Category Archives: Chinese Military Use of Cognitive Confrontation within the Combat Domain

People’s Liberation Army Looking ahead to the “Battlefield Metaverse”



Recently, the “metaverse” has become a hot topic of concern. On November 26 last year, this edition published an article titled “Unveiling the Veil of the Metaverse”, which mentioned the concept of the “battlefield metaverse”.

Simply put, the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet. It is a virtual world that is parallel and isomorphic to the real world, with main features such as multi-dimensionality, full sensory perception, virtual-real integration, and seamless interaction. The “battlefield metaverse” is the manifestation of the “metaverse” in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, more powerful simulation computing capabilities, more real-time and sophisticated interaction requirements, and more prominent battlefield time consistency, virtual-real integration, boundary security, decision-making intelligence, and performance fidelity.

Imagine a typical application scenario

We can preliminarily outline the outline of the “battlefield metaverse” by imagining a typical military training application scenario in the future:

An aircraft carrier fleet was cruising in a certain sea area. Suddenly, in the fleet command room, a virtual AI staff officer projected a virtual figure through the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal, making a clear voice to convey the upper level’s combat readiness inspection instructions.

The fleet commander immediately issued an “exercise combat alert” command to the fleet according to the plan. The fleet’s combat command and control system began to automatically receive combat missions and battlefield situations sent by the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal. Except for the personnel on duty at the bridge of each ship in the fleet who continued to cruise and guard according to the scheduled route, all other personnel were transferred to the combat scene set by the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

On the flight deck of an aircraft carrier, all deck workers immediately put on enhanced terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” after hearing the “combat alert”. Depending on the login user ID, the corresponding virtual information in the “Battlefield Metaverse” is seamlessly superimposed on the workers’ field of vision, supporting the deck workers to complete relevant practical operations in the real world.

Under the unified command of the flight deck commander, all deck operators perform virtual and real integrated deck operations for various types of carrier-based aircraft in accordance with combat mission requirements and carrier-based aircraft take-off procedures, including refueling, bomb loading, towing, safety inspection, ejection, recovery, and ammunition emergency disposal.

In the flight briefing room, all pilots of various types of carrier-based aircraft participating in this mission have put on the immersive terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” and entered the cockpit of the virtual world, waiting for their carrier-based aircraft to complete take-off preparations.

In the cockpit of the virtual carrier-based fighter, an AI assistant with the same configuration as the actual carrier-based aircraft is confirming the status of the aircraft with the pilot and planning the upcoming combat operations according to the combat mission received. During the combat mission, the virtual carrier-based fighter can equivalently feedback the situation information of the enemy and our own reconnaissance, electronic interference, combat damage, etc., providing real-time information for the pilot to make decisions and take actions…

It can be seen from the above typical application scenarios that the “battlefield metaverse” requires a large number of revolutionary breakthroughs in key technologies as its basic support, including VR/AR/MR technology, digital twin technology, cloud computing technology, blockchain technology, high-speed network technology, AI technology, etc.

Construction requires many basic conditions

Compared with the “metaverse” that is open to the public and reconstructs the network ecology, the “battlefield metaverse” needs to be developed based on the actual topological structure of the military network and the construction results of various military information systems, and has higher requirements on key technical indicators. Specifically, the construction of the “battlefield metaverse” should have at least the following basic conditions:

– Independent network communication links. The “Battlefield Metaverse” is an independent form built on the military high-speed network architecture and infrastructure, which is significantly different from the design concept of the “Metaverse” global access. Users of the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to verify and log in through a secure military network node in a relatively fixed place or area. The remote wireless network link is not open to the outside world and has the ability to resist communication interference and network attacks.

——Strict identity authentication mechanism. All individual users accessing the “Battlefield Metaverse” are required to be military personnel who have passed confidentiality review and military scientific research personnel with confidentiality qualifications. The authentication information of all types of users cannot be tampered with, fabricated, or misused in the “Battlefield Metaverse”. All user operations will be recorded in detail in the “Battlefield Metaverse” to facilitate tracking and analysis by the operation and maintenance security department, and any illegal users and operations will have no chance to take advantage.

——Diverse user access capabilities. Users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” can be divided into individual users, equipment users, and system users according to their types. Among them, individual users are organic individuals who directly enter the “Battlefield Metaverse” activities; equipment users and system users are key digital equipment and information systems that need to access the “Battlefield Metaverse”, and their operators or maintenance personnel participate in the activities in the “Battlefield Metaverse” in an indirect way through operational control behaviors in the real world.

——Clear command, coordination and interaction relationship. Different from the high degree of freedom of ordinary users in the “metaverse”, all types of users in different locations in the “battlefield metaverse” participate in specific activities, play designated roles or undertake major tasks, which are uniformly planned, deployed and coordinated by the only event organizer. Before each activity is launched, the event organizer determines the user identification, command relationship, coordination relationship, information interaction permissions, etc. of the participants based on the elements required to achieve the goal.

——Immersive real-time interaction capabilities. Individual users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to log in through a human-computer interaction terminal and achieve real-time interaction with the “Battlefield Metaverse” and other users in the real world. In addition to having basic immersive interaction and time-based functions, terminal devices also need to enhance the user’s operational freedom and sensitivity, so that users can operate and use a variety of weapons, equipment and information systems in the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

——Powerful AI individuals. Similar to the “metaverse”, AI individuals with intelligence and autonomous behavior capabilities will act as permanent residents in the “battlefield metaverse”. They can play the role of virtual red team, blue team, and third-party entities to participate in combat, training and test tasks, and can also play the role of instructors, examiners, staff, system operation and maintenance personnel, etc., to assist individual users in making decisions and taking actions.

——Realistic performance simulation capability. All weapons, equipment and information systems mapped into the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to have functional performance and consistent operation methods equivalent to those in the real world. Through signal-level simulation models and performance algorithms, simulation of reconnaissance detection effectiveness, electronic countermeasure effectiveness, firepower strike effectiveness and comprehensive protection effectiveness can be achieved, ensuring that the experience accumulated by individual users in the “Battlefield Metaverse” can guide actual combat operations.

——Flexible scenario generation capability. The “Battlefield Metaverse” needs to set a battlefield area for each activity, including the geographical environment, electromagnetic environment, meteorological environment, and hydrological environment of the area. Its scenario data is required to be more real and accurate, and requires institutions with relevant qualifications to build and maintain it step by step.

Application, bringing significant benefits in multiple fields

In the future, the “metaverse” may first be applied to areas such as online social networking, online games, and online economy, becoming the starting point for the virtualization of human society.

After the “Battlefield Metaverse” is built, it will have a huge impact on the application fields of education, training, testing, research, etc. of the troops, greatly change the original methods of organizing and implementing activities, significantly improve the comprehensive benefits of various military activities, and effectively stimulate the innovation capabilities of military personnel and scientific researchers.

In the field of education, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can play an important role in centralized education in colleges and universities, in-service distance education, etc. The teachers and students can interact and communicate with each other freely in different locations, which is conducive to creating a harmonious and relaxed teaching atmosphere. On the one hand, the teachers can use more powerful teaching content to demonstrate their teaching ability and achieve more vivid teaching effects; on the other hand, the students can recognize and understand the problems more intuitively, effectively improving their personal interest in self-study and subjective initiative.

In the field of training, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can fully meet the requirements of actual combat training in the context of large-scale combat. Participants at all levels can play the roles of their current positions or proposed positions, and repeatedly receive training and assessments in a larger, more confrontational, and longer-lasting environment. While honing combat skills, honing tactical coordination, and forging combat will, they can apply the accumulated simulated combat experience to actual combat operations. The evaluation of training effects will also be more quantitative and intuitive, which is more conducive to selecting talents.

In the field of testing, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a practical background and large-scale test scenarios with equivalent simulation capabilities for the design and demonstration of new weapons and equipment, weapons and equipment performance testing, weapons and equipment compatibility testing, and weapon system combat effectiveness testing. It can bring virtual and real equipment into a peer environment to operate together, and fully grasp the various states and parameter changes of the equipment, thereby effectively solving practical problems such as limited test times, simple test links, low complexity of the test background, and difficulty in building a combat system.

In the field of research, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a public platform for remote simulation and verification for the use of new equipment and innovation of tactics. On the basis of coordinating expert resources from various regions and centrally calling simulation computing power, virtual AI is used to play the combat forces of all parties, conduct uninterrupted simulation calculations, obtain massive data samples, and mine and analyze knowledge and conclusions that meet the research objectives. During the research process, researchers can also communicate and collaborate with relevant experts, intervene in real time and improve the simulation elements to ensure that the research results can stand the test of actual troops.

From the perspective of system architecture and functional characteristics, although the “Battlefield Metaverse” cannot directly affect actual combat operations, it can serve as a backup for wartime command and communication networks. When the command and communication network is paralyzed by enemy network attacks or key nodes are damaged by attacks, combat troops can try to access the communication link of the “Battlefield Metaverse” to ensure the most basic combat command and information exchange.

The above picture is a schematic diagram of the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

Gaosong System



簡單地說,「元宇宙」將是下一代網路的終極形態,是與現實世界平行同構的一個虛擬世界,具備多維度、全感官、虛實融合、無縫互動等主要特徵。 “戰場元宇宙”,則是“元宇宙”在軍事領域的表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求,更突出的戰場時統一致性、虛實一體性、邊界安全性、決策智能性、效能逼真性。












——獨立的網路通訊鏈路。 「戰場元宇宙」是建立在軍用高速網路架構和基礎設施上的獨立形態,與「元宇宙」全球隨遇接入的設計理念有明顯差異。 「戰場元宇宙」的使用者需要在相對固定的場所或區域,透過安全的軍用網路節點進行驗證登入。遠端無線網路連結不對外開放,並具備抵禦通訊幹擾和網路攻擊能力。







——靈活的場景生成能力。 「戰場元宇宙」需要針對每次活動,設定戰場區域,包括該區域地理環境、電磁環境、氣象環境和水文環境等。其情境資料需求更真實且準確,需要具備相關資格的機構進行逐步建置與持續維護。










高 嵩制


Chinese Military Training and the Metaverse: Challenges & Opportunities Coexist



 In the field of military training, the basic technology of the Metaverse has long been used as a virtual resource by the military to varying degrees. It must be acknowledged that the value and potential of the Metaverse in military training is immeasurable and is the focus of current and future military competition. However, due to the immaturity of the development of Metaverse-related technologies and their application in military training, the bright prospects are accompanied by potential risks.

