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China’s Military Emphasizing Research of System-based Superior Warfare: How to Fight Using Informationized Warfare? Analysis of Nine Typical Combat Styles

中國軍隊重視系統優勢戰爭研究:資訊化戰爭如何打仗?九種典型戰鬥風格解析

現代英語:

System-based superior warfare is a system-based warfare in information warfare. It is not limited to a specific combat style, but a “combination punch” or a group of combat styles composed of multiple combat styles and tactics. It emphasizes that according to the changes in combat missions, combat opponents and battlefield situations, as long as it is conducive to forming relative advantages and achieving system victory, any appropriate combat means and styles can be flexibly used to form combat advantages. In the specific implementation of system-based superior warfare, these specific combat styles and action tactics can be organized and implemented separately as part of joint full-domain operations, and more emphasis is placed on “combination punches”, multiple strategies, and overall victory.
In order to better understand its core connotation, this article lists nine typical combat styles, including overall deterrence warfare, electromagnetic interference warfare, network attack warfare, cognitive control and interference warfare, and analyzes them.

System concentration warfare – a “combination punch” that flexibly uses a variety of combat styles. Author: Academic Plus Senior Observer Dong Zhou
The main content and keywords of this article

  1. Overall deterrence warfare: emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence; the implementation of overall deterrence warfare should have three major elements; strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare: the key to competing for information advantage; in terms of combined means and methods, information empowerment is achieved through “connection + sharing”; an effective method to crack unmanned cluster warfare
  3. Network attack warfare: mainly soft killing, combining soft and hard, focusing on breaking the network and reducing energy
  4. Cognitive control and interference warfare: control the cognitive right of situational awareness, compete for information advantage; control the right to command and decision-making, compete for decision-making advantage; control the “brain” right, and seize the brain control advantage
  5. Agile mobile warfare: high-efficiency and rapid decision-making; high-efficiency formation of a favorable combat situation; high-efficiency and instant aggregation of combat forces; agile mobile warfare is an innovative development of traditional mobile warfare
  6. Swarm autonomous warfare: conducive to forming a system advantage to suppress the enemy; conducive to enhancing combat effectiveness; conducive to trapping the enemy in combat difficulties
  7. Precision point killing war: achieve high efficiency and cost-effectiveness in operations; hitting key node targets is an important option; large-scale system support is a basic condition; it is inseparable from accurate intelligence support
  8. Supply chain disruption war: the supply guarantee chain has a huge impact on the overall operation; the focus of attack is the key node of the enemy’s supply guarantee chain; the key is to choose the right time to use tactics
  9. System destruction and paralysis war: the combat goal is to make the enemy’s combat system disordered; hit the key nodes of the combat system with a heavy punch; implement a soft attack on the enemy’s combat system

For learning reference only, welcome to communicate and correct! The views of the article do not represent the position of this organization
The concept of operation is first proposed as a new combat style. Innovative combat style is the core content of the development of combat concepts. It can be said that system-based optimization warfare is a general term for a series of specific tactics. The following nine typical combat styles constitute the combat method system of system-based optimization warfare. They are: First, overall deterrence warfare, actively organizing static power demonstrations and deterrence actions in the system-based superiority warfare, striving to win the battle without fighting or with a small battle; second, electromagnetic interference warfare, using a variety of combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for electromagnetic spectrum advantages, seize information control, and thus win the initiative in combat; third, network attack warfare, using a variety of means such as soft strikes and hard destruction to break the enemy’s command network, intelligence network, communication network, and logistics supply network, and disrupt the enemy’s command and support; fourth, cognitive control and interference warfare. Through information attacks, public opinion attacks, and brain attacks, control advantages are formed in cognitive space; fifth, agile mobile warfare. Rapidly adjust the deployment of troops and weapons, quickly gather capabilities on the battlefield, and seize combat opportunities; sixth, swarm autonomous warfare. Widely use unmanned combat means such as “swarms”, “wolf packs”, and “fish schools” to autonomously organize actions and distributed attacks to achieve human-machine joint victory; seventh, precision point killing warfare. Accurately obtain intelligence, implement multi-domain precision strikes, strive to hit one point to shake the overall situation, and maximize combat effectiveness; Eighth, supply chain disruption warfare. Organize elite forces to attack the enemy’s logistics and equipment supply chain, supply lines and supply bases, and destroy the enemy’s loss of supply and withdrawal from the battle; Ninth, system destruction and paralysis warfare. Comprehensively adopt a variety of means such as breaking the network, training, and hitting nodes to interfere with, delay, destroy or even paralyze the effective operation of the enemy’s combat system and weaken the function of the enemy’s combat system.

