China’s World Internet Conference and the Future of Chinese Cyberspace

William Hagestad II


December 2015, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) invited me to attend the World Internet Conference (WIC) in Wuzhen, People’s Republic of China (PRC).

It is important to understand that the Chinese Government had created a 20 kilometer security exclusion zone around the epicenter of the WIC. The Chinese residents of Wuzhen were replaced with a regiment of soldiers from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and plainclothes policemen and women of China’s Ministry of State Security.

Opening day of the WIC China’s President, Xi Jinping gave his opening comments, a heavenly mandate for the largely handpicked Communist Party of China (CPC) member and international audience “Cyberspace is not a place [that is] beyond the rule of law”. President Xi’s opening address was focused on delegates including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Pakistani president Mamnoon Hussain; conspicuously absent were officials from the United States, England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Chinese President Xi provided direction which included a proposed the “four principles and five propositions”, systematically expounding China’s concept of a “China Network View” in the New Period. His focus included a statement that China is willing countries to strengthen dialogue and exchanges, effective management and control differences, and promote the development of the parties to the generally accepted international rules of cyberspace, cyberspace develop international conventions on terrorism, the fight against cybercrime and improve mutual legal assistance mechanisms, and jointly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace .

China’s 21st Century Boxer Rebellion

Short history lesson lest we forget how the Western failed to read between the Chinese tea leaves of China’s 21st Century network sovereignty initiative. During the early 1900’s an eight nation coalition of Eight Powers had invaded and occupied North Eastern China. The Qing Dynasty Chinese rebels known as the Boxer’s called this foreign invasion the “八國聯軍”, or Eight-Nation Alliance. This eight nation alliance included the Empire of Japan, United Kingdom, French Third Republic, German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.[1] the capital of the Qing Empire, was captured eight countries & invading armies this day…”the darkest day in modern Chinese history.”[2] Save the attendance of Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the 2015 WIC, none of the other members of the 1900 “八國聯軍” were invited to officially attend China future discussion on the Internet at the WIC. It is prophetic then that the Chinese have not forgotten the foreign invasion and occupation of China’s homeland so long ago as backdrop for the WIC and the new future of China’s version of the Internet in the form of a Chinese Binary Rebellion…where delaying, denying and disrupting foreign incursions into China’s Internet are an echo and reminder of the 1900’s Boxer Rebellion.


You Are Either Part of the Party or You are Not

One of the important comments made by President Xi which underscores China’s current proposal for a secured and stable International Internet is that “Everyone should abide by the law, with the rights and obligations of parties concerned clearly defined. Cyberspace must be governed, operated and used in accordance with the law so that the internet can enjoy sound development under the rule of law.”[3]

Perhaps in the light of America’s National Security Agency failure to properly vet and control traitorous contractors, Chinese President Xi called for Chinese (sic) government action was needed to strengthen “civilised behaviour” on the internet, adding and calling for measures to “rehabilitate the cyber ecology”.[4]

China’s new cyber ecology will include, according to President Xi’s keynote speech will include building China into a global cyber power, speeding up Internet infrastructure development and imperative that China be regarded as a staunch defender of international cybersecurity.[5] Certainly the recent agreement with the United States on a high-level and mutual dialogue on cybercrime is evidence of China’s willingness to work with even the harshest critics of its organic Internet governance policies.[6]

International governments should make no mistake however, China’s leader emphasized that “cyber security is as important as national security.” And thus both Internet security and informatization are China’s major strategic issues concerning any country’s security and development.[7]

Curiously, however, President Xi’s keynote comments were live-tweeted by the state-run news portal, Xinhua, China’s official news agency, and broadcast on YouTube.[8] Both of these Western social media platforms are services which are blocked by Beijing.

Indeed as the WIC came to a conclusion, international cooperation was a main focus for China’s leadership as “President Xi Jinping urged all countries to respect Internet sovereignty, jointly safeguard cybersecurity, cooperate with an open mind, and improve Internet governance together.”[9]


Thus, given the international audience represented at the WIC, guidelines were given for adhering to the new Rule of Law on China’s version of an international Internet or be left behind and thus unable to participate in the world’s largest economy. Indeed Mr. Eugene Kaspersky signed a very lucrative contract at the WIC forging a unique cyber-security partnership with the China Cyber Security Company, thus demonstrating China’s willingness to embrace and recognize Internet technology such as those offered by Kaspersky.[10]


The Future of China’s Internet


Indicative of what the future holds for the Internet within the People’s Republic of China is the Xiaomi mobile phone I was provided on the first day of the WIC. While the number was Chinese, the SIM card was registered in Hong Kong allowing me to access typically blocked Western Internet websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google. China’s future Internet may include allowing limited access to the forbidden fruits of the Western Internet.


Similarly, the hotel the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) put me up in also came with a ‘special Internet account’ where access to usually blocked services was allowed, such as those enabled by my shiny new Xiaomi. However, as I switched off the ‘special account’, the familiar Chinese Internet presented itself and Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter were all blocked.


I expect that the future Internet we will all globally experience in the future will encompass an ability to access Chinese versions of Western Internet services, while denying or restricting our ability to use Western Internet technologies which may or may not be surveilled by Western intelligence services.


Quite frankly, my experience at China’s World Internet Conference was a positive one. Given the 20 kilometer security exclusion zone I felt very safe, no jihadist terrorists wielding legal semi-automatic weapons in Wuzhen. From a global cyber security researcher perspective, even though I could access both the Chinese and Western versions of the Internet, my experience was actually no different than any of the many other global locations I have visited in the past.


While the People’s Republic of China forges forward with a global secure definition of cyberspace which embodies both national security and sovereignty it will be up to other global governments to decide whether to be part of China’s secure Internet party or be left behind.

[1] “八国联军”.  八国联军侵华战争_八国联军为什么侵华_八国联军是哪八国 – 趣历史. Chinese History Topics. (December 2015). (Chinese Internet). Accessed:

[2] Ibid.

[3] “2nd World Internet Conference”. (December16-18, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Xi: China a staunch defender of cybersecurity”. September 25, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[7] “Xi: Efforts should be made to build China into cyber power”. (February 28th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[8]  “China is home to 670 million Internet users & over 4.13 million websites: President #XiJinping says at #WIC2015. Twitter. (December 15th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[9] “2nd World Internet Conference concludes”. Xinhua. December18th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[10] “Russia’s Kaspersky Labs signs deal with China Cyber Security Company as Beijing and Moscow call for end to US domination of internet”. (December17th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

Chinese Military View: Strategy of American Cyberspace

Chinese Military View: Strategy of American Cyberspace


Author Info:  中校崔建树



Summary: As “artificial space” Cyberspace is the second land, sea, air, space human’s fifth-dimensional space. Reports from the relevant strategy adopted by the United States in recent years, the United States developed a set of cyberspace strategy, including the right to compete for the system network strategy, enabling the network to improve the combat effectiveness of weapons “network-centric warfare” strategy, cyberspace security strategy and the strategic use of cyberspace for his country’s political and ideological penetration. Cyberspace has developed strategic US achieved remarkable results, for which seek a major political, security, economic and military interests. However, the openness of cyberspace also increased the vulnerability of the United States, such as the United States to maintain hegemony in cyberspace developed thousands of computer viruses, so-called “logic bomb”, once mastered by terrorists, the consequences would be disastrous.