1. The past and present of the military training metaverse
 The metaverse relies on a technology group with virtual reality technology as its core. In its early form in the military field, it is also called virtual simulation or simulated Internet. It can be said that virtual simulation training is very close to today’s concept of the metaverse and is the primary form of the military training metaverse. From ancient times to the present, the progress that has brought great influence in the field of science and technology is generally for winning wars or maintaining combat effectiveness. As the leading technology of the third scientific and technological revolution, the metaverse is used for military training in different forms of basic metaverses in the global military field.
      The US military began to deploy the “Military Metaverse” plan very early. In 1978, Jack Thorpe, a captain of the US Air Force, proposed the idea of ​​a military simulator network in his paper, hoping to establish a distributed or networked military modeling system to facilitate training. In 1983, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US Department of Defense developed the Virtual Battlefield Network Simulator (SIMNET Simulator), which uses computers to generate virtual battlefields, simulate the situation of fighting between the two sides, and summarize errors and failures. Replacing field exercises in this way saves costs to a certain extent and improves the effectiveness of training. Although the SIMNET simulator, as the earliest version, was still at a lower level of battlefield simulation, it pioneered distributed or networked modeling and simulation. By the end of the 1980s, the project reached its peak, and eventually more than 200 simulated interconnected tank and aircraft simulators based on local area networks and wide area networks were formed across the United States and across Europe, and used for large-scale training and exercises. The distributed interactive simulation (DIS) protocol developed at that time is still in use today, and through more advanced high-level architectures, different military simulations can be linked to provide a richer collective training or mission preparation experience. It can be said that the SIMNET simulator project directly or indirectly promoted the development of many key technologies of the current metaverse. Today, the US military is very interested in the metaverse that has sprung up like mushrooms after rain. The newly established military branch, the United States Space Force (USSF), wants to create a military-specific metaverse for collaborative operations, training, and mission execution. Its chief technology officer, Lisa Costa, declared: “Soldiers cannot go to space in person. The only way they can experience their own combat territory is through visual data display. The virtual reality environment will provide them with situational awareness and understand their options in order to make decisions.”
       In recent years, virtual reality and augmented reality technologies of the metaverse have been incorporated into the regular military training of the US military. In 2014, the BlueShark project developed by the Office of Naval Research and the Institute for Creative Technologies at the University of Southern California allowed soldiers to collaborate in a virtual environment to conduct driving technology training; in 2018, the US Army and Microsoft cooperated to develop an integrated visual enhancement system IVAS for soldiers to conduct regular training; in 2020, the US Navy launched the Avengers Project to conduct flight course training through virtual reality, artificial intelligence and biometric technology; in 2021, Boeing created a military aircraft training system that enables maintenance personnel to use AR technology for related simulated maintenance drills; on May 10, 2022, two US fighter pilots took a jet and completed a high-altitude prototype metaverse experiment over the California desert. Refueling operations were performed using a virtual tanker through a specially designed augmented reality display connected to a computer system that displayed a glowing image of a virtual refueling aircraft.

 (I) The US military uses virtual reality technology for military training on a large scale
 . At the same time, Russia is also a leader in the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embeddedness. For example, the Sound M universal virtual training system is a universal virtual training equipment for combat personnel of surface-to-air missile weapon systems. The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a special virtual training vehicle, which can complete battlefield simulation training while searching for targets and conducting weapon operations.

 (II) The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a dedicated virtual training vehicle.
 In addition, other countries have also begun to explore the combination of metaverse technology and military training. The British Army has been committed to studying the use of extended reality technology, which can put more than 30 soldiers in the same virtual training scene. The British Ministry of Defense’s “Single Synthetic Environment” has used this technology in soldier training. In South Korea, a developer and supplier of a military training simulator called “Optimus Prime” completed the development of the DEIMOS military training system based on metaverse technology in 2019 and applied it to the training of the armed forces. The system can create various environments for professional military training, including precision shooting training, tactical behavior training and observation training.

       2. The inherent advantages of the metaverse in military training Military training
is a commonplace in the military, specifically referring to the military theory and related professional knowledge education, combat skills training and military operations exercises conducted by the armed forces and other trainees. The continuous innovation of technologies such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality has accelerated the trend of intelligentization in future wars. Single actual combat exercises in traditional forms will be difficult to meet the combat requirements under the new situation. As a huge group of new technologies, the metaverse plays an increasingly important role in military training. If training is an important support for combat effectiveness, then the primary use of the metaverse in military training is as an important “enabler” for simulation training.       Immersive experience can improve the effectiveness of battlefield environment simulation. As a practical science, military training is centered on experience and the key to training is immersion. The virtual space created by the metaverse makes people feel a “common sense of embodied presence”, allowing trainees to fully immerse themselves in the virtual space and experience a war close to reality. Battlefield environment simulation uses virtual reality technology to process battlefield element data such as battlefield terrain, battlefield personnel, weapons and equipment through computer systems, and finally creates a realistic three-dimensional battlefield environment. Soldiers are immersed in digital environments such as deserts, mountains or plateaus. Each environment has different tactics, techniques and procedures, and soldiers can constantly practice tasks. Even if the soldiers are not in the actual battlefield environment, this technology is enough to restore the authenticity of the environment. More importantly, through battlefield simulation training, not only can soldiers become familiar with the battlefield environment and obtain information to the greatest extent, but they can also improve their ability to observe things from multiple angles and solve emergencies. The US military has developed a virtual reality system called a laser sand table, which can identify and convert photos and videos sent back by satellites, and turn them into realistic three-dimensional maps, presenting the battlefield environment thousands of miles away to commanders. Before the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes, including battlefield conditions, personnel appearances, etc., in order to allow soldiers to adapt to the environment in advance and improve their combat capabilities.

 (II) On the eve of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes
. Open interconnection better supports synthetic training. The various parts of the Metaverse ecosystem can be interconnected and operated, and information can be transmitted across platforms and across the world (between virtual worlds or between the virtual world and the real world) without hindrance. Synthetic training uses the open interconnection advantage of Metaverse technology to supplement actual combat training. According to statistics, since 2015, the number of non-combat deaths in the U.S. military has exceeded the number of deaths in actual military operations each year, and many of the deaths in non-combat operations are caused by conventional military training. Therefore, the U.S. Army has begun to use Metaverse to carry out synthetic training in an attempt to establish a virtual synthetic training environment (STE) to reduce casualties in training. From urban warfare to mountain warfare, the “synthetic training environment” integrates “real-time, virtual and constructive training environments into a single synthetic training environment, and provides training functions to ground, transport and air platforms and command posts where needed.” Practice has proved that the synthetic training environment built by the metaverse, with the help of multi-sensory simulation and restoration, can help soldiers break through the limitations of theoretical learning and cognition, and improve the quality and ability of team combat coordination, injury treatment and safe evacuation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US military stationed in Kuwait conducted synthetic training on Iraq’s urban conditions, which enhanced the soldiers’ urban combat capabilities while minimizing casualties in actual combat. The
      imaginative space stimulates innovation in military training thinking to the greatest extent. War exercises have been valued by military strategists since ancient times. During the Warring States Period, Mozi and Gongshu Ban’s deduction games of “untying belts to make a city” and “wooden pieces to make weapons” rehearsed the real situation on the battlefield, thus avoiding fighting between the two armies. In the deep scene era opened by the future metaverse, the military system will become highly intelligent, and the two sides of the war may be able to conduct war deductions in the battlefield metaverse, and even compete in the virtual world. Based on the information obtained in the virtual world, the two sides of the deduction capture and predict the changes in the battlefield through thinking processes such as association, reasoning and logical judgment, which is not only conducive to learning more war laws, but also can exercise the soldiers’ logical deduction ability. In the Gulf War of 1991, the U.S. military conducted war games based on the training level of the troops, the possible course of the war, and the time required for actual combat before implementing Operation Desert Storm. Practice has proved that the U.S. military used the problems found in this war game to transform the combat concept into an actual action plan and ultimately won. This also fully demonstrates that the real battlefield is full of uncertainties, so it is necessary to be fully prepared through continuous war exercises. Undoubtedly, it is almost impossible for the enemy and us to conduct coordinated deductions in the real world, but if the deployment of the enemy and us can be made public to a certain extent by their respective satellites, air and ground reconnaissance equipment, then at a certain time point, between two or more parties about to break out a military crisis, it is expected that the deployment of troops in the metaverse can be carried out first, and the actual military conflict can be resolved.
      The application of metaverse technology in military training can not only avoid accidental casualties during training, but also allow a single or many trainees to complete training tasks in different virtual environments without leaving home and without actual contact. And this kind of non-contact training plays a more obvious role in the regular form of the new crown epidemic.
       3. Potential risks of the metaverse in military training
Although the metaverse provides technical support for military training to a large extent, it should never be simply understood as a training program or considered as a means of conducting training. Even if the metaverse technology brings convenience and innovation to military training, the technology itself and its accompanying challenges and uncertainties cannot be ignored.
      The development of metaverse technology may cause security issues. The metaverse is a huge technology group. Its system architecture, core algorithms and immersive technology are still in a stage of continuous development. The supporting industry, value consensus, management standards, etc. have not yet been reached. In general, the metaverse is still a new thing, and its application in military training is even more so. Although the use of virtual training systems can reduce casualties to a certain extent, it is worth thinking about whether such training can be truly used in combat sites. It is still an unknown. And whether the technology is safe enough in operation is also an urgent problem to be solved. James Crowley of Virtual City Training Experts pointed out that computer power may be the most influential part of it. Unless the delay can be reduced to a level that does not make people uncomfortable and feels real, and unless the movement and communication data between different people can be stored in different simulators, it will not be able to provide practical training tools. At the same time, another challenge is the security issue of mutual contact between the armies of different countries in the open virtual world of the Metaverse.
      Virtual training environments are prone to cognitive illusions. Military training in the Metaverse world is the result of a contest between human intelligence and technology. War simulations and military training conducted in a virtual environment can have a powerful deterrent effect on future wars, just like “nuclear weapons”. Although it makes up for the limited senses of people at the physiological level, it also brings psychological cognitive illusions to trainees. Taking unmanned combat military training as an example, long-term combat training under a virtual system will cause the operator to have a gaming mentality. Because the audiovisual senses are out of touch with the real battlefield situation, they are alienated from the real people and society, and have a numb mentality towards the behavior of depriving others of their lives. With the continuous maturity of Metaverse technology, the interaction between the virtual world and the real world will become closer and closer, forming a mixed world that is difficult to distinguish between the real and the virtual. By then, it will not only cause a distinction dilemma for the cognitive psychology of soldiers, but also a major challenge for future military training. The
      “decentralization” of the Metaverse deviates from the traditional military training structure. In the world of the metaverse, all parties involved are virtual entities with equal status after computer processing and digitization. They can act autonomously in the metaverse, so they pursue “decentralization”. However, the traditional military training organizational structure is highly centralized and hierarchical management from top to bottom, which is contrary to the value needs of the metaverse. The US military has made a lot of efforts in pursuing “decentralized” operations, such as the “network-centric warfare” proposed in the 1990s, and the current distributed lethality and mosaic warfare. However, the traditional military training structure and thinking inertia are still obstacles to “decentralization”, and this situation is common in the armies of various countries.
     Yuval Noah Harari said in “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” that humans conquer the world by relying on the ability of fiction and imagination. The metaverse gives us the ability to fiction and imagine, and at the same time, the uncertainty of the metaverse in the field of military training also increases the element of fear. Therefore, we must pay attention to innovative scientific and technological theories, develop cutting-edge metaverse technologies, continuously stimulate the potential of the military training metaverse, and at the same time improve relevant laws, regulations and moral and ethical regulations to make advance preparations for winning future intelligent wars.