  1. Overall deterrence warfare
    Overall deterrence warfare refers to actively organizing static power displays and deterrence actions in system-based superior warfare, striving to defeat the enemy without fighting or fighting a small battle. Sun Tzu said: “To defeat the enemy without fighting is the best of the best.” Deterrence and war are two main forms of military activities. Deterrence is mainly to show determination and will to potential opponents by showing strength or threatening to use strong strength to deter the opponent’s actions. It can be said that the overall deterrence warfare in the system-based superior warfare is an important means or tactics to achieve “stopping” the enemy’s troops without fighting. Clausewitz emphasized that the first rule of strategy is to be as strong as possible, first of all, strong in general, and then strong in key parts. Modern warfare is a confrontation between systems. The overall deterrence war under the informationized local war requires not only the traditional deterrence means and capabilities of land, sea, air and space, but also new deterrence means and capabilities such as space deterrence, electromagnetic deterrence, and network deterrence, and more importantly, the overall deterrence that demonstrates the overall strength of the country. In particular, with the rapid development of advanced technologies such as information technology, the scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution, and military revolution are accelerating integration, and the coupling relationship between strategic competitiveness, social productivity, and military combat effectiveness is closer. Winning the informationized war is more of a contest of national will and national overall strength. If you want to contain the war, you must first deter your opponent from the overall strength.
    1.1 Emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence
    Deterrence means usually include nuclear deterrence and conventional deterrence. In the system-based superiority war, the overall deterrence war is implemented, aiming to comprehensively use the conventional deterrence means of the land, sea, air, space, and power grid in the whole domain to achieve the purpose of deterrence. In particular, with the application of information network technology and space and directed energy technology in the military, space, network, and electromagnetic weapons have become new means of deterrence. Space deterrence mainly uses rapid response electromagnetic orbital weapons, space-ground networked anti-navigation and positioning service systems, large elliptical orbit laser weapons, high-power microwave weapons and other equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s space targets, forming an “interference and blocking” deterrence against the enemy’s space information. Network deterrence mainly uses cyberspace situational awareness and attack equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s military network and other key information infrastructure to achieve deterrence against the enemy. Electromagnetic deterrence mainly uses electromagnetic spectrum combat systems to threaten and attack enemy detection, navigation, communication and other informationized weapon equipment systems to achieve deafening and blinding deterrence against the enemy. 1.2 Three elements should be possessed in the implementation of overall deterrence warfare
    To implement overall deterrence warfare and achieve the expected deterrence effect, three elements are usually required: one is strength. The deterrent party must have reliable capabilities or strength that make the opponent feel daunted and fearful; the second is determination and will. The deterrent party must dare to use this capability when necessary; the third is clear information transmission. The deterrent party must accurately and effectively let the other party know its action capability and determination.
    Historically, there are three main changes in the criteria for judging deterrence strength: first, active military strength; second, comprehensive national strength or war potential; third, the total number of main combat weapons and equipment. For a long period of history, the number of troops was deterrence, and the strength of military strength directly depended on the size of the active army, the number of important weapons and equipment, and non-material factors such as military training and organization morale. After the 20th century, with the expansion of the scale of war, deterrence strength is no longer limited to the number of troops and important weapons and equipment, but is determined by the country’s war potential, including economic strength, scientific and technological strength, energy resources, and even population size, etc. The overall deterrence war in the system-based superiority war, the formation of its deterrence strength is mainly based on the network information system, and the joint full-domain deterrence capability formed under the integration of the system.
    1.3 Strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
    The development of information technology and its extensive penetration and application in the military field have provided favorable conditions for building overall strength and achieving overall deterrence. System-based superior warfare is supported by the network information system and makes full use of the penetration and connectivity of information technology. It not only integrates various combat forces, combat elements, and combat units into an organic whole to achieve military system combat advantages, but also connects and integrates various fields related to war and national mobilization, such as national politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, transportation, and energy, into the national war mobilization system, gathers various forces and resources to form an overall force, realizes the emergence effect of system capabilities, and shows the overall strength advantage. It forms a powerful invisible deterrent of unity and common hatred of the enemy, and creates a situation where the enemy “has power but cannot act” and “can act but has no effect”, which plays a role in containing and winning the war.
    In the overall deterrence war, the scope of national war mobilization will be wider, not limited to a certain direction or region, but throughout the country and even relevant regions of the world; the mobilization time will be faster, and the mobilization and action information can be quickly transmitted to everyone and every node at the first time by using the network and information system; the action coordination and collaboration will be more consistent, and the forces distributed in various regions can act in a unified manner almost at the same time based on the same situation and the same order, greatly improving the efficiency of action coordination; the resource utilization will be more sufficient, and various war resources based on the network can quickly realize the transition from peace to war and from military to civilian, and realize the integrated and precise guarantee of the front and rear.
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare
    Electromagnetic interference warfare refers to the flexible use of various combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for the advantage of the electromagnetic spectrum, seize the right to control information, and then win the initiative in combat.