Keywords: USA; cyberspace; strategy

Cyberspace (Cyberspace) or, more accurately known as the network of electromagnetic space, is a noun Canadian science fiction writer William Gibson (William Gibson) made in its 1984 publication of the novel “Neuromancer” (Neuromancer), the mean computer information systems and the human nervous system is connected to produce a virtual space. ① with the rapid development of computer technology, sensor technology and networks and grid technology breakthrough, cyberspace has become a new objective in the field of real. “The field of electromagnetic energy to use electronic equipment, grid, and networking hardware and software systems for the physical carrier, information and control information as the main content, by storing the data, modify, and exchange, to achieve the physical system manipulation. ” ② Thus, cyberspace is a new “control domain.” ③ Its various sectors and areas of operation control is as effective as the control of human behavior the human nervous system. As the world’s sole superpower, the United States to maintain its hegemony, naturally will not miss this new “control domain.” ④ to this end, the United States developed a comprehensive strategy for cyberspace. This strategy includes the right to compete for the system network strategy, enabling the network to improve the combat effectiveness of weapons “network-centric warfare” strategy, cyberspace security strategy and the use of cyberspace for his country’s political and ideological penetration strategy.

First, the United States made the right strategic network

The predecessor of the modern Internet is the United States Department of Defense to build the “ARPANET” (ARPA Net). In 1969, the US Department of Defense to ensure that the US critical computer systems in the event of nuclear war still normal operation, ordered their subordinates Advanced Research Projects Agency (Advanced Research Project Agency, ARPA) study computer networking problems. By the late 1970s, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has established a number of computers on the LAN and put into use. In order to solve communication problems between the LAN, Advanced Research Projects Agency to examine the different LAN WAN link up the formation of a new method, and built a wide area of the computer on the Internet. Since the advent of the Internet, it can be described as a breakthrough in technology by leaps and bounds, the network connection touches every corner of the world, “showing unprecedented strength.” ⑤ especially with the micro-electromechanical systems (micro-electro-mechanism system, MEMS) rapid development, there have been a number of communications and computing power of having micro-sensors. These sensors can always be accurately detected on the detection region by an ad hoc manner, and the detection result transmitted through a wired or wireless network to the implementers. Since the prospect of this technology is unlimited, the US National Science Foundation in 2003 to allocate huge amounts of money, research sensor network technology, the US Department of Defense has set up a series of military sensor network research projects.

Currently, connect the computer and mass sensor network is the nerve of the world has been integrated, and grasp the system network electromagnetic space right is tantamount to control of the world of the nervous system, it’s meaning even more dramatically than the seas of the 19th century, 20th century airpower. Therefore, all the major countries in the world attaches great importance to the network the right to compete for electromagnetic space. Such as Germany in recent years to develop a “German network security strategy,” Britain also issued a “National Cyber Security Strategy.” Although these reports entitled strengthen “cybersecurity”, in fact, prepared to compete for the right network electromagnetic space. In order to firmly grasp the system network electromagnetic space right, the American government can be described as a multi-pronged.


关 键 词:美国;网络空间;战略

网络空间(Cyberspace)或更准确地称为网络电磁空间,是加拿大科幻小说家威廉·吉布森(William Gibson)在其1984年出版的小说《神经漫游者》(Neuromancer)中提出的名词,意指计算机信息系统与人的神经系统相连接产生出的一种虚拟空间。①随着计算机技术、传感器技术的飞速发展及网络和网格技术的突破,网络空间已成为一个新兴的真实存在的客观领域。“该领域以使用电磁能量的电子设备、网格,以及网络化软硬件系统为物理载体,以信息和对信息的控制力为主要内容,通过对数据的存储、修改和交换,实现对物理系统的操控”。②由此可见,网络空间是一个新兴的“控制域”。③它对各个行业和领域运转的控制就如人的神经系统对人的行为的控制一样有效。作为世界上的唯一超级大国,美国要维护自己的霸权地位,自然不会放过这一新兴的“控制域”。④为此,美国制定了一套完备的网络空间战略。这一战略包括争夺制网权战略、通过网络赋能提高武器打击效果的“网络中心战”战略、网络空间安全战略以及利用网络空间对他国进行政治和思想渗透的战略。


现代互联网的前身是美国国防部构建的“阿帕网”(ARPA Net)。1969年,美国国防部为确保美国重要的计算机系统在发生核大战时仍能正常运作,下令其下属的高级研究计划局(Advanced Research Project Agency,ARPA)研究计算机联网问题。到20世纪70年代末期,国防部高级研究计划局又建立了若干个计算机局域网并投入使用。为解决局域网之间的通信问题,高级研究计划局着手研究将不同局域网联结起来形成广域网的新方法,并建成了一个广域的计算机互联网。自互联网问世以来,它在技术方面的突破可谓一日千里,网络连接触及全球的每一个角落,“展现出史无前例的力量”。⑤特别是随着微机电系统(micro-electro-mechanism system,MEMS)的迅速发展,出现了众多具有通信和计算能力的微型传感器。这些传感器可以通过自组方式时时对探测区进行精确探测,并将探测结果通过有线或无线网络传输给实施者。由于这一技术的应用前景无限广阔,美国自然科学基金会于2003年拨出巨资,研究传感器网络技术,美国国防部也设立了一系列军事传感器网络研究项目。


First, the United States firmly gripping the global Internet DNS rights. Internet domain names corresponding numeric Internet address of the network hierarchy character flags, house number is the online world, has a unique and exclusive features. Since the domain name and corporate name, logo or trademark goods closely linked, the United States could reap significant economic and strategic interests. As in 2000, Shenzhen Kim Ji tower software company, Shanghai AIU Online, Shenzhen China Motion and other companies related to domain names registered by the United States against the company, the result lost both “referee” in the domain name dispute arbitration is “athlete” US companies and economic losses. To control DNS rights, the United States as early as September 1998 on the establishment of the “Internet domain name and address of the Management Company” (ICANN). ICANN board member from the United States, Brazil, Bulgaria, Germany, Japan and other countries, but the US Department of Commerce has the final veto. Conference USA to maintain its control over the domain name, in November 2005, held in Tunis on issues related to the Internet, when he was Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice specifically wrote to the then European Presidency, asking him to support ICANN management of the Internet. The US Congress also to the 423 votes to none passed a resolution demanding the US government to control the Internet. In December 2012, at the World Conference on International Telecommunications in Dubai, UAE, held on the United Arab Emirates submitted a host of Internet governance requires separation of the right to file, was firmly opposed to the United States on behalf of Kramer, claiming that the meeting “to discuss the telecommunications issues, with the Internet is not relevant. ” ⑥

Second, the Internet’s root server control in their own hands. Since the domain name system management mode was root-like distribution, so the root server management plays a decisive role in the domain name, which is state-controlled root server, this country will have enormous power in the Internet field. Presently there are a main root server and 12 deputy root servers. Placed in Dulles, Virginia, USA taproot server by the American company responsible for managing VeriSign. 12 deputy root servers, 9 placed in the United States, the US military to use two, NASA use a. In addition three deputy root server is placed in the hands of Britain, Sweden, Japan and other US allies. In other words, the United States has the root servers direct and indirect control. As long as the United States is willing, just the root servers and secondary domain name server is disconnected, the United States can paralyze a country with hostile Internet system. 2009, should the United States government requirements, Microsoft has cut off Cuba, Syria, Iran, Sudan and North Korea and other five countries of MSN services, resulting in five countries MSN users can not log in to the instant messaging system.

