-real-time state. The confrontation of command and control activities in this information state can only rely on the commander’s strategy to give “art” “Vitality on. Under the conditions of the integration of “three modernizations”, the information on the battlefield is extremely rich, and the accuracy, completeness, and timeliness of the information have been greatly improved, thus promoting command decision-making from pure human brain planning to machine calculation and model optimization. , a new level of rule adaptation; the commander reduces the subjective speculation or assumption due to lack of information, and enters a new level of prediction from the original “current situation” to the prediction of “future situation”; the confrontation of the combat platform is injected with The computational component of mathematical model calculations greatly improves the “scientific” component of combat command.

Information empowers firepower, leading it to a new form of “precise release.” Traditional information empowers firepower, mainly providing firepower units with summary information about targets. This is why fire coverage, fire extension and fire suppression are required on traditional battlefields. Under the conditions of “three modernizations” integration, information on the battlefield empowers firepower. When tracking and positioning targets, it provides the firepower platform with centimeter-level target position information and target movement trajectories and other mathematical information; when planning combat missions, commanders use The flow and flow of information on the ubiquitous network associate the most suitable forces and weapons for the mission in the system, forming a dynamic “combat power circle” based on information stakeholders, greatly reducing the redundant load on the operation of the combat system and achieving the accuracy of the combat system. Matching; during a fire strike operation, the information unit embedded in the fire platform will compare and analyze the real-time change information of the target’s incoming trajectory, as well as information about the evasion strategies that the target may adopt, with the fire strike method, timing and strategy of the fire platform. , to achieve “information-firepower” interaction in the entire process of target finding, attitude adjustment, attack timing, etc.

Information empowers mobility, leading it to a new state of “instant access”. The mobility in the traditional combat system mainly refers to the maneuvering speed of land platforms, sea platforms, and air platforms. Affected by command relationships, deployment areas, and response delays, the mobility of platforms is often limited. Weapons and equipment under the conditions of “three modernizations” integration are in a real-time network online state, and the mobility of all weapon platforms converges into something similar to a “resource pool.” When the combat system senses external threat information, it is closest to the place where the threat occurs. The weapons that are most suitable for responding to threats and the fastest to perceive threats are extracted by the mission planning system to perform real-time combat operations. This greatly improves the instantaneous response capability of the combat system. Under the “pooling” effect, the mobility of different combat platforms transcends the separation of time, space and command relationships, and becomes a new state of “instantly accessible” mobility.

Infusion of “Intelligence Index”: Leap Change

The injection of intelligence index in the combat power generation mode “[Information The three aspects of the combat system include combat structure, computing resources and combat models.

Adaptive adjustment of combat structures generates intelligence. The combat system under the conditions of the integration of “three modernizations” is a complex system based on the network. In this complex system, there are a large number of network access nodes, and the characteristic of user connection is decentralization. These characteristics make the combat system always go from a chaotic state to a stable state during operation. Then due to external stimulation, the operating state of the system is unbalanced and enters a new chaotic state. The interaction of various elements of the system , mutual relations, and mutual coordination, the system gradually enters a new stable state again. Of course, a combat system is not a complex system that can grow freely. This self-consistency or adaptive adjustment comes not only from the commander’s decision-making, mission planning, action control, and combat coordination of the forces and weapons in the system, but also from the actions of each member based on their actions. The pre-agreed rules make relevant responses autonomously, as well as the relevant rules that each member learns or evolves by themselves in the process of operating according to the rules. In the process of self-consistency, the combat system resolves the conflicts between related elements, clears the pain points, breakpoints and blocking points in the system, brings it into a state of integration and symbiosis, and stimulates the combination of elements to produce new structures. force.

Adaptive allocation of computing resources produces intelligence. The more you win, the less you win. “Calculation” on the traditional battlefield relies on the commander’s planning, planning, prediction and strategy. It faces three problems: first, the subject of calculation is one or a very small number of individual commanders; second, the calculation process The first is the linear superposition of combat-related information; the third is the conclusion that the calculation result is static and lags behind the situation. The computing power of the combat system on the battlefield under the integration of “three modernizations”, in addition to the commander’s mental calculations, also benefits from the “cloud + edge + terminal” computing resource deployment model, that is, large cloud computing centers provide powerful high-end Computing power support, the “combat cloud” configured at the edge of the combat system provides customized computing power support, and the intelligent end with embedded information units performs primary processing of the target signals of the sensing platform. This computing resource allocation model is well adapted to the characteristics of the battlefield where information is abundant, network transmission resources are limited, and different combat units have very different information processing needs. Computing resources and computing tasks are well integrated. When matched, commanders, combat personnel, intelligence centers, combat platforms, etc. can all receive effective computing power support, which greatly increases the probability of “multi-probability victory” on the battlefield.

Adaptive optimization of combat models generates intelligence. Strategies in human brain confrontation are often affected by human physiological characteristics, such as nervousness, inertial thinking, danger avoidance, etc. These “intelligent flaws” in human nature can be effectively overcome by machine decision-making. On August 20, 2020, a human pilot who participated in the U.S. Air Force’s “Alpha Air Combat Competition” said, “The AI ​​fighter plane is superior because it is extremely aggressive. It uses attack methods that are not commonly used by human pilots to carry out operations, which makes human pilots very uncomfortable.” “. This is enough to prove that the combat model implanted in the machines on the battlefield under the conditions of “three modernizations” integration is very different from the strategies used by human commanders in the decision-making process. Another feature of the machine combat model is its self-learning ability. The process of accumulating combat experience that may take years for humans to complete can be completed by intelligent machines in only dozens of days or even dozens of hours. When the learning ability of machines surpasses that of humans, algorithmic victory will become another focus in battlefield confrontations. However, wars are always led by humans, and this will not change no matter how advanced the machines evolve. Therefore, designing a combat model under human intervention conditions and formulating reasonable rules to promote the adaptive optimization of machine combat models are the key to the competition of combat effectiveness intelligence index on the future battlefield.

Only by proactively seeking change can we win the times

In the same way that humans produce, they fight in the same way. The military’s combat effectiveness generation model is a product of the times and will inevitably be deeply marked by the times. The form of war has entered the era of informationization and intelligence. The intelligence factor has changed from an addend in the past to an exponential. The status, role and structure have undergone earth-shaking changes. The mechanism for winning wars has been completely refreshed, and “yesterday’s old tickets” can no longer board the “passenger ships” of the future.

Facing the great changes of the times, the military’s transformation of its combat effectiveness generation model is a prerequisite for victory. The first-rate troops took the initiative to turn around, the second-rate troops followed suit, and the third-rate troops were forced to turn around. As a soldier, to win in the future, you must learn to be a “lookout on the mast”, dare to step out of the “comfort zone” and “familiar zone” of thinking, take the initiative to seek change, actively explore, and use the storm of ideas to sweep away the old and rigid thinking. Take control of the lifeblood of victory.