    2.1 The key to competing for information advantage Local information warfare is highly dependent on the electromagnetic spectrum, and the control and counter-control of electromagnetic space have become the focus of competing for the right to control information. Organizing and implementing electromagnetic interference warfare is mainly to destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum and protect one’s own side from destruction. The electromagnetic spectrum is the main carrier for transmitting information. Using electromagnetic means to disrupt and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum will effectively reduce the enemy’s information combat capability, and enable the enemy to ensure the rapid and effective flow of information in the scenario where the enemy has the right to control information, and drive the command flow, action flow, material flow, and energy flow through the information flow, thereby gaining the dominance and initiative of the operation.
    2.2 The basic focus is to disable and invalidate the enemy’s combat system. The implementation of electromagnetic interference warfare in the system-based superior warfare is mainly aimed at the enemy’s dependence on electromagnetic space. At the same time, in order to ensure the effective use of electromagnetic space by the enemy, various electronic reconnaissance, interference, attack, defense and support forces are organized to interfere with and attack the enemy’s communication network, radar network, computer network and command center, communication hub, radar station, computer network node, global navigation positioning system, space-ground integrated Internet and other space link systems, and other various frequency-using weapons and equipment, block and destroy their communication and data transmission, and destroy the “connection” and “sharing” structural center of gravity of the enemy’s combat system, and provide support for the seizure of information control and electromagnetic control from the root, thereby weakening the enemy’s command and control capabilities and disabling the enemy’s entire combat system.
    2.3 Effective tactics to crack unmanned swarm warfare
    Unmanned autonomous swarm warfare such as “bee swarm”, “wolf pack” and “fish pack” is an important feature of information-based local warfare with intelligent characteristics. There are a large number of various unmanned autonomous clusters, with various types and complex characteristics, and each individual can complement each other and replace each other to play a role. It will be very difficult to intercept and destroy the entire unmanned cluster. However, from a technical perspective, in order to achieve effective coordination in unmanned combat clusters, each individual must share and interact with each other. Once the communication coordination between unmanned clusters is interfered with, it will be impossible to share battlefield situation and information, and it will be difficult to coordinate actions with each other, and it will be difficult to play its due combat effectiveness. This provides an opportunity for the other party to implement communication interception and electromagnetic interference. Therefore, the implementation of electromagnetic spectrum warfare, interference and attack on the information and communication network of unmanned clusters, and destruction of their information sharing and interaction will make it impossible for each individual in the unmanned cluster to achieve effective coordination, thereby losing combat capability.
  3. Network attack warfare
    Network attack warfare refers to the comprehensive use of network and computer technologies and other effective means to conduct military confrontation actions around the control of information and information networks. It is a major combat style for cyberspace operations and the struggle for network control. Its main combat operations include both soft killing and hard destruction, mainly soft and hard. Among them, soft kill is mainly network attack, that is, the comprehensive use of blocking attack, virus attack and other means to block and attack the enemy’s information network, command system, weapon platform, etc., making it difficult for the enemy’s network, command information system, etc. to operate effectively or even paralyzed; hard destruction mainly uses precision firepower strikes, high-energy microwaves, electromagnetic pulses and anti-radiation attacks to paralyze the enemy’s information network physical facilities and destroy the enemy’s combat and weapon equipment entities.
    The focus is on breaking the network and reducing the ability to fail. Organizing network attack in the system concentration war is to target the weaknesses of the opponent’s military information network, take advantage of the system, organize various network attack forces, and continuously implement soft kill and hard destruction actions against the enemy’s combat command network, reconnaissance intelligence network, communication network and even logistics supply network throughout the combat process, destroy the enemy’s network system, and make the enemy’s combat system function decline or even disabled as a whole. Mainly against the enemy’s basic information network, intelligence network, command network, support network and other core targets, implement a series of combat operations such as network and electricity coordinated attack, deception confusion, link blocking, takeover and control, so that the enemy’s intelligent combat network system is disabled and ineffective, and achieve a key victory in paralyzing the enemy system.
  1. Cognitive control and disturbance warfare
    Cognitive control and disturbance warfare refers to the interference, destruction or control of enemy thinking and cognition through information attack, public opinion attack and brain attack in the system-based superiority warfare, so that the enemy cannot make correct judgments and decisions, thereby forming a control advantage over the enemy in the cognitive space.
    The cognitive domain, that is, the human thinking space and consciousness space, is a field that has a key impact on combat decisions and judgments. The development of information technology, especially artificial intelligence technology, and its wide application in the military field have expanded the competition of war from physical space and information space to cognitive space, making cognitive space a new combat domain. With the development of information and intelligent technology and their extensive and in-depth application in the military field, human-machine intelligence tends to merge, making the status of cognition in intelligent warfare operations more prominent, and the cognitive field has gradually become an important battlefield. Controlling cognitive rights has become a key factor in future battlefield control rights. Fighting for cognitive control rights has become an important combat style for winning in informationized local wars with intelligent characteristics.
    4.1 Controlling situational awareness and cognitive rights and fighting for information advantages
    In the system-based superiority warfare, information flow drives material flow and energy flow, and information advantage determines decision advantage. The rapid and accurate recognition of intelligence information and battlefield situation has an important impact on gaining command and decision-making advantages. Therefore, in order to organize and implement system-based optimization, we must make full use of intelligent technology and big data technology to analyze massive intelligence information data.