Third, the United States to use its absolute dominance in the network software, hardware manufacturing capacity and technology to reap political benefits. According to the statistics of relevant institutions, worldwide 18 Internet software companies, 10 are US companies, including Microsoft (Microsoft) is the world’s largest software company, the company’s operating system is widely used in personal computers and servers . Cisco (Cisco Systems) is a network hardware leader in the field of production, the company’s routers, switches, repeaters, etc. occupies an important position in the international market. Juniper (Juniper Networks) and Brocade Communications Systems (Brocade Communications Systems) is the world’s leading network equipment manufacturers, its router technology and storage switch technology leader worldwide. Advanced network software, hardware manufacturing technology and strong production capacity is one of the United States compete for hegemony trump network electromagnetic space can be necessary to stop the threat or actual termination of the provision of goods to the opponent, the other stuck in the woods. In addition, major US software companies are closely related with the US government. Under the government’s behest, the US software vendors often on their manufacturing software is embedded with the back door, so that, if necessary, to serve the US political, economic and national security purposes. In 1999, Microsoft’s blockbuster “NSA key” event the United States attempts to steal other countries’ secrets revealed to the world.



第三,美国利用其在网络软件、硬件制造能力和技术方面的绝对优势地位谋取政治利益。据相关机构的统计数据,全世界18个互联网软件公司中,有10个是美国公司,其中微软公司(Microsoft)是世界最大的软件公司,该公司生产的操作系统广泛应用于个人电脑和服务器上。思科公司(Cisco Systems)是网络硬件生产领域的龙头老大,该公司生产的路由器、交换机、中继器等在国际市场上占有重要地位。瞻博网络(Juniper Networks)和博科通信系统(Brocade Communications Systems)是世界著名的网络设备制造商,其路由器技术和存储交换机技术领先全球。先进的网络软、硬件制造技术和强大的生产能力是美国争夺网络电磁空间霸权的王牌之一,必要时可以威胁停止或实际终止向对手提供商品,陷对方于困境。此外,美国的主要软件商与美国政府均有密切关系。在政府的授意下,美国软件商往往在它们制造的软件上嵌有后门,以便在必要时服务于美国的政治、经济和国家安全目的。1999年,轰动一时的微软“NSA密钥”事件让美国窃取别国机密的企图大白于天下。

Fourth, the United States holds the distribution rights worldwide IP addresses. In the online world, the amount of IP addresses in the real world is like the size of a country’s geographic territory. Because the United States controls the assignment of IP addresses, the vast majority of it will be left to its own IP address and its allies of the company and the public use, other countries can only share a little cold leftovers. For example, although China is a big country network, but IPV4 / IPV6 addresses and domain names are on loan from the United States, seriously controlled by others.

Through control of the domain name and address management of the network, along with its superior network software, hardware manufacturing capacity and advanced technology, the United States has firmly hold control over the Internet. Nevertheless, the US still has a strong sense of urgency. US Department of Defense in 2006 issued a report, “Although the United States is currently in the electromagnetic field of space to enjoy the advantages of the network, but these advantages are being eroded …… and other combat areas, the American network have equal shares of the electromagnetic field of space and opponents fear” . ⑦

In order to further strengthen the US hegemony in cyberspace, the US government multi-pronged approach. In the military field, the US Defense Department network and electromagnetic space regarded as land, sea, air, space similar fifth area, and that the control system network right to maintain its hegemony in the other four areas are of decisive significance. In the 2004 release of “National Military Strategy” report, the US Department of Defense that “the United States armed forces must have the whole sky, land, sea, space and electromagnetic space to expand the network capacity to act.” ⑧ 2006, the US military released the “National Network of electromagnetic space military strategy.” The purpose of the strategy is to ensure that the US “freedom of action in this highly competitive field, while depriving the freedom of movement of our competitors”, ⑨ namely “to ensure US military dominance in the network of electromagnetic space.” ⑨ The document proposes to strengthen in four areas: (1) obtain and maintain the initiative in the competition advantage in the decision-making cycle. US troops should use the Internet to shorten the decision cycle of electromagnetic space, while weakening the decision-making cycle competitors. It needs to maintain a strong network defense, while taking advantage of the weakness of competitors electromagnetic space network, find out competitors weaknesses and defense decision-making cycle. (2) use the Internet so that the whole field of electromagnetic space to further integrate the military capabilities of military operations. DoD various departments must be integrated network electromagnetic space even more delicate. Operational commanders must be closely coordinated with the various support units and defense agencies, and maximize combat, carry out military operations. Although the combat troops to be deployed in various war zones, but they must cooperate with existing military operations, and various government departments, the joint command departments, allied and industrial partners to achieve seamless. (3) construction of the network capacity for action. Including the continuous training of personnel, infrastructure and organization. By wealthy aggressive testing, exercises and continuous improvement, and create new network capacity to act. Risk (4) Management Network electromagnetic space operations. ⑩




In fact, long before the promulgation of these documents, the United States had begun to train cyber warfare electromagnetic space warfare capability. According to reports, in June 1995, the US 16 “the first generation of cyberspace warfare warrior” graduated from the National Defense University. In the same year on October 1, the US military in South Carolina State Air Force Base set up the first network of electromagnetic space warfare units, namely the 9th Air Force 609 Squadron. October 1998, the US Defense Department official will be included in the information war fighting doctrine, also approved the establishment of “computer network defense joint special forces.” In early 2006, the US Air Force to establish research networks electromagnetic space problem “network special group”, the special assistant to the Air Force Chief of Staff Dr. Lani Kass headed. With the end, the Air Force officially announced the establishment of a temporary network electromagnetic Space Command 8,000 people, Robert · J. Elder will serve as commander of the post. (11) in 2007, the US Air Force to rely on the 8th Air Force, the Air Force set up a network of electromagnetic space Warfare Command, the Navy has set up a “Navy computer emergency response unit,” West Point established a network of electromagnetic Space Science Center. In 2009, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced the formal establishment of the “network of electromagnetic Space Warfare Command,” the US National Security director Keith Alexander will be nominated as commander. According to the US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter said in the Aspen Security Forum, held July 18, 2013, the US network forces to be deployed in place. (12) This indicates that the United States has sounded the clarion call to compete for hegemony in cyberspace.

Leading cyberspace requires more advanced than in other countries “in cyberspace arms.” “Cyberspace weapon” belongs to the new concept weapons category, the current world’s major countries are all invested heavily in research and development of such weapons. According to data disclosed by the United States Institute of Technology analysis, the current world investment in electromagnetic weapons in space network has more than 1.7 trillion US dollars. (13) The United States is a pioneer in the development of cyberspace arms and leader. As the Air Force is promoting “Cyber aircraft” (Cybercraft) project aims to develop a kind of reconnaissance for the first time able to rival the network of electromagnetic space combat weapons intent. (14) According to the report disclosed, the concept of cyberspace combat aircraft is very advanced, it can be installed in any electronic medium, you can take the initiative to all software and hardware devices Ping scanning, port scanning, OS identification, vulnerability scanning and enumeration ensure operational commanders to the entire network capable of electromagnetic space, small to any computer instantaneously perception and control. (15) in May 2008, the US government launched a more ambitious program – “Cyber Range” (NCR) program. This program is known as America’s “electronic Manhattan Project” in an attempt by developing “revolutionary” new technology, to win the network electromagnetic space this “space race.”



