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Chinese Military Targeting Future Wars and Fighting the Five Cognitive Battles

中國軍隊瞄準未來戰爭打好五場認知戰

現代英語翻譯:

Source: Liberation Army News Author: Yang Longxi Editor-in-charge: Wang Feng 2022-10-08 10:11:25

In recent years, local wars and armed conflicts are mostly “mixed” confrontations that unfold in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, and economic means, implementing system clamps in the comprehensive decision-making dimension, creating various chaos in the international communication dimension, and carrying out targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shaping the battlefield situation, and seeking to seize strategic initiative. In future wars, we must fight political-military battles and military-political battles, and we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, offense and defense, and improve our ability to fight the “five battles”.

Cognitive warfare is the first step to shape the situation and take the initiative. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of the war situation, the status and role of cognitive warfare are becoming more and more prominent. Aiming to win the future war, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance, and through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the target’s physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive elements should be influenced, intervened and manipulated, and military operations should be covered by cognitive offense and defense, so as to accurately and efficiently dominate the cognitive space. We must fully realize the importance of taking the initiative, flexibly and independently master the right to define and interpret “narrative”, emphasize taking the initiative in the dimension of cognitive narrative struggle, create a favorable situation with legal principles in hand and morality on our side, and occupy the moral high ground.

Cognitive warfare is about attacking the heart, and we should fight a precise war in layers. “A good warrior will attack others but not others.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will be extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent, and unmanned, invisible, and silent. We should focus on cognitive gaps to improve our reach, use big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, psychological model evaluation and other methods to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects, and achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. We should focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, aim at the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual support points that maintain the unity of the powerful enemy alliance to effectively strike, and use their cognitive differences and conflicts of interest to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategy, we should fight a war of deterrence and control with full domain penetration. In future wars, the strategic competition and strategic confrontation between the warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should focus on the decision-making links and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we should pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike means to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we should pay more attention to the “soft kill” effect of cognitive shaping, cognitive inducement, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, so as to form a strong shock through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, and expand new-quality combat forces to the cognitive dimension, thereby forming an asymmetric balance of power.

Information is king in cognitive warfare, and we must expand the field to fight a good support war. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and we should accelerate system integration to gain data advantages. First, we should accelerate the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive combat theory bases, databases, talent pools, case bases, and tactics bases, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive combat capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, we should accelerate the creation of a converged media communication matrix, improve and perfect our own platform system, and step up the deployment of network platforms, focusing on system integration and collaborative linkage, breaking through the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and realizing cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive effectiveness. Thirdly, we should accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making psychological offense and defense, explore and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to provide “clairvoyance” and “clairaudience” for winning future wars.

The key to cognitive warfare is coordination, and we should make efforts in multiple dimensions to fight the overall battle. Future wars will be joint operations carried out in the fields of land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic, etc. We should adhere to system thinking, strengthen coordination awareness, and improve the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations with other military actions. For example, we can integrate human intelligence, geographic intelligence, and open source intelligence, quickly collect and process massive data, remove the false and retain the true, and accurately and efficiently seize cognitive space, so as to achieve complementary advantages and full coverage to form cognitive advantages. By networking the dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish a highly connected, collectively acting, and overall attacking full-domain joint force to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence”. By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, and using cognitive manipulation to amplify the effects of political disintegration, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and coordinating military operations to exert pressure on the target in all dimensions, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)

繁體中文:

來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍溪 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-10-08 10:11:25
近年來的局部戰爭和武裝沖突,大多是在多維度多領域展開的「混合」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段,在綜合決策維度實施體系鉗制,在國際傳播維度製造各種混亂,在戰略重心維度進行標靶打擊,積極塑造戰場態勢,謀求奪取戰略主動。未來戰爭要打好政治軍仗、軍事政治仗,應深刻掌握認知域作戰攻防特點規律,提升打好「五仗」的能力。

認知作戰先入為主,塑勢控局打好主動仗。戰爭未啟、認知先行。隨著戰爭形態的不斷發展演進,認知域作戰的地位角色不斷突顯。瞄準打贏未來戰爭,應提前開展認知佈設,透過謀略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知要素進行影響、幹預和操控,以認知攻防掩護軍事行動,精準有效率地主導認知空間。充分認識先聲奪人的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義權和解釋權,在認知敘事鬥爭維度上強調先發製人贏得主動,塑造法理在手、道義向我的有利態勢,佔領道義制高點。

認知作戰攻心為上,分層施策打好精確仗。 「善戰者,致人而不致於人。」未來戰爭,作戰空間向深海、深空、深網等領域延伸,戰場時空呈現極遠、極微、極智與無人、無形、無聲等特點。應緊盯認知缺口提升到達力,運用大數據模擬、人工智慧匹配、心理模型評估等方法,分析掌控認知主體的關鍵訊息,實現認知主體資訊的有效滲透和先期懾止。緊扣認知盲點增強穿透力,瞄準維繫強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差別和利益矛盾,層層發力實現分化瓦解。

認知作戰策略為本,全域滲透打好懾控仗。未來戰爭,交戰雙方的戰略競爭與策略對抗異常激烈,應緊盯決策環節綜合發力,增大對手決策困境,形成自身決策優勢。一方面,要更關注敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等要害節點,運用先進打擊手段對這些節點實施物理摧毀。另一方面,要更關注認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入和認知控制的「軟殺傷」效果,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬摧毀」中,既透過高新武器精確打擊形成強大震懾,又將新質作戰力量拓展至認知維度,從而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓寬領域打好支撐仗。未來戰爭離不開強大資訊的支撐,應加速體系融合奪取數據優勢。首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰法庫建設,動態收集更新敵認知攻防作戰能力建設現狀,為認知攻防作戰提供全方位支撐。其次,加速打造融媒體傳播矩陣,健全完善自有平台體系,抓緊推進網絡平台投棋布子,注重體系融合、協作聯動,盡快打通信息互聯互通“壁壘”,實現認知融通共享、綜合致效。再次,加速推進資訊與認知域作戰耦合聯動,大力發展神經網絡系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨域與異類認知訊息,健全認知手段資訊融合體系,為打贏未來戰爭提供「千裡眼」「順風耳」。

認知作戰協同為要,多維發力打好整體仗。未來戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、網絡、電磁等領域實施的聯合作戰,應堅持體系思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性協調性。例如,可以融合人力情報、地理情報和開源情報等,快速採集處理海量數據,去偽存真、精準高效地搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補、全局覆蓋形成認知優勢。透過將分散多域部隊進行聯網,建立一支高度聯通、集體行動、整體打擊的全領域聯合力量,實現「一體化威懾」效果。透過整合國家資源、加強戰略傳播,運用認知造勢放大政治瓦解、經濟制裁、外交攻勢等效果,配合軍事行動全維施壓目標對象,力求不戰而屈人之兵。

(作者單位:航太工程大學)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4922788.html?big=fan

Chinese Military to Comprehensively Improve Scientific and Technological Cognition of Strategic Capabilities in Emerging Fields of Warfare

中國軍隊全面提升新興戰爭領域戰略能力科技認知

現代音譯英語:

War is a confrontation of material forces, but it is also a test of ideological cognition. To implement President Xi’s new requirements for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields, we must grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological cognition, focus on the new situation of accelerating the new round of scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution and military revolution, focus on strengthening the army and winning wars, and strengthen the research and exploration of strategic, cutting-edge and disruptive technologies in emerging fields. With a deep understanding of the nature and laws of science and technology, we can master the realization of high-quality development of military construction, win the initiative in military competition and future wars, transform scientific and technological cognition into a real ability to design and win wars, and accelerate and win new advantages in strategic areas that must be fought.

(one)

Only by understanding the times can we understand war. In the era when scientific and technological revolutions and military revolutions are integrated and intertwined, and science and technology have become the core combat power of modern warfare, improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields will help us understand and grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare, better control information-based and intelligent warfare, achieve overtaking in new fields and new tracks, win military competitive advantages with scientific and technological advantages, and win future high-tech wars.

Leading military reforms to seize the commanding heights. The wise hear what is silent, and the wise see what is not yet formed. Only by keenly perceiving the development trends of emerging technologies and expanding the cognitive boundaries of strategic frontier technologies can we see what is not yet born, recognize what is not yet developed, take the initiative, and lead the elements of the military field to achieve revolutionary transformation and development. In today’s era, emerging technologies represented by artificial intelligence are emerging in a “well-like” manner, leading and promoting the rapid development of military intelligence at an unprecedented speed, triggering chain breakthroughs in the military field, and leveraging fundamental changes in the war pattern. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race of time and speed. Faced with the strong momentum of military science and technology development in emerging fields, we must strive to seize the initiative and gain advantages. We must accurately grasp the general trend of science and technology of the times, dare to stand at the forefront of human warfare and scientific and technological development, grasp the basic laws of scientific and technological development and evolution in the long river of history and the global perspective, and accurately identify new goals, new fields, and new heights for the development of military science and technology. We must find breakthroughs in the development of military science and technology in a timely manner, bravely advance into the “no man’s land” of military science and technology innovation, seize the strategic commanding heights of military technology competition, and lead the military revolution to achieve new breakthroughs and leaps with new thinking concepts.

Lead the military competition and win the initiative. The level of cognition ultimately determines the pattern of military competition. At present, the frontier positions and strength competition of world military competition have extended to emerging fields, and the acquisition of technological advantages has become a strategic measure to seek military advantages. In the fierce competition of technological subversion and counter-subversion, assault and counter-assault, offset and counter-offset, scientific and technological cognition has become a key variable that determines the victory or defeat of military games. If there is a generation gap in scientific and technological cognition, there is a risk of being surpassed by the opponent’s new technological combat power. If there is a technological gap in shaping new-quality combat power, it will be difficult to “change the rules of competition” and form a military competitive advantage. Recent local wars and armed conflicts in the world have shown that whoever has a leading strategic capability and technological cognition in emerging fields and uses technology to empower combat power can control the battlefield situation and thereby achieve a fundamental change in the winner and loser. In the increasingly fierce world military game, in order to seize the initiative in the development of military science and technology in emerging fields and occupy a favorable position of high-level control, it is necessary to enhance the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, keep a close eye on changes in science and technology, changes in war, and changes in opponents, plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, follow the trend, make advance arrangements, and plan ahead to ensure the formation of unique advantages in some important fields and win the initiative in military games.

Leading a strong army to win the war and win the future war. Practice determines cognition, which is the source and motivation, purpose and destination of cognition. The scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is aimed at promoting scientific and technological innovation and application. The fundamental focus is to create a new quality combat power growth pole. The main purpose is to seize the commanding heights of strategic competition, seize the initiative in war, and ultimately win the future war. At present, the development of emerging fields is showing an all-round and multi-domain in-depth advancement trend, and the frequency of dynamic iteration and update of science and technology is accelerating. In order to forge a new quality combat capability with a new killing mechanism and improve the scientific and technological content of national defense and military modernization, we must deeply grasp the key areas of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, grasp the new characteristics of cross-integration development of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, focus on creating a new quality combat capability growth pole, vigorously promote independent innovation and original innovation, eliminate backward technologies that are not adapted to the changes in the war situation, adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence, improve the innovation and application of military science and technology, comprehensively enhance the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and win the battle to achieve the goal of building the army for a hundred years as scheduled.

Two

Improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a very complex process of subjective and objective rational thinking. To accurately grasp the essential attributes and characteristic laws of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, and to know both the facts and the reasons, we should focus on improving the three abilities of scientific and technological foresight, discrimination, and understanding in the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and form a scientific cognitive ability system that supports, cooperates with, and influences each other, providing strong support for comprehensively improving the strategic capabilities of emerging fields.

Aiming at future wars, we should enhance our scientific and technological foresight. Emerging fields are one of the main battlefields of future wars. Once some technologies achieve breakthroughs, the impact will be subversive, and may even fundamentally change the form and mode of war, and fundamentally change the traditional offensive and defensive pattern of war. Science and technology have never had such a profound impact on military construction and the outcome of wars as they do today. If we have a narrow scientific and technological cognition and lack strategic foresight and prediction of cutting-edge technologies in emerging fields, we may not understand our opponents, understand wars, and even more so win future wars. During the Gulf War, Iraq’s mechanized steel torrent lost to the US military’s precision-guided weapons. One of the important reasons for this was the gap between the two countries in strategic capabilities and scientific and technological cognition in emerging fields. In order to let our thoughts reach tomorrow’s battlefield, we must improve our scientific and technological awareness, closely follow the development direction of the world’s advanced military science and technology, promptly grasp the latest developments in cutting-edge science and technology, scientifically predict the development trend of science and technology, make full use of technologies such as data mining, comprehensively judge the revolutionary impact of high-tech development on war, take the lead in laying out emerging combat fields, develop a series of high-tech weapons and equipment, accelerate the scientific and technological empowerment of combat effectiveness, and provide a solid material foundation for winning future wars.

Keep a close eye on how to defeat powerful enemies and improve scientific and technological identification. War is a life-and-death confrontation between the enemy and us, and emerging fields are the top priority for the struggle between the two sides. Improving the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is the fundamental strategy to prevent technological raids and avoid technological traps. In order to seize the initiative in war, powerful enemies have always not only used their unique high-tech weapons and equipment to raid their opponents, putting them in a disadvantageous situation of passive attack, but also a more dangerous trick is to carefully set up technical traps and implement strategic deception. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fell into the strategic deception trap of the US “Star Wars Plan”, which accelerated the decline of national strength. To persist in winning against powerful enemies, we must improve the scientific and technological discernment of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, closely follow the technological frontiers of powerful enemies, formulate breakthrough strategies for building strategic capabilities in emerging fields, and maintain a high degree of technical sensitivity and discernment of some so-called new technologies and new concepts promoted by powerful enemies. We must be good at distinguishing the authenticity of technology, weighing the pros and cons of development and the extent of its impact, and persist in developing strategic resources in emerging fields based on national conditions and military conditions, so that the innovative achievements of military science and technology in emerging fields can better empower the decision-making chain, command chain and combat power generation chain.

Mastering the winning strategy improves the understanding of science and technology. The key to building a strong army and winning wars is to master the winning strategy. In the context of the deep coupling of modern science and technology with the military, understanding and mastering science and technology has become a necessary ability to understand, design and win wars. From the perspective of human military history, it is precisely because of the thorough understanding of the principles of aviation technology and space technology that Douhet’s “air supremacy” theory, Graham’s “high frontier” theory and other war theories have been produced. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of new technologies such as human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control of artificial intelligence, it will be impossible to master the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and explore new theories and tactics of intelligent warfare. Technology determines tactics. To win future wars, we must focus on thinking about wars from a scientific and technological perspective, understand the impact of emerging technological developments on wars, learn from the latest achievements in military science and technology innovation of the world’s superpowers, study and explore the internal mechanisms of high-tech in emerging fields supporting modern warfare, explore how to use scientific and technological concepts and thinking to accurately grasp the laws of winning wars, how to use advanced scientific and technological means to strengthen the construction of new-quality combat capabilities, how to design wars based on scientific and technological principles, and how to transform scientific and technological advantages into capability advantages, and use the “key” of scientific and technological thinking to open the “door” to victory.