國語中文:

體系聚優戰是資訊化戰爭中的體係作戰,其不限定特指某一種作戰樣式,而是由多種作戰樣式和戰法組成的“組合拳”,或作戰樣式群。強調根據作戰任務、作戰對手和戰場情勢變化,只要有利於形成相對優勢、達成體系製勝,可以靈活運用任何適宜的作戰手段和样式,形成作戰優勢。在體系聚優戰具體實施過程中,這些具體作戰樣式和行動戰法既可以作為聯合全局作戰的一部分單獨組織實施,更強調打“組合拳”,多策並舉,整體制勝。
為更能理解其核心內涵,本文列舉了整體威懾戰、電磁擾阻戰、網路破擊戰、認知控擾戰等九大典型作戰樣式,並進行分析。

體系聚優戰――靈活運用多種作戰樣式的「組合拳」作者:學術plus高級觀察員 東週
本文主要內容及關鍵字
1.整體威懾戰:強調多域聯合威懾;實施整體威懾戰應具備三大要素;強大整體實力是實現有效威懾的核心
2.電磁擾阻戰:爭奪資訊優勢的關鍵;在組合手段方法上,透過「連結+共享」實現資訊賦能;破解無人集群作戰的有效戰法
3.網路破擊戰:軟殺傷為主,軟硬結合,重在破網降能失效
4.認知控擾:控制態勢感知認知權,爭奪資訊優勢;控制指揮決策權,爭奪決策優勢;控制「腦」權,奪取腦控優勢
5.敏捷機動戰:高效率快速決策;高效率形成有利作戰態勢;高效率即時聚合作戰力量;敏捷機動戰是對傳統機動作戰的創新發展
6.蜂群自主戰:有利於形成體系優勢壓制敵方;有利於增強作戰效果;有利於陷敵於作戰困境
7.精確點殺戰:實現作戰的高效費比;打關鍵節點目標是重要選項;大範圍體系支撐是基本條件;離不開精確情報保障
8.補給斷鍊戰:供應保障鏈對作戰全局影響巨大;打擊重心是斷敵供應保障鏈的關鍵節點;重在選準時機活用戰法
9.體系毀癱戰:作戰目標是使敵作戰體系運作失序;重拳打擊作戰體系的關鍵節點;對敵作戰體系實施軟打擊