Second, the use of cyberspace technology based on the “network-centric warfare,” the Defense Transformation Strategy

Construction on the Internet beginning of the formation, the relevant departments and think tanks on the United States is keenly aware of the great military significance of the Internet, recognizing that future US military strategy must adapt to the development of information technology. August 1, 1995, US Army Training and Doctrine Command issued a report entitled “information warfare” concept “525-69 Handbook”, proposed to all dimensions (land, sea, air, space) space combat and battlefield systems (command and control systems, mobile systems, fire support system) with a data link connection together to establish shared situational awareness coupled with continuous operational capability “of the 21st century force” so that they can more quickly than the enemy, the more accurate reconnaissance, develop decisions into action. (16) in October 1998, the US military issued a “Joint Information Operations doctrine,” said information warfare is the impact of the enemy’s information and information systems, and to protect one’s own information and information systems …… information advantage is the use of information and prevent enemy use capability information. (17)

May 25, 2001, former US President George W. Bush delivered a speech at the US Naval Academy graduation ceremony, stressed that “we must take advantage of the revolutionary advances in warfare technology to build our army, so that we can define our way of war to the maintenance of peace. We are committed to build a mainly mobility and quickness rather than size and number to measure the strength of the future army, build an easier to deploy and security forces, and build a greater reliance on precision-guided weapons and stealth and IT forces. ” (18) about George W. Bush proposed the construction of digital force requirements, the US Congress and the Defense Department put forward a defense to rely on IT transformation program.

US Defense Transformation’s goal is to use the network forming, so that the physical limits of technology has now reached the weaponry to combat multiplier effect. Exercise USAF F-15C aircraft organizations perform aerial combat missions showed that the kill rate using data link F-15C aircraft, increased by more than 1 times. The reason is that “the use of tactical data link enables pilots greatly improved the perception of the battle space, resulting in enhanced combat effectiveness.” (19) forming the premise can use the Internet is to strengthen national defense information infrastructure. As well-developed highway transportation extending in all directions, like inseparable, to obtain information superiority, is also inseparable from nothing is to the broadband network. In January 1993, the Clinton administration issued the “National Information Infrastructure: Action Plan” document, proposed the establishment of high-speed fiber-optic communications network in the United States, namely the “information superhighway”, to every office and home network connections are used to form easily accessible information superhighway. After starting the “information superhighway” Soon, the US military has begun to design national defense information infrastructure (DII) construction. 1995, the US military C4I concept proposed to start the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII-COE) construction, is intended to provide timely and accurate safety information for military action. In 1996, the US military further proposed various types of reconnaissance, surveillance, sensor integration, breaking the military services between the “chimney” lined situation, construction command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems (C4ISR), real “From sensor to shooter” combat capability.

US Department of Defense in promoting the construction of a military network bandwidth while also developing Information Grid (Grid) (20) technology. In 1999, the US Department of Defense proposed the building of “Global Information Grid” (Global Information Grid, GIG). In 2003, the Ministry has announced a “Global Information Grid Architecture” (version 2.0), with the Defense Information Systems Network Planning (DISN) as the backbone to integrate the services of the US military information system, built in line with “Global Information Grid” requirement The “system of systems” formula common operating environment (GIG SOS-COE). At present, “Global Information Grid” bandwidth expansion plan (GIG-BE) has been completed, nearly 100 backbone nodes to achieve a seamless broadband high-speed Internet. 2008, the US Defense Information Infrastructure will extend from the narrow to the broad field of cognitive domain information, information from a network domain to electromagnetic fields (Cyber) across.





美国国防部在推进军用网络带宽建设的同时,还在大力发展信息网格(Grid)(20)技术。1999年,美国防部提出建设“全球信息网格”(Global Information Grid,GIG)。2003年,该部又公布了《全球信息网格体系结构》(2.0版),规划以国防信息系统网(DISN)为骨干整合美军各军种的军事信息系统,建成符合“全球信息网格”要求的“系统之系统”式公共操作环境(GIG SOS-COE)。目前“全球信息网格”带宽扩展计划(GIG-BE)已完成,近100个骨干节点实现了无缝宽带高速互联。2008年,美军将国防信息基础设施从狭义信息域扩展到广义认知域,实现从信息域到网络电磁域(Cyber)的跨越。

IT as the US military will support the transformation of the armed forces, which means the network as the core of military transformation, from a “platform-centric” to “network-centric” transformation. Network-centric warfare concept first proposed by the American Arthur Cheb Petrovsky and John Garstka. (21) They “Network Centric Warfare: The Origins and Future” in an article that, in the 20th century, humanity has entered a new era of war, “society has changed, potential economic and technology has changed, American business has changed if the US military does not change, we should be surprised and shocked. ” (twenty two)

“Network Centric Warfare” concept put forward by the two authors was quickly adopted by the US official. In 2002, the US Department of Defense submitted to the “Network Centric Warfare” (Network-Centric Warfare) report to Congress, proposed Defense Transformation Network Centric Warfare as a guide. The report said, “network-centric forces are able to create and use an information advantage to dramatically improve the combat effectiveness of troops, it can improve the ability of the Department of Defense to maintain global peace and the need to restore stability to assume its tasks dominant position “in all types of military operations. (twenty three)

Core network-centric warfare is to war physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain “network.” (24) Compared with the platform-centric warfare, network centric warfare has incomparable advantages.

First, the network-centric warfare make the battlefield transparent. Outcome of the war does not depend on who put the most money, manpower and technology put on the battlefield, but rather who has the best information about the battlefield. Since (25) For centuries, there has been war uncertainty and resistance, making it difficult to predict war, Clausewitz called the “fog of war”, and now finally able to gradually uncover the layers of fog. (26)

Second, network-centric warfare can greatly improve the firepower effect. Platform-centric blow process, the ability to detect and combat together under one platform, and a platform for the ability to obtain information from the other platforms and then carry out combat missions based on very limited. And network-centric warfare, the fighting is fueled by increased capacity, improve the quality and timeliness of information flow between networks. Increase the flow of information is critical battle space perception can be shared and improving information accuracy. Network after partial image of each unit consisting of a complete summary of operational space diagram, and then transferred immediately to the decision scheme weapon against the system, greatly improving the efficiency of the weapon system.

Third, network-centric warfare has greatly enhanced the efficiency of command. Under normal circumstances, the operations process consists of the following elements: probe target, identify the target, hit the target to make decisions, the decision to transfer arms, weapons, aim and fire. This process, play a decisive role from target detection to fire the reaction time and firepower range. The reaction time depends on the role of distance sensors and weapons, time kill radius of weapons, communications and information processing needs, and make the decision to spend time. Platform-centric weapons systems, linkages between the various weapons systems by voice to achieve, not the direct command of weapons engagement; and in network-centric warfare, perception, command, control, and the ability of warring and so on through the “robustness” The digital data link connection to a network, the capacity of the flow of information between network nodes, the quality and timeliness greatly improve the combat effectiveness of the weapon system.


两位作者提出的“网络中心战”概念被美国官方迅速采纳。2002年,美国国防部向国会提交《网络中心战》(Network-Centric Warfare)报告,提出将网络中心战作为国防转型的指南。该报告称,“以网络为中心的部队是一支能够创造并利用信息优势,从而大幅度提高战斗力的部队,它能够提高国防部维护全球和平的能力,并在需要其担负恢复稳定的任务时在所有各种类型的军事行动中占据优势地位”。(23)





Fourth, to save resources. In the era of mechanized warfare, because the relatively low level of information sharing, the various branches of weapons and equipment are loosely organized together, the main operations center in each platform and expand, the lack of effective communication and coordination mechanism between them. Therefore, in the development of equipment development, mechanized warfare is more concerned about the construction of weapons platforms, emphasizing weaponry itself to each generation longer range detection broader, better mobility, protection stronger, rather than emphasizing weapons and equipment in various branches of information detection, firepower, protection and other aspects of the battlefield lateral complementary collaboration. In order to meet the various needs of battlefield environment, mechanized warfare requires a single platform should also have multiple complex combat system with air and sea, the potential early warning, surveillance, detection and far, short-range strike capability and protection capacity, and all of these functions due to lack of information and the main coordination mechanism for their own services, causing great waste. Meanwhile, the upgrading of platform-centric weapons systems, weapons platforms make increasingly large and more complex. Network Centric Warfare in the Information Age is completely different, it emphasizes the grid in the framework of the various branches of military hardware strike weapons, sensors, communications equipment and support equipment and other integration as a whole, combined into a super-scale precision weapons, implementation of the system and the system, against the system and the system as a whole.

