Category Archives: Russian Cyber Warfare

Russian Ministry of Defense set up information operations forces to deal with Western networks – psychological attacks // 俄國防部組建信息作戰部隊 應對西方網絡-心理攻擊

Russian Ministry of Defense set up information operations forces to deal with Western networks – psychological attacks // 俄國防部組建信息作戰部隊 應對西方網絡-心理攻擊

With the Russian and Western cyber space in the game is becoming increasingly fierce, especially in the 2018 Russian presidential election near the background, the Western countries for Russia’s network and information / psychological attacks increasing. To this end, Russia to strengthen the network and information security construction. At the end of 2016, the revision of the new edition of the Russian Federation Information Security Theory. February 27, 2017, Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou announced the formation of information operations forces, accelerate the construction of information combat forces, clear its functional mission.

First, the new theory clearly set up the purpose of information combat forces and their functions

December 6, 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin approved the new version of “Russian Federation information security theory.” It points out that the main objectives of information security in the field of defense include the implementation of strategic containment and prevention of military conflicts caused by information technology, the improvement of the Russian armed forces information security system, the development of information confrontation forces and equipment, the forecasting, inspection and evaluation of the Russian armed forces Threats in the field of information; elimination of information / psychological effects aimed at destabilizing national history and patriotic traditions.

The formation of information combat forces is one of Russia’s important initiatives to achieve these goals. First of all, the Russian information combat forces is to contain and prevent the field of network information conflict or the main force of war. Second, the formation of information combat forces is the Russian armed forces information security system construction and the Russian new military reform an important step, will take into account the strength of construction and equipment development. Once again, the information warfare forces ensure that Russian armed forces are protected from cyber attacks and information security threats, ensuring wartime command and control and operational capability. Finally, the information warfare forces will also confront and counter the Western countries of the anti-Russian information penetration and psychological impact, to maintain the fighting morale and national stability.

Second, the troops named on the network attack and information penetration of the “two-handedly”

Russian Defense Minister Shao Yigu pointed out that the main functions of the information combatants include: centralized management of network operations; protection of Russian military networks and nodes, military command systems and communications systems from hackers; to ensure reliable access to information; Russian military capacity to expand its ability to act in cyberspace; against the Western anti-Russian information / psychological propaganda and penetration.

Russian military experts believe that the future of military struggle in the information combat objectives not only include the armed forces allegation system, the government administrative system and the financial system and other hard targets, more strategic is the soldiers and public psychology and other soft targets. An attack on the implementation of soft targets such as soldiers and people can lead to dislocation and disintegration. Information combat forces should not only have to protect their own side and attack each other hard targets and other capabilities, but also have to confront and oppose the enemy information / psychological attack and penetration. At present, countries with network dominance use different means to implement information operations against different objectives. For the use of special information weapons, such as computer viruses, information bombs, logic bombs, computer chips that are given special missions, explosive devices that generate electromagnetic pulses, UHF generators, and electronic biological weapons. And for the soldiers and the public psychological and other soft targets, create provocative or intimidating false information and spread through the information media to achieve military and political purposes.

Therefore, Russia will be named the “information combat forces” rather than the network combat forces fully embodies the scope of its combat both soft and hard targets.

Third, the integration of active elite forces and the recruitment of new forces simultaneously

The force will integrate the existing Russian armed forces network operations, electronic reconnaissance and electronic confrontation and other departments and functions, while absorbing the Ministry of Internal Affairs and security system of network information security and related experts, including mathematicians, programmers, engineers, cryptographers , Communications experts, electronic confrontation experts, translators and so on.

Russian military arms and institutions in 2013 has set up a “technology even”, and from college graduates in the recruitment of professionals, which is the key components of the military system / unit reserves and training professionals specializing in technology research and development and information security team. According to statistics, this force mainly includes the Air Force’s second science and technology even the space and defense forces of the third technology even under the Army’s fifth technology even, under the Military Academy of Sciences, the seventh technology even Wait. Each with 2 to 3 rows, each with about 20 people. To the air days of military science and technology, for example, the troops regularly recruit college graduates, give priority to the use of computer security, communications systems, information security, special radio systems, cryptography, electronic optoelectronic special equipment and other professionals, by the Air Force Academy of Military Academy training and education The center is responsible for training new people.