美軍很早就開始部署「軍事元宇宙」計畫。 1978年,美空軍上尉傑克·索普在自己的論文中提出了軍事模擬器網路的構想,希望建立一個分散式或網路化的軍事建模系統方便訓練。 1983年美國防部高級研究計畫局(DARPA),開發了虛擬戰場網路模擬器(SIMNET模擬器),以電腦生成虛擬戰場,模擬雙方交戰的情形進行推演,總結錯誤和失敗。用這樣的方式取代實地演習,一定程度上節省了成本,也提高了訓練的效果。雖然SIMNET模擬器作為最早的版本仍處於較低階的戰場仿真,但卻開闢了分散式或網路化建模仿真的先河。到了20世紀80年代末,該計畫達到頂峰,最終落地形成200多個遍布美國、橫跨歐洲,基於區域網路和廣域網路的模擬互聯坦克和飛機模擬器,並用於大規模訓練與演習。而當時開發的分散式互動式模擬(DIS)協議,至今仍在使用,並且透過更先進的高階體系結構,可以連結不同的軍事模擬,以提供更豐富的集體訓練或任務準備體驗。可以說SIMNET模擬器專案直接或間接推動了當前元宇宙的許多關鍵技術的發展。時至今日,美軍對如雨後春筍般崛起的元宇宙興趣正濃,新成立的軍種——美國太空部隊(USSF)欲打造軍事專用元宇宙,用於協同作戰、訓練、執行任務。其技術主管利薩·科斯塔宣稱:「軍人們並不能親自上太空,他們體驗自身作戰疆域的唯一途徑就是視覺數據顯示,虛擬現實環境會為他們提供態勢感知,並了解自己的選項,以便做出決策。
近年來,元宇宙的虛擬實境和擴增實境技術已納入美軍的常規軍事訓練。 2014年,南加州大學海軍研究辦公室和創意技術研究所開發的BlueShark項目,讓士兵在虛擬環境中協作配合,進行駕駛技術訓練;2018年,美陸軍與微軟合作開發了一款集成視覺增強系統IVAS ,供士兵進行常規訓練;2020年,美海軍又推出了復仇者計劃,透過虛擬現實、人工智慧以及生物識別技術,開展飛行課程培訓;2021年,波音公司打造了一個軍用飛機培訓系統,使維修人員利用AR技術進行相關模擬維修演練;2022年5月10日,兩名美軍戰鬥機飛行員乘坐噴射機,在加州沙漠上空完成了一次高空原型元宇宙實驗。透過特製的擴增實境顯示器,連接到一個虛擬加油飛機發光影像的電腦系統,使用虛擬加油機進行了加油操作。



想像性空間最大程度激發軍事訓練思維創新。戰爭演習自古就受到兵家重視,戰國時期墨子和公輸班「解帶為城」「木片為械」的推演遊戲將戰場上的真實情況演練出來,從而避免了兩軍交戰。在未來元宇宙開啟的深度場景時代,軍事體系將走向高度智慧化,作戰雙方或許能在戰場元宇宙進行戰爭推演,甚至在虛擬世界一決高下。推演雙方根據虛擬世界獲取的信息,透過聯想、推理和邏輯判斷等思維過程,對戰場風雲變化進行捕捉和預判,不僅有利於習得更多戰爭規律,還能夠鍛鍊士兵的邏輯推演能力。 1991年的海灣戰爭中,美軍就在實施「沙漠風暴」行動前,根據部隊的訓練水準和可能的戰爭進程,以及實際作戰所需時間進行了兵棋推演。實踐證明,美軍借助這次兵棋推演發現的問題,將作戰設想轉化為實際行動方案,最終取得勝利。這也充分說明了真實的戰場充滿了種種不確定性,因此需要透過不斷進行戰爭演習來做好充分準備。毋庸置疑,敵我雙方在現實世界中進行協同推演幾乎是不可能的,但若敵我雙方的兵力部署可以被各自的衛星、空中和地面偵查設備進行一定程度的公開,那麼在某個時間節點,在即將爆發軍事危機的雙方或多方之間,先在元宇宙中進行排兵布陣,可以化解現實的軍事衝突則有望實現。


Metaverse-enabled military training is on the rise for China’s People’s Liberation Army



The metaverse is an artificial online virtual world that is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It is parallel to the real world, reacts to the real world, and integrates a variety of high technologies. These are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural laws of human understanding and transformation of the world, providing a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operation behavior, state, and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. Researching the application of the metaverse in the field of foreign military training and analyzing the opportunities and challenges that the metaverse brings to the field of military training have important theoretical and practical value in solving the key problems that need to be solved in military training in the intelligent era, promoting scientific and technological training, and promoting the innovative development of military training models.

Background of cognitive metaverse empowering military training

The scientific and technological revolution has given rise to a new ecosystem for military training. Driven by the new scientific and technological revolution and the industrial revolution, cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things are accelerating their development. Technology giants are laying out the metaverse, and human real life is migrating to the virtual world more rapidly. The metaverse integrates a variety of emerging technologies, thus generating new Internet applications and new social forms that integrate the virtual and the real. Perception technology supports the integration of the virtual and the real in the metaverse, “AI+” technology supports the social nature of the metaverse, data transmission technology supports the real-time nature of the metaverse, electronic game technology supports the diversity of the metaverse, digital twin technology supports the sustainability of the metaverse, and blockchain technology supports the security of the metaverse. The future metaverse, where virtuality and reality are highly interconnected, is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It integrates all elements such as the Internet, virtual reality, immersive experience, blockchain, and digital twins to build a new basic ecology for intelligent military training.

The evolution of war dominates the transformation and upgrading of military training. With the advent of the intelligent era, the war form is accelerating its evolution towards informationization and intelligence. The informationized warfare system with “information acquisition and utilization as the core” will gradually transition to an intelligent warfare system with “intelligent simulation and expansion as the core”. The trend of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned weapons and equipment is more obvious, and intelligent warfare has surfaced. At the same time, combat elements represented by artificial intelligence such as “AI, cloud, network, group, and terminal” and their diversified combinations have formed a new battlefield ecology. The metaverse has built a new battlefield space where virtual and real are integrated and parallel and interactive. The traditional war winning mechanism is being profoundly changed. The development and change of intelligent warfare has compulsorily driven the transformation and reshaping of the military’s thinking and concepts, requiring the acceleration of the transformation and upgrading of military training, paying more attention to the impact of technological development and changes on war, and using the “new engine” of training and war to run out of the “acceleration” of preparation.

Foreign militaries explore breakthroughs in military training models. In order to seize the strategic commanding heights of military intelligence, the world’s military powers attach great importance to the innovation of military training models, and some countries have begun to try to apply the metaverse and related technologies in military training. For example, the United States has successively released the “National Security Strategy”, “National Defense Strategy” and “Department of Defense Transformation Plan”, focusing on building an “all-round army” and forming a “full spectrum advantage”. At the same time, it has formulated the “Training Transformation Strategic Plan” and “Training Transformation Implementation Plan”, and proposed the concept of comprehensive training environment (STE), the core of which is immersive and integrated virtual training, which intends to integrate real-time, virtual, constructive and game environments into a comprehensive training environment. Russia also attaches great importance to the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embedding. The United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, etc. are also actively developing various professional military training virtual environments. Intelligent training supported by technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality and augmented reality is gradually becoming the mainstream of military training research in powerful countries.

Clarify the advantages of metaverse-enabled military training

Sprouting new concepts of military training. Only by leading opponents in thought can we gain the upper hand in action. The emergence of disruptive technologies will inevitably rewrite the current military training rules and systems, and will also innovate the existing military training thinking concepts. On the one hand, the metaverse has set off a hurricane-like “brainstorm”, and the training thinking led by “intelligence” will organically connect training with actual combat, and upgrade to intelligent military training thinking. On the other hand, new technologies and new means represented by the metaverse empower military training, strengthen the concept of winning by science and technology and intelligent driving, and greatly improve the scientific and technological content of military training, in order to control the initiative in future wars. The future metaverse will create more impossible possibilities by constructing a virtual battlefield space, designing wars and evolving wars.

Innovate new theories of military training. War is the area that needs innovation the most. Military training must adapt to the development of intelligent warfare, and theoretical innovation and training practice must be driven by two wheels. Training transformation will not happen automatically. It requires not only a sharp and profound foresight to grasp the general trend, but also a scientific and powerful solid theory to drive forward. On the one hand, by keeping up with the development of the times and starting from new concepts and new cognitions, we can build a scientific theoretical system for metaverse-enabled military training. On the other hand, by following the laws of combat-training coupling, we can establish an intelligent military training theory innovation model with the characteristics of the times, so that the metaverse can empower and improve the efficiency of promoting the iterative development of military training transformation.

Transform the new model of military training. The combat style determines the training mode. Intelligent warfare changes the “rules of the game”. Military training for the next war must adapt to the requirements of future wars by changing the training mode. The first is to be able to build an intelligent blue army with “both form and spirit”. With the help of optimized AI technology, powerful computing support, and realistic performance simulation, the Metaverse follows the evolutionary process of “knowing the enemy, imitating the enemy, surpassing the enemy, and defeating the enemy” to create an intelligent blue army with platform support and data empowerment, and carry out “real” confrontation training and effect evaluation in the Metaverse space. The second is to be able to carry out new domain and new quality combat training. The metaverse expands the practical application path with new domains and new types of combat forces as the leading elements, highlights the research and development of training methods and tactics that are compatible with advanced combat concepts and winning mechanisms, and creates new types of training such as unmanned and seamless human-machine collaboration, becoming a new point of combat power growth. Third, it can cultivate new military talents. At present, the educational metaverse has led the intelligent transformation of education. In the future, the military metaverse will accelerate the realization of intelligent interaction between people and equipment, deep integration between people and systems, and adaptive evolution between people and the environment, and promote the integrated development of “commanders” and “fighters” to “scientists” and “technicians”.

Reshape the new ecology of military training. The multi-dimensional perception, virtual-real integration, free creativity, and open development of the metaverse will make the future metaverse a fully immersive, time-transcending, self-creating and developing space. First, create a digital twin “battlefield metaverse”. The “battlefield metaverse” will be a typical manifestation of the metaverse in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, stronger simulation computing capabilities, and more real-time and detailed interaction requirements. Secondly, create a full-dimensional three-dimensional metaverse training environment. The metaverse uses technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality to create an immersive and complex scene environment; using powerful data and network support, it builds a full-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and the Internet. Furthermore, build a metaverse verification platform for weapons and equipment. The platform will have functions such as new weapon equipment design demonstration, weapon equipment performance test, weapon equipment compatibility test, and weapon system combat effectiveness test. In the future, the metaverse will greatly shorten the timeline of weapons and equipment from “weak intelligence” to “strong intelligence” and then to “super intelligence”, and realize the intelligent multiplication effect of weapons and equipment.