Comprehensive US troops from the Cold War so far the introduction of the strategic planning report and the army, the US military is increasing access to network electromagnetic spatial information efforts. As in the late 1990s when the proposed C4ISR, the US network of electromagnetic space requirement is to provide four “arbitrary” for combat, that is, any time, any information, any place, any person. And when in 2003 started the construction of the Global Information Grid is designed to allow network electromagnetic space provides five “proper”, that the right time, the right place, the right information, the right form, the right people. By 2008, the US also proposed the establishment of a network through electromagnetic space environment, to achieve the “three global capacity”, that global warning capabilities, global reach capabilities and global operational capabilities, to achieve full spectrum advantage. Thus, the United States will make every effort to expand the use of the network enabling the US military’s combat strength, to maintain American military hegemony.



Third, the US cyberspace security strategy

Geographically, the United States is two foreign countries, the security environment is very favorable. However, the development of network technology is superior to the American tradition of the security environment and constitute a real challenge. Since computer networks after commercial operation, industrial manufacturing, utilities, banking and other areas of the US communications network to connect all computers and controlled by the United States and other areas of diplomacy and defense are highly confidential full realization of the network, resulting in American society computer network to form a highly dependencies. It can be said, “No country in the world like the United States is so dependent on the network.” (27)

The United States is highly dependent on the network provides an unprecedented opportunity for America’s opponents. Through network attacks caused unimaginable destruction. If the “cut off power and water through the network,” the entire United States would “paralyze”:.. “Then everything stopped, railway connections and traffic lights do not work without electricity, but also get information which will cause people’s life . This is not a great impact bomb, but the bomb is similar to the effect produced – everything is closed. ” (28)

First, cyber crime against the United States continues to rise. Since the commercialization of the Internet, cyber crime showed rapid growth trend, especially for network hacker attacks even more so. The original purpose of hackers to launch cyber attacks is the purpose of self-presentation, namely by identifying network vulnerabilities and the attacks to achieve self-sufficiency. However, as the economy becomes network, hacker attacks more in order to obtain illegal interests for the purpose. Hackers from the “play” to become a ‘big business’, it takes only $ 400, you can buy one on the Internet, “crime package”, to steal other people’s bank accounts and credit card numbers. According to the study, worldwide each year due to loss of network attack suffered about 5,000 billion US dollars, the cost of crime generated by the network up to 3,880 billion US dollars, more than the world’s heroin, cocaine and cannabis market all combined. (29) in 2005, the largest US credit card The company, one of MasterCard’s 40 million users of banking information is acquired by hackers, causing the largest US credit card user information leak case. 2005 to 2007, Albert Gonzalez and a man named “shadow team” Teamwork hacker penetrated include TJ Maxx, Barnes, Noble and BJ including retail giant database, obtaining 180 million payment account access, these companies resulted in more than 400 million US dollars in economic losses. (30) According to US industry estimates, the 2008 data theft and infringement of intellectual property rights to the United States caused by the loss of up to $ 1 trillion. (31)

Second, the network of terrorist activities against the United States poses a great threat in cyberspace. As the network has become the most important human information dissemination and communication tools, terrorist organizations will also spread its tentacles into the network, make full use of the network of privacy, anonymity and across time and space characteristics, to implement terrorist recruitment and training programs . For example, the world’s largest terrorist organization “base” organization in recent years to take advantage of the network to carry out terrorist activities. According to the US Institute of Peace in Washington researcher Gabriel Weinmann observed, “In the traditional site of discussions and forums area can be found al-Qaida elements. 7 years ago, they are about 12 Internet sites. Since the ‘base’ Organization members have been expelled from Afghanistan later, to some extent, they have found refuge on the Internet. They added one, two or even 50 sites “Every day. Statistics US Treasury Bureau of Information said, “base” organization has about 4,000 online sites. “(32) terrorist organizations use network behavior aroused the attention of the American government department. In early 2005, the FBI asked to be alert terrorist organizations to recruit engineers from the Internet. In July, the US government should request, Pakistani authorities arrested the “base” organization computer expert Naeem Noor Mohammad Khan.




首先,针对美国的网络犯罪持续攀升。自从互联网商业化以来,网络犯罪便呈快速增长之势,特别是黑客对网络发动的攻击更是如此。最初的黑客发动网络袭击的目的多是为了自我展示,即通过发现网络漏洞并对之发动攻击来实现自我满足。但是,随着经济生活越来越网络化,黑客攻击更多以获取非法利益为目的。黑客已从“玩玩”发展成为一个‘‘大行业”,只要花上400美元,就可以在网上买一个“犯罪包”,以窃取别人的银行账户和信用卡密码。据研究,全世界每年因网络攻击遭受的损失约有5,000亿美元,由网络犯罪产生的成本高达3,880亿美元,比全球海洛因、可卡因和大麻市场全部加起来还要多。(29)2005年,美国最大信用卡公司之一的万事达公司4,000万用户的银行资料被黑客获取,酿成美国最大规模信用卡用户信息泄密案。2005至2007年,阿尔伯特·冈萨雷斯和一个名叫“影子团队”的黑客团队合作,侵入包括TJ Maxx、Barnes、Noble和BJ在内的零售业巨头的数据库,获取1.8亿支付账户的访问权,给这些公司造成了4亿多美元的经济损失。(30)据美国业界估计,2008年的数据失窃和知识产权受到侵犯给美国造成的损失高达1万亿美元。(31)


Third, the United States Government to collect foreign intelligence through the network, to pose a challenge to US national security. In 2007, the US Defense Department, State Department, Homeland Security, Ministry of Commerce, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Defense and other departments have been large-scale invasion. In the invasion, the US defense secretary e-mail or even cracks, the Ministry of Defence were stolen “millions of bytes” of information, launcher design NASA also been maliciously modified, the Commerce Department also was forced off its network belongs Bureau of Industry and Security connections for several months, causing serious compromised. (33)

Fourth, the US network competitors may launch cyber warfare. And several network security threats described earlier, this kind of threat is more serious. In launching cyber attacks, the United States is the instigator. Back in the 1980s, the United States against the Soviet Union had launched a similar “attack.” Then the lack of control of its long-range Soviet oil and natural gas pipeline network of automatic pump and valve control technology. Since the Soviet Union embargo by Western countries, the official was unable to purchase through normal channels to the relevant products. Thus, the Soviet government would purchase this task to the Soviet KGB intelligence service to complete. After US intelligence agencies informed the KGB procurement plan, secretly let a Canadian company to undertake business. KGB successful completion of the procurement task, but it absolutely did not think that the CIA has implanted malicious code in its procurement of goods and software. The pipeline system runs a few months after the installation is completed, the United States launched the malicious code, so that the pipeline at the same time, a pump running at full speed all the valves closed pipeline, resulting in pipeline explosion, the entire piping system is permanently damage. Although the United States temporarily networks dominate, but now it’s network vulnerability has not be overlooked. US software programming engineer John Martelli found that US “industrial control computer system, water and electricity networks of the class are automatically linked like …… This proves, in some cases, we are exposed to the sun , hackers can easily attack us. ” (34)

Given the extreme importance of the network to US national security, in order to prevent the “Network Pearl Harbor” occurred (Cyber Pearl Harbor) events, from the Clinton administration, the United States adopted a series of measures to ensure that the United States of network security.