(three)

Comprehensively improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a long-term, systematic strategic project. We must deeply understand and implement the important instructions of Chairman Xi, take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task, and improve the scientific and technological cognition of officers and soldiers with a high sense of mission, scientific thinking concepts, and effective methods and approaches, so as to lay a solid foundation for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields and realizing high-quality development of our army.

Accelerate the transformation of ideas and concepts. The wise change with the times, and the knowledgeable act according to circumstances. While the emerging military technology is transforming the objective world, it is also profoundly changing people’s subjective world, forming a subversive impact on the traditional war-winning mechanism and way of thinking. The internal requirement is to transform ideas and concepts and enhance scientific and technological cognition. Engels pointed out: “When the wave of technological revolution is surging around… we need newer and braver minds.” Whoever is conservative, conservative, and self-contained will miss precious opportunities, fall into strategic passivity, and even miss an entire era. We must emancipate our minds and update our concepts, actively adapt to the development trend of world military changes today, be sensitive to the innovation of military thinking brought about by the technological revolution, have the courage to change the mindset of mechanized warfare, break the shackles of conservative thinking, firmly establish a new mindset of information-based and intelligent warfare, establish a new concept of strengthening the military and winning victory through science and technology, focus on understanding the new face of war, discovering new characteristics of war, and revealing new laws of war from a scientific and technological perspective, and strive to raise the level of war cognition to a new height.

Cultivate the foundation of scientific and technological literacy. Scientific and technological literacy is the ability to scientifically understand and describe the objective world and the ability to think scientifically. The depth of the foundation of scientific and technological literacy fundamentally determines the level of scientific and technological cognition. If you don’t understand science and technology or your scientific and technological literacy is not high, you will be like looking at flowers in the fog or the moon in the water when it comes to modern warfare, let alone being able to fight and win. To improve the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields and understand the winning mechanism of modern high-tech warfare, the key is to work hard to improve the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers, coordinate the use of advantageous military and civilian scientific and technological resources, vigorously spread the scientific spirit, popularize scientific knowledge, strengthen the study of modern science and technology, especially military science and technology knowledge, and conduct in-depth research on cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology. We must have a deep understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as deep learning, cross-border integration, human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control. We must understand and master the latest scientific and technological achievements, build a multi-dimensional knowledge system with information and intelligent technology as the main body, improve the level of thinking, expand the knowledge structure, and vigorously promote the transformation of the “variable” of scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields into the “energy” of building a strong army and winning wars.

Improve capabilities through practice. A knife needs to be sharpened and a person needs to be trained. To enhance the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, it is necessary not only to nourish the theory to promote the transformation of ideas and concepts, but also to follow the basic law of human cognitive movement of “practice, cognition, re-practice, and re-cognition”, make good use of the actual combat “grindstone” to sharpen the wisdom, and promote the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields to a higher level. We must have the courage to improve quality and capabilities in the practice of strengthening the military with science and technology and strengthening training with science and technology, adhere to learning while doing and learning while doing, focus on our main responsibilities and main business, delve into cutting-edge science and technology based on our posts and combat positions, and improve our scientific and technological acumen, insight, and response speed; enhance our technical understanding of new equipment, new skills, and new tactics, cultivate scientific thinking, master scientific methods, improve our scientific and technological cognition, and cultivate the ideological awareness of strengthening the construction of strategic capabilities in emerging fields from a scientific and technological perspective; keep a close eye on powerful enemies and future battlefields to cultivate a stronger “technological mind”, be familiar with our opponents’ scientific and technological achievements, capabilities, and means, accurately grasp the “hard core” and “soft ribs” of our opponents’ scientific and technological development, adhere to the asymmetric thinking to tailor-make struggle strategies and tactics, and provide strong guarantees for winning this future high-end war and hybrid war.

(Author’s unit: Military Science Academy, Institute of Political Work)

現代國語:

戰爭是物質力量的對抗,更是思想認知力的較量。貫徹落實習主席全面提升新興領域戰略能力的新要求,必須抓住科技認知力這個“牛鼻子”,著眼新一輪科技革命、產業革命和軍事革命加速推進的新態勢,聚焦強軍勝戰加強新興領域戰略性、前沿性、顛覆性技術的研究探索,以對科學技術本質和規律的深刻理解,掌握實現軍隊建設高質量發展,贏得軍事競爭和未來戰爭的主動權,把科技認知力轉化為實實在在的設計戰爭、打贏戰爭能力,在戰略必爭領域跑出加速度、贏得新優勢。

(一)

理解時代才能理解戰爭。在科技革命與軍事革命融合交叉,科技已成為現代戰爭核心戰鬥力的時代背景下,提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,有助於理解和把握現代戰爭的特點規律,更好地駕馭資訊化智能化戰爭,在新領域新賽道實現彎道超車,以科技優勢贏得軍事競爭優勢、贏得未來高科技戰爭。

引領軍事變革搶佔制高點。聰者聽於無聲,明者見於未形。敏銳洞察新興領域科技發展趨勢走向,拓展戰略前沿技術領域認知邊界,才能做到見之於未萌、識之於未發,下好先手棋、打好主動仗,引領軍事領域要素實現革命性轉型發展。在當今時代,以人工智慧為代表的新興科技「井噴式」湧現,引領和推動軍事智慧以前所未有的速度突飛猛進,正在引發軍事領域鍊式突破,撬動戰爭格局發生根本性轉變。科技創新歷來是時間與速度的賽跑,面對新興領域軍事科技發展的強勁勢頭,我們要致力於搶佔先機、贏得優勢,必須準確把握時代科技大勢,勇於站在人類戰爭和科技發展最前沿,在歷史長河和全球視野中把握科技發展演變的基本規律,切實找準軍事科技發展的新目標、新領域、新高地,及時找到軍事科技發展的突破口,勇於向軍事科技創新「無人區」進軍,搶佔軍事技術競爭的戰略制高點,以全新的思維理念引領軍事革命實現新突破新跨越。

引領軍事競爭贏得主動權。認知層次高低最終決定軍事競爭格局。當前,世界軍事競爭前線陣地和實力比拼已經延伸到新興領域,把奪取科技優勢作為謀求軍事優勢的戰略舉措。在技​​術上顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷的激烈較量中,科技認知力已成為決定軍事博弈勝負的關鍵變數。如果科技認知力出現代差,就面臨被對手新技術作戰力量超越的風險。在塑造新質戰鬥力上出現技術鴻溝,就很難「改變競技規則」形成軍事競爭優勢。世界近幾場局部戰爭和武裝沖突表明,誰具有領先對手的新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,用科技為戰鬥力賦能,誰就能掌控戰場態勢,並以此實現勝負手的根本轉換。在日益激烈的世界軍事博弈中,奪取新興領域軍事科技發展主動權,佔據高位瞰的有利位勢,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,因勢而謀,應勢而動,順勢而為,超前佈局、超前謀劃,確保在一些重要領域形成獨特優勢,贏得軍事博弈主動權。

引領強軍勝戰制勝未來戰爭。實踐決定認識,是認識的泉源和動力、目的和歸宿。新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,以推動科技創新和科技運用為實踐指向,根本著眼點是打造新質戰鬥力增長極,主要目的是搶佔戰略競爭制高點,奪取戰爭主動權,最終打贏未來戰爭。當前,新興領域發展呈現全方位多領域縱深推進態勢,科技動態迭代更新頻率加快,鍛造全新殺傷機理的新質戰鬥力,提高國防和軍隊現代化建設的科技含量,必須深刻把握新興領域科技創新發展的關鍵領域,掌握新興領域科技創新發展交叉融合發展新特徵,以打造新質戰鬥力增長極為重點,大力推進自主創新、原始創新,淘汰不適應戰爭形態變化的落後技術,堅持機械化信息化智能化融合發展,提升軍事科技創新力應用力,全面提升新興領域戰略能力,打贏如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標攻堅戰。

(二)

提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,是十分複雜的主觀見之於客觀的理性思維過程。科學準確掌握新興領域科技創新發展的本質屬性與特點規律,做到知其然又知其所以然,應重點提升新興領域戰略能力的科技預知力、鑑別力、理解力三種能力素質,形成相互支撐、相互配合、相互影響的科學認知能力體系,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力提供強大支撐。

瞄準未來戰爭提昇科技預知力。新興領域是未來戰爭的主戰場之一,有些技術一旦取得突破,影響將是顛覆性的,甚至可能從根本上改變戰爭形態和作戰方式,從根本上改變傳統的戰爭攻防格局。科技從來沒有像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊建設和戰爭勝負,如果科技認知力狹隘,對新興領域前沿技術缺乏戰略性預見和預判,就可能看不懂對手、看不懂戰爭,更談不上打贏得未來戰爭。海灣戰爭期間,伊拉克機械化鋼鐵洪流輸給美軍精確制導武器,究其緣由重要的一條是由兩者在新興領域戰略能力科技認知力存在差距造成的。讓思想直達明天的戰場,必須提高科技認知力,緊密跟踪世界先進軍事科技發展方向,及時掌握前沿科技最新動態,科學預測科技發展趨勢,充分運用數據挖掘等技術,綜合研判高科技發展給戰爭帶來的革命性影響,搶先佈局新興作戰領域,研發系列高新技術武器裝備,加速戰鬥力科技賦能,為制勝未來戰爭提供堅實的物質基礎。

緊盯制勝​​強敵提高科技鑑別力。戰爭是敵我雙方的生死對抗,新興領域更是作戰雙方角力的重中之重。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是防止技術突襲和避免技術陷阱的根本之策。為奪取戰爭主動權,強敵向來不僅以獨有的高新技術武器裝備突襲對手,使其陷入被動挨打的不利處境,更危險的招數在於精心設置技術陷阱,實施戰略欺詐。冷戰美蘇爭霸時期,蘇聯就落入美國「星際大戰計畫」的戰略欺騙陷阱,加速了國力衰退。堅持扭住強敵謀打贏,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技鑑別力,要密切跟踪強敵對手科技前沿動態,制定新興領域戰略能力建設突破策略,對強敵宣傳炒作的一些所謂新技術新概念,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和辨識力,要善於甄別技術真偽、權衡發展利弊及其影響程度,堅持從國情軍情出發開發新興領域戰略資源,使新興領域軍事科技創新成果更好地賦能決策鏈、指揮鍊和戰鬥力生成鏈。

掌握制勝之道提昇科技理解力。強軍勝戰關鍵要掌握制勝之道,在現代科技與軍事深度耦合的背景下,認識並掌握科技成為理解戰爭、設計戰爭、打贏戰爭的必備能力。從人類軍事史來看,正是由於對航空技術、太空技術等原理的透徹認知,杜黑的「制空權」理論、葛拉漢的「高邊疆」理論等戰爭理論才得以產生。同樣,當前如果對人工智慧所具有的人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新技術缺乏透徹認知,就無法掌握智能化戰爭制勝機理、探索智能作戰新戰法。技術決定戰術。打贏未來戰爭必須著重從科技角度思考戰爭,理解新興領域科技發展對戰爭帶來的影響,並藉鑑吸收世界強國軍事科技創新最新成果,研究探索新興領域高新科技支撐現代戰爭的內在機理,探討如何以科技理念和思維把準戰爭制勝規律、如何運用先進科技手段加強新質戰鬥力建設、如何依據科技原理設計戰爭、如何將科技優勢轉化為能力優勢,用科技思維的“鑰匙”開啟勝戰“大門” 。

(三)

全面提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是一項長期性、系統性的戰略工程,必須深刻理解貫徹習主席重要指示精神,把提高官兵科技素養作為一項基礎性工作來抓,以高度的使命擔當、科學的思維理念、有效的方法路徑提升官兵科技認知力,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力,實現我軍高質量發展夯實根基。

加快轉變思想觀念。明者因時而變,知者隨事而製。新興領域軍事科技在改造客觀世界的同時,也深刻改變著人們的主觀世界,對傳統的戰爭制勝機理和思維方式形成顛覆性沖擊,內在要求必須轉變思想觀念提昇科技認知力。恩格斯指出:「當科技革命的浪潮正在四周洶湧澎湃的時候……我們需要更新、更勇敢的頭腦。」誰思想保守、因循守舊、固步自封,誰就會錯失寶貴時機,陷於戰略被動,甚至會錯過整整一個時代。我們必須解放思想更新觀念,積極適應當今世界軍事變革的發展趨勢,敏銳感知技術革命帶來的軍事思想革新,勇於改變機械化戰爭的思維定勢,破除守舊守常守成思想束縛,牢固樹立起信息化智能化戰爭新思維,立起科技強軍制勝的新理念,注重從科技角度認識戰爭新面貌、發現戰爭新特點、揭示戰爭新規律,努力把戰爭認知力水平提升到新高度。

涵養科技素養底蘊。科技素養是科學認識和描述客觀世界的能力和科學思維能力,科技素養底蘊的深度,從根本上決定科技認知力高低程度。不懂科技或科技素養不高,對現代戰爭就是霧裡看花、水中觀月,更別說能打仗、打勝仗。提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,理解現代高科技戰爭制勝機理,關鍵要在提高官兵科技素養上下功夫,統籌利用軍地科技優勢資源,大力傳播科學精神、普及科學知識,加強現代科技特別是軍事科技知識的學習,深入研究人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等前沿技術,深刻認識人工智慧深度學習、跨界融合、人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新特點,了解和掌握最新科技成果,構建以資訊化、智慧化技術為主體的多維知識體系,提高思維層次、拓展知識結構,強力推進新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力這個「變量」向強軍勝戰「能量”轉化。

立足實踐提高能力。刀要磨,人要練。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,既需要理論滋養促進思想理念轉型,更要遵循「實踐、認識、再實踐、再認識」的人類認識運動基本規律,用好實戰「磨刀石」砥礪智慧鋒芒,推動新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力向更高一級躍進。要勇於在科技強軍、科技強訓實踐中提質強能,堅持學中乾乾中學,聚焦主責主業、立足崗位戰位鑽研前沿科技,提高科技敏銳度、洞察力和響應速度;增強對新裝備、新技能、新戰法的技術理解,培育科學思維、掌握科學方法,提高科技認知力,培塑從科技視角加強新興領域戰略能力建設的思想意識;緊盯強敵對手和未來戰場練就更強大的“科技頭腦”,熟悉對手的科技成果、科技能力和科技手段,精準把脈對手科技發展的“硬核”和“軟肋”,堅持非對稱思想量身定制鬥爭策略和戰法,為打贏這場未來高端戰爭、混合戰爭提供有力保障。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究院)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/szb_223187/gfbszbxq/index.html?paperName=zggfb&paperDate=2024-06-03&paperNumber=03&articleid=932888

Chinese Military Exploration of Key Points of Intelligent Warfare

中國軍隊對智慧戰爭要點的探索

現代英語音譯:

  ● Accelerating the development of military intelligence is the choice of the times to seize the commanding heights of military strategic competition and win future wars.