Grasp the key points of metaverse empowered military training

Focus on top-level design. From the perspective of the development of things, the metaverse, as a new thing, has yet to be verified to mature. Intelligent military training is also a complex, arduous and long-term system engineering, which requires strengthening strategic planning and top-level layout. We should pay close attention to the development and technological trends of the metaverse, scientifically formulate the development plan of the “training metaverse”, and give full play to the outstanding advantages of the metaverse in allowing trainees to immerse themselves in experiential training under the realistic background of the integration of intelligence, informatization, and mechanization, so that the metaverse can not only be a display platform for virtual technology, but also a practical platform for improving the effectiveness of military training.

Strengthen technology research and development. From a technical perspective, the metaverse re-integrates the existing technologies in the information and intelligent technology group, puts forward an overall innovative concept, and provides a comprehensive application scenario, thereby giving birth to new vitality. To accelerate the development of the “training metaverse”, we must speed up the research on basic software and hardware technologies such as algorithm engines and network communications, strengthen the research and development capabilities of core technologies such as artificial intelligence, digital twins, blockchain, and the Internet of Things, and at the same time strengthen the overall technical design and development of the metaverse, such as immersion, sociality, openness, collaboration, and decentralization.

Create training types. From the perspective of time and space, the metaverse may construct an extremely large virtual war space, reproduce the war environment, present the war process, and virtualize the future of war. An intelligent military training operation system based on the metaverse should be constructed, the military training thinking concept should be updated in a timely manner, and innovations in military training models, management guarantees, and legal mechanisms should be deepened. Construct a dynamic and high-level combat-oriented military training environment based on the metaverse to fully support strategic, campaign and tactical training and war games. At the same time, in the process of “intelligent adaptation” of military training, realize the expansion of wisdom and intelligent evolution towards the unknown space of military training with “innovation, openness, multiple iterations, and new intelligent ecology”.

Pay attention to risk prevention and control. From the perspective of safety and controllability, the concept and technology of the metaverse bring innovative opportunities for intelligent military training, but what cannot be ignored is the potential risks associated with the technology itself. The Metaverse is a huge technology complex, and its system architecture, key technologies, and application environment are still in the development and implementation stage. The supporting protection system, safety technology, and management standards will bring security risks. In addition, the integrated application of multiple emerging technologies during the construction process, as well as the complexity and confidentiality of the application process, will be unknown factors that will be the key prevention and risk challenges of the Metaverse in military training.











重塑軍事訓練新生態。元宇宙的多維感知性、虛實融合性、自由創造性、開放發展性等特點,使未來元宇宙將成為完全沉浸式的、超越時空的、自我創造發展的空間。首先,打造數字孿生的「戰場元宇宙」。 「戰場元宇宙」將是元宇宙在軍事領域的典型表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求。其次,創造全維立體的元宇宙訓練環境。元宇宙運用虛擬現實、增強現實以及混合現實等技術,創造沉浸複雜的場景環境;利用強大的數據、網絡支撐,搭建起陸、海、空、天、電、網等全維空間。再者,建造武器裝備的元宇宙驗證平台。該平台將具備新型武器裝備設計論證、武器裝備性能試驗、武器裝備相容性試驗、武器系統體係作戰效能檢驗等功能。未來元宇宙將大幅縮短武器裝備從「弱智」到「強智」再到「超智」的時間軸,以實現武器裝備的智慧倍增效應。






來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:侯春牧 王勇 責任編輯:於雅倩 發布:2024-01-16


China’s Military Unveils the Metaverse



As if overnight, “metaverse” suddenly became a hot word, and related concepts formed many hot topics.

With the development of technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks, blockchain, and the iteration of terminal equipment, the construction and evolution of the “metaverse” may far exceed people’s expectations, and a new Internet form of multi-dimensional, full-sensory, immersive human-computer interaction will hopefully become a reality.

What is the Metaverse?

“Metaverse” is a term that comes from the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. In the novel, humans live in a virtual three-dimensional world through “Avatar” (digital virtual avatar), and the author calls this space “Metaverse”.

From science fiction to reality, people have not yet reached an absolute consensus on “what is the metaverse”. Due to the evolution of the times and technological changes, the “metaverse” is still an evolving concept. “There are a thousand Hamlets in the eyes of a thousand people”. Different participants are constantly enriching its definition in their own way, and the possibilities of the characteristics and forms of the “metaverse” are also constantly changing. However, we can explore a little through the existing presentation of the “metaverse”.

At present, “Metaverse” concept products are mainly concentrated in online games, VR/AR, social networking and other fields.

Online games are generally considered by the industry to be the most likely field to realize the “metaverse” because they have virtual scenes and players’ virtual avatars. Today, game functions have gone beyond the game itself, and the boundaries of games are expanding, and they are no longer just games.

A well-known singer held a virtual concert with his virtual image in the game “Fortnite”, which attracted more than 12 million players from all over the world to participate, breaking the boundary between entertainment and games; due to the impact of the epidemic, the University of California, Berkeley and the School of Animation and Digital Studies of Communication University of China coincidentally rebuilt their campuses in the sandbox game “Minecraft”. Students gathered together with virtual avatars to complete the “cloud graduation ceremony”, realizing the integration of virtual games and real social interactions.

The new generation of “VR social (virtual offline social)” has gradually developed and become popular. It is a fusion of offline social (face-to-face in reality) and online social (through social software such as WeChat). Some well-known VR social platforms provide a free community environment, which not only becomes a place for players’ online activities and virtual face-to-face gatherings, but also becomes a social and cultural phenomenon closely related to the current concept of “metaverse”.

The above-mentioned “metaverse slices” are all important explorations into the construction of the “metaverse”, and they explain in a variety of visible and tangible ways how the “metaverse” will change our real life.

In common research, the following consensus has been formed: “Metaverse” is a new type of Internet application and social form that integrates multiple new technologies and integrates virtual and real. It provides immersive experience based on extended reality technology, generates virtual and real scenes based on digital twins and 3D rendering technology, builds basic software and hardware services based on cloud computing, artificial intelligence and high-speed networks, and builds an economic system based on blockchain technology, closely integrating the virtual world with the real world in economic system, social system and identity system. At the same time, it allows each user to produce and edit content, and has complete self-driving and iteration capabilities.

The development direction of the “metaverse”

Today’s mobile Internet is actually still in a flat information interaction state, presented on mobile terminals through text, sound, pictures, and videos. Although news information, e-commerce, social chat, live video, etc. meet people’s needs for using the Internet, it is obviously impossible to achieve the effect of face-to-face communication and full sensory experience in real life through the mobile phone screen. With the development of society, people need more original and rich experience and interaction.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to move their daily lives from offline to online. This forced transformation has led to more thinking, discussion and attention on the “metaverse”. In particular, the core feature of the “metaverse” is the immersive experience, which can turn a plane into a three-dimensional, multi-dimensional, real-time interactive space, greatly enriching and restoring the real physical world and various human relationships. Therefore, people have high hopes for the “metaverse”.

Looking back at the development of information technology and media, humans have continuously changed the way they perceive the world, and later began to consciously transform and reshape the world. From the newspaper era, the radio and television era, to the Internet era, and the mobile Internet era, the tools and platforms under the concept of “metaverse” are becoming increasingly complete, and the path to the “metaverse” is gradually becoming clearer.

Since 2020, Internet giants in various countries have been closely deploying cutting-edge technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks and blockchain, and the door to the ultimate closed-loop ecosystem of the “metaverse” has been opened little by little. Today, when the “bonus” of mobile Internet users has peaked, many experts and scholars have stated that the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet.

Just as it was difficult to accurately predict the development of the Internet 20 years ago, people cannot accurately predict the future form of the “metaverse”. However, combined with the development trends of related industries today, we can see that: the Internet has changed human life and digitized communication between people, and the “metaverse” will digitize the relationship between people and society; the technologies related to the “metaverse” will show gradual development, single-point technological innovations will continue to appear and merge, and all aspects of the industry will move closer to the ultimate form of the “metaverse”; the “metaverse” will emerge with a large amount of user-generated content, and at the same time, the value of digital assets will be revealed.

In general, the “metaverse” will profoundly change the organization and operation of the existing society through the integration of the virtual and the real, form a new lifestyle with both virtual and real poles, give birth to a new social relationship that integrates online and offline, and give new vitality to the real economy from the virtual dimension.

The future physical “metaverse” will be similar to the scene described in the science fiction movie “Ready Player One”: one day in the future, people can switch identities anytime and anywhere, freely shuttle between the real world and the virtual world, and study, work, make friends, shop, travel, etc. in the “metaverse”. Through immersive experience, the virtual world will be closer to and integrated into the real world.

In this virtual world, there will be self-evolving content and economic systems that will always remain safe and stable to meet the social needs of individuals.

The mediating role of the “metaverse”

“Imagine the ‘metaverse’ as a physical Internet, where you are not just watching content, but you are fully immersed in it.” This is a vivid description. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, the content of these “metaverses” that allow “full immersion” is relatively scarce. It needs more content that can be independently written, self-iterated, and multi-dimensionally attract users to participate in the experience and even participate in the creation.

The “metaverse” is bound to become a brand-new platform for media content production. Content producers can transform the “small universe” into the “big universe” through rich content production. In the short term, the breakthrough of the “metaverse” is immersive content. With the development and penetration of the concept of “metaverse”, the integration of immersive virtual content (such as games, cartoons, etc.) and immersive physical content (such as media, social networking, film and television, etc.) will become higher and higher. In other words, the “metaverse” will play a greater role as a medium.

In September this year, Yu Guoming, a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication of Beijing Normal University, pointed out at the release conference of the “2020-2021 “Metaverse” Development Research Report”: “Today, the role of the media is generally to provide cognitive information, but the role of the media is completing a process from providing cognition to providing experience. The entire media and technology has undergone a huge transformation from cognitive development to experience. Once the goal of “Metaverse” is established, it will play a directional role in communication technology, communication forms, communication methods and even communication effects.” If the “Metaverse” is the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet, then it is a super media channel that will show the ultimate form of media convergence and provide the best immersive experience.

Theoretically, the best communication experience must be based on real scenes. For example, when watching a football game, the ideal situation is to watch it in person on the field. In the “metaverse”, with the development of display interaction, high-speed communication and computing technology, it will become a reality to construct a communication scene that is infinitely close to reality. Users can become “witnesses” and “on-site observers” of news events in a three-dimensional, multi-sensory reception situation.

Therefore, the “metaverse” media can achieve true “multimedia”, and various human senses such as vision, smell, hearing, taste, touch, etc. can play a role, and even fully unfold and cooperate with each other to achieve “immersive” media applications.