Fourth, the force commander has not yet determined, Gracimov is the most likely candidate

Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou clear, information warfare force commander will be general rank. Western countries believe that the Russian armed forces, the current chief of staff, Mr. Grazimov served as the commander of the information operations the possibility of the largest. He has proposed the Russian version of the “mixed war” concept, and received the approval of President Putin. He pointed out that “the current principle of war itself has undergone substantial changes, the realization of political and strategic objectives of the non-military means of the status of a series of events show that the effect of non-military means sometimes more than the use of weapons.” In his description of the “civil war in Ukraine” and “the spring of Arabia”, he pointed out that the information / psychological warfare could “turn a peaceful and prosperous country into a brutal armed struggle in months or even days”. March 4, 2017, Grazimov in military academy, asked the Russian Academy of Military Sciences to intensify the study of the new model of confrontation between countries and effective counter-measures. In addition, the West speculated that Gerasimov’s another reason is that he has served as the Russian armed forces network information warfare the highest commander. In 2010, the Russian Armed Forces commanded a powerful message / psychological offensive, and it was Gracimov who had recaptured the Crimea.

Five, conclusion

At present, the Russian Defense Ministry official website has not yet put information warfare troops, and the existing army, air force, navy and strategic missile soldiers, airborne soldiers of these five arms tied. The forces become separate forces or scattered in the existing five arms and key sectors are not yet known. However, the formation of information combat forces is not only a key step in the construction of Russian network information security forces, but also an important step in the reform of the Russian army in the context of the increasingly fierce network security of information security and the increasingly complex environment of security. Information operations forces will defend Russia’s cyberspace and information in the field of soft and hard targets, to achieve their own attack and defense functions, maintaining national network security and political and military security.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

隨著俄羅斯與西方在網絡空間的博弈日趨激烈,特別在2018年俄總統大選臨近的大背景下,西方國家針對俄羅斯的網絡和信息/心理攻擊日益增多。為此,俄羅斯加強網絡和信息安全建設。 2016年底,修訂頒布新版《俄羅斯聯邦信息安全學說》。 2017年2月27日,俄國防部長紹伊古宣布組建信息作戰部隊,加快推進信息作戰力量建設,明確其職能使命。












俄國防部長紹伊古明確,信息作戰部隊司令將是大將軍銜。西方國家認為,俄武裝力量現任總參謀長格拉西莫夫大出任信息作戰部隊司令的可能性最大。他曾提出俄版“混合戰爭”概念,並得到普京總統的認同。他指出,“目前的戰爭原則本身已發生實質性改變,實現政治和戰略目標的非軍事手段的地位在上升。一系列事件表明,非軍事手段的效果有時超過了使用武器”。他在對“烏克蘭內戰”和“阿拉伯之春”等事件的描述中指出,信息/心理戰能夠將“一個祥和繁榮的國家在幾個月甚至幾天之內變成殘酷武裝鬥爭的戰場”。 2017年3月4日,格拉西莫夫在參加軍事學術會議時,要求俄軍事科學院加緊研究國家間對抗的新模式及有效反製手段。此外,西方推測格拉西莫夫的另一原因是,他此前一直擔任俄武裝力量網絡信息作戰的最高指揮官。 2014年指揮俄武裝力量發動強大信息/心理攻勢,兵不血刃收復克里米亞的正是格拉西莫夫。




作者:易鑫磊 來源:中國日報網

Russian cyberwarfare the “people’s war” in cyberspace an important battleground // 中國軍方認為俄軍網絡戰擅長打”人民戰爭” 網絡空間成重要戰場

中國軍方認為俄軍網絡戰擅長打”人民戰爭” 網絡空間成重要戰場

Russian cyberwarfare the “people’s war” in cyberspace an important battleground 



Information war era, control of information warfare is the first to compete. Network warfare from soft kill to the physical destruction of its implementation hidden, accurate, rapid, controllable, and low cost but high return, both offensive and defensive, with the political war, diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, media warfare, psychological warfare, and other non-legal battle be combined with military means, it is possible to obtain the effect of traditional military means difficult to obtain.

Russia attaches great importance to network warfare troops, the Russian military will “Network Attack” treated as equivalent to fire assault combat style. In 2007 the Red Army statue in Estonia event, the 2008 Russia – Georgia war in 2014, the crisis in Crimea and eastern Ukraine, and in 2015 the Turkish warplanes shot down Russian event, cyberspace is an important battleground.

Today, cyberspace is the most important way to disseminate information, interconnection of the global information network and expand the connotation of the national security interests of the extension. Russia attaches great importance to information security and network security closely related, that the social stability, civil rights, freedom and democracy, order and the rule of law, the wealth of nations, territorial integrity, depends largely on information and network security.