  ●The extensive use of smart weapons has become the new protagonist on the battlefield, which will inevitably give rise to new combat styles, profoundly change the traditional combat power generation model, and subvert the traditional combat winning mechanism.

  ● To scientifically advance the development of military intelligence, the top priority is to explore the winning rules of intelligent warfare.

  The report of the 19th CPC National Congress clearly requires the acceleration of the development of military intelligence. At present, major countries in the world regard artificial intelligence as a disruptive technology that “changes the rules of the game” and accelerate the preparation for intelligent warfare. To seize the commanding heights of future military strategic competition and do a good job in intelligent warfare research, the first thing to do is to recognize and grasp the winning rules of intelligent warfare, and provide scientific needs and strong traction for promoting the development of military intelligence. Intelligent warfare is an autonomous warfare supported by a cloud environment. The winning of warfare follows both the general winning mechanism and its own new characteristics and laws.

  Deep understanding of the battlefield

  War activities are extremely complex, but they can generally be divided into two categories: cognitive domain and action domain. War cognition includes perception, understanding, judgment, decision-making, as well as beliefs and values. In cold weapon and hot weapon warfare, cognitive behavior is basically completed by humans. In information warfare, computer technology and network technology have expanded the ability of weapon systems to recognize and understand the battlefield, but have not changed the situation where the war cognitive system lags behind the action system.

  In intelligent warfare, smart weapons of various forms become the protagonists, and their common understanding of the battlefield becomes a prerequisite for the coordinated actions of combat elements and combat units. In wartime, relying on dispersed intelligent reconnaissance and early warning equipment, battlefield situation information can be obtained in real time, and massive information can be intelligently analyzed and processed. The situation information can be uniformly managed in a combat cloud mode, and situation information can be distributed and shared according to authority as needed. A joint battlefield situation map with unified time and space benchmarks and consistent standards and specifications can be constructed to provide a unified background for smart weapons to jointly understand and understand the battlefield situation. Moreover, smart weapons themselves are embedded with massive basic data. In wartime, they can accurately understand the enemy and battlefield conditions by comparing and analyzing the real-time battlefield situation with their own databases.

  The substantial improvement in war cognition has changed the situation where the war cognition system has long lagged behind the action system. It can be said that if we cannot deeply understand the battlefield, we cannot organize and implement intelligent warfare. The party that has an advantage in understanding the battlefield can usually take the initiative on the battlefield.

  Flexible and friendly human-computer interaction

  The organization and implementation of intelligent warfare relies on smart weapons to accurately understand the commander’s intentions and organize actions according to instructions. With the emergence and application of new concept computers such as neural network computers, optical computers, and biological computers, with the support of intelligent technologies such as voice recognition and text and graphic recognition, the human-computer interface of the command information system is highly intelligent, and the art of command and military strategy are deeply integrated into the human-computer interaction system, expert knowledge base system, and weapon intelligent guidance system. The expert system supported by the multidisciplinary knowledge base makes the human-computer exchange interface more convenient, flexible, and effective.

  In wartime, the intelligent human-computer interactive command platform uses key technologies such as intelligent algorithms, big data, and cloud computing to effectively break through the limitations of human analytical capabilities, ensure that commanders can quickly and accurately judge and predict the development of the war situation, and assist commanders in selecting combat plans and making combat decisions. Through friendly human-computer interaction, commands are automatically transmitted to the corresponding command objects, directly controlling the combat actions of smart weapons. Smart weapons understand the commander’s intentions through their own intelligent terminals, and efficiently execute human commands, achieving a good integration of humans and smart weapons.

  Swarm intelligence cross-domain collaboration

  The protagonists of intelligent warfare are smart weapons of various forms. The key to the coordination of combat operations and the effectiveness of the combat system lies in the coordination and linkage between smart weapons. Although today’s unmanned combat systems have a certain degree of intelligence, their coordination still mainly relies on human instructions to organize and implement, and it is difficult to implement self-organized coordination between platforms.

  In the future intelligent warfare, there will be a large number of smart weapons on land, sea, air and space. It is impossible to organize and coordinate efficiently by relying solely on rear personnel. It is necessary to rely on real-time sharing of battlefield situation information between weapon platforms and random self-organization and coordination according to the development and changes of battlefield situation. In order to ensure mutual understanding and linkage between smart weapons, unified combat rules are usually preset on the platform, such as unified rules for attack, maneuver and protection, and unified rules for communication and information distribution and sharing. With the further development of computer software and hardware technology, the expert system knowledge base of smart weapons contains tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of rules. In wartime, with the changes in enemy situation, our situation and battlefield environment, especially the development of enemy and our offensive and defensive actions, different combat scenarios will trigger corresponding combat rules. Smart weapons take corresponding reconnaissance, attack and protection actions according to unified rules to avoid mutual interference or even conflict. At the same time, through a highly accurate time system, a unified time benchmark is established to provide a unified benchmark for the combat operations of smart weapons in different spaces, support the optimization of smart weapons and autonomous coordination, and achieve intelligent group coordination.

  Human control for timely intervention

  Intelligent warfare is not completely autonomous warfare of smart weapons. People are always the planners, organizers and implementers of warfare. The selection of combat objectives and targets is judged and decided by people, and smart weapons carry out various actions based on the commander’s intentions. Because artificial intelligence can only partially think like humans, smart weapons lack human rational judgment and standards of right and wrong. As long as there are problems in the command and control link, it is possible to violate the commander’s intentions or even lose control, leading to a passive situation in the war. Similar incidents happen from time to time. In October 2007, three “Sword” robots of the 3rd Mechanized Infantry Division of the US Army did not replace the software in time. During the mission, one robot actually aimed its gun at the operator. Because it was completely out of control, it had to be destroyed in the end.

  In future intelligent warfare, once the battlefield situation undergoes major changes, or the original combat objectives have been achieved, commanders must timely and accurately intervene in the reconnaissance, attack, and protection operations of smart weapons to ensure that smart weapons are always under human control and are controlled to achieve combat objectives according to the commander’s intentions.

  Distributed Autonomous Action

  Smart weapons are the main body of direct confrontation between the enemy and us, usually far away from the rear commanders and technicians. Moreover, the pace of intelligent warfare has accelerated unprecedentedly. The human brain cannot cope with the ever-changing battlefield situation, and some actions need to be handed over to smart weapons. In wartime, smart weapons embedded with artificial intelligence technology can accurately and continuously track targets in a rapidly changing battlefield environment, autonomously detect, autonomously process battlefield situation information, autonomously identify enemies and friends, and autonomously and flexibly use ammunition loads.

  At the same time, through unified standard protocols and sharing mechanisms, a cloud environment with multi-dimensional coverage, seamless network links, random user access, on-demand extraction of information resources, and flexible and fast organizational guarantees is formed to realize “data warehouse”, “cloud brain” and “digital staff”, providing full coverage of cloud environment support for smart weapons. Smart weapons in different spaces become a node of the information network under the connection of information technology, and are no longer isolated and helpless. Supported by a large system, smart weapons integrate reconnaissance, identification, positioning, control, and attack, and can “kill” in seconds when discovered. During combat, with the development of the battlefield situation and combat needs, smart weapons in different spaces act autonomously. Whoever is suitable, whoever is dominant, whoever is advantageous, whoever launches, dispersed firepower, information power, mobility, and protection power are accurately released at the most appropriate time and the most appropriate place. Focusing on unified combat objectives, a combat power generation link of “situation sharing-synchronous collaboration-focused energy release” is formed to organize combat operations autonomously.

  Remote Focused Technical Support

  Smart weapons rely on high-tech technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks. Their combat effectiveness is inseparable from the stable operation of operating systems and software, as well as technical experts and support personnel in the rear. The organization and implementation of intelligent combat operations will greatly reduce the dependence on traditional support such as materials and transportation, and the focus of support will be on intelligence, knowledge, information, networks, software, etc.

  On the battlefield, the size of troops and weapons has decreased, while the technical support forces such as software design, network control, information resources, and equipment maintenance have increased unprecedentedly. In wartime, remote focused technical support should not only emphasize technical pre-storage and pre-positioning, but also rely on perception and response technology to integrate the perception system, control system, computer and user terminal of the entire battlefield space to form an interconnected and integrated technical support network. In particular, the artificial intelligence technology embedded in smart weapons and rear support facilities can be used to obtain the operating status of smart weapons in real time, discover their technical failures and support needs in a timely manner, update the support plan in real time, and distribute technical support needs to the support units; the rear technical support forces can “consult” the front-end smart weapons through the network to implement remote function recovery and technical information support.

(Editors: Huang Zijuan, Wang Jiquan)

現代國語:

要點提示

●加速軍事智慧化發展,是搶佔軍事戰略競爭制高點、打贏未來戰爭的時代選擇。

●智慧兵器大量運用,成為戰爭舞台的新主角,必然催生新的作戰樣式,深刻改變傳統戰鬥力生成模式,顛覆傳統作戰制勝機理。

●科學推動軍事智慧化發展,當務之急是探究智慧化作戰的致勝法則。

黨的十九大報告明確要求,加速軍事智慧化發展。目前,世界主要國家都把人工智慧視為「改變遊戲規則」的顛覆性技術,加速推動智慧化作戰準備。搶佔未來軍事戰略競爭制高點,抓好智能化作戰研究,首當其衝的是,認清和把握智能化作戰的製勝規律,為推進軍事智能化發展提供科學需求和有力牽引。智慧化作戰是依托雲環境支撐的自主作戰,作戰制勝既遵循一般制勝機理,也有其自身新的特點規律。

深度認識與理解戰場

戰爭活動極為複雜,但整體上可歸為認知域和行動域兩大類。戰爭認知包括感知、理解、判斷、決策,以及信念和價值等。在冷兵器、熱兵器戰爭中,認識行為基本上由人完成,資訊化戰爭中,電腦科技、網路科技拓展了武器系統認知和理解戰場的能力,但沒有改變戰爭認知系統落後於行動系統的狀況。

智能化作戰中,形態各異的智慧兵器成為主角,其對戰場的共同認識與理解,成為作戰要素、作戰單元協同行動的前提條件。戰時,依托分散部署的智能化偵察預警設備,實時獲取戰場態勢信息,並對海量信息進行智能化分析、處理,採取作戰雲模式對態勢信息進行統一管理,按需按權限分發共享態勢信息,建構時空基準統一、標準規範一致的聯合戰場態勢圖,為智慧兵器共同認識、理解戰場態勢提供統一的背景。而且,智慧兵器本身嵌入了海量基礎數據,戰時,其可透過即時戰場態勢與自身資料庫的比對、分析,實現對敵情、戰場情況的準確認知。

戰爭認知能力的大幅躍升,改變了戰爭認知系統長期落後於行動系統的狀態。可以說,不能深度認識和理解戰場,就不能組織實施智能化作戰。在認識和理解戰場上具有優勢的一方,通常能掌握戰場主動權。

靈活友善的人機交互

智能化作戰的組織實施,依靠智慧兵器準確領會指揮員的意圖,依照指令組織行動。隨著神經網路電腦、光電腦、生物電腦等新概念電腦的出現和運用,在語音識別和文字、圖形識別等智慧技術的支援下,指揮資訊系統人機介面高度智慧化,指揮藝術和軍事謀略深度融入人機互動系統、專家知識庫系統和武器智慧導引系統中,多學科知識庫所支援的專家系統使人機交換介面更為方便、靈活和有效。

戰時,智慧化人機互動式指揮平台,綜合運用智慧演算法、大數據、雲端運算等關鍵技術,有效突破人類分析能力的局限性,確保指揮者快速、準確地判斷和預測戰局發展,輔助指揮員備選作戰方案,定下作戰決心。透過友善的人機交互,指令自動傳遞到相應的指揮對象,直接控制智慧兵器的作戰行動,智慧兵器通過自身的智能終端,領會指揮員的意圖,高效地執行人的命令,實現人與智慧兵器的良好融合。

群體智慧跨域協同

智能化作戰的主角是形態各異的智慧兵器,作戰行動協同以及作戰體系效能發揮,關鍵在於智慧兵器之間的協同與連動。今天的無人作戰系統雖然具備一定的智能,但其協同也主要依靠人的指令組織實施,平台之間很難實施自組織協同。

未來智慧化作戰,陸、海、空、天智慧兵器雲集,數量規模龐大,完全依靠後方人員不可能高效組織協同,必須依靠武器平台之間實時共享戰場態勢信息,根據戰場態勢發展變化隨機自組織協同。為確保智慧兵器互相理解和連動,平台上通常預置有統一的作戰規則,例如打擊、機動、防護有統一的規則,通訊、資訊分發共享也有統一規則。隨著電腦軟體和硬體技術的進一步發展,智慧兵器的專家系統知識庫含有數萬條乃至幾十萬條的規則,戰時,隨著敵情、我情和戰場環境變化,特別是敵我攻防行動的發展,不同作戰場景會觸發對應作戰規則。智慧兵器依照統一規則,採取相應的偵察、打擊和防護等行動,避免相互之間的互擾甚至衝突。同時,透過高度精準的時統系統,建立統一的時間基準,為不同空間智慧兵器的作戰行動提供統一的基準,支撐智慧兵器優化自主協同,達成群體協同的智慧化。

適時介入的人力控制

智能化作戰並非智慧兵器的完全自主作戰,人始終是作戰的籌劃者、組織者和實施者。作戰目的和目標的選擇,都由人來判斷和決策,智慧兵器圍繞著指揮意圖實施各種行動。因為,人工智慧只能部分像人類那樣思考,智慧兵器缺乏人的理性判斷和是非標準,只要指揮控制環節出現問題,就有可能違背指揮官意圖,甚至失控,導致戰局的被動。類似事件,當前就時有發生。 2007年10月,美軍第三機步師的3台「利劍」機器人,由於沒有及時更換軟體,執行任務中1台機器人竟把槍口瞄準操作員,因完全失去控制,最後只能將其摧毀。

未來智能化作戰,一旦戰場態勢發生重大變化,或者原有的作戰目的已經達成,指揮員必須適時精準幹預智慧兵器的偵察、攻擊和防護行動,保證智慧兵器始終不能脫離人的控制,駕馭其按指揮者意圖實現作戰目的。

分散式自主行動

智慧兵器是敵我直接交鋒的主體,通常遠離後方指揮員和技術人員,而且,智能化作戰節奏空前加快,人腦無法應對瞬息萬變的戰場態勢,需要把部分行動權交給智慧兵器。戰時,嵌入人工智慧技術的智慧兵器,可在瞬息萬變的戰場環境中準確、連續地追蹤目標,自主探測,自主處理戰場態勢訊息,自主辨識敵我,自主靈活採用彈藥載荷。