僅供學習參考,歡迎交流指正!文章觀點不代表本機構立場
作戰概念首先是作為一種新的作戰樣式提出。創新作戰樣式是作戰概念開發的核心內容。可以說,體系聚優戰是一系列具體戰法的總稱。以下九大典型作戰樣式構成了體系聚優戰的戰法體系。分別為:一是整體威懾戰,在體系聚優戰中積極組織靜態威力展示與威懾行動,力爭不戰或小戰而屈人之兵;二是電磁擾阻戰,運用電子偵攻防等多種作戰手段和行動樣式,擾亂、阻止、破壞敵電磁能力的發揮,積極爭奪電磁頻譜優勢,奪取制信息權,進而贏得作戰主動;三是網絡破擊戰,運用軟打擊和硬摧毀等多種手段,破敵指揮網、情報網、通訊網、後勤補給網,亂敵指揮保障;四是認知控擾。透過資訊攻擊、輿論攻擊、腦攻擊,在認知空間形成控制優勢;五是敏捷機動戰。快速調整兵力兵器部署,在即設戰場快速聚集能力,搶奪作戰先機;六是蜂群自主戰。廣泛運用「蜂群」、「狼群」、「魚群」等無人作戰手段,自主組織行動、分散式攻擊,實現人機聯合製勝;七是精確點殺戰。精準獲取情報,實施多域精確打擊,力爭打一點撼全局,實現作戰效益最大化;八是補給斷鏈戰。組織精銳力量,打敵後勤物資裝備供應補給鏈、補給線和補給基地,破敵失去補給而退出戰鬥;九是體系毀癱戰。綜合採取破網、鍛鍊、打節點等多種手段,幹擾、遲滯、破壞甚至癱瘓敵作戰體係有效運轉,削弱敵作戰系統功能。
1.整體威懾戰
整體威懾戰是指在體系聚優戰中積極組織靜態威力展示和威懾行動,力爭不戰或小戰而屈人之兵。孫子曰:「不戰而屈人之兵,善之善者也。」威懾和戰爭是軍事活動的兩種主要形式。而威懾,主要是透過展現力量或威脅使用強大實力,向潛在對手錶明決心意志,以嚇阻對手行動的行為。可以說,體系聚優戰中的整體威懾戰是實現不戰而「止」人之兵的重要手段或戰法。克勞塞維茨強調,策略的第一條規則是盡可能強大,首先是整體的強大,然後是在關鍵部位的強大。現代戰爭是體系與體系的對抗。資訊化局部戰爭下的整體威懾戰,不僅要有陸海空天傳統威懾手段和能力,也需要太空威懾、電磁威懾、網路威懾等新型威懾手段和能力,更需要有顯示國家整體實力的整體威懾。特別是隨著資訊科技等先進科技的快速發展,科技革命、產業革命、軍事革命加速融合,戰略競爭力、社會生產力和軍隊戰鬥力耦合關聯更加緊密,打贏資訊化戰爭更大程度上是國家意志和國家整體實力的較量。若要遏止戰爭,首先要從整體實力上對對手形成嚇阻。
1.1 強調多域聯合威懾
威懾手段通常包括核威懾和常規威懾。在體系聚優戰中,實施整體威懾戰,旨在綜合運用陸海空天電網全域常規威懾手段,以達成威懾目的。特別是隨著資訊網路技術及太空、定向能技術在軍事上的應用,太空、網路、電磁武器等成為新型威懾手段。太空威懾,主要以快速響應電磁軌道武器、天地網路化反導航定位服務系統、大橢圓軌道雷射武器、高功率微波武器等裝備,威脅攻擊對手空間目標,形成對敵空間資訊「幹擾阻斷」威懾。網路威懾,主要是以網路空間態勢感知和攻擊裝備,威脅攻擊對手軍事網路及其它關鍵資訊基礎設施,實現對敵威懾。電磁威懾,主要以電磁頻譜作戰系統,威脅攻擊敵探測、導航、通訊等資訊化武器裝備系統,實現對敵致聾致盲威懾。 1.2 實施整體嚇阻戰應具備三大要素
實施整體威懾戰並達成嚇阻預期效果,通常必須具備三大要素:一是實力。威嚇方必須具備令對手感到忌憚畏懼的可靠能力或力量;二是決心意志。威懾方在必要時必須敢於使用這種能力;三是明確傳遞訊息。威懾方必須將行動能力與決心準確、有效地讓對方清楚知道。
從歷史上看,判斷威懾實力的標準主要有三個面向變化:一是現役軍事力量;二是綜合國力或戰爭潛力;三是主戰武器裝備總數。在相當長一段歷史時期內,軍隊數量就是威懾,軍事實力的強弱直接取決於現役軍隊的規模、重要武器裝備的數量,以及軍隊訓練組織士氣等非物質因素。二十世紀後,隨著戰爭規模的擴大,威懾實力已不再僅限於軍隊兵力和重要武器裝備的數量,而是由國家戰爭潛力所決定,其中包括經濟實力、科技實力、能源資源,甚至人口數量,等等。體系聚優戰中的整體威懾戰,其威懾實力的形成主要基於網路資訊體系,以及在該體系融合整合下形成的聯合全局威懾能力。
1.3 強大整體實力是實現有效威懾的核心