First, the US government cybersecurity strategies into national security strategy areas, to enhance network security awareness of network security status and population strategy. 1998, Clinton issued “critical infrastructure protection” Presidential Decree (PDD-63), the first clear concept of network security strategy. The report notes that although the United States is the world’s most powerful countries, but more and more dependent on “the importance of those countries as well as the physical properties of computer-based systems and assets once they are damaged or destroyed, will the country security, national economic security and national public health and health care have a devastating impact. ” (35) in December 2000, Clinton signed the “National Security Strategy in the Age of Globalization” file, the network security as an important part of the national security strategy. (36) in January 2009, shortly after Obama became US president, will according to the US Strategic and International Studies Center, “to ensure that any new president within the network of electromagnetic space security” to submit a special report, proposed in October 1957 as the Soviet Union launched the first Sputnik as holding a similar referendum discussion, raise the American public network electromagnetic space security awareness. (37) After due deliberation, the US government in 2011 focused on the introduction of a number of reports on network electromagnetic space security, the more important the “network authentication electromagnetic space credible national strategy” (National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace, March 2011), “Network electromagnetic space International Strategy” (International Strategy for Cyberspace, 2011, May 2007), “DoD networks electromagnetic space action strategy” (Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace, 2011 July 2009) and “DoD networks electromagnetic space policy report” (Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report, 2011 November 2003). These reports are all involved in the network of electromagnetic space security strategy.



鉴于网络对美国国家安全的极端重要性,为防止“网络珍珠港”(Cyber Pearl Harbor)事件的发生,从克林顿政府起,美国就采取一系列措施,确保美国的网络安全。

首先,美国政府把网络安全战略纳入国家安全战略范畴,提升网络安全战略的地位和民众的网络安全意识。1998年,克林顿签发《关键基础设施保护》总统令(PDD-63),首次明确网络安全战略的概念。报告指出,美国虽然是世界上最强大的国家,但越来越依赖“那些对国家十分重要的物理性的以及基于计算机的系统和资产,它们一旦受损或遭到破坏,将会对国家安全、国家经济安全和国家公众健康及保健产生破坏性的冲击”。(35)2000年12月,克林顿签署《全球化时代的国家安全战略》文件,将网络安全作为国家安全战略的重要组成部分。(36)2009年1月,奥巴马出任美国总统后不久,便根据美国战略与国际问题研究中心提交的《确保新总统任内网络电磁空间安全》专题报告,提出要像1957年10月苏联发射第一颗人造地球卫星那样,举行类似的全民大讨论,提高美国民众网络电磁空间安全意识。(37)经过充分酝酿后,美国政府于2011年集中出台了多项有关网络电磁空间安全的报告,其中比较重要的《网络电磁空间可信身份认证国家战略》(National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace,2011年3月)、《网络电磁空间国际战略》(International Strategy for Cyberspace,2011年5月)、《国防部网络电磁空间行动战略》(Department of Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace,2011年7月)和《国防部网络电磁空间政策报告》(Department of Defense Cyberspace Policy Report,2011年11月)。这些报告无不涉及网络电磁空间安全战略问题。

Second, we continue to strengthen the legislative work network electromagnetic field of space. Soon after the United States in order to prevent electronic “September 11 incident” occurred, “9.11” incident (e-9/11 event), President George W. Bush issued Executive Order No. 13231 – “Critical Infrastructure Protection Information Age” , (38) in February 2003 and issued a “critical infrastructure and key assets of physical protection of the national strategy.” (39) documents the communications, information technology, defense industrial base, etc. 18 infrastructure sector as a critical infrastructure, the five major items of nuclear power plants, government facilities and other assets defined as important. In the same month, the United States enacted its first national strategy on network electromagnetic space security – “ensure that the network electromagnetic space security national strategy.” The document up to 76, for the United States to protect the network electromagnetic space security established the guiding framework and priorities. May 2009, the Obama administration issued a “network of electromagnetic space policy review.” The report says, to “the capacity of national security for the next generation network communication and emergency preparation, to develop a coordinated plan.” (40)

Third, focus on top-level design, streamline management network electromagnetic space security organizations. Early in the Clinton administration, the United States will set up an inter-departmental coordination mechanism – the president Critical Infrastructure Protection Board. From the implementation point of view, the role of this institution is limited. After the “9.11” incident, the Bush administration set up by the chairman of the committee for the first time as the “president of network security consultant”, but its mandate is relatively small. After the 2003 establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, the US government handed over responsibility for the US network electromagnetic space security to the ministry. Report of March 2009, US security committee electromagnetic space network to President Obama just appointed submitted a “ensure that any new president within the network of electromagnetic space security”, said the “network of electromagnetic space security issue is a serious national security challenge facing the United States of a network of electromagnetic space security is not just Chief Information Officer IT office tasks, it is not just homeland security and counter-terrorism strategy and …… it is to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the fight against global ‘jihad’ equally important event. The federal government should bear the main responsibility. ” (41) Under the repeated calls of experts and scholars, the White House also recognized “Without a central coordinating mechanism, no update national strategy, no plan of action for the development and coordination of the executive departments, and no congressional support, by partaking work is insufficient to meet this challenge. ” (40) 163 For this reason, the White House organized the “White House cybersecurity office”, and established close ties with the president can “White House cybersecurity coordinator.” After the integration of the Obama administration, the US federal government currently has six full-time network security agency: Department of Homeland Security under the “US Computer Emergency Response Team”, under the Ministry of Defence, “Joint Operations Force Global Network Operations Center” and “Defense Cybercrime Center “, under the FBI’s” national online survey Joint Task Force “, under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence” Intelligence Community Network Incident Response Center “, and is part of the National Security Agency’s” Cyberspace Security Threat Operations Center. ” Obama administration to adjust to network security management system is primarily intended to improve the efficiency of network security organization and leadership, the formation of a comprehensive national network of electromagnetic space security leadership and coordination system integration.

Fourth, to the outside world announced the implementation of a high-profile network deterrence. May 2009, the Obama administration announced the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment” is made, “From now on, our digital infrastructure will be considered national strategic assets to protect this infrastructure will be a priority of national security.” (42) for the protection of the United States of this strategic asset, in May 2011 the US government announced the “Cyberspace International Strategy” stressed: If potentially hostile country for the US-sponsored cyber attack threat to national security and interests, the United States will not hesitate to use military power. In June, US Defense Secretary Robert Gates in Singapore to attend the 10th Shangri-La Security Dialogue noted in confirming network attacks from his country, the United States regarded as “an act of war” and to give “force to fight back.” (43) This shows that the United States 已把 network security as a top priority, of means by those who seek to attack the national or organizational network infrastructure to benefit the United States resorts to war.