同時,透過統一的標準協定、共享機制,形成多維覆蓋、網路無縫連結、使用者隨機存取、資訊資源按需提取、組織保障靈活快速的雲端環境,實現「資料倉儲」「雲端大腦」 “數位參謀”,為智慧兵器提供全覆蓋的雲環境支撐。不同空間的智慧兵器在資訊科技的連結下成為資訊網路的一個節點,不再孤立無援。在大體系支撐下,智慧兵器集偵察、辨識、定位、控制、攻擊於一身,發現就能「秒殺」。作戰過程中,隨著戰場態勢的發展及作戰需要,處於不同空間的智慧兵器自主行動,誰合適、誰主導,誰有利、誰發射,分散的火力、資訊力、機動力、防護力,在最恰當的時間、最恰當的地點精確釋放。圍繞統一作戰目標,形成「態勢共享-同步協作-聚焦釋能」的戰鬥力產生鏈路,自主組織作戰行動。

遠距聚焦式技術保障

智慧兵器依託於人工智慧、資訊網路等高新技術,其作戰效能發揮,離不開操作系統、軟體等的穩定運行,離不開後方技術專家及保障人員。智慧化作戰行動的組織實施,對物資、交通等傳統保障的依賴大幅降低,保障的重點將向智力、知識、資訊、網路、軟體等方面傾斜。

戰場上,兵力兵器規模減小,而軟體設計、網路控制、資訊資源、裝備維修等技術保障力量空前增加。戰時,遠程聚焦式技術保障,不僅要突出技術預儲預置,還要依托感知與反應技術,將整個戰場空間的感知系統、控制系統、電腦和用戶終端聯為一體,構成互聯互通、一體化的技術保障網絡。特別是利用嵌入在智慧兵器和後方保障設施中的人工智慧技術,即時取得智慧兵器的運作狀態,及時發現其技術故障和保障需求,即時更新保障方案,向保障單位分發技術保障需求;後方技術保障力量,透過網路對前端智慧兵器進行“會診”,實施遠端功能恢復及技術資訊支援。

(編按:黃子娟、王吉全)

中國軍事原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0329/c1011-29896888.html

Chinese Military Views of Intelligent Warfare from a Multidimensional Perspective

多維視角下的中國軍隊智慧戰爭觀

現代英文音譯:

Intelligent warfare is an advanced stage in the development of human warfare. The increasing maturity of artificial intelligence technology is driving human society from an information society to an intelligent society, and intelligent warfare has emerged. In comparison, mechanized warfare enhances the functions of “hands and feet” based on mass-energy exchange, information warfare enhances the functions of “ears and eyes” based on electromagnetic induction, and intelligent warfare extends and develops the functions of “brain” based on brain-computer interaction, which will also be presented to the world in a brand new style.

Intelligent warfare involves both military affairs and mixed games in the fields of economy, diplomacy, public opinion, culture, etc. In the military field, intelligent warfare has gradually overturned the traditional form, presenting the characteristics of algorithmic combat command, unmanned combat forces, and diversified combat styles with the core of seizing “intelligence control”. However, at the war level, the scope of intelligent warfare has been further expanded, and the violence of war has been greatly reduced. The war process is the process of using intelligent algorithms to gradually replace the competitive games in various fields of human beings and gain advantages. On the one hand, the competitive games in various fields of national security gradually realize the auxiliary decision-making of artificial intelligence. Intelligent political warfare, diplomatic warfare, legal warfare, public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, financial warfare, and even more resource warfare, energy warfare, ecological warfare, etc. with intelligent characteristics will gradually step onto the stage of human warfare. For example, once artificial intelligence technology is applied to the financial field, the subsequent intelligent financial game will appear on the list of intelligent warfare. On the other hand, the advanced stage of information warfare has already presented the form of hybrid warfare. The military boundaries of war have been broken, and the hybrid nature will become increasingly prominent, becoming a kind of all-domain linkage confrontation involving national security. With the assistance of intelligent systems, one of the two hostile parties can easily create and use “accidental” events in the opponent’s society, triggering the “butterfly effect” in various fields such as ideology, diplomacy, economy, culture and technology, and then use intelligent military means when necessary to accelerate the process of destroying the enemy country. The high complexity of the future hybrid warfare environment, the strong confrontation of the game, the incompleteness of information and the uncertainty of boundaries provide a broader space for the application of artificial intelligence technology.

Virtual space has become an important battlefield in intelligent warfare, and the proportion of violent confrontation in physical space has declined. Intelligent warfare is carried out in the entire domain around the competition for intelligence advantage. Intelligence, as an abstract concept, mainly exists in the cognitive space of the human brain and computer chips. Whoever can win the intelligence advantage in virtual space can win the intelligent warfare. This advantage can surpass and subvert the information and energy advantages in traditional information and mechanized warfare. Some people even compare it to “in the face of intelligent warfare, information warfare is like a group of clumsy earthworms facing intelligent humans, and they will definitely lose.” This is just like what Comrade Mao Zedong once said about turning enemy commanders into “blind, deaf, and crazy people.” To win the intelligent war, we must turn our opponents into “fools.” It is not difficult to predict that with the trend of the increasing prosperity of human virtual space in the future, the intelligent confrontation in virtual space will determine the outcome of intelligent warfare to a certain extent. For example, the virtual war with intelligent characteristics carried out by the enemy and us in the metaverse can even partially replace the violent and bloody war in the physical space, and the results of virtual combat can also be used as the basis for judging victory or defeat. The intelligent warfare system can “learn without a teacher”, “play against itself” and “learn by itself” in the metaverse, becoming a “strategist” and “good general” for people to conquer the virtual cognitive space.

The victory or defeat of intelligent warfare depends on the active shaping and full control of potential fighters, and the collapse of the combat process can even be ignored. Intelligent warfare is an opportunistic game between the intelligent systems of both sides in the process of dynamic evolution. Both sides are constantly analyzing and looking for each other’s weak links. Once a fighter appears, they will not give the opponent any chance to turn the tables. Controlling the fighter means winning, and the moment the fighter appears is the decisive moment for both sides. This is just like the battle between martial arts masters. The victory or defeat is often only a moment. The local defeat caused by the instantaneous confrontation may be seized by the opponent to drive the overall situation into a passive state, which will lead to a complete loss. Therefore, both sides of the intelligent war are doing two things around the fighter: one is to actively evolve a more complete war system to avoid omissions and mistakes, especially in order to prevent the opponent from discovering potential fighters, and even not to take the initiative to reveal flaws and use static braking. For example, artificial intelligence reinforcement learning can be used to repeatedly conduct virtual confrontations based on basic combat game rules, automatically generate war experience and lessons, self-innovate and optimize and upgrade its own security defense system; second, do everything possible to recognize and identify the weaknesses of the opponent’s system, find the immediate advantage window of war, so as to expand local advantages and create opportunities. In particular, in order to tap into potential opportunities, they will even actively shape the situation and induce the opponent to enter an unfavorable situation or process. For example, with the help of intelligent war games “fighting left and right, confrontation evolution”, “future fighters” can be discovered in virtual wars, so as to simultaneously guide the current physical space combat preparations. Therefore, the process of intelligent warfare is shorter. If the informationized war is planned before action, then the process of intelligent warfare is planned before victory. The hostile parties have long-term games in the high-dimensional strategic cognitive domain around the appearance of fighters. After the fighters appear and the victory is deduced, they immediately enter the low-dimensional tangible space physical domain to implement joint operations. The time process of the war shows the characteristics of long preparation time and short combat time.

現代國語(繁體):

智慧化戰爭是人類戰爭形態發展的高階階段。人工智慧技術的日益成熟,正推動人類社會由資訊化社會逐步進入智慧化社會,智慧化戰爭隨之產生。相比較而言,機械化戰爭基於質能互換增強了「手足」功能,資訊化戰爭基於電磁感應提升了「耳目」功能,智能化戰爭基於腦機交互延伸發展了「大腦」功能,也將以全新的樣式呈現在世人眼前。

智慧化戰爭既涉及軍事,也更體現在經濟、外交、輿論、文化等領域的混合賽局。在軍事領域中,智慧化作戰已逐步顛覆了傳統形態,呈現出以奪取「制智權」為核心的作戰指揮演算法化、作戰力量無人、作戰樣式多樣化等特質。但在戰爭層面,智慧化戰爭的領域更拓展,戰爭的暴力性大幅降低,戰爭過程就是運用智慧演算法逐步取代人類各領域的競爭賽局並贏得優勢的過程。一方面,國家安全各領域中的競爭博弈逐步實現人工智慧的輔助決策,智慧化政治戰、外交戰、法律戰、輿論戰、心理戰、金融戰,甚至更多具有智慧化特徵的資源戰、能源戰、生態戰等,都將逐步邁上人類戰爭的舞台。例如,人工智慧技術一經運用於金融領域當中,隨之而來的智慧化金融博弈就將出現在智慧化戰爭的清單之上。另一方面,資訊化戰爭的高級階段已經呈現了混合戰爭的形態,戰爭的軍事界限被打破,混合性將日益凸顯,成為一種涉及國家安全的全領域聯動對抗。在智慧化系統的輔助決策下,敵對雙方中的一方很容易製造和利用對手社會“偶發”事件,在意識形態、外交經濟、文化科技等各個領域觸發“蝴蝶效應”,必要時再藉助智能化軍事手段,以加速敵國毀癱進程。未來混合戰爭環境的高複雜性、博弈的強對抗性、資訊的不完整性和邊界的不確定性等特點,為人工智慧技術的應用提供了更廣闊空間。

虛擬空間成為智慧化戰爭的重要戰場,實體空間的暴力對抗比例下降。智能化戰爭圍繞著智能優勢的爭奪而在全局展開,作為抽象概念的智能,則主要存在於人類大腦和電腦晶片的認知空間中。誰能在虛擬空間中贏得智慧優勢,誰就能取得智慧化戰爭的勝勢。這種優勢可以超越並顛覆傳統資訊化、機械化戰爭中資訊與能量的優勢,甚至有人將其比喻為「在智慧化戰爭面前,資訊化戰爭就像一群笨拙的蚯蚓面對智慧的人類一樣必敗無疑」。這就如同毛澤東同誌曾談到的我們要將敵方指揮官變成「瞎子、聾子、瘋子」一樣,打贏智能化戰爭就要把對手變成「傻子」。不難預測,在未來人類虛擬空間日漸繁盛的趨勢下,虛擬空間的智慧對抗將一定程度上決定智慧化戰爭勝負。例如,敵我雙方在元宇宙當中進行帶有智慧化特徵的虛擬戰爭,甚至可以部分取代實體空間的暴力和流血戰爭,虛擬交戰成果也可以作為勝負的判定依據。而智慧化戰爭系統可以“無師自通”,在元宇宙中“自我對弈”“自學成才”,成為人們征服虛擬認知空間的“謀臣”“良將”。

智慧化戰爭的勝負取決於對潛在戰機的主動塑造和充分把控,作戰進程坍縮甚至可以忽略不計。智慧化戰爭是雙方智慧化體系在動態演化過程中的伺機博弈,雙方都在時刻分析並尋找對方的弱點,一旦出現戰機將不會給對手任何翻盤的機會。把控戰機即獲勝,戰機出現之時即雙方決勝時刻。這就如同武俠高手間過招,勝負往往只在一瞬之間,瞬間的爭鋒所產生的局部失利,就有可能被對手抓住機會帶動全局落入被動,進而導致滿盤皆輸。因此,智慧化戰爭雙方都在圍繞戰機做好兩方面工作:一是積極進化出更加完整的戰爭體系,避免出現缺漏與過失,尤其是為了不讓對手發現潛在戰機,甚至不會主動出招露出破綻而以靜制動。例如,可運用人工智慧的強化學習,反覆進行基於基本交戰博弈規則的虛擬對抗,自動產生戰爭經驗教訓,自我創新並優化升級自身安全防禦體系;二是千方百計地認知與識別對手體系弱點,找到戰爭的即時優勢窗口,以此擴大局部優勢並創造戰機。尤其是為了挖掘潛在戰機,甚至會積極主動塑局並誘導對手進入不利情況或進程。例如,可藉助智能化兵棋“左右互搏、對抗演化”,在虛擬戰爭中發現“未來戰機”,以此同步指導當下實體空間作戰準備。因此,智慧化作戰的進程更加短暫,如果說資訊化戰爭是謀定而後動的話,那麼智慧化戰爭的進程則是謀勝而後定。敵對雙方圍繞戰機的出現,在高維的謀略認知域長期博弈,待戰機出現並推演決勝後,隨即就進入低維有形空間物理域實施聯動作戰,戰爭時間進程呈現準備時間長而作戰時間短的特點。

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-07/07/content_319888.htm

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Analysis of How Their Military Implements Strategic & Tactical Warfare

中國人民解放軍分析軍隊如何執行戰略戰術戰

現代漢語音譯:

To implement the general principle of “the CMC is in overall control, the theater commands are responsible for combat, and the services are responsible for construction,” the services need to accurately grasp the interaction between combat and construction, strengthen coordination with the theater commands, and form a work pattern with clear rights and responsibilities, positive interaction, smooth and efficient operations. They should focus their main tasks, main responsibilities, and main energy on building and managing the troops. They should always adhere to the principles of leading construction in accordance with combat, building for combat, managing for combat, and using construction to promote combat, comprehensively improve the level of practical military training, and provide theater commands with high-quality combat forces.

Get the coordinates of building for war

The coordinates are the direction of the times for building for war. Only when the direction is clear can the construction be accelerated according to the track. Entering the new era, the firepower intensity, mobility speed, strike accuracy and intelligence level of weapons and equipment have greatly increased, the battlefield space has been continuously expanded, the coupling of combat operations has become closer, and the battlefield situation has changed more rapidly. Wars have gradually shown the characteristics of platform combat, system support, tactical operations, and strategic guarantees. In particular, the use of intelligent, stealth, and unmanned combat, as well as aerospace forces, new concept weapons, and highly effective destructive ammunition have fundamentally changed the concept of war time and space. The war form has accelerated the evolution from mechanized informationization to informationization and intelligence, and intelligent warfare has begun to emerge. The main construction of the military service should be the combat effectiveness of informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, rather than the combat effectiveness of mechanized warfare. The military service should focus on informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, turn its attention to intelligent military transformation, fully imagine the future war form, scale, intensity, spatial region, etc., and use concepts that transcend the times to lead the construction vision forward and forward; it is necessary to deeply study the victory mechanism, scientifically judge, and build what kind of troops are needed to win future wars, so as to be targeted.

Find the right target for construction

The target is not only a beacon of construction and development, but also a scale to test combat effectiveness. Only by setting up the correct target can the military build for war and guide the innovation and development of weapons and equipment, system organization and combat theory without deformation or distortion. The military builds for war, and the enemy is not an ordinary opponent, but a strong enemy in the world military game. This requires the military to build for war, and it must lock on the strong enemy, insist on focusing all its attention on defeating the strong enemy, and work hard to defeat the strong enemy. Closely aiming at the world’s first-class standards, the focus should be on firmly grasping the characteristics of future combat systems and system confrontations, exploring standardized and modular construction issues, and forming an integrated and linked system combat capability; focusing on the requirements of all-domain operations, focusing on tackling realistic issues such as rapid response, long-range delivery, and integrated support, and building a strong rapid and mobile cross-domain action capability. We must seize the key of balancing strong enemies, strengthen targeted research on strong enemies, focus on building what the enemy fears, and develop more things that can balance strong enemies. We must strive to have a chance of winning in battles, bargaining chips in negotiations, and confidence in deterrence. We must focus on solving bottleneck problems such as the construction of new forces of the military, the use of high-tech equipment, and information and intelligent integration, and comprehensively build a world-class military.