Today’s media content is constantly evolving and innovating, and its development trend seems to be moving closer to the concept of “metaverse”. Media content will no longer be limited to flat presentation methods such as TV, computer, and mobile phone screens. Media content production will consider holographic presentation more, pay attention to creating an on-site environment atmosphere, and make users feel immersive. Social interaction will no longer be limited to text messages and comments. Feelings can be expressed instantly with voice and body movements, and face-to-face communication can be virtualized on the spot.

Imagine if news reports could restore the war scene and create a “battlefield metaverse”, making people feel as if they were there and feel in real time the tremendous trauma that war has caused to human civilization. This shock would further stimulate human society’s desire and yearning for peace, and media content would have a stronger influence and dissemination power.































Chinese Military Considerations for the Effective Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare During Cognitive Domain Operations



 In the operational chain of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the collection and application of evidence is a fundamental link of great value, and is an important starting point for the preparation of cognitive domain construction at all levels. Combining the special background of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to study evidence, accurately grasp its characteristics and laws, continuously study strategies and usage, and improve the effective application of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is of great reference significance for our army to fight the proactive battle of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the future.

Keywords: cognitive domain; public opinion warfare; evidence

With the formation of the three major operational dimensions of the modern information battlefield, namely the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain, cognitive domain operations have received increasing attention in the context of future intelligent hybrid warfare. Cognitive domain operations refer to a type of operations that directly acts on the brain’s cognition through special means to influence its emotions, motivations, judgments and behaviors, and even achieve the purpose of controlling the brain. As a cognitive carrier, the brain may become the main battlefield of future wars, and the right to control the brain will soon become the key to cognitive domain operations and the highest level of war control. In this sense, cognitive domain operations are cognitive confrontation actions that influence the decision-making and behavior of the target audience by influencing their cognition in order to achieve the strategic goals of national security. In the meantime, evidence has become an important factor affecting cognition, and evidence game is a basic link that must be paid attention to in planning and implementing public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. According to the general consensus of the legal community, evidence refers to the basis for determining the facts of an event in accordance with the rules of litigation. The evidence of public opinion warfare referred to in this article is derived from this. It can be seen that only by grasping evidence more accurately and timely and using evidence more prudently and appropriately can we more effectively destroy the enemy’s cognition, consolidate our own cognition, and shape the cognition of neutral forces, and provide effective support for the comprehensive victory of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain.

1. A deep understanding of the three values ​​of evidence in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain is the prerequisite for the effective use of evidence

Information is the basic “ammunition” of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As one of the ammunition, evidence has great value and can be examined from the following three dimensions.

1. Evidence is an indispensable cognitive weapon in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain and has fighting value.

To examine the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is to explore the essence of fact-finding in public opinion warfare from the cognitive level. The cognitive domain takes the human brain as the main combat space. Evidence, as a trace left by a certain “past fact”, undoubtedly exists regardless of whether people can find it. However, some evidence is specially proposed and emphasized at certain times, and its purpose must be to prove certain facts, cater to certain views, and influence certain attitudes. In fact, it is the process of proving the subject’s own cognition shaping, viewpoint presentation and value dissemination. With the help of the cognitive justification theory of contemporary epistemic evidentialism, it is demonstrated that there is an unignorable logical connection between belief attitude and cognitive justification: the epistemological rationality of belief attitude depends on the quality of evidence possessed by the believer at that time. It can be said that the value of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is highly consistent with the weapon context of informationized cognitive warfare. High-quality evidence can influence cognition in a high-quality manner and is an indispensable and irreplaceable weapon of struggle. This “basis of proof” is not only a spear and a sharp sword to strike and change the enemy’s cognition and make cognitive attacks in the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, but also a solid shield to guide and consolidate one’s own cognition and make cognitive protection.

(II) Evidence is the basis for the value guidance of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has guiding value

Authenticity is the essential characteristic of facts, but not the essential characteristic of evidence. Evidence is not equivalent to objective facts. It can be said that there are no false facts, but there are false evidence. According to the rules of evidence law, facts proved by evidence are possible facts, not necessarily inevitable. The result it produces may be a “wrong” result, but this so-called “wrong” is still a legitimate result in legal procedures. To be precise, although it is wrong, it is legitimate. Based on this dialectical logic, the evidential facts recognized by public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain are not equivalent to objective facts in themselves, and there may be differences between the evidential facts and objective facts. Evidence may be true or false, or half true and half false. It does not pursue an absolutely true and correct result, but a “legitimate” result that can influence cognition. Through these cognitive elements presented in the form of evidence, because of the “legitimate” label, they are more persuasive and authoritative, and have the guiding value of influencing cognition and behavior.

(III) Evidence is the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has winning value

As the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the winning value of evidence should not be underestimated. First, the effective use of evidence can minimize the deviation in factual characterization of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. By sorting out and integrating evidence materials, making clear logical connections between scattered and multi-perspective evidence, constructing a chain of evidence that is favorable to us and pointing to clear factual characterization, we can accurately associate and interpret objective facts. Preventing cognitive bias and passive public opinion caused by unclear and inaccurate factual characterization can improve the accuracy and clarity of fact identification. Secondly, the effective use of evidence can minimize the strategic decision-making cost of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As the saying goes, words are not enough. Without the effective support of evidence, public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain will be separated from the objective basis for the generation of combat effectiveness and become a complete self-talk. Its strategic decision-making efficiency will inevitably decrease and the decision-making cost will inevitably soar. Third, the effective use of evidence can minimize the legal risk of public opinion in the cognitive domain. The main sources of legal risks in the cognitive domain of public opinion are the deviation of values, the lack of legitimacy, and the indifference of humanitarianism… In this regard, through scenario pre-setting, targeted evidence lists, active storage of evidence materials, and reasonable and rational construction of the use of evidence, we can achieve a certain degree of risk warning, risk avoidance, and risk resolution.

2. Accurately grasping the three major shifts of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain is the key to the effective use of evidence

Compared with the physical and information domains, evidence in the cognitive domain presents distinct characteristics in the public opinion war. In terms of the purpose of proof, it guarantees the realization of policy and strategic goals and serves the political intention of the public opinion war in the cognitive domain; in terms of the means of proof, truth and falsehood are often intertwined, creating many situations where the truth and falsehood are unclear; in terms of the content of proof, it must be able to clearly, conclusively and promptly prove the justice and legality of our actions and the meaninglessness and illegality of the enemy. It is mainly reflected in three changes.

1. Shifting from “restoring the truth” to “influencing cognition” and highlighting cognitive attributes with goal orientation

In the public opinion war under the cognitive domain, the fundamental purpose of evidence has shifted from “approaching the truth, restoring facts, and promoting objective scene reconstruction” to “influencing the cognition of the target audience and realizing national security interests”. From the initial objective basis for reflecting the battlefield situation to the powerful weapon of public opinion war under the cognitive domain, it is neither simply an objective fact to be proved nor just a material and means to prove facts. Evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain must have a clear position. Before proving, it is necessary to first clarify whose point of view is proved? Whose facts are proved? Whose interests are protected? It is absolutely impossible to be value-free without its basic position. Evidence serves political purposes and strategic intentions, guides the target audience to move towards the established cognitive goals, and accepts, identifies, and shapes the corresponding argumentation conclusions. Its collection and use are all determined by strategic determination, combat intentions, and battlefield situation. Whether it is true or false, good or bad, it must serve the overall strategic situation and needs to be judged in combination with combat effectiveness.

2. Shifting from “raw collection” to “scientific compilation” to assist cognitive decision-making with intelligent means

Cognition is the process of actively processing information, including three links: information input, processing and output. Corresponding to the evidence action of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is to collect evidence, analyze and compile evidence, and make decisions and use evidence. It must be recognized that the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the digital era is essentially a strategic action to manipulate information and shape cognition in the public opinion field, and the quality requirements of evidence materials are more stringent. If there is insufficient understanding of evidence, and evidence collection is simply regarded as taking photos and recording scenes, it is far from meeting the requirements of the new digital cognitive domain public opinion battlefield environment. It must be assisted by intelligent means and transformed into scientific evidence collection, analysis and compilation. Scientific evidence can, to a certain extent, get rid of human dependence on experience consciousness, eliminate the ambiguity, fragmentation and one-sidedness of human cognition under certain conditions, and assist cognitive domain combat commanders to make more accurate command decisions. In reality, there is indeed a phenomenon that the evidence is true, but the cognition generated is false. Only through a series of intelligent compilation work such as collection, classification, compilation, comparison, verification, reasoning, judgment, and integration of evidence information perceived across the entire domain, and using the scientific presentation of evidence to influence cognition in a targeted manner, can the process of evidence information fusion and command decision-making results be made corresponding and unified, making accurate decision-making the key to winning the war of public opinion in the cognitive domain.

3. Shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance” to prove quality and improve cognitive effectiveness

In the cognitive domain, it is far from enough to simply record objective phenomena as evidence in the public opinion war. It also needs to have special guidance and appeal in order to form a strong communication power and influence, aiming to stimulate certain emotions of the target audience and trigger specific cognition. It is necessary to shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance”. Only by awakening the empathy experience of the target audience through sophisticated and appropriate evidence presentation can the expected proof effect be produced. For example, a bloody knife cannot directly support or oppose any proposition by itself. Unless someone perceives the knife, forms a feeling state, and associates it with other evidence, it can produce a proof effect. Therefore, the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be perceptible. Whether it is true evidence or false evidence, these evidences are not responsible for restoring the truth of the facts, nor are they used only to prove the legality or illegality of a certain action or behavior. They are intended to shock the target audience with thoughts and generate emotional waves, and play cognitive effects such as shaking the morale of the army, inspiring morale, gaining support from many people, inspiring sympathy, guiding public opinion, and breaking the enemy’s spirit, ensuring that the reason can be said and spread. Otherwise, no matter how good the proof logic is, its effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the lack of communication and appeal, and it may even be ineffective in the fierce cognitive game.

3. Innovative evidence in the three ways of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is the path to effective use of evidence

In the public opinion war in the cognitive domain, evidence is sometimes an offensive weapon, sometimes a means of deterrence, and sometimes a tool for bargaining… How to cleverly deploy troops and gain the initiative on this battlefield? It is necessary to judge the situation, deeply study the techniques, present accurately, and implement them purposefully, systematically, and strategically. According to the logical order of evidence participation from weak to strong, the understanding of evidence from shallow to deep, and the evidence tactics from passive to active, there are three ways to use evidence: objective, directional, and strategic.