資訊科技的發展及在軍事領域的廣泛滲透和應用,為建構整體實力、實現整體威懾提供了有利條件。體系聚優戰以網路資訊體系為支撐,充分利用資訊科技的滲透性和聯通性,不僅把各種作戰力量、作戰要素、作戰單元融合為一個有機整體,實現軍事上的體係作戰優勢,而且把國家政治、經濟、外交、金融、交通、能源等與戰爭和國家動員相關的各領域,都連結、匯入國家戰爭動員體系,凝聚各方面力量和資源形成整體合力,實現體系能力的湧現效應,從整體上顯示綜合實力優勢,形成眾志成城、同仇敵愾的強大無形威懾,塑造使敵「有力量但不能行動」「能行動但沒有效果」的態勢,起到遏制和打贏戰爭的作用。
在整體威懾戰中,國家戰爭動員的範圍將更加廣泛,不僅限於某一方向、區域,而是遍及全國各地,乃至世界相關地區;動員時間更加迅速,利用網絡和信息系統,動員和行動信息可在第一時間迅速傳達到每個人、每個節點;行動協調和協同更加一致,分佈在各域各地的各方力量可以基於同一態勢、根據同一命令幾乎在同一時間統一行動,極大提高行動協同效率;資源利用更加充分,以網路為基礎的各種戰爭資源,可快速實現平戰轉換、軍民轉換,實現前方後方一體化保障、精確保障。
2.電磁擾阻戰
電磁擾動戰,指靈活運用電子偵攻防等多種作戰手段和行動樣式,擾亂、阻止、破壞敵電磁能力的發揮,積極爭奪電磁頻譜優勢,奪取制信息權,進而贏得作戰主動。
2.1 爭奪資訊優勢的關鍵資訊化局部戰爭高度依賴電磁頻譜,對電磁空間的控制與反控製成為爭奪制資訊權的焦點。組織實施電磁阻擾戰,主要是破壞敵方電磁頻譜,保護己方不受破壞。電磁頻譜是傳遞訊息的主要載體。使用電磁手段對敵方電磁頻譜實施阻擾破壞,將有效降低敵資訊作戰能力,並使己方在擁有製資訊權的場景下,保障資訊的快速有效流動,透過資訊流驅動指揮流、行動流、物質流、能量流,進而擁有作戰的主導權、主動權。
2.2 基本著眼點是使敵作戰體系失能失效體系聚優戰中實施電磁擾阻戰,主要是針對敵方對電磁空間的依賴,同時為確保己方對電磁空間的有效利用,組織各種電子偵察、幹擾、攻擊、防禦和支援力量,對敵通信網、雷達網、電腦網和指揮中心、通信樞紐、雷達站、電腦網路節點,全球導航定位系統、天地一體互聯網等空間鏈路系統,及其他各種用頻武器裝備,實施幹擾、攻擊,阻斷、破壞其通訊聯絡與資料傳輸,破壞敵作戰體系的「連結」與「共享」結構重心,從根源為奪取制資訊權、制電磁權提供支撐,進而削弱敵指揮控制能力,使敵整個作戰體系失能、失效。
2.3 破解無人集群作戰的有效戰法
「蜂群」「狼群」「魚群」等無人自主集群作戰,是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化局部戰爭的重要特徵。各種無人自主集群數量龐大、類型多樣、特徵複雜,且每個個體都可以互補位置、互相替代發揮作用,攔截毀傷整個無人集群將十分困難。但從技術角度分析,無人作戰集群為實現有效協同,每個個體之間必須進行資訊共享與互動。無人集群間通訊協同一旦受到干擾,將無法分享戰場態勢與訊息,無法相互協同行動,也就很難發揮應有作戰效能。這就給對方實施通訊攔截與電磁幹擾提供了機會。因此,實施電磁頻譜戰,對無人集群的資訊通訊網路實施幹擾、攻擊,破壞其資訊共享與交互,將使無人集群中每個個體無法實現有效協同,從而失去作戰能力。
3.網路破擊戰
網路破擊戰,指綜合運用網路和電腦等技術以及其他有效手段,圍繞著資訊、資訊網路的控制權而進行的軍事對抗行動,是網路空間作戰、爭奪制網權的主要作戰樣式。其主要作戰行動既有軟殺傷也有硬摧毀,以軟為主、軟硬結合。其中,軟殺傷主要是網路攻擊,即綜合利用阻塞攻擊、病毒攻擊等手段,對敵資訊網路、指揮系統、武器平台等進行阻滯與攻擊,使敵網路、指揮資訊系統等難以有效運作甚至癱瘓;硬摧毀主要是利用精確火力打擊、高能量微波、電磁脈衝以及反輻射攻擊等手段,癱毀敵資訊網路物理設施,摧毀敵作戰及武器裝備實體。
重在破網降能失效。在體系聚優戰中組織網路破擊戰就是針對作戰對手軍事資訊網路存在的弱點,利用體系優勢,組織各種網路攻擊力量,在作戰全過程對敵作戰指揮網、偵察情報網、通訊網乃至後勤補給網等,持續實施軟殺傷與硬摧毀行動,破壞敵之網路體系,使敵作戰體系功能整體下降甚至失能。主要對敵基礎資訊網、情報網、指揮網、保障網等核心目標,實施網電協同攻擊、欺騙迷惘、連結阻塞、接管控制等一系列作戰行動,使敵智能化作戰網路體系失能失效,達成癱敵體系的關鍵性勝利。