Innovation and construction as the forerunner of the war

Theory is the forerunner of practice, and scientific military theory is combat effectiveness. Whoever can grasp the pulse of future war development and possess superb war design capabilities will win the initiative in war and even the final victory. The military should build for war, and it cannot just go wherever it wants. It should put research and construction in a strategic position, carry out forward-looking, targeted, and reserve innovative research, propose new concepts, find new breakthroughs, and form innovative theories that are contemporary, leading, and unique. The military should build for war, and it must focus on the current practice and future development of war, clarify the vertical evolution axis, focus on shaping the future battlefield and changing the research of future combat rules, and promote the reshaping of concepts and the reconstruction of systems as soon as possible; focus on cutting-edge technology and future intelligent war design, and make great efforts to achieve major breakthroughs in new technologies and new forms of war; focus on continuously promoting the development of new concepts such as combat thinking, action style, and capability requirements, and form forward-looking thinking on future combat operations. At the same time, the new theories and concepts should be systematized and concretized, and become a “roadmap” for planning and designing the construction of force systems, the development of weapons and equipment, the transformation of military training, and the training of combat talents. It is necessary to form a closed loop from practice to theory and then from theory to practice, allow military theoretical research to draw rich nutrients from practice, allow advanced and mature theoretical results to enter the military decision-making and practical links, and achieve a virtuous interaction between theory and practice.

Build a hard core of construction for war

Science and technology are the most revolutionary force. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race against time and speed. If you don’t work hard to innovate, you will fall behind and be beaten. If you innovate slowly, you will also fall behind and be beaten. Today, scientific and technological innovation has become the core strategy for many countries and militaries to seek advantages. The military must pay close attention to the leading role of science and technology in building for war. By integrating the most cutting-edge and even imagined future science and technology into the overall construction plan, it will lead the basic direction of construction and development, and actively explore the scientific and technological innovation path of using the future army to fight a future war with the future enemy; it must implement the strategy of strengthening the military with science and technology, demand combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, vigorously cultivate new scientific and technological growth points, and strive to increase the contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to the development of the combat effectiveness of the military; it must face the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the main battlefields of the future, and the major needs of combat, accelerate the pace of innovation, and plan and demonstrate that one item must be launched, especially to let disruptive technology run ahead, strive to run faster, and win new advantages. Obviously, talent is the key to building a hard core for war. Talent is the most difficult preparation. Whoever has more high-quality new military talents will be able to gain or gain more winning opportunities on the battlefield in the future. We must accurately grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the requirements for military transformation and construction, so as to train the talents needed for war and prioritize the talents that are most in short supply, so that the supply side of talent training can be accurately matched with the demand side of future battlefields.

Laying a solid foundation for building for war

Fighting is hard-hitting, while training is practical. The root of “war” lies in “construction”, and the foundation of “construction” lies in “training”. Military training, as the regular and central work of the troops, is not only the basic way to generate and improve combat effectiveness, but also the most direct preparation for military struggle. In the new era, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence, the mission and tasks of the army are constantly expanding, the level of informationization and intelligence of weapons and equipment is gradually improving, and the conditions for training support are gradually improving. It is urgent for the services to comprehensively upgrade their combat capabilities from considering the interaction of multiple fields such as the form of war, combat methods, weapons and equipment, and personnel quality, to analyzing the influence of many factors such as known and unknown, possible and impossible, and possible and impossible. To build for war, we must focus on training against strong enemies, practice reconnaissance, coordination, equipment, and support around the progress of the real enemy situation, practice strong force deployment, practice fast battlefield construction, practice real equipment data, and practice strong support support; we must aim at the latest enemy situation in multiple fields such as land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, and carry out real, difficult, strict, and practical full-element training in the re-enactment of the scene, “fight” with strong enemies, and let the troops hone their skills and strengthen their strength in the real confrontation; we must pursue extreme training, constantly impact the limits of people and equipment, so that the physiological and psychological limits of officers and soldiers, the performance limits of equipment, and the combat effectiveness limits of the combination of people and weapons can be fully exerted. Only by using “forced to the extreme, difficult to the extreme” training to present all shortcomings and weaknesses and overcome them can we cope with the most brutal battlefield. Some tactics and methods trained beyond the limit are often the key move and fatal blow to defeat the enemy in actual combat.

Do a good job in coupling construction with combat

The fundamental purpose of war and construction is to be able to fight and win. We must accelerate the realization of functional coupling under the new system and work together to accelerate the generation of combat effectiveness. To build an army that adapts to future combat needs is to build troops that can complete future combat tasks and have corresponding combat capabilities. Combat requirements are the specific embodiment of such task requirements and capabilities. Construction for war should be based on the needs of fulfilling missions and tasks, and should be designed in advance for future combat military needs. Military needs should be used to guide various military constructions, and combat needs should be continuously refined and dynamically adjusted to promote the coupling of war and construction. By strengthening the demonstration and research of future combat needs and making good top-level planning, we can grasp the direction and focus of military construction in general, consider the comprehensive development of military weapons and equipment and personnel quality from a strategic height and long-term development, clarify the focus, insist on doing what we should do and not doing what we should not do, concentrate on developing strategic and key projects, give priority to emergency operations, correctly handle the primary and secondary, urgent and slow, light and heavy aspects of military construction, firmly grasp the main and key aspects, and promote coordinated and coordinated military construction, scientific and reasonable, standardized and orderly, and sustainable development. Scientific combat effectiveness assessment can not only scientifically and specifically understand the composition and strength of one’s own combat effectiveness, but also help to take targeted measures to promote the coupling of construction and combat, timely discover and correct deficiencies in construction, truly realize the scientific development, intensive and efficient development of the army, and promote combat effectiveness construction to a higher level.

Strictly grasp the test of building for war

Whether a unit is well built and has the ability to win a battle must ultimately be tested through military practice. After a comprehensive test of military practice, problems in unit construction will inevitably be exposed, thereby promoting the army to make corresponding adjustments in the content, focus and direction of construction. Through repeated tests of military practice, new requirements and new goals are constantly put forward for unit construction, thereby leading the development of unit construction to a higher stage. Make good use of network simulation confrontation test. The informatization and intelligence of network simulation confrontation make the cognition, decision-making, feedback, correction, and action of simulation confrontation more close to actual combat, revolutionize the process of military activities, and then have a positive effect on weapons and equipment, command and control, force organization and other fields, thereby promoting the continuous leap in the combat effectiveness of the troops, and even giving birth to new war styles and changing the mechanism of winning wars. Make good use of on-site live-fire exercises. As a pre-practice of future wars, live-fire exercises can not only effectively test the actual combat capabilities of the troops, but more importantly, they can discover some weak links in the construction of the troops, optimize and improve them in a targeted manner, and obtain the maximum combat effectiveness return. Make good use of war practice tests. The leading role of war practice in unit construction is irreplaceable. The harsh practice of war can truly test which troop construction is suitable and which is unsuitable for future wars, and then correct deviations and mistakes in many aspects such as construction guidance, construction focus, and construction methods, so as to prepare for winning the next war.

現代國語軍語:

貫徹「軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建」總原則,軍種部隊需要準確掌握戰與建互動規律,加強同戰區對接,形成權責清晰、正向互動、順暢高效的工作格局,把主要任務、主要職責、主要精力放在建設、管理部隊上,始終堅持以戰領建、抓建為戰、抓管為戰、以建促戰,全面提高軍事訓練實戰化水平,為戰區提供優質作戰力量。

把準抓建為戰的座標

座標是抓建為戰的時代方位,只有方位明晰,建設才能依軌加速。進入新時代,武器裝備的火力強度、機動速度、打擊精度、智能化程度大幅躍升,戰場空間不斷拓展,作戰行動耦合更加緊密,戰場態勢變換更加迅速,戰爭逐漸呈現出平台作戰、體系支撐,戰術行動、戰略保障等特點,特別是智能化、隱身化、無人化作戰以及空天力量、新概念武器、高效毀傷彈藥的運用,從根本上改變了戰爭時空概念,戰爭形態加速由機械化信息化朝向資訊化智能化演變,智能化戰爭初見端倪。軍種主建,建的應是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的戰鬥力,而不是機械化戰爭的戰鬥力。軍種抓建為戰,必須聚焦具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭,把目光投向智慧化軍事變革,充分設想未來戰爭形態、規模、強度、空間地域等,用超越時代的理念,引領建設視野向前再向前;必須深研製勝機理,科學研判,打贏未來戰爭需要什麼部隊就建設什麼部隊,做到有的放矢。

找準抓建為戰的靶標

標靶既是建設發展的燈塔,也是檢驗戰鬥力的天秤。只有樹立正確靶標,軍種抓建為戰才能有的放矢,不變形、不走樣地牽引武器裝備、體制編制和作戰理論創新發展。軍種抓建為戰,戰的不是一般對手,而是世界軍事賽場上的強敵。這就要求軍種抓建為戰,必然要鎖定強敵,堅持全部心思向打敗強敵聚焦、各項工作向戰勝強敵用勁。緊緊瞄準世界級標準,重點要牢牢把握未來作戰體系與體系對抗的特徵,探索標準化、模組化建設問題,形成一體聯動的體係作戰能力;圍繞全局作戰要求,聚力攻關快速反應、遠程投送、融合保障等現實課題,建強快速機動跨域行動能力。抓住制衡強敵這個關鍵,加強對強敵的針對性研究,堅持敵人怕什麼就重點建什麼,發展什麼能製衡強敵就多備幾手,力求做到戰有勝算、談有籌碼、懾有底氣,著力解決軍種新型力量建設、高新裝備運用、資訊智慧整合等瓶頸問題,全面建成世界一流軍隊。

創新抓建為戰的先導

理論是實踐的先導​​,科學的軍事理論就是戰鬥力。誰能把準未來戰爭的發展脈動、擁有高超的戰爭設計能力,誰就能贏得戰爭的主動權甚至最後的勝利。軍種抓建為戰,不能走到哪算哪,要把研戰謀建擺在戰略位置,開展前瞻性、針對性、儲備性創新研究,提出新概念、尋找新突破,形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的創新理論。軍種抓建為戰,必須著眼戰爭當前實踐和未來發展,理清縱向演進軸線,把重點放在塑造未來戰場、改變未來作戰規則研究上,盡快推動觀念重塑、體系重構;放在聚焦前沿科技領域、未來智慧化戰爭設計上,下氣力在戰爭新技術、新形態方面實現重大突破;放在持續推進作戰思想、行動樣式、能力需求等新概念的開發上,形成對未來作戰行動的前瞻性思考。同時把新理論新概念體系化、具體化,成為規劃設計力量體系建構、武器裝備發展、軍事訓練轉變、作戰人才培育的「路線圖」。要形成從實踐到理論、再從理論到實踐的閉環迴路,讓軍事理論研究從實踐中汲取豐厚養分,讓先進成熟的理論成果進入軍事決策和實踐環節,實現理論和實踐良性互動。

打造抓建為戰的硬核

科技是最具革命性的力量。科技創新歷來是與時間和速度的賽跑。不努力創新就會落後挨打,創新速度慢了也同樣會落後挨打。今天,科技創新已成為許多國家和軍隊尋求優勢的核心策略。軍種抓建為戰,必須高度關注科技引領作用的發揮,透過把當前最前沿甚至是設想中的未來科學技術融入建設整體規劃之中,引領建設發展的基本方向,積極探索用未來的我軍與未來的敵人打一場未來戰爭的科技創新路徑;必須落實科技強軍戰略,向科技創新要戰鬥力,大力培育新的科技增長點,著力提高科技創新對軍種戰鬥力發展的貢獻率;必鬚麵向世界科技前沿、面向未來主要戰場、面向作戰重大需求,加快創新速度,規劃論證好一項就要上馬一項,特別是要讓顛覆性技術跑在前面,力爭跑出加速度,贏得新優勢。顯然,打造抓建為戰的硬核,人才是關鍵。人才是最艱鉅的準備,誰擁有更多高素質新型軍事人才,誰就能在未來戰場上提早獲得或多獲得一些致勝先機。要準確掌握現代戰爭特徵規律和軍種轉型建設要求,做到打仗需要什麼人才就培養什麼人才、什麼人才最緊缺就優先鍛造什麼人才,使人才培養供給側同未來戰場需求側精準對接。

夯實抓建為戰的根基

打仗硬碰硬,訓練實打實。 「戰」的根本在於「建」,「建」的基礎在於「練」。軍事訓練作為部隊的經常性中心工作,既是產生和提高戰鬥力的基本途徑,也是最直接的軍事鬥爭準備。新時代,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化發展,軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,武器裝備資訊化智能化水準逐步提高,訓練保障條件逐步改善,迫切需要軍種部隊從考慮戰爭形態、作戰方法、武器裝備、人員素質等多個領域的相互作用,到分析已知與未知、可能與不可能、可為與不可為等諸多因素的影響,全面升級實戰能力。抓建為戰,必須聚焦強敵練兵,圍繞真實敵情的進展,練偵察、練協同、練裝備、練保障,練實力量布勢、練快戰場建設、練真裝備數據、練強保障支撐;必須瞄準陸海空及太空、網路空間等多領域最新敵情,在情景重現中開展真、難、嚴、實的全要素訓練,與強敵“過招”,讓部隊在真刀真槍對抗中礪功、強實力;必須追求極限訓練,不斷向人和裝備極限衝擊,使官兵的生理心理極限、裝備的性能極限、人與武器結合的戰鬥力極限全面迸發。唯有用「逼到絕境、難到極致」的訓練呈現所有短板弱項,並加以克服,才能應付最殘酷的戰場。一些超越極限訓出的戰術戰法,往往是實戰中勝敵的關鍵一招、致命一擊。

搞好抓建為戰的耦合

戰與建,根本目的都是為了能打仗、打勝仗,必須在新體制下加快實現功能耦合,為加速戰鬥力生成共同發力。建構適應未來作戰需求的軍隊,說到底是建設能完成未來作戰任務、具備相應作戰能力的部隊,作戰需求就是這種任務需求和能力的具體展現。抓建為戰應根據履行使命任務需要,針對未來作戰軍事需求超前設計,以軍事需求牽引軍隊各項建設,不斷細化和動態化調整作戰需求促進戰建耦合。透過加強未來作戰需求論證研究搞好頂層規劃,從整體上把握軍隊建設的方向和重點,從戰略高度和長遠發展考慮軍隊武器裝備、人員素質的全面發展,明確重點,堅持有所為有所不為,集中力量發展戰略性、關鍵性項目,優先保障應急作戰,正確處理軍隊建設的主與次、急與緩、輕與重,緊緊抓住主要的、關鍵的,推動軍隊建設協調配套,科學合理,規範有序,持續發展。科學的戰鬥力評估不僅能夠科學具體地認識己方戰鬥力的組成及其強弱,還有利於採取針對性措施促進抓建為戰的耦合,及時發現並糾正建設中的不足,真正實現軍隊建設的科學發展、集約高效,促進戰鬥力建設上台階。