1. Attaching importance to the objective use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

Evidence has incomparable persuasiveness, and public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must attach importance to speaking with evidence. The most basic approach is to solidly promote the objective collection and use of evidence. First, it is necessary to discover and extract evidence from a large amount of materials to preliminarily solve the problem of evidence admissibility. Secondly, the evidence collected must withstand the test and judgment of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to solve the problem of evidence availability. The basic logical line of evidence collection and use is: objectively obtain evidence materials – based on the acquired evidence materials, sort out, match, integrate, and analyze which existing evidence materials can prove objective facts that have an impact on cognition – solve the problem of “what can be proved”. If objective evidence collection is not done well, it is easy for the enemy to take it out of context, generalize, and even confuse right and wrong. On the one hand, through the objective presentation of original evidence, the illegality and provocation of the other party’s behavior are exposed, the legitimacy and justice of our actions are explained, the truth of the incident is intuitively and powerfully clarified, and the psychological defense of the other party is effectively disintegrated, the other party’s fighting will is shaken, and a strong psychological offensive and deterrence effect is formed; on the other hand, it effectively boosts our military morale, inspires fighting spirit, and enhances psychological protection in the cognitive battlefield. In short, we must strive to objectively make good use of “real evidence that can gain the initiative” and expose “false evidence in the hands of evidence dealers.”

2. Strengthening the guiding use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

It is necessary to fully realize that the probative value of evidence needs to be realized through interpretation, which leaves sufficient space for guiding the collection and use of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. On the basis of the objective collection and use of evidence, through more proactive reverse thinking, another logical line of evidence collection and use can be found: first clarify what facts need to be proved in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain – then consider how to compile and interpret the existing evidence materials in a biased manner according to the demand orientation – solve the problem of “how to interpret and use the evidence materials”. Under the demand-oriented role, by actively presetting the facts to be proved, consciously do a good job of evidence association and effectiveness interpretation. It can be said that the process of compiling objective original evidence is the process of evidence interpretation. Scattered evidence materials, after being fully interpreted and compiled with subjective intentions, will form a closed evidence chain with directionality. These directional evidence products guide the audience from “seeing” evidence to “understanding” evidence, which is a weapon that can influence the generation of combat effectiveness in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. In fact, the party with a stronger ability to interpret evidence selfishly is often more able to dominate the development of the battle.

3. Strategic Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare under the Design Cognitive Domain

The ultimate target of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is cognitive ability, and the dominant factor for winning the battle will naturally shift to cognition. Therefore, the high-skilled use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be achieved with the help of the systematic vision and strategic thinking of strategists. The logical line of evidence collection and use here is: consider evidence as an indispensable key element of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and incorporate it into the overall strategic planning link – preset a list of key evidence according to different scenarios – actively create conditions to obtain key evidence – solve the problem of “how to achieve the strategic intention and combat determination of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain from the evidence level”. Under special conditions, even through sophisticated arrangements, with active and proactive “creative design” to lay out the fog of evidence, prompt the enemy to reveal its shortcomings, expose its weaknesses, and make actions and reactions that are beneficial to us, forming a complete and conclusive chain of evidence, so as to achieve the purpose of releasing special information, propaganda against the enemy’s mind, political and diplomatic hints, etc., consume the enemy’s cognitive ability, disrupt its thinking, interfere with its judgment, and hinder its actions. In particular, we must develop an awareness of strategies and tactics in the game of evidence in the context of cognitive domain public opinion warfare, select, choose, combine, assemble, switch among various types of evidence… flexibly deploy and skillfully present them, give full play to the potential of evidence use, contain, curb, and counter enemy actions, and expand our own space for action. The key to applying evidence well lies in one’s heart.

(Author’s unit: Political Science Academy of National Defense University)








檢視認知域下輿論戰的證據,就是要從認知層面來探究輿論戰事實認定的本質。認知域以人腦為主要作戰空間。證據,作為某種「過去事實」留下的痕跡,不管人們能否發現,它們無疑都是存在的。但某些證據在某些時候被特別提出和強調,其目的必然是為了佐證某些事實、迎合某些觀點、影響某些態度,其實就是論證主體自身認知塑造、觀點呈現和價值傳播的過程。借助當代認知證據主義(Epistemic Evidentialism)的認知證成理論,論證信念態度與認知證成之間存在著不可忽視的邏輯聯繫:信念態度在認識論上的合理程度,取決於相信者當時所擁有的證據的品質。可以說,認知域下輿論戰的證據價值與資訊化認知作戰的武器脈絡高度契合,高品質的證據能夠高品質影響認知,是不可或缺不可取代的鬥爭武器。這種“證明的根據”,在認知域下輿論戰中,既是打擊、改變敵方認知,做好認知攻擊的長矛利劍;也是引導、鞏固己方認知,做好認知防護的堅固盾牌。























Chinese Military Insight into the Evolution of Cognitive Warfare



Cognition is the process by which people acquire, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually received attention from all countries. With the development of the scientific and technological revolution and the expansion of war practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerating evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming the basic driving force of the evolution of war. Technology changes the form of war and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become a sign of the maturity of cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies in cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, artificial intelligence, etc. will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Human beings are entering the era of universal communication. The global cyberspace is being highly linked. The network has become a combat space for comprehensive game between state actors and non-state actors. The contention and war of communication have become part of the high-intensity military action level. At present, major countries in the world have laid out the frontier of cognitive technology and carried out cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control the human brain network, information network and social network; through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, and clever calculation, they aim to maximize the control of people’s cognitive world and cognitive domain.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the intelligent era, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication is giving way to online communication. Various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large social platforms have become the main battlefield for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The space domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep earth, while the logic domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to the social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and anti-blockade, dominance and anti-domination around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare, and the struggle for international discourse control using information as ammunition has become the main way of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, the penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of small-scale war or even victory without fighting through comprehensive game means such as cognitive warfare. The offense and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released.

Cognitive advantage is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of action in war is the lifeblood of the military. From the cognitive dimension, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the freer the action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in war, commanders are beginning to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time, help commanders get rid of cognitive overload, and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantage will dominate decision-making advantage, and decision-making advantage will dominate action advantage. Cognitive advantage has four key indicators: stronger information acquisition ability, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling ability, and higher ability to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with data-driven intelligent communication as its new feature has been highly coordinated and integrated with traditional military operations. This virtual-real integrated combat style has stronger combat effectiveness than simple military operations, which has fundamentally changed the traditional combat methods. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become a fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the forefront of the game of winning wars. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power, and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-penetration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control in cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field. Concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion have appeared frequently in the field of foreign cognitive warfare research. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict domain” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theory innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars, cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation, and cognitive technology will accelerate the advancement of cognitive warfare to become an important “trigger point” for the intelligent military revolution. Since new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are in the process of accelerated incubation, perhaps future wars will present a surprising new situation.








Chinese Military Considers Metaverse the New Frontier for Future Cognitive Warfare



●The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but also reacts to the real world.

●Parallel with the real world, reaction to the real world, and integration of multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse.

●The metaverse provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society.

● Strengthening the follow-up research on the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare and highlighting the exploration of the mechanism of the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare will help enrich and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but reacts to the real world. When virtual technologies such as digital, Internet, augmented reality and modern communications, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other technologies develop to a certain stage, the metaverse will emerge. Being parallel to the real world, reacting to the real world, and integrating multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural law of human understanding and transformation of the world. It directly acts on human thinking and cognition but is not bound by the essential attributes of thinking and cognition, which determines that it carries the operating laws of the real world, provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behavior, state and laws of complex systems in reality, and a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. At the same time, it is itself a complex cognitive body, so it has immeasurable cognitive warfare application value.

The basic mechanism of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

The difference between the metaverse and other technologies is that it builds a complete digital world. Its operation is not supported by a single or a few technologies, but by a complex high-tech complex. This complex is built by humans, is a product of cognition, and continues to develop and evolve with the development of human cognitive practice. Its cognitive application has a unique regular mechanism.

System enhancement mechanism. The digital world constructed by the metaverse is itself a highly developed cognitive world. In this special cognitive world, technology not only exists as an additional role such as support and guarantee, but also directly participates in the shaping of cognition itself as a basic element of cognition. In other words, the technology that constitutes the metaverse itself has a distinct cognitive background, which not only supports the operation of cognition but also realizes the self-construction, revolution and transcendence of cognition; it not only provides a series of necessary technical services, but also creates a holographic technical soil for human cognition to operate independently and fight independently. The effect of the metaverse on cognition is not one-dimensional, but full-dimensional; not single-line, but full-system; not independent, but immersive; not fragmentary, but continuous; not cyclical, but full-life process. How far the thinking cognition develops, how far the metaverse develops, and thus it can shape people’s thinking cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly. Therefore, humans have used high technology to create “Avatar”, a complex system combining man and machine, and have also created a life form on “Pandora” that can think independently, recognize itself, and think and act on its own. This life form, which was created by humans and is independent of humans, has achieved self-improvement and development in the new universe.

The mechanism of mutual construction of technology and knowledge. Unlike the one-way effect of individual technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks on thinking and cognition, the metaverse provides a space for mutual construction of technology and cognition, and influence and counter-influence. In this space, we can simulate, demonstrate, simulate, and verify the process and results of this two-way mutual construction and promotion, so as to understand cognition more accurately and efficiently, improve cognitive warfare methods, and directly engage in real cognitive confrontation. The metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenes, where cognitive warfare can be promoted efficiently, enhanced at a fast pace, and presented in a panoramic manner. It is reported that the US military uses virtual technology to verify the performance of new weapons and equipment, test the effectiveness of the use of new tactics, and conduct combat simulation training, relying on the deployment of forces, combat terrain, human characteristics, and other scenes similar to actual combat constructed in virtual spaces such as the metaverse. At the same time, more and more countries and armies are conducting direct cognitive attacks and defenses with their opponents through virtual spaces, confusing their minds, misleading their directions, and eroding their will.

Active reflection mechanism. As a virtual existence parallel to the real world, the metaverse is not a simple digital copy of the three-dimensional space, but has its own operating rules and can actively act on the real world. This active action is the focus of the cognitive application of the metaverse. The metaverse space game reflects the characteristics of cognitive warfare. The war results deduced in the metaverse through virtual simulation may directly affect the real world, extending to the conscious cognitive competition game through sensory touch, thereby winning the dominant position in cognitive warfare. In the cognitive perspective, the metaverse is both a new cognitive space and the main battlefield of cognition, as well as an extended domain of cognition and a new cognitive component. At present, the military of many countries uses sandbox operations, war games and even computer simulations to formulate and test strategies and tactics, revise the application of tactics, improve training methods, and improve weapons and equipment. This is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to reality. With the continuous development and integration of the metaverse technology group, cognitive confrontation will inevitably shift more and faster from the real world to a hybrid world combining virtuality and reality.

The basic characteristics of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Existence determines consciousness, and technology drives creation. The metaverse has many characteristics, such as parallelism with the real world, initiative in the real world, and comprehensiveness that integrates multiple technologies. These prominent characteristics determine the different characteristics and laws of its effects on thinking and cognition.