4.認知控擾戰
認知控擾戰,是指在體系聚優戰中透過資訊攻擊、輿論攻擊、腦攻擊,幹擾、破壞或控制敵對思維認知,使敵不能做出正確判斷、決策,從而在認知空間對敵形成控制優勢。
認知域,即人的思考空間、意識空間,是對作戰決策、判斷等具有關鍵性影響的領域。資訊科技特別是人工智慧技術的發展及在軍事領域的廣泛應用,使戰爭的較量從物理空間、資訊空間擴大到認知空間,使認知空間成為一個全新的作戰域。隨著資訊化、智慧化技術發展並在軍事領域廣泛深入應用,人機智慧趨於融合,使認知在智慧化戰爭作戰中的地位更加凸顯,認知領域逐漸成為重要的戰場。制認知權成為未來戰場控制權的關鍵要素。爭奪認知控制權成為具有智慧化特徵的資訊化局部戰爭作戰制勝的重要作戰樣式。
4.1 控制態勢感知認知權,爭奪資訊優勢
體系聚優戰中,資訊流驅動物質流、能量流,資訊優勢決定決策優勢。對情報資訊與戰場態勢的快速、準確認知,對奪取指揮決策優勢有重要影響。因此,組織實施體系聚優戰,要充分利用智慧技術、大數據技術,對海量情報資訊資料進行