嚴格抓建為戰的檢驗

一支部隊建設得好不好,是不是已經具備打勝仗的能力,最終還是要透過軍事實踐來檢驗。經過軍事實踐的全面檢驗,必然暴露部隊建設上存在的問題,從而推動軍隊在建設內容、重點、方向上做出相應的調整。透過這樣一次次軍事實踐的反覆檢驗,不斷地給部隊建設提出新要求新目標,由此引領部隊建設向著更高的階段發展。用好網路模擬對抗檢驗。網路模擬對抗資訊智慧化,使得模擬對抗的認知、決策、回饋、修正、行動等更趨於實戰,革命性地改造軍事活動流程,進而對武器裝備、指揮控制、力量編組等多個領域產生正面作用,由此促進部隊戰鬥力不斷躍升,甚至催生新的戰爭樣式、改變戰爭制勝機制。用好現地實兵演習檢驗。作為未來戰爭的預實踐,實兵演習不僅能有效檢驗部隊的實戰能力,更為重要的,是能發現部隊建設中存在的一些薄弱環節,有針對性地加以優化改進,獲得最大限度的戰鬥力回報。用好戰爭實踐檢驗。戰爭實踐對部隊建設的引領作用不可取代。嚴酷的戰爭實踐,可以真正檢驗部隊建設哪些適合、哪些不適合未來戰爭,進而修正在建設指導、建設重點、建設方法等諸多方面的偏差和失誤,為打贏下一場戰爭做好準備。

中國軍事資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/48713888.html

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:王雪平  許炎 朱曉萌 責任編輯:

喬楠楠 2020-09-17 08:38:16

Chinese Cognitive Warfare: Penetrating Quasi-cognitive Domains and Affects on Rules of Multi-domain Operations

中國認知戰:準認知域的滲透及對多域作戰規則的影響

繁體中文國語:

From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of land, sea, air, and space; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all of which are related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain on the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion and other levels of both the enemy and ourselves, which will be rapid, sudden, and unexpected. It profoundly affects the overall situation of the war, and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, mind, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemies destroyed, the temporary gains and losses of one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their indicator significance in evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be considered from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions caused by them. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategic situation, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first of all because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of the captives to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations all convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact is also significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for operations such as fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations, etc., different levels of imagination and creative thinking, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee during the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming active kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. To realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain impact in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to impact multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

原始中國軍事繁體普通話:

從冷兵器時代“弓馬騎射、刀兵相接”式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到信息化智能化時代涵蓋物理、信息、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有一定基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機理。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的制高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵

現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、制海、制空、制天權;在信息域阻斷敵人、聯通自己,爭奪制網、制信息權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策干擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

籌劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的復雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互聯通、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的“蝴蝶風暴”。籌劃實施物理域信息域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精准控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的總體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層面去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體聯動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。信息化智能化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的“不可算”“不可控”快速向相當程度上的“可算”“可控”發展。大數據、智能算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確制導炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為通過作戰行動點穴式精准打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精准畫像、智能分發、社交媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬現實等智能化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智能技術的交叉融合發展,使籌劃實施“X+認知攻防”、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷高效。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰籌劃和實施路徑的創新性設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考量對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立信道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考量對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我信息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報信息搜集的重點,要重點考量掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特征、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞“對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度”等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、采用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃和細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的信息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求實現效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網絡攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想象能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮員公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報數據、信道帶寬、取證信息、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、實時、體系、精准調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層次的理念革命,需要加強各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體聯動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度和協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、信息域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮員能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮員需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和信息制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水平。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突出錘煉指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的升華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究和戰法創新,以理論積淀打牢思想根基。

http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/10213888.html

Chinese Military Analysis of the Basics of Cognitive Domain Operations Warfare

中國軍事對認知域作戰基礎的分析

中國軍網 國防部網

現代英語音譯:

As a new form of combat, cognitive domain operations have become another new area of ​​confrontation after physical confrontation, firepower confrontation, and information confrontation. Different from operations in the physical domain and information domain, the operational goals of cognitive domain operations are thinking, concepts, etc., which have inherent requirements that are obviously different from other forms of operations.

Taking value offense and defense as the central task. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards that people use to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive factors and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of value is a prerequisite for winning the cognitive war. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often take advantage of their cyberspace advantages to use technical means and cultural penetration to forcibly export values. The interaction between virtual space and real space gradually erodes values, and the combination of co-optation and corrosion distorts values ​​to realize the thinking and understanding of personnel from hostile countries. Penetration and erosion of value orientation, etc. To seize the initiative in cognitive warfare, we must thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuits, get close to the opponent’s cultural language, and identify the opponent’s political beliefs and interest demands, so that the effectiveness of cognitive operations can directly reach the opponent’s belief base and soul anchorage. At the same time, we must scientifically interpret and disseminate the connotation and essence of our own excellent values, and use our excellent values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization to guide its transformation.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and understanding of the form of war, especially the central issues, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with “war of attrition” which focuses on annihilating the enemy’s main force and “maneuver warfare” which focuses on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain operations use the human brain as the main combat space and focus on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight. , using human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as a breakthrough point, and relying mainly on soft killing methods to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increasing internal strife and doubts in decision-making, thereby achieving “unprecedented” “Fight and win” purpose. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded its combat field to the sixth level, the “human domain” to compete for brain control and weaponize brain science to control the target’s beliefs, ways of thinking, spiritual will, and stance. , behavioral tendencies and other cognitive factors to launch offensive and defensive actions. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive scientific research results, the United States is trying to achieve the goal of psychological control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize intellectual power. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intellectual power will become a new type of battlefield control power that is growing rapidly and has greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligent superiority is the dominant factor for victory, intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force, and seizing “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights of war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have the intellectual characteristics of some people, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. Targeting the cognitive loop, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, forcing the enemy to use wrong information, delaying cognitive speed, inducing cognitive patterns, and blocking cognitive output can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making and undermine the morale of his military. Morale, to achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if cognitive advantages are lost, even if there are information advantages and energy advantages, the overall combat effectiveness will be significantly reduced due to human-machine coordination imbalance and autonomous decision-making failure.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important approach. Cognitive domain operations are essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation mainly manifests itself in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win public competition in the cognitive field. The war of public opinion focuses on changing ideas and competing for people’s hearts, and pays more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of continuously developing social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade restrictions of opponents and reach directly into the target group. In recent years, around the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech and other fields, the status of public opinion offense and defense has become increasingly prominent, attracting widespread attention. Public opinion wars can portray a positive image of one’s own side, while demonizing target countries and others to gain international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, manipulated by “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, weaved absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field. , which has brought severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perception and recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat objects. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it can use tendentious information to build efficient flexible cognitive scenarios and make tendentious intervention, thereby unknowingly affecting and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the integration of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. Externally, it can realize mind control, that is, brain control, and internally, it can achieve enhanced autonomy, that is, brain strengthening. It can realize direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in multi-modal emotion recognition, activation, protection and other related technical means based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional correlations are established to identify Human emotions and intentions provide new means for carrying out cognitive control warfare. Therefore, new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a way to combine suprathreshold infusion and subliminal penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.

繁體中文:

中國軍網 國防部網

認知域作戰作為一種新的作戰形式,目前已成為繼體力對抗、火力對抗、資訊對抗後,又一個嶄新的對抗領域。區別於物理域、資訊域等作戰,認知域作戰的作戰目標為思維、理念等,有明顯區別於其他作戰形式的內在需求。

以價值攻防為中心任務。一般認為,價值觀念是人用來區分好壞、分辨是非及重要性的原則與標準,是諸認知要素中最具穩定性的內容,是人的動機與行為模式的主宰。因此,搶佔價值制高點是贏得認知戰的先決條件。外軍歷來重視價值傳播,經常藉助其網路空間優勢,採取技術手段與文化滲透強行輸出價值觀、虛擬空間與現實空間互動漸進侵蝕價值觀、拉攏與腐蝕結合扭曲價值觀,實現對敵對國家人員思維認知、價值取向等的滲透侵蝕。搶佔認知戰主導權,必須研透對手價值追求,貼近對手文化語系,判明對手的政治信念、利益訴求,使認知作戰效能直抵對手信念根基、靈魂錨地。同時要科學闡釋和傳播己方優秀價值觀念的內涵與精髓,以優秀價值觀念與人類優秀文明成果引導其轉變。

以大腦認知為主要戰場。對戰爭形態特別重心問題的理解與認識,是戰法設計的重要內容。與以殲敵主力為重心的「消耗戰」、以破敵體系為重心的「機動戰」相比,認知域作戰以人腦為主要作戰空間,以打擊、削弱、瓦解敵戰爭意志為重心,以恐懼、焦慮、猜疑等人類心理弱點為突破口,重點依托軟殺傷手段,在敵方內部製造不安全、不確定、不信任的氛圍,加大其內鬥內耗和決策疑慮,從而實現「不戰而勝」目的。近年來,隨著新興技術的發展,北約將作戰領域拓展到第六層次即「人類領域」爭奪制腦權,讓腦科學武器化,對目標對象的信念信念、思考方式、精神意志、立場態度、行為傾向等認知要素展開攻防行動。據報道,借助腦與認知科學研究成果,美國正企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵方的心理控制目標。

以奪控智權為關鍵目標。隨著軍事智慧化的快速推進,智權將成為一種快速成長、對作戰全局有更大戰略影響力的新型戰場控制權。在智慧化戰爭中,智慧優勢是製勝的主導要素,智慧化武器系統成為主要作戰力量,奪取「制智權」將成為戰爭制權新的製高點。智慧化武器系統依賴先進的人工智慧系統,將具有部分人的智力特徵,這使得智權爭奪範圍將擴展到部分武器裝備。以認知迴路為目標,依托認知裝備限敵獲取有效資訊、迫敵使用錯誤訊息、延遲認知速度、誘導認知模式、阻斷認知輸出,能夠打亂敵指揮決策、瓦解其軍心士氣,達到「攻心為上」的效果。智慧化戰爭中,如果失去了認知優勢,即使具有資訊優勢和能量優勢,也會因為人機協同失調、自主決策失靈,而導致整體作戰效能的大幅降低。

以輿論攻防為重要途徑。認知域作戰本質上講是爭取人心、贏得人心的鬥爭。認知對抗中的輿論攻防,主要表現為控制、操縱、利用各種輿論工具,壓制對手、贏得大眾的認知領域較量。輿論戰重在改變觀念、爭奪人心,更重視精神和意志的征服。借助不斷發展的社群網路、融媒體技術,輿論戰得以衝破對手封鎖限制,直抵目標群體內部。近年來,圍繞著意識形態、網路空間、高新科技等領域,輿論攻防的地位愈發凸顯,引發普遍關注。輿論戰可以刻畫己方正面形象,同時妖魔化目標國等,爭取國際道義優勢和人民支持。從「顏色革命」到局部衝突,西方國家在「美式話術」操弄下,編造荒謬的劇本,編織荒誕的敘事、荒謬的結論,全時全場壓迫式緊逼,在認知領域大肆侵略,為諸多國家政治安全帶來了嚴峻挑戰。

以新質技術為有力手段。認知科學是新興研究門類,是探究人腦或心智工作機制的前沿性尖端學科,正朝著計算智能、感知智能、認知智能方向發展。人工智慧技術,在感知辨識、機器學習等方面具有獨特優勢,對作戰對象的思維認知具有天然穿透性和深刻影響力。人工智慧用於認知戰,可透過無孔不入且高度自動化的精準推送,運用傾向性訊息,建構起高效的柔性認知場景,作出傾向性幹預,進而不知不覺影響和塑造對手的思維認知。腦機介面技術,實現了認知維度的人機結合,對外可以實現意念控制即腦控,對內實現自主性增強即強腦,可實現用意識和思維直接操控複雜武器系統。目前基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動、防護等相關技術手段已有重大突破,透過採集人的表情、動作、語意和語調、腦電、各項生理指標等,建立情緒關聯,以識別人的情緒和意圖,為開展認知控制戰提供了新手段。因此,新質認知技術手段與傳統認知技術手段形成閾上灌輸與閾下滲透相結合的途徑,將進一步增強認知影響的隱藏性和有效性。

中國軍網國防部網參考: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/08/content_328888.htm

Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict

中國軍隊在自信認知對抗衝突中取得成功

現代英語音譯:

Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.

現代國語軍語:

適應情勢發展革新制勝理念

軍事實踐一再證明,戰爭的勝負不單單是兵力兵器的對抗,更是思維方式、作戰理念的較量。要在認知領域佔據優勢主動地位,當前特別關鍵的是確立與資訊時代相適應的新型指導理念。

集能聚優。集能聚優是對傳統集中優勢兵力的創新發展,不僅是打贏具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的重要遵循,也是奪佔認知對抗綜合優勢的關鍵一招。近幾年,資訊網路、叢集控制等技術日益成熟,不斷推動作戰朝向廣域分佈、即時聚優方向轉變。與之相適應,認知域下更要強調在具有決定意義的節點樞紐,綜合施策、跨域集能、奪控優勢,實現快速控局、速決制勝。

數據主導。數據作為一種新型戰爭資源,已成為現代戰爭指揮決策的依據、系統運作的血液。充分發揮資料資源優勢,佔據認知域作戰主動,是搶佔戰略制高點的重要一環。要進一步強化數據意識、數據思維,努力提升數據決策、數據引導的素養,真正讓數據成為認知致勝的「助推劑」。

智能協同。人工智慧技術的不斷發展,基於網路資訊體系的自主感知、決策、評估等能力的不斷增強,正推動著人機動態分享資訊、智慧規劃分配任務、密切協同精準出擊日趨成熟。認知域下,智慧協同將成為重要抓手,資訊互融、人機協作、優算決策、即時互助將成為贏得戰場先機、佔據主動、謀求勝勢的必要手段。

遵循內在規律緊扣價值攻防

認知域作戰並非獨立存在,而是透過物理域行動、資訊域流轉進入感知空間,在認知攻防中影響對手價值判斷、改變對手認知體系,進而引發對手認知「雪崩」效應,置對手於「兵敗如山倒」境地。基於此目的,必須深入研究分析對手的政治、經濟、軍事、文化等要素,發掘影響對手作戰認知的核心價值,進而綜合採取謀略、技術等手段,深度影響塑造對手思維認知、價值判斷。