Cross-domain construction. The formation, development and evolution of cognition are rarely determined by a single factor, but are often the result of the combined effect of multiple factors. The metaverse originates from the real world and is presented in the virtual space. It has the characteristics of multi-domain interconnection that runs through the real and virtual worlds. As the saying goes, “a lot of gossip can melt gold, and accumulated criticism can destroy bones.” This cross-domain characteristic that spans different fields and opens up related spaces can best influence and shape people’s thinking and cognition from different angles. The most typical case is that game developers are increasingly focusing on using virtual stories based on historical facts and real feelings to attract and infect people. The United States has used this cross-domain shaped surreal “real” experience to spread values. At present, the most representative “metaverse” themed science fiction work is “Ready Player One” directed by Spielberg. The play focuses on depicting the era background of the birth of the “metaverse” and the huge contrast between the real status and virtual status of the protagonist. Through the plot and special effects shots, it delicately portrays the real sense of human participation, thereby spreading the American ideology, especially the values ​​of gaining wealth, status, love and friendship through “bloodless” struggle in the virtual world.

Integrated influence. The important fulcrums of cognitive warfare are strategy and technology. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the proportion of technology in cognitive warfare is increasing and its role is becoming more and more prominent. It can be said that cognitive warfare without scientific and technological support is cognitive warfare without power, and cognitive warfare with advanced technology is more likely to win. As a complex system integrating multiple cutting-edge technologies, the metaverse has a natural advantage in the use of cognitive warfare. Many people, including adults, are deeply trapped in the virtual world and indulge in online games. It is very important that the virtual space gives game operators a super-time and space experience and a sense of achievement. If martial arts novels are fairy tales for adults, then the metaverse, which can “do whatever you want”, creates a super fairy tale world, which has an immeasurable impact on people’s thinking, cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotional will, and behavior patterns.

Compromising influence. A big difference between the metaverse and other technical means is that it constructs a virtual world that originates from the real world but reacts to the real world. In this complex domain space, people’s thinking and cognition go back and forth between the real world and the virtual space, verify each other, repeatedly confirm, and constantly correct, thereby generating new thinking and cognition, and exerting a dynamic influence on both worlds. This two-way interactive compromising influence, on the one hand, is conducive to the formation and development of correct thinking and cognition, making the cognition of the real world more imaginative with the wings of the virtual world’s thoughts, and at the same time, it also makes the cognition of the virtual space find the material support of the real world and become more scientific. On the other hand, if it is not operated properly, it is likely to cause great safety hazards and ethical problems. In recent years, the U.S. military has relied on artificial intelligence and virtual technology to remotely control drones to attack opponents, which is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to the real world. This attack is far away from the tragic scene of face-to-face fighting, which greatly dilutes the drone operator’s awe of life and lowers the threshold for remotely controlling the opponent. At the same time, due to the imperfect reconnaissance and identification technology, incidents of accidental shooting, injury, and killing of civilians, friendly forces, and even their own troops often occur.

The basic style of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Metaverse cognitive warfare is based on reality and leads future development. It involves both the virtual and real worlds, penetrates multiple fields, covers multiple technologies, and has a variety of combat styles. There is great uncertainty, but it is not without rules. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are three basic styles.

Platform confrontation. In terms of its relationship with human thinking and cognition, the metaverse itself is a complex cognitive actor, a derivative of human thinking and cognition, and an important component and platform of cognitive warfare. When hostile countries and armies regard the metaverse as an important position for cognitive warfare, cognitive offensive and defensive operations between different camps within the metaverse exist in reality. On this platform, all technologies, resources and forces of the metaverse are integrated and operated with thinking and cognition as the center. Metaverse operations are prominently manifested as cognitive offensive and defensive operations aimed at disrupting, delaying, blocking, destroying and eliminating the existence and operation of the opponent’s metaverse. In this field, whoever has higher-end strategic planning, more flexible tactical application, more advanced technical force and more solid material support will be able to gain the initiative in metaverse cognitive warfare.

System attack. The metaverse is a cognitive system composed of a series of cutting-edge technologies, and systemicity is its inherent attribute and vitality guarantee. Advanced technologies such as digital foundation, efficient communication, blockchain identity authentication, holographic AR imaging, artificial intelligence, and high-performance Internet constitute a unified body with tight structure, functional coupling, and complete system. The components are indispensable for the formation and development of thinking cognition and offensive and defensive confrontation. It is difficult to imagine that the metaverse still has the possibility of existence without the support of advanced technology groups such as high-level digitization, high-quality communication, and high-speed computing. Using superior forces to force or use asymmetric tactics to attack and block the key nodes and technological operation chains of the opponent’s metaverse system, hinder its operation, suppress its functions, and destroy its existence is an important style and efficient path of metaverse cognitive warfare.

Divert the flow. An important value and significance of the existence and development of the metaverse lies in serving and supporting the related activities of the real world. Under normal circumstances, the metaverse can demonstrate, display, review and predict the related activities of the real world in a digital form. Once the communication between the virtual and real worlds is disturbed or the self-operation of the metaverse is disordered, it is easy to cause the situation reflected to be untrue, the information analyzed to be distorted, the conclusions derived to be invalid, and the suggestions provided to be wrong, causing the related activities of the real world to deviate. It is based on this that we can concentrate our efforts on inducing attacks on the internal operation of the opponent’s metaverse or the communication technology devices of the two worlds, and use extremely confusing and deceptive information and scenes to divert the flow, confuse their cognition, interfere with their judgment, and mislead their decision-making. Therefore, we should strengthen the tracking research on the cognitive warfare of the role of the metaverse, highlight the exploration of the cognitive warfare mechanism of the role of the metaverse, and strengthen and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute of the Academy of Military Sciences)
























Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations



Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.



















China’s “War of Annihilation” from the Perspective of Modern Warfare



“Based on the evolution of war, grasp the “cautious first battle””

  Written in front

  In the history of our army, fighting a war of annihilation is one of the most distinctive and important guiding ideas for operations. As early as the Agrarian Revolutionary War, based on the war purpose of “preserving ourselves and destroying the enemy”, our army clearly proposed that the basic policy in operations was to fight a war of annihilation. Since then, in different historical periods, according to different environments, situations and tasks, our army has maintained a high degree of flexibility and maneuverability in combat guidance, and has resolutely implemented the principle of fighting a war of annihilation, continuously enriched and developed combat theories, and wrote classic examples of the weak defeating the strong in the history of world wars.

  With the advent of the information age, the form of warfare, battlefield environment, military technology, and warfare mechanisms have undergone major changes. How the traditional theory of annihilation warfare can adapt to the changes of the times, give full play to our strengths, attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and innovate and develop is a question of the times that our generation of soldiers must answer well.

  Depriving the enemy of its combat power is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In the long-term practice of revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. In order to dampen the enemy’s spirit, seize the initiative and defeat the enemy, while emphasizing the cautiousness of the first battle, we pay great attention to planning and fighting a war of annihilation to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. Therefore, “it is better to cut off one finger than to injure ten fingers”, completely depriving the enemy of its combat capability, avoiding a war of attrition or a war of defeat, has also become a key indicator for measuring the success or failure of a war of annihilation and the comprehensive effectiveness of combat. Combat under traditional conditions is often the physical superposition of troops and weapons in the same time and space, emphasizing hard killing as the main method, and the strength of combat effectiveness is mainly manifested through parameters such as mobility, firepower, and protection. Correspondingly, quickly and effectively eliminating the enemy’s living forces has become the most effective means of winning hearts and minds and disintegrating the enemy.

  Entering the information age, information power has driven the displacement of combat effectiveness measurement standards in an exponential manner. While becoming the dominant factor in the informationized battlefield, it has strongly promoted the organic integration of combat power with early warning detection, reconnaissance intelligence, command and control, and rear-end support. The warring parties are showing a trend of full-system and full-factor confrontation. The informationized battlefield no longer simply emphasizes the spatial and temporal concentration of troops and weapons to suppress and attack the enemy, but focuses on relying on the network information system to seize information space and compete for information advantages, so that the enemy “cannot see clearly, cannot connect, and cannot hit accurately”, thereby completely depriving the enemy of its combat effectiveness. In the Kosovo War, after suffering 78 days of continuous air strikes by NATO, although the Yugoslav army did not suffer major losses in its manpower, it was always in a passive position because the material basis of the war and the reconnaissance and early warning, command and control, air defense and anti-missile systems were destroyed and paralyzed by the enemy, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty.

  In today’s era, destroying the enemy’s key war support elements, depriving it of the objective material basis for continuous combat, and undermining its will to wage war are not only important options for annihilation warfare to pursue deterrence effects and deprive the enemy of its combat effectiveness, but also a necessary way for annihilation warfare to achieve combat intentions and defeat the opponent.

  Attacking the key points and breaking the system is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  For a long time, pulling teeth out of a tiger’s mouth and striking the enemy’s vital points have been important indicators for testing the courage and command art of commanders and fighters, and are also effective means to defeat the enemy and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. During the Hujia Wopeng Battle of the Liaoshen Campaign during the War of Liberation, the 3rd Column of the Northeast Field Army first destroyed the Liao Yaoxiang Corps Command through bold penetration, infiltration, and division, and quickly trapped the enemy in a state of collapse and defeat. But at the same time, we should also see that due to the constraints of military technology level and the effectiveness of weapons and equipment, in traditional operations, there are often many practical difficulties in accurately striking core targets such as enemy command organizations and key defense positions, and there is a lack of effective means to “go straight to Huanglong”. It can be said that traditional annihilation warfare is still more about annihilating the opponent’s living forces. This also makes it an important factor in designing the combat process and considering the success or failure of operations in traditional operations to measure and compare the number and scale of troops and weapons of both sides.

  In the information age, on the one hand, the environmental situation and war thinking have undergone profound changes. The necessity and possibility of expanding the size of the army in exchange for improved combat effectiveness and then winning the war by annihilating a large number of enemy heavy troops are becoming less and less; on the other hand, new weapons and equipment such as precision guidance and unmanned intelligence, with the support of powerful information networks and aerospace reconnaissance capabilities, can implement “decapitation operations” and “targeted elimination” more quickly and accurately, and quickly achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. The combat mode of seizing the key nodes and parts of the enemy’s combat system, carrying out precise strikes and structural destruction, paralyzing the enemy’s combat system while reducing collateral damage and achieving combat objectives is becoming more and more respected. As a result, command centers, communication hubs, radar positions, network nodes, etc. have become sensitive parts that the warring parties focus on protecting and the key points of attacking. In the Iraq War, the US military launched a comprehensive structural paralysis operation against the Iraqi army. By implementing “decapitation operations” against Iraqi military and political leaders and “targeted elimination” of the Iraqi army’s communication command and air defense systems, the Iraqi army was placed in a completely passive position throughout the process, and the war process was accelerated.

  In today’s era, with the rapid development of information technology and war practice, “system destruction” is becoming a keyword in modern combat theory, and is gradually promoting the overall transformation of combat modes. It has not only become a new way and means to win wars, but also an important way to win modern annihilation wars.