第二,不断强化网络电磁空间领域的立法工作。“9·11事件”发生后不久,美国为防止发生电子“9·11”事件(e-9/11 event),小布什总统发布了13231号行政命令——《保护信息时代的关键基础设施》,(38)2003年2月又颁发了《关键基础设施和重要资产物理保护的国家战略》。(39)这份文件把通讯、信息技术、国防工业基础等18个基础设施部门列为关键基础设施,把核电厂、政府设施等5大项界定为重要资产。同月,美国颁布了首份有关网络电磁空间安全的国家战略——《确保网络电磁空间安全国家战略》。该份文件长达76页,为美国保护网络电磁空间安全确立了指导性框架和优先目标。2009年5月,奥巴马政府出台了《网络电磁空间政策评估报告》。该报告称,要“针对下一代网络的国家安全与应急准备通信的能力,制定一个协调计划”。(40)



Fifth, actively build network security defense system to protect the electromagnetic space. In response to the invasion of US network infrastructure behavior, the US government early in 2002 started the “Einstein Program.” Currently, the program has entered the third phase. The first phase of the plan is to achieve Einstein information collection and sharing of safety information. Einstein program is the second phase of intrusion detection systems to scan all Internet traffic and government computers (including private communication section) a copy of the data. When the scanning system will mark the communication data having the characteristics of malicious code, and automatically obtain and store the entire message. Then, the computer network defense department officials for information is identified and stored for review. The third stage is planned Einstein intrusion prevention systems. This system detects a malicious attack agents, and agents of the United States to prevent malicious network attacks. Former US Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff functional Einstein plan is it this way: If the second phase of Einstein’s plan is “a holding in a roadside police radar, they can advance by telephone warning was drunk or speeding, “then Einstein program is the third phase of a possible” to arrest suspects “and” stop attacks, “the police, it’s like an air defense weapon system, before it can attack the target to shoot down the missile. (44) in October 2009, the implementation of “Einstein Program” and “new national cyberspace security and Communications Integration Center” (New National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center, NCCIC) enabled in Arlington, Virginia. The center 24-hour surveillance involving basic network architecture and network threats to national security, the protection of the United States to become the central network security. In addition to the Einstein program, the US National Security Agency is still great efforts to build the so-called “network shield” (Cyber Shield) Project, for use against American competitors in the United States critical infrastructure attacks. This system can transmit packets on the network in real-time analysis, it can quickly filter out all kinds of illegal data packages and other attacks loads; if the system can not exclude a threat, it will start to apply physical isolation mechanism. (45) to create a secure network environment electromagnetic space, enormous amounts of money the United States. In 2008, the Bush administration launched the “National Cybersecurity Initiative comprehensive” budget of up to $ 30 billion. According to media reports, the draft defense budget for fiscal year 2014 to be a substantial increase in US Department of Defense budget network security, network security funds reached a total budget of $ 13 billion each department. (46)

The United States is highly dependent on the electromagnetic space of national network, the national network intrusion greatly. US Department of Defense’s unlawful invasion by a day tens of thousands of times. However, so far the US network infrastructure has not been large-scale cyber attacks, which US cybersecurity strategy proved to be effective from one side. However, the US alleged network electromagnetic space security is actually a network of electromagnetic space to seek hegemony, showing that “security” is based on other national networks electromagnetic space “unsafe” basis, and it will force the other The country also in the network invested heavily in research and development of electromagnetic field of space technology to deal with, resulting in “Network arms race.”

第五,积极构建保障网络电磁空间的安全防御体系。为应对入侵美国网络设施的行为,美国政府早在2002年就启动了“爱因斯坦计划”。目前,该计划已进入第三阶段。爱因斯坦计划的第一阶段主要是实现信息采集和安全信息共享。爱因斯坦计划的第二阶段是检测入侵系统,用以扫描所有互联网流量以及政府电脑(包括私人通信部分)的副本数据。系统扫描时会标记出具有恶意代码特征的通信数据,同时自动获取并存储整个信息。然后,计算机网络防御部门政府官员对被识别出来和存储的信息进行审查。爱因斯坦计划第三阶段是入侵防御系统。该系统对恶意攻击代理进行检测,并阻止恶意代理对美国网络的攻击。美国前国土安全部长切尔托夫对爱因斯坦计划的功能是这样表述的:如果第二阶段爱因斯坦计划是“一个在路边拿着测速雷达的警察,他们可以提前用电话警告有人醉酒或超速驾驶”,那么第三阶段爱因斯坦计划则是一位可以“逮捕疑犯”和“阻止攻击”的警察,这就像一个防空武器系统,它可以在导弹攻击到目标之前将其击落。(44)2009年10月,执行“爱因斯坦计划”的“新国家网络空间安全和通信集成中心”(New National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center,NCCIC)在弗吉尼亚州的阿林顿启用。该中心24小时全天候监控涉及基础网络架构和国家安全的网络威胁,成为保护美国网络安全的中枢。除爱因斯坦计划外,美国国家安全局还在大力建设所谓的“网络盾牌”(Cyber Shield)项目,用于抵御美国的竞争对手对美国关键基础设施发动的攻击。这一系统可以对网络传输的信息包进行实时分析,能迅速过滤掉各种非法数据包和其他攻击载荷;如果系统无法排除威胁,会申请启动物理隔离机制。(45)为打造安全的网络电磁空间环境,美国不惜巨资。2008年,小布什政府推出的《国家网络安全全面倡议计划》预算高达300亿美元。据媒体报道,美国2014财年国防预算草案拟大幅增加国防部网络安全经费预算,各部门网络安全经费预算总额达到130亿美元。(46)


Fourth, through the advocacy of “network freedom” implementation of network penetration strategy

Due to the popularity of the network, the global number of Internet users increased dramatically. According to statistics, and as of December 31, 2012, the global number of Internet users reached 2.405 billion, accounting for 34.3 percent of global population. (47) where the number of Chinese Internet users more development trend showing a blowout. According to the China Internet Network Information Center released data, as of the end of December 2012, China’s netizens reached 564 million, the year of new users 5,090 million and Internet penetration rate of 42.1%, an increase of 3.8 percentage points over the end of the year; slightly Bo 309 million registered users, more than the end of 2011 increased 5,873 million.

Seen from the above statistics, human society has entered a “fiber age.” Spread nature of the network is not just the flow of information, but also the sharing of information network participants, negotiation, compromise and confrontation, including deep-level activities behind the concept of action, will, emotions. (48) In particular, especially Web2.0 era. Development and application of this technology to make a breakthrough in the field of Internet is essentially a computer communication era, ushered in a revolution in ideas and thoughts. (49) in the Web 2.0 environment, participation in interactive is a more obvious characteristics of user demand. Most online content is to create a user, different users can easily share wisdom, namely the use of collective wisdom to make the Internet into a sense of global brain. Web2.0 individual-centered, users not only information the reader, but also the publisher of information, communicators, modified by. In other words, by a few leading resource control by centralized control of the Internet system began to change for the bottom-up by the majority of users of the collective wisdom and strength to dominate the Internet system, opening the era of the Internet’s roots.

Popularity of the network of traditional print media and television revolution. Government and the consortium can easily control a newspaper or a television station. A country may also be issued in other countries refuse to newspapers in the country, do not let other countries landed a television program in the country, thereby more effectively prevent other countries to the ideological penetration. However, the Internet real-time dissemination of information and without Borders greatly weakened the ability of countries to withstand external ideological penetration. After the Cold War, the United States launched the Iraq war and by the war in Afghanistan to extend “American-style democracy”, that is by way of regime change “top-down” to promote democracy, but frustrated, in trouble. (50), however, began in the “Arab Spring” in Tunisia saw the US has “point” and “interactive” features of the Internet, to help the United States “bottom-up” to pursue its expansion strategy democracy. So the United States began to increasingly rely on international hegemony it has in the technical aspects of the Internet, began to fully exploit the great advantages of foreign ideological penetration of their enjoyment of the Internet as an important tool for ideological penetration of his country.