必須看到,認知域作戰效能的釋放往往具有較強的持久性,只有在深謀遠慮、長期佈局的基礎上,透過採取一系列不間斷、常態化柔性手段,在對手內部漸進式構築共同價值觀,才能形成影響,進而實現認知域作戰功效。在資訊時代,西方已開發國家往往藉由網路傳播技術潛移默化地影響、塑造對手的思維認知、價值體系,進而動搖對手思想文化根基,建構認知域作戰輿論基礎。近年來世界各地發生的多起“顏色革命”,背後很大程度上正是西方國家長期滲透操縱輿論、認知域作戰效能逐漸釋放顯現的結果。

毋庸置疑,發生在認知域的對抗最終還是作用於人的大腦,影響人的情緒、動機、判斷和行動,甚至控制人的思考。正因如此,有人認為,作為認知的引擎,「大腦」有可能成為未來戰爭的主目標、主戰場。值得關注的是,現代認知域作戰的一個顯著特徵,就是科技的應用趨頻、作用突顯。尤其是隨著資訊科技、人工智慧等深度介入,認知域作戰將更重視科技綜合實力的比拼。從這個角度說,只有在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、佔據主動,才能贏得認知優勢。

著眼最大效能堅持軟硬結合

認知空間具有強烈的伸縮性,但就本質而言仍是人類活動及社會關係的映射,與現實世界緊密關聯、相互作用。缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的強力支撐,認知域作戰終將難以產生真正效果。從這個角度看,認知域作戰不是孤立的行動,只有釐清認知域作戰軟力量與物理域硬實力綜合運用的內在規律,將認知攻防融入聯合作戰鏈條,實現不同領域作戰力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能發揮認知域作戰最大效能。

在資訊時代,認知對抗的重心絕非單純追求徹底消滅敵人,而是更強調透過精準的時間、精準的資訊和精準的行動,精確釋放作戰能量,進而剝奪或降低敵方決策能力等。一方面要注重充分借助非對稱手段,透過陸、海、空、天等有形作戰域的高效快捷行動,破壞敵情報、指揮、通信、打擊、保障鏈路,擊垮敵戰爭潛力基礎,牢牢把握戰場主動權。另一方面要強調未雨綢繆、事先佈置虛擬空間對抗,始終關注精神意志對抗,積極尋求形成強大心理壓迫、瓦解對手抵抗意志的方法途徑。為了實現兩者效果疊加,應高度關注物理域的信火打擊與認知域的綜合毀癱聯動配合,密切跟踪基於網絡信息體系,精確打擊敵方決策、行動以及精神、信念的效果,積極主動摸索以攻心奪志為根本目的的戰法打法。

瞄準體系運行癱瘓戰鬥意志

無論時代如何發展,科技如何進步,人始終是戰爭勝負的決定性因素和支撐作戰體系運作的核心力量。在這當中,戰鬥意志可謂是支撐作戰的精神核心。認知域作戰正是要廣泛採取各種措施,尤其是藉助情報戰、心理戰、輿論戰、網路戰等殺傷手段,對敵方戰鬥意志這一精神內核進行打擊、削弱和剝奪,使其在心理、意誌上屈服,最終導致其作戰體係自行瓦解。

資訊時代的認知域作戰,具有大範圍、全領域的特點,剝奪敵方戰鬥意志強調在多個領域、多個維度、多個時段施加干涉、影響、控制,透過整體合力達成對敵認知優勢,實現己方作戰企圖。如精準掌握對手認知基礎、思考模式、文化習慣等,針對性採取營造態勢、改變氛圍、刺激心理、滲透侵蝕等行動,以瓦解對手認知體系整體性統一性,強力削弱對手決心意志。再如廣泛採取各種認知手段,積極借助物理域資訊域攻勢行動,強力摧毀對手關鍵節點,幹擾對手認知判斷,遲滯對手有效反應,以摧毀剝奪其兵心士氣。也可以根據對手傳統文化、理性邏輯以及性格短板等,採取針對性策略,有步驟、成系統地進行軍事、經濟、文化、外交、民心各方面各層級行動,在改變原有認知中形成有效控制,以消解軟化其戰鬥意志。隨著技術的深度發展,未來以控腦武器為代表的認知裝備可能具備直接幹擾或控制敵方大腦認知的能力,不僅能造成其意識混亂,甚至會誘發其做出違背戰爭常理的行動。

注重主動適應優化戰鬥設計

儘管認知域作戰在現代戰爭中的地位作用日益突顯,但不能就此認為認知域作戰無所不能,甚至取代傳統作戰行動。認知域作戰綜合效能的發揮,是一項複雜的系統工程。為了佔據認知主動、適應資訊化戰爭,必須從戰略全局出發,在實踐中努力優化作戰設計。

謀技融合。在認知域作戰中,謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容。儘管技術因素在現代認知域作戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。可以說,認知域作戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相互促進、緊密融合的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的加入而更加豐富,科技因謀略的運用而更加強勁。要掌握認知主動權、打好認知主動仗,不只要善用謀略,也要強化技術應用,將施謀與用技有機結合,努力強化認知攻防綜合效能。

攻防結合。認知域作戰是進攻與防禦的對立統一體,是在認知空間展開影響與反影響、滲透與逆滲透、破壞與反破壞、控制與反控制的認知攻防活動。要認清強弱優劣,抓住對手認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,以癱瘓其心理防線,全面佔據認知主動。同時,要把準攻防轉換節點,加強全域認知防護。要固守己方認知,旗幟鮮明宣揚己方價值理念、戰爭立場,統一意志、凝聚兵心、激發士氣。加強重要認知領域的防護隱密措施,降低己方政治、經濟、社會、資訊等敏感領域的可感知性,強化相關保密防護手段,實際築牢認知防護安全屏障。

中國軍事原文來源:

中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-01/10/content_331888.htm

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy

中國軍隊與智慧戰爭戰略制勝機制的確定

現代英語音譯:

Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.

國語音譯:

2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。

对抗方式从“体系对抗”向“算法博弈”转变,算法优势主导战争优势

算法是求解问题的策略机制。实际上,“算法”是一系列解决问题的清晰指令,是按照一定规则解决某一类问题的明确步骤。未来战争掌握算法优势的一方,能快速准确预测战场态势,创新最优作战方法,实现“未战而先胜”的战争目的。

算法是主导智能化战争的关键。第一,算法优势主导认知优势。大数据通过高性能、高效率的算法进行处理后,将海量数据快速转换为有用的情报。因此,占有算法优势的一方,能驱散因数据得不到及时处理而产生的“战场迷雾”,使得认知更为深刻。第二,算法优势主导速度优势。量子算法相比于经典算法,实现了指数级的加速效果,再加上量子计算机从2003年的1位量子比特,到2015年1000位量子比特,计算效率比经典计算机快了一亿倍,使人工智能实现了质的飞跃。第三,算法优势主导决策优势。算法以其高速、精确的计算,代替人的“冥思苦想”和反复探索,从而加速知识迭代。掌握超强算法能够针对敌情变化快速提出灵活多样的作战方案与应对之策,不断打乱敌既定企图和部署。

算法是战争效能跃升的核心。一是战争效率更高。在算法的支撑下,人工智能的反应速度是人类的成百上千倍。2016年,美国研发的“阿尔法”智能软件,反应速度比人类快250倍,在模拟空战中操控三代机击败了有人驾驶的四代机。二是战争耐力更强。人工智能不受生理机能限制,可连续执行重复性、机械性任务。2016年9月,一架F-16战机在训练中达到8倍重力过载,导致飞行员失去知觉,然而,在飞机撞击地面前,机载“自动防撞系统”自动将飞机拉起,避免了悲剧发生。三是战争结局更好。在海量数据和超算能力支持下,人工智能的判断和预测结果更加准确。美军寻找和捕杀本·拉登行动,有人和无人装备的组合运用就是一个成功的战例。

作战要素从“信息主导”向“机器主战”转变,机器主战重塑作战流程

未来智能科技将渗透到战争全要素全过程。物联网、智联网与脑联网成为战争的基础,物理域、信息域、认知域、社会域四域深度融合,使战场全息透明,战争控制有人,战场交锋无人。智能化武器装备将重塑“从传感器到射手”的作战流程。

慧眼“侦”。“侦”,即智能化情报侦察。能将陆、海、空、天、电等多维传感器,进行虚拟化协同组网、自组织动态调度、多源情报自动挖掘、订单式按需使用,最大程度上拨开信息不足或信息冗余带来的“战争迷雾”,开启透视智能化战争的“慧眼”。

回路“控”。“控”,即智能化指挥控制。围绕决策优势这一核心,运用“人在回路”的人机协同技术,按照机器的自主权限,采取“人在回路中”“人在回路上”“人在回路外”三种决策与控制方式,以高敌一筹的决策质量和行动速度形成全面优势。

智能“打”。“打”,即智能化攻防作战。依托体系结构和算法优势,实时调集全域多维、有人无人作战平台,快速耦合作战力量,按需构建作战体系,聚焦目标,自主实施“分布式”“蜂群式”协同作战,交战完毕迅速解耦待战,做到兵无常势、聚散随机。2015年底,俄罗斯投入6台履带式无人战车、4台轮式无人战车和1架无人机,支援叙利亚政府军强攻伊斯兰极端势力据点,取得了世界上第一场以无人战车为主的攻坚战胜利。战斗中约70名极端势力武装分子被击毙,而叙利亚政府军只有4人受伤。

决策方式从“人脑决策”向“智能决策”转变,智能决策优化作战行动

随着智能辅助决策技术和“云端大脑”“数字参谋”“虚拟仓储”的出现,战争决策由单纯的人脑决策发展为人机混合决策、云脑智能决策和神经网络决策。

人机混合决策。人与机器的合理分工与交互协同是探索解决问题的最优方案。人脑的优势在于创造性、灵活性、主动性;机器的优势在于速度快、精度高、抗疲劳。高层决策等艺术性强的工作由人脑来处理,大数据计算由机器完成。人机交互是让机器能“听”懂人类语言、“看”懂人类动作与表情、“理解”人的情绪和意图,把计算过程和结果用人容易理解的方式呈现出来。

云脑智能决策。未来智能化战争,将有一个“大脑”的隐喻中心,分布式的作战单元将通过云大脑链接。这个云大脑既是物理信息、生理信息和心理信息中心,也是军事指控中心。云脑决策以智能“网、云、端”体系为依托。“网”,是集智能化战场感知、决策和武器控制系统于一体的智能型作战基础网络。“云”,依“网”而建,以智能型资源服务层为主体,既是融合各类作战资源的“资源池”,也是为作战行动提供智能化服务的“智能云”。由于多中心的耦合,即使遭受信息轰炸也能快速组网和决策。“端”,是指作战资源端,作战流程上的分立智能和联网智能,既能自主决策,又能为战争体系提供分布式智能资源,使新的战争体系涌现出群体智能。

神经网络决策。2018年7月,俄罗斯研制的人工神经网络全自动软件,能做到发现即摧毁。美军研发的智能化决策工具,意在缩短决策周期,提高决策效率。神经网络的应用曾局限于战术级计算,难以对战略级宏观复杂态势做出定性分析和决策。“阿尔法狗”通过模拟人脑神经网络工作机制在围棋领域取得突破。未来深度神经网络的超强自我进化和战略决策能力,将实现“人在回路外”的作战循环。

作战样式从“断链破体”向“极限作战”转变,极限作战颠覆传统作战手段

极限作战突破了传统战争的界限,颠覆了传统的作战样式,使战争效能剧增,出现了真正意义上的全天候、全时空、全方位、全领域的智能化战争。

突破人类生理和思维极限。一是作战空间和领域极度拓展。未来智能化作战是立体、全维、全领域作战,战争空间将从传统的空间领域,向极地、深海、太空等极限拓展,特别是向认知域、信息域渗透并贯穿其他领域,作战领域更加模糊。二是作战进程极度加快。无人自主作战大幅压缩“观察—判断—决策—行动”周期,从信息化战争的“瞬时摧毁”发展为智能化战争的“即时摧毁”。智能化战争的胜利,是通过预警时间提前、决策时间缩短,作战行动向前延伸,达到先手布局、先发制人的效果。三是作战行动极度灵活。智能化战争中,人工智能能够提出极为丰富的作战方案,加之无人作战平台,能够在不同功能角色之间快速切换,作战行动更为大胆冒险,战术战法更为出乎意料。即使作战要素中的某一个丧失功能,“去中心化”的功能也会确保群体功能不受影响。

颠覆传统作战样式。一是侵入式独狼作战。即单套无人系统独立作战。二是有人无人协同体系破击战。即基于智能无人系统,通过有无人装备混合作战,快速达成作战目的。三是无人系统编队独立作战。多套无人系统构成作战单元,可执行多目标攻击等复杂任务。四是母舰蜂群集群作战。以母舰为运输载体和指挥中心,形成有人无人混合集群作战样式。

具备“核威力”的作战效能。智能化战争把智能机器人的特性和潜能发挥到极致,导致作战效能接近极限。一是目标小、难发现。比如微型化隐身机器人,雷达和声呐很难发现。美国在“蜻蜓”中嵌入“光极”芯片的混合无人机,更小更轻更隐秘,续航时间高达几个月。二是对抗难,代价高。比如甲虫大小的微型无人机只要扫描到人脸景象,经数据分析和确定即可直接撞向目标头部,携带的弹药足以穿透大脑。三是造价低、破坏大。未来运用智能化武器极限作战具有核武器的威力,特别是极大体量的智能化武器装备,极低成本的机器人自动生产,极度灵活的机器人集群作战,可能会超越核武器爆炸威力的极大化。

中國政府原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0115/c1011-3053888.html

Social Cognition: Important Starting Point for Chinese Military Cognitive Domain Operations

社會認知:中國軍事認知領域作戰的重要起點

現代英語音譯:

Social cognition refers to how individuals understand and think about others, and form inferences about others or things based on social information in the environment. Social cognition is the basis of individual behavior and an important starting point for cognitive domain operations. As a member of society, people are naturally affected by social cognition. Analyzing the social path to the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for strengthening the construction of cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda

Cognitive attack and defense is not achieved overnight and needs to be carried out continuously over a long period of time. Operations in the cognitive domain often begin before the war. They comprehensively use political, economic, diplomatic and other means to affect various social fields of the target country. They actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda and form mainstream social opinions that are beneficial to one’s own side. They play a comprehensive role in wartime. The wonders of checks and balances.

Focus on overall mobilization. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. Implementing cognitive domain operations requires effective public opinion preparation in the early stage, and on this basis, a unified and self-interested social cognitive situation can be formed. Psychologist Lasswell once said: “There is no doubt that the government’s guidance of public opinion is an inevitable development trend of large-scale modern war.” Before launching a war, we must aim to win the advantage of public opinion and carry out cognitive planning in advance. Strive for the broadest domestic and international support. The focus of cognitive domain operations that precede war is to create a mainstream social opinion through news and public opinion, and conduct comprehensive social mobilization to prepare for, launch, and win the war, so as to effectively guide the public to support the government. decision-making and seeking political support from the international community.