  Controlling operational control is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In previous war practices, the combat environment faced by our army was relatively simple, and the battlefield was mainly carried out on land. Although our army is often at a disadvantage compared to the opponent’s weapons and equipment, it can often defeat the strong with the weak and defeat the enemy by exploring its own advantages, exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses, and actively looking for opportunities. In the second battle of the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, the volunteer army adopted the combat strategy of internal operations, luring the enemy deep into the enemy, and defeating them one by one. They made full use of the darkness of night and terrain to secretly engage the enemy, dared to cut off the enemy’s retreat, interspersed attacks, and divided and surrounded the enemy, giving the enemy an annihilating blow, and finally won the battle and reversed the entire situation in one fell swoop. This shows that for a party that is temporarily unable to seize comprehensive control of the battlefield in combat, as long as it is good at exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses and cleverly reducing the enemy’s sharp attack momentum, it can still seek the initiative to win in difficult and difficult situations and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, wars are fought on vast battlefields, both visible and invisible. In addition to the traditional battlefields of land, sea and air, they are also further extended to deep sea, space, electromagnetic, network, intelligence, biology and other space fields, presenting a complex situation. The armies of the world’s powerful countries have taken the seizure of comprehensive control and the initiative in war as important indicators and necessary ways to build their army and defeat their opponents. Dimensionality reduction strikes have become a must-have in battlefield confrontations. In recent years, the US military’s foreign aggression has relied on the battlefield comprehensive control dominated by the advantages of air and space control and information control. However, we must also see that no matter how powerful the opponent is, there will be fatal weaknesses. Even if it is difficult for the party with relatively backward weapons and equipment to fully seize the battlefield comprehensive control, it can still “attack the incapable with the capable” in the local battlefield, seek local combat initiative, and thus win the local annihilation war, and use the local initiative to drive the overall initiative, and use asymmetric single control to help seize local comprehensive control and achieve final victory.

  In today’s era, we must accelerate the construction of all aspects of the military and step up the forging of capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield. We must also follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive war”, “cross-domain war”, “intelligent war” and other tactics, use dimensionality reduction strikes, asymmetric strikes and other tactics, turn disadvantages into advantages, turn passivity into initiative, control combat control by “attacking the incapable with the able”, and win the war of annihilation.

  Accurately releasing energy is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  Traditional warfare is restricted by factors such as command and communication, mobility, firepower speed, and weather conditions. The use of forces is often limited to a certain combat area. There is little change in combat command and troop actions, and offensive and defensive actions are relatively clear. In the past, annihilation warfare was more often achieved through echelon (group) deployment, continuous attack (resistance), layer-by-layer capture (defense), combined with interspersed detours, segmentation and encirclement, and cutting off the enemy’s flanks. For this reason, “concentrating superior forces and annihilating the enemy one by one” often becomes the fundamental principle and important way to plan annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, the combat force structure has undergone major changes. With the emergence of space combat, intelligent combat, stealth combat forces, as well as a large number of new weaponry and equipment such as hypersonic aircraft and kinetic weapons, the military’s information power, mobility, and strike power have unprecedentedly increased, and the effectiveness of unmanned intelligent combat has become increasingly prominent. Although quantity and scale are still important criteria for measuring the combat effectiveness of an army, “newer, faster, more accurate, and smarter” has begun to become an important indicator for measuring an army’s ability to adapt to modern warfare. Correspondingly, scientifically and rationally organizing combat forces and focusing on the best to release combat effectiveness have become important links in winning modern annihilation wars.

  Structural strength determines combat effectiveness, and advanced and applicable structural formation is an important prerequisite for multi-functional and powerful combat effectiveness. In the information age, only by jointly using new and old combat forces, realizing the organic integration of new quality capabilities and traditional capabilities, and then building a new force formation that integrates multiple capabilities, can we promote the overall optimization of the combat system and the aggregation of advantages, and accurately control the combat rhythm, combat time and space, combat operations and combat process. In the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Azerbaijan adopted a flexible formation mode for manned and unmanned combat forces, using low-cost An-2 drones to lure the Armenian air defense system to open fire, and followed up with Habib-2 anti-radar drones and TB-2 reconnaissance and strike drones to destroy more than a dozen air defense systems on the Armenian side in one fell swoop, and then calmly defeated the Armenian ground armored forces.

  In today’s era, as the status and role of combat operations such as network and electronic warfare, air and space attacks, and unmanned combat become more prominent, more attention should be paid to scientific design and rational organization of troops and weapons, so as to achieve the effect of clenching fingers into a fist through the accumulation of quality and integration of efficiency, and fight a war of annihilation that is quick to strike and quick to retreat, and wins with precision.

















當今時代,固然要加快軍隊各項建設,加緊鍛造奪控綜合製權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,更要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰” 「智能戰」等戰法,以降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,化劣勢為勝勢,變被動為主動,在「以能擊不能」中掌控作戰制權,打贏殲滅戰。




結構力決定戰鬥力,結構編成先進適用是戰鬥力多能、強大的重要前提。資訊時代,只有透過新舊作戰力量的聯合運用,實現新質能力與傳統能力的有機融合,進而建構集多種能力於一體的新型力量編組,才能促進作戰體系整體優化與優勢聚合,精準控製作戰節奏、作戰時空、作戰行動和作戰過程。在2020年的納卡衝突中,阿塞拜疆對有人和無人作戰力量採取了靈活編組模式,用價格低廉的安-2無人機引誘亞美尼亞防空系統開火,用哈比-2反雷達無人機和TB -2察打一體無人機跟進打擊,一舉摧毀亞方十餘套防空系統,進而從容打掉亞方地面裝甲部隊。



來源:解放軍報 | 2022年07月07日 08:OO

Chinese Military to Emphasize Technical Cognition as The Foundation for Victory



Never before has scientific and technological power had such a profound impact on the future of the military and the outcome of wars, and never before has it been such a powerful support for a strong military to win wars.

The so-called technological cognition is the ability to recognize and grasp the performance, value and development trend of technology with the goal of promoting scientific and technological innovation and application, which is prominently reflected in the sensitivity, understanding, discrimination and control of technology. In today’s era, science and technology are becoming the core combat power of modern warfare, and the technological content has become a key indicator for measuring the quality of military construction. Faced with unprecedented opportunities and challenges, if technological cognition cannot adapt to the new requirements of the development of the times, it will be difficult to inject momentum into the generation and improvement of combat power, and it will be difficult to win the important weight to win the future.

Improving technical cognition is not only a “question to be answered” for professional and technical personnel, but also a “must-choose question” for every officer and soldier. From the perspective of the realization process of technical value and effectiveness, if the invention and creation of technology is “primary value”, then the effective use of technology is “secondary value”. Accelerating the pace of scientific and technological innovation depends on the broadening of the knowledge horizons of professional and technical personnel, keeping a close eye on the forefront of science and technology, and constantly making new breakthroughs in the research and development of forward-looking, strategic, and disruptive technologies. With more new inventions and creations in the field of military science and technology, we can increase our contribution to the construction of the army and the growth of combat effectiveness, and actively seize the commanding heights of military technology competition. The transformation and application of scientific and technological achievements depends on the officers and soldiers, especially the leading cadres at all levels, to speed up the updating of knowledge and improve their scientific and technological literacy, so as to enhance and tap the application value of technology with scientific cognition and thorough understanding of science and technology, ensure that scientific and technological achievements are transformed into real combat effectiveness, and improve the ability to prepare for war at a higher starting point and level. Obviously, from scientific and technological innovation to scientific and technological application, it is a “value-added” process that is closely connected, mutually promoted, and focused. It is a process of seeking to win through science and technology and releasing the combat effectiveness of technology to a greater extent. Technical cognition is the internal support that runs through it and demonstrates people’s active role and creative talent. We must take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task. We must have political and military minds as well as scientific and technological minds. Scientific and technological literacy and scientific and technological thinking are based on and built on technological cognition. The higher the technological cognition, the stronger the innovation and creativity in the use of science and technology, and the greater the effect of promoting the growth of combat effectiveness.

Improving technical cognition is not only the key to mastering modern weapons and equipment, but also the move to accelerate the innovation of military theory and combat theory. With the rapid development of military technology, especially emerging technologies such as information, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned, the high-tech content of weapons and equipment is getting higher and higher, the replacement cycle is getting shorter and shorter, and the correlation and coupling between various types of weapons and equipment are getting stronger and stronger, and the system application characteristics are becoming more and more prominent. From a realistic perspective, insufficient technical cognition is a prominent shortcoming that restricts the mastery and use of weapons and equipment, and there is even a phenomenon that troops cannot “play” without the accompanying support of manufacturer technical personnel in exercises. Facing the new development trend of weapons and equipment, from mastering skills to exploring potential, from enhancing the effectiveness of systematic application to improving the ability of actual combat application, it is inseparable from improving technical cognition, thereby realizing the organic combination of people and weapons and equipment and obtaining a new “growth pole” in combat capability. It should also be noted that modern technology is penetrating into the military field with unprecedented strength, depth and breadth. The new military technology form accelerates the reconstruction of military theory and military system form, bringing about the deep interaction and deep integration of military technology and military theory, making technical cognition the “catalyst” of new combat theory. Practice has shown that without a thorough understanding of aviation technology, there will be no air combat theories such as air superiority; without a thorough understanding of information technology, there will be no information combat theories such as information superiority; without a thorough understanding of space technology, there will be no space combat theories such as “high frontier”. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as data-driven, human-machine collaboration, cross-border integration, and autonomous control, it will be impossible to create new theories and tactics such as intelligent combat and unmanned combat. Only with a technological cognitive advantage can we truly transform the military technology advantage into a theoretical leadership advantage and even a battlefield victory advantage.

Improving technology awareness is not only a way to distinguish the authenticity of technology and guard against technology fraud, but also a need to keenly perceive the development trend of military science and technology. It is worth being highly vigilant that Western media often promote and hype some so-called new technologies and new concepts, playing specious tricks. If you lack the ability to discern, cannot distinguish the true from the false, and believe everything you hear, you will inevitably fall into the technology trap set by others and become passive. Back then, the Soviet Union was led by the nose by the “Star Wars Plan” of the United States, and was confused by the Americans’ hype and deliberate fraud, which ultimately affected the entire military combat capability construction and the lesson was extremely painful. In the face of new opportunities and challenges brought about by the new round of scientific and technological revolution, we must maintain a high degree of technical acumen and insight, recognize the dominant direction and characteristics of the times in the development of military science and technology, and accurately grasp the trend of weapons and equipment developing in the direction of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned. The continuous emergence of disruptive technologies is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat power. Trend: new breakthroughs in high-tech will accelerate the development of new combat forces. Those military technologies that “change the rules of the game” will accelerate the evolution of war forms and combat methods. The integration of military technology and civilian technology is becoming deeper and deeper. We will strive to plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, and follow the trend, and make greater efforts to promote the development of the military through science and technology. Only by deepening the research on war and combat issues from the perspective of technological change, recognizing and grasping the characteristics, laws and winning mechanisms of informationized warfare from the influence of scientific and technological factors, and seeking breakthroughs in the innovation of combat theories and tactics by tapping into the effectiveness of technology, can we promote the precise and effective implementation of the strategy of developing the military through science and technology, lay a solid foundation and increase confidence for our military to remain invincible in future wars.

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