Putin pointed out many times, information resources and political and economic infrastructure plays a decisive role for the country’s future, vital interests and security, we must be prepared to deal with the threat of information, enhance the related infrastructure facilities, especially the strategic defense capabilities information warfare and cyber warfare have been used in various countries to achieve military and political objectives, its power is even greater than conventional weapons.

Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” to enhance the status of network warfare

Russia’s new “National Security Strategy” that the global fight against big nowadays between countries, to take a more “indirect” route, the West provoked Russia’s domestic political turmoil, rise to social conflicts, to impose economic and financial sanctions, support for separatism, nationalism, religious extremism and the local armed forces, the network is one of the main tools.

Russian more use of “information warfare” that term. Information warfare includes intelligence and counter-intelligence, information deception, electronic warfare, communications interference, and navigation warfare, psychological warfare, computer sabotage warfare. Under conditions of modern warfare, information warfare is to ensure the effectiveness of nuclear deterrence, accounting basis against conventional superiority, and network warfare capability is the core of information warfare.

By using a network of weapons of mass repression, civil disturbance or military command, communications system, has become an important part of modern local wars and armed conflicts. Information warfare is not only used by the military for countries, extremist and terrorist organizations are also widely used.

As we all know, Russia’s implementation of the “strategy of containment” strategy and “nuclear deterrence” to “containment strategy” of the highest priority, which is a realistic choice based on its own strength and the international balance of power, but Russia also believes that the prevention of external armed conflict, nuclear deterrence is not always effective in preventing internal conflicts, nuclear deterrence is completely ineffective.

In recent years, many cases of local wars and armed conflicts exhibit remarkable feature is their integrated use of military and non-military means, against the extensive use of information and network attack and defense, in order to achieve military and political objectives. Russia’s new “military doctrine” Emphasizing and enhancing the “non-nuclear containment” status and role in the “containment strategy” in, and information warfare and network warfare capability is an important part of non-nuclear containment capability.

In North Africa and the Middle East countries “color revolutions”, the social networks are the primary means of insurgent groups and proliferation.”Color Revolution” in these countries caused internal conflicts, upgrade to bloodshed and armed conflict, bring down the government, to the detriment of national sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in the foreseeable future, Russia is also facing the same danger.

Russia’s new “military doctrine” that, in order to ensure national security and military, against the West in the field of information and ideological offensive penetration, Russia will closely follow the development of information and network technology, to take concrete measures to continuously improve and upgrade the national and military information infrastructure, defense and protection.

Cyberwar is “hybrid war” major combat style

Russia’s actions in Crimea crisis in eastern Ukraine dispute, the distinction between military and non-military actions indistinguishable from conventional and unconventional means integrated use, combines formal and informal style of warfare, and there are large conventional war the difference between this style of warfare by NATO military experts called “hybrid war.”

Mixing the war, through the adoption of small-scale military actions have a decisive effect, with the use of non-military means of diplomacy, energy, economy, network, etc., is applied to the other decision-makers as well as people with physical, practical information can affect the feelings of the other party’s leadership shake the confrontation will thus reach a political purpose of war.

In a mixed war, cyber attacks can give each other military and civilian targets causing destruction of hard and soft, reducing resistance in one’s own military operations. Disseminate targeted information on the network, international and domestic public opinion, create favorable conditions for political, military, diplomatic and economic struggle.

Russia in Syria against ISIS military operations, always firmly occupy the moral high ground, using the Internet to play the battle of public opinion, uphold justice of military operations, effective impact of the international community, national and public opinion to the relevant country to obtain an international community support, reducing the opposition, with the network consensus warfare effective military operations.

Russia fears NATO NATO war will be mixed for the surrounding, especially in the frontier with Russia against the Baltic States. Latvian Defense Minister Weiyuenisi believe that the first phase of hybrid warfare is information warfare, information and network attacks. In 2007, the Estonian government agencies and banks suffered large-scale cyber attacks, Russia was accused launched the attacks. In recent years, large-scale NATO exercises held in the Baltic region, will be “defensive cyber attacks” as a drill subjects, Estonia NATO also established a network warfare command center.

Russia and the United States, between NATO, the possibility of the outbreak of conventional war and nuclear war in the foreseeable future is extremely small, the two sides are also no such intention. But the Russian mixed war can solve political consultations between the military and control them better grasp of the US and NATO “without splitting” the propriety, while it also makes NATO’s collective defense mechanism is not the focal point.