Strengthen strategic layout. Cognitive domain operations during war preparations should focus on advance strategic planning and public opinion shaping. According to the needs of the country and the government, we should actively publicize our country’s advantages and justice, and deeply expose and criticize the enemy’s sinister intentions and weak nature, so as to This will form a mainstream social opinion that victory is inevitable in a righteous war and those who dare to fight and win will create a good cognitive situation in order to deter opponents and win support. Through effective public opinion building, we can declare our determination and will to win, demonstrate adequate war preparations and strong military capabilities, influence, intervene and shape the cognitive psychology of the target, effectively stimulate our own confidence and morale, and dispel the enemy’s motivation. The will to resist, maximize the strategic initiative and popular support, firmly grasp the leadership of the war and the right to speak morally, so that the hostile party can realize the unbearable consequences, and then achieve the purpose of early deterrence and flexible control of the situation.

Pay close attention to legal disputes. War has always emphasized the importance of division and success. Mastering the power to define and interpret war in cognitive narratives, forming a consistent mainstream social opinion, condensing the value identity of the country or nation, and mobilizing a wide range of forces and resources are important goals for early cognitive domain operations. Providing a good narrative representation of justice and creating a social understanding that the master is famous, that justice is in our hands, and that the law is in our hands is a “sharp sword” that is unsheathed before the war, and a “heavy weapon” that is launched before the war. To this end, cognitive domain operations need to proactively create topics, try to characterize the war, justify the action, and do a good job in the narrative of “legitimate defense”, the definition of “forced legality”, and the interpretation of “last resort”, so as to defend the right to justice in war. become the mainstream opinion of society.

Using social media platforms to intervene in social cognition

The emergence of mobile, intelligent, and social information dissemination patterns has made network cognitive attack and defense an important means of cognitive domain operations. It has effectively expanded the accessibility and arrival rate of cognitive domain operations. Judging from the cognitive attack and defense in recent local wars, multi-level, multi-theme, and universal social media cognitive attack and defense can quickly mobilize public opinion and influence the direction of the war. It can not only form public opinion hot spots according to battlefield needs, It can trigger cognitive radical changes and can bypass the enemy’s public opinion blockade to implement cognitive penetration.

Dominate the direction of cognition with the help of information flow. Compared with traditional media, social media platforms are more interactive and have wider coverage. The decentralized “difference narrative” and the fragmented “personal narrative” of netizens are more likely to influence public opinion and interfere with social perception to a large extent. Know and judge. The display of the power of identity in the network society has a very important impact on changing the direction of public opinion, which also makes information flow an important variable in cognitive domain operations. In modern cognitive domain operations, the characteristics of “information weaponization” and “public opinion weaponization” are more prominent. Through data manipulation, current limiting, blocking and deletion, robot forwarding, etc., the information flow of social media can be effectively controlled and the formation of information can be formed in a short time. Public opinion hot spots and social consensus focus promote the formation of an “information waterfall” in which the public is swayed by mainstream public opinion, thereby solidifying their cognition.

Cognitive influence through public figures. To a certain extent, the more developed information dissemination is, the more attention is a scarce resource, and the more information that arouses the audience’s awareness needs to be carefully crafted and explored. In cognitive domain operations, how to attract the attention of the target audience with specific information has become the first step. The initiators of cognitive domain operations can put carefully packaged information on social media platforms through the voices of public figures such as Internet celebrities and top influencers, so as to attract the attention of target audiences and increase the visibility and reach of self-interested information. Rate. Information disseminated by public figures can suddenly emerge from the complex public opinion field, become a reference for people’s thinking, and become the mainstream opinion in inter-group interactions and circle-group interactions, thereby expanding the volume of one’s own propaganda, condemning and suppressing the other party’s propaganda, and guiding Shape the public to form qualitative cognition.

Use emerging technologies to empower cognitive offense and defense. Technology has changed the style of combat and greatly expanded the means of cognitive confrontation. For example, the emergence of emerging technologies such as algorithm push, intelligent voice, deep forgery, false reality, and augmented reality has enriched the selection of strategies and tools for cognitive domain operations to fully penetrate into society. In future cognitive domain operations, it will be possible to use intelligent monitoring systems to enhance cognitive situational awareness, use big data technology to accurately draw the cognitive picture of key groups, and use algorithm technology to continuously influence the cognitive thinking of target objects. The use of artificial intelligence technology to carry out saturated and precise cognitive attacks on specific audiences, the use of deep forgery technology to interfere with the enemy’s decision-making cognition, and the use of brain-computer interface, neuroscience and other technologies to directly affect military personnel will become a dominant force in influencing social cognition and It is an important means to determine the direction of public opinion and facilitate the achievement of combat objectives more directly and efficiently.

Keeping up with the progress of military operations affects social cognition

War practice shows that military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition. In modern warfare, military operations and cognitive attack and defense go hand in hand and work together. The two influence and support each other. The powerful shaping of the battlefield situation can greatly change social cognition, and the smooth deployment of military operations can promote radical changes in social cognition. , making it develop in the preset direction.

Collaborate with military deterrence operations to undermine public sentiment. Creating a favorable situation through military deterrence operations is an important part of war preparation and an effective means to improve the effectiveness of war. In cognitive domain operations, we must adhere to the synchronization of cognitive offensive and defensive operations with military operations to understand tasks, judge situations, synchronize research and planning, decision-making and deployment, and synchronize plans, arrangements, organization and implementation. We can skillfully use the deterrent effect of military operations to amplify the effects of cognitive attacks. To achieve the purpose of disintegrating the morale of the target audience. In the future, cognitive domain operations should be based on the simultaneous launch of military deterrence operations, fully release the information of military deterrence operations, and demonstrate one’s comprehensive strength, war potential, equipment performance, military and civilian will, etc. to the enemy through multiple means, thereby forming a positive influence on the enemy’s society and people Powerful deterrence and containment effect.

Combine the favorable battlefield situation to divide the camp. Changes in the battlefield situation often cause shocks in public opinion, which then spread and penetrate into society, creating a strong cognitive impact. Therefore, when implementing cognitive domain operations, we must have the courage to break through the stereotypes, design the goals and tasks of cognitive attacks in advance, combine the favorable situation on the battlefield, and use the powerful deterrent effect of military operations to stimulate cognitive changes in the target audience. If the war situation goes smoothly, we can further publicize and amplify the effectiveness of military operations, use public opinion to build momentum, create an atmosphere of intimidation that threatens to overwhelm the enemy, and force the enemy’s people to shake their confidence and give up their support.

Integrating military combat effectiveness softens the will. Use military operations to exert pressure and promote radical changes in social cognition. We must be good at seizing the effects of military operations to make a fuss about it, skillfully transform military victory into cognitive strength, and continuously strengthen the deterrent effect on cognitive attacks on target objects. . In the process of implementing cognitive domain operations, it is necessary to seamlessly embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction” and fully integrate military combat effectiveness to strengthen “soft kill” effects such as cognitive deterrence, cognitive interference, and cognitive destruction, and promote The psychological cognition of the people in the enemy’s society undergoes radical changes, which strengthens their fear of war and anti-war sentiments. They are then induced by the extended effect of combat effectiveness in a timely manner, prompting a series of adverse chain reactions within their society to soften their will to resist and their confidence in combat.

繁體中文:

社會認知,是指個體如何理解與思考他人,並根據環境中的社會訊息形成對他人或事物的推論。 社會認知是個體行為的基礎,也是認知域作戰的重要抓手。 人作為社會中的一員,天然受到社會認知的影響。 分析認知域作戰致效的社會路徑,對於強化認知域作戰建設、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。

透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知

認知攻防並非一蹴而就,需要長期不間斷地進行。 認知域作戰,往往先於戰爭開始,綜合運用政治、經濟、外交等手段作用於對象國各個社會領域,透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知,形成利於己方的社會主流意見,在戰時發揮綜合 制衡之奇效。

聚焦總體動員。 戰爭未啟,認知先行。 實施認知域作戰,需要前期進行有效的輿論鋪墊,並在此基礎上形成統一的、利己的社會認知態勢。 心理學家拉斯韋爾曾說:「毫無疑問,政府對輿論的引導是大規模現代戰爭不可避免的發展趨勢。」在戰爭發起前,要瞄準贏得輿論優勢,提前開展認知佈設, 爭取最廣泛的國內國際支持。 先於戰爭發起的認知域作戰,其重心很大程度上是透過新聞輿論來營造一種社會主流意見,為準備戰爭、發動戰爭、贏得戰爭進行全面的社會動員,以有效引導公眾支持政府的 決策、爭取國際社會的政治支持。

強化戰略布勢。 戰爭準備期間的認知域作戰,要以先期戰略布勢、輿論塑勢為重點,根據國家和政府需要,積極宣傳本國的優勢所在、正義所在,深入揭批敵人的險惡用心、虛弱本質,以 此來形成義戰必勝、敢戰敢勝的社會主流意見,為震懾對手、爭取支持塑造良好的認知態勢。 透過有效的輿論造勢,宣示己方贏得勝利的決心和意志,展現充分的戰爭準備和強大的軍事能力,對目標對象的認知心理進行影響、幹預和塑造,有效激發己方信心和士氣,消解敵人的 抵抗意志,最大限度地爭取戰略主動和民心支持,牢牢掌握戰爭主導權、道義話語權,使敵對方認識預感到難以承受的後果,進而達成先期懾止、靈活控局的目的。

緊盯法理爭奪。 戰爭歷來強調師出有名。 在認知敘事中掌握戰爭的定義權、解釋權,形成一致的社會主流意見,凝聚起國家或民族的價值認同,調動廣泛的力量和資源,是先期認知域作戰的一個重要目標。 搞好正義敘事表述,營造師出有名、正義在我、法理在手的社會認知,是先於戰爭出鞘的“利劍”,早於戰爭發起的“重器”。 為此,認知域作戰需要主動創設議題,設法為戰爭定性、為行動正名,做好「正當防衛」的敘事、「被迫合法」的界定、「最後手段」的闡釋,使捍衛戰爭正義權 成為社會主流意見。

借助社群媒體平台介入社會認知

行動化、智慧化、社會化資訊傳播模式的出現,使得網路認知攻防成為認知域作戰的重要手段,它有力地拓展了認知域作戰的可及性與到達率。 從近幾場局部戰爭中的認知攻防來看,多層次、多主題、全民化的社群媒體認知攻防,能夠快速撬動社會輿論、影響戰局走向,既可根據戰場需要形成輿論爆點促 動認知激變,又可繞過敵方輿論封鎖實施認知滲透。

借助資訊流量主導認知走向。 相較於傳統媒體,社群媒體平台的互動性更強、覆蓋範圍更廣,去中心化的「差異敘事」、網民碎片化的「個人敘事」更容易影響輿論,在很大程度上乾擾著社會認 知判斷。 網路社會中認同力量的展現,對於改變輿論走向有十分重要的影響,這也使得資訊流量成為認知域作戰中的重要變數。 現代認知域作戰,「資訊武器化」「輿論武器化」的特徵更突顯,透過資料操縱、限流封刪、機器人轉發等方式,可以有效控制社群媒體的資訊流量,能夠在短時間內形成 輿論熱點、聚焦社會共識,推動形成“資訊瀑布”,使社會民眾在其中被主流社會輿論所左右,進而使其認知形成固化。

透過公眾人物施加認知影響。 從某種程度上來說,訊息傳播越發達,注意力就越是一種稀缺資源,喚起受眾認知的訊息就越需要精心製作和發掘。 在認知域作戰中,如何使特定資訊能吸引目標受眾注意,成為首要步驟。 認知域作戰的發起方可透過網路大V、頭部網紅等公眾人物發聲的辦法,將精心包裝的訊息投放到社群媒體平台,以吸引目標受眾注意,提升利己訊息的能見度與到達 率。 經公眾人物傳播的訊息可以從紛雜的輿論場中驟然顯現出來,成為人們思考的參照物,並在群際互動、圈群互動中成為主流意見,進而擴大己方宣傳聲量、聲討壓制對方宣傳,引導 塑造民眾形成定性認知。

運用新興技術賦能認知攻防。 科技改變作戰樣式,也大大拓展了認知對抗的手段。 例如,演算法推送、智慧語音、深度偽造、虛假現實、擴增實境等新興技術的出現,就豐富了認知域作戰向社會層面全面滲透的策略手段和工具選擇。 在未來認知域作戰中,利用智慧監測系統增強認知態勢感知能力、利用大數據技術精準繪製關鍵人群認知圖景、利用演算法技術持續影響目標對象認知思維將成為可能。 利用人工智慧技術對特定受眾進行飽和式精準認知攻擊,利用深度偽造技術幹擾敵方決策認知,利用腦機介面、神經科學等技術直接作用於軍事人員等,將成為影響社會認知、主導 輿論走向的重要手段,便於更直接有效率地達成作戰目的。

跟上軍事行動進程影響社會認知

戰爭實踐表明,軍事行動對認知塑造有關鍵支撐作用。 現代戰爭中,軍事行動與認知攻防如影隨形、協同發力,兩者相互影響、互為支撐,戰場態勢的有力塑造能夠大大改變社會認知,軍事行動的順利展開能夠促進社會認知激變 ,使之朝著預設方向發展。

配合軍事威懾行動瓦解民心。 透過軍事威懾行動營造有利態勢是戰爭準備的重要內容,也是提高戰爭效益的有效手段。 認知域作戰中,堅持認知攻防行動與軍事行動同步理解任務、判斷情況,同步研究規劃、決策部署,同步計畫安排、組織實施,可以巧妙地運用軍事行動的威懾效應放大認知攻擊效果, 達到瓦解目標對象民心士氣的目的。 未來認知域作戰,應基於軍事威懾行動同步展開,充分釋放軍事威懾行動的訊息,多手段向敵方展示己方的綜合實力、戰爭潛力、裝備性能及軍民意誌等,從而對敵對方社會民眾形成 強力震懾和牽制效應。

結合有利戰場態勢分化陣營。 戰場態勢變化往往會使輿論產生震盪,進而向社會面擴散滲透,產生強大的認知衝擊力。 因而,在實施認知域作戰時,要勇於突破思維定式,超前設計認知攻擊的目標和任務,結合戰場有利態勢,借助軍事行動的強力震懾作用,促動目標受眾產生認知激變。 如戰局進展順利,則可進一步宣傳放大軍事作戰效能,利用輿論示形造勢,營造山雨欲來、泰山壓頂的威迫氣氛,迫使敵對方民眾動搖信心、放棄支持。

融合軍作戰效能軟化意志。 利用軍事行動施壓,促進社會認知激變,要善於抓住軍事作戰效果做文章,巧妙地將軍事上的勝勢轉化為認知上的強勢,不斷強化對目標對象認知攻擊的震懾力 。 在實施認知域作戰過程中,要將認知域作戰無縫嵌入「硬摧毀」中,全面融合軍事作戰效能強化認知震懾、認知幹擾、認知破擊等「軟殺傷」效果, 促使 敵對方社會民眾心理認知產生激變,強化其畏戰怯戰反戰情緒,再適時利用作戰效能的延伸效應加以誘導,促使其社會內部產生系列不良連鎖反應,以軟化其抵抗意志和作戰信心。

中國軍事原文來源: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/22/content_324888.htm