First, the US government set up a network penetration leadership. In 2002, the US government established the “Internet diplomatic team,” the team after being incorporated into the “Internet diplomatic office,” the US State Department. In February 2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice established the “Working Group on Global Internet Freedom”, the main research on the Internet and free foreign policy. In 2008, the Rand Corporation report to the US Department of Defense, suggested that the US should help reformers obtain and use information program, which provides a number of measures to encourage US companies to invest in communications infrastructure and information technology in the region. Obama called the US the “Internet president.” When he ran for the presidency in 2008, through superior rabbit network (Youtube), Facebook (Facebook), Twitter network (Twitter) and MySpace (Myspace), etc. send a message, users win support. After the White House, Obama actively using Web 2.0 technology to promote US public diplomacy to promote the American spirit to the world and to promote American-style democracy. Under the White House’s push, the United States set up the relevant institutions, leadership network penetration work. Under the leadership of these organizations, the US State Department after the launch of Twitter in French, Spanish, Arabic and Persian launched version, also plans to launch Chinese, Russian and Hindi version.



从上述统计数据可见,人类社会已经进入了“光纤时代”。网络传播本质上不仅仅是信息的流动,而且是网络参与者对信息的共享、协商、妥协和对抗,其中包括行动背后的观念、意志、情绪等深层次的活动。(48)特别是Web2.0时代的到来更是如此。这项技术的开发与应用使互联网领域突破了实质上是计算机交流的时代,迎来了一次理念和思想的革命。(49)在Web 2.0环境下,参与互动性是用户需求的一个比较明显的特点。网上的内容大多是由用户来创造,不同用户可以非常方便地共享智慧,即利用集体智慧使互联网变成某种意义上的全球大脑。Web2.0以个人为中心,网民既是信息的阅读者,同时也是信息的发布者、传播者、修改者。换句话说,由少数资源控制者集中控制主导的互联网体系开始转变为自下而上的由广大用户集体智慧和力量主导的互联网体系,开启了互联网的草根化时代。


首先,美国政府组建了进行网络渗透的领导机构。2002年,美国政府组建了“互联网外交研究小组”,该小组后被并入美国国务院的“互联网外交办公室”。2006年2月,国务卿赖斯成立了“全球互联网自由工作组”,主要研究有关互联网自由的对外政策。2008年,兰德公司向美国国防部提交报告,建议美国应该帮助变革者获取和使用信息计划,即提供一些措施鼓励美国公司投资这一地区的通信基础设施和信息技术。奥巴马号称美国“互联网总统”。他在2008年竞选总统职位时,通过优兔网(Youtube)、脸谱网(Facebook)、推特网(Twitter)和聚友网(Myspace)等发送信息,赢得网民支持。入主白宫后,奥巴马积极利用Web 2.0技术推动美国的公共外交,向全世界宣扬美国精神和推广美国式民主政治。在白宫的推动之下,美国设立了相关机构,领导网络渗透工作。在这些机构的领导下,美国国务院在推出推特的法语、西班牙语版之后,又推出了阿拉伯语和波斯语版,还计划推出中文、俄语和印地语版。


第三,拉拢网络公司高管,延揽网络渗透人才。2009年,美国国务院组织推特网的创始人杰克·多尔西及其他多名美国网络公司高管到伊拉克考察,意在让他们在伊拉克建设社交信息网,以引导伊拉克的民意和影响伊拉克国内政治发展。2010年,美国国务卿希拉里·克林顿还特意宴请杰克·多尔西和谷歌公司首席执行官埃里克·施密特,要他们利用新媒体输出美国的价值观。这些新媒体的领军人物在2011年爆发的阿拉伯世界“茉莉花革命”中扮演了重要角色。为了更有效地影响阿拉伯世界的网民,美国国务院积极延揽阿拉伯语、波斯语和乌尔都语人才,将他们组成“数字外联小组”,参与伊斯兰世界的网络聊天室的讨论。对于网络在推动北非变局中发挥的作用,美国国务院政策设计顾问杰拉德·科恩(Jerad Cohen)予以高度评价,他将“脸谱”网称为有史以最有效的促进民主工具之一,称赞互联网是一个在全球范围内促进自由、平等和人权价值观的有效工具。(54)


①William Gibson,Neuromancer,New York:Ace Books,1984,p.69.




⑤Jose Vericat,”Is the Google World a Better Place,” Journal of International Affairs,Vol.24,No.1,2010.


⑦The Department of Defense,The National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations(2006),p.10.

⑧The Department of Defense,National Military Strategy(2004),p.18.

⑨The Department of Defense,The National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations(2006),p.v.

⑩The Department of Defense,The National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations(2006),pp.19-20.

(11)Thomas Rid and Marc Hecker,War 2.0:Irregular War in the Information Age,Westport:Praeger Security International,2009,p.58.


(13)TECHNOLYTICS,Cyber Commander’s Handbook.转引自王源.赛博武器的现状与发展[J].中国电子科学研究院学报,2011年第6期.

(14)Shane P.Courville,Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission Defending:the Air Force’s Computer Network in the Future,2007.


(16)Thomas Rid and Marc Hecker,War 2.0:Irregular War in the Information Age,p.37.

(17)Thomas Rid and Marc Hecker,War 2.0:Irregular War in the Information Age,p.57.


(19)David S.Alberts,John J.Garstka,Frederich P.Stein,Network Centric Warfare:Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority,CCRP Publication Series,2000,p.100.
(21)Arthur K.Cebrowski and John J.Garstka,”Network-Centric Warfare:Its Origin and Future,” Proceedings,January 1998.

(20) 在网络带宽迅速增加的同时,网上的IP地址和资源更呈几何级数增加,再加上传感器网络提供的图像或数据,使网上资源或信息极其丰富。第三代互联网技术开发出来之前,人们使用网上资源要么是通过直接访问网站,要么是通过搜索引擎来查找资源。对于前者来说,就如用户打开电灯开关时需要指定一个发电厂一样;而对于后者来说,输入一下查询关键词可能有数万乃至数千万个结果,查找不便,效率低下。网格(Grid,也译成信息栅格)技术,彻底改变了这种效率低下的状况,真正实现了网络用户之间的互连、互通和互操作。这一技术将散布在网络上的资源虚拟为一个极其强大的信息系统,实现了计算、存储、数据、信息、软件、通信等各种资源的全面共享。参见刘鹏、王立华主编.走向军事网格时代[M].北京:解放军出版社2004年版,第7页.

(22)Arthur K.Cebrowski and John J.Garstka,”Network-Centric Warfare:Its Origin and Future,” Proceedings,January 1998.




(26)Thomas Rid and Marc Hecker,War 2.0:Irregular War in the Information Age,p.37.

(27)Charles E.Croom,Jr.,”Guarding Cyberspace Global Network Operations,” Joint Force Quarterly,No.46,July 2007,p.69.








(35)The White House,National Plan for Information Systems Protection Version 1.0:An Invitation to a Dialogue,2000.

(36)White House,A National Security Strategy For A Global Age,December 2000,


(38)Executive Order 13231 of October 16,2001,Critical Infrastructure Protection in the Information Age,

(39)National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets,February 2003.



(42)Remarks by the President on Securing our Nation’s Cyber Infrastructure,May 29,2009, infrastructure.

(43)Reuter,”Cates:US ready to use force against cyber attackers,” June 4,2011,

(44)Jack Goldsmith.The Cyberthreat,Government Network Operations,and the Fourth Amendment[EB/OL].









(53)White House,”International Strategy for Cyberspace:Prosperity,Security,and Openness in a Networked World,” May 2011,p.5.


Original Article HERE