In recent years, Russia has accumulated rich experience in cyber warfare

Like other fighting styles, including network warfare offensive and defensive aspects. Russia is facing a severe situation of network security, in fact, almost all of the information networks in developed countries the situation is the same, and, along with social development and technological progress, the network security situation also deteriorated sharply.

According to the Russian Federal Security Bureau statistics, since 2005, the Russian State authorities has been the site every year nearly 100 million times attacks, the President, the State Duma, strong institutions, banks and other sites is the focus of attack.

In the early 1990s, Russia on the establishment of a committee responsible for information security of network information security. In 1995, the information security management be included in the scope of national security of Russia, Russia has also promulgated the “Russian Federation information, information technology and information networks Protection Act.” In 2002, the Information Security Committee passed the “Information Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation”, put forward the guiding principles for information security.

In 2011, the International Convention on the Russian initiative to develop behavioral norms in cyberspace – “ensuring international information security”, which defined the network security threats and the precautionary principle, proposed a ban on the use of networking and communications technology interfere in internal affairs. The initiative with the US network strategy there is a big difference, so by the US boycott.

The following year, the Russian Armed Forces Chief of Staff Makarov said that in the development of the concept of cyber war, which Russia must be evaluated in order to respond to threats and challenges of Western military powers in the field of network to bring, preparing for cyber warfare. Russian military will focus on the development of network offensive and defensive capabilities, network-building combat power, with the ability to network deterrence, war methods and other research networks.

In 2013, Russian security forces set up the network, one year after the establishment of Network Warfare Command. In more than local wars and armed conflicts, the Russian military has accumulated a wealth of practical experience in the network, with a strong network reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, network penetration and reverse osmosis, network attacks and sabotage mental capacity, with advanced logic bomb network warfare weapons.

 Network warfare is combat system, requires the participation and collaboration of relevant sectors of society, Network Warfare Command and the network more combat troops is a leadership, guidance, mobilize and organize the action. Russia has a large number of hackers, software elite and many famous high-tech companies, if necessary, can quickly mobilize a network army, playing the “people’s war” in a space on the network, more than its power in local wars and armed conflicts It has been fully demonstrated.

Compared to land, sea, air, space, power and other battlespace, benefiting from the growing popularity of the global information network, tactics and enter the “threshold” cyberwar almost the lowest and technically distinct “latecomer” characterized in the short term there may be a breakthrough in one area, the formation of “asymmetric” advantage.

Russian conform to the form of war and military technology trends, strengthen capacity building in information warfare as the core network warfare, when participating in the surrounding local wars and armed conflicts, the combat cyber warfare as a supplement to traditional style, is an alternative to strengthen even battlefield While reducing the smoke, but the combat efficiency has increased, and more conducive to shorten the course of the war and to promote a political settlement of the conflict.

Original Mandarin Chinese:



俄羅斯軍隊極為重視網絡戰,俄軍將“網絡突擊”視作等同於火力突擊的作戰樣式。 2007年愛沙尼亞紅軍銅像事件、2008年俄羅斯-格魯吉亞戰爭、2014年克里米亞和烏克蘭東部地區危機以及2015年土耳其擊落俄軍戰機事件,網絡空間都是重要戰場。









在北非和中東一些國家的“顏色革命”中,社交網絡是暴亂組織和擴散的主要手段。 “顏色革命”造成這些國家國內矛盾激化,升級為流血和武裝衝突,導致政府垮台,進而損害國家主權和領土完整。俄新版《軍事學說》認為,在可預見的將來,俄羅斯也面臨同樣的危險。







北約擔憂俄羅斯會將混合戰爭用於周邊的北約成員國,尤其是處在與俄對抗前沿的波羅的海國家。拉脫維亞國防部長維約尼斯認為,混合戰爭的第一階段是信息戰、宣傳和網絡攻擊。 2007年,愛沙尼亞政府機構和銀行遭受大規模網絡攻擊,俄羅斯被指控發動了此次網絡攻擊。近年來,北約在波羅的海地區舉行的大規模演習中,都將“防禦網絡攻擊”作為演練課目,北約還在愛沙尼亞設立了一個網絡戰指揮中心。





早在20世紀90年代初,俄就設立了專門負責網絡信息安全的信息安全委員會。 1995年,信息安全被納入俄國家安全管理範疇,俄羅斯還頒布了《俄聯邦信息、信息化和信息網絡保護法》。 2002年,信息安全委員會通過了《俄聯邦信息安全學說》,提出了保障信息安全的指導原則。






Source: 中國青年報