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81it.com/2022/0901/13716.html

深入學習貫徹習近平總書記重要論述  奮力開創新時代網絡法治工作新局面–時政–人民網

China’s Rule of Law for the Internet

China’s Law-Based Cyberspace Governance in the New Era

2023年03月17日06:41 | 來源:人民網-人民日報

深入學習貫徹習近平總書記重要論述  奮力開創新時代網絡法治工作新局面–時政–人民網

小字號

黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央在領導全面依法治國和建設網絡強國的偉大實踐中,提出一系列原創性的新理念新思想新戰略,形成了習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想。習近平總書記深刻把握信息時代的“時”與“勢”,高度重視網絡法治工作,將依法治網納入全面依法治國和網絡強國建設全局,圍繞依法治網這一重大時代課題,多次作出重要論述、提出明確要求。在習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想特別是習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想指引下,我國依法治網深入推進,中國特色網絡法治體系不斷完善,走出了一條既符合國際通行做法、又有中國特色的依法治網之路,網絡法治建設取得歷史性成就。

黨的二十大報告深刻指出:“全面依法治國是國家治理的一場深刻革命,關系黨執政興國,關系人民幸福安康,關系黨和國家長治久安。”2023年3月16日,國務院新聞辦公室發布《新時代的中國網絡法治建設》白皮書,這是我國第一次專門就網絡法治建設發布白皮書,對於深入學習貫徹黨的二十大精神,加快推進新時代網絡強國、數字中國建設,在法治軌道上全面建設社會主義現代化國家,都具有重要意義。我們要以《新時代的中國網絡法治建設》白皮書發布為契機,深入學習貫徹習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想,深入學習領會習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述,深刻領悟“兩個確立”的決定性意義,增強“四個意識”、堅定“四個自信”、做到“兩個維護”,全面貫徹落實黨的二十大關於全面依法治國和網絡強國建設的重大決策部署,奮力開創新時代網絡法治工作新局面,以法治力量護航數字中國高質量發展,為網絡強國建設提供堅實法治保障。

一、深入學習貫徹習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述

習近平總書記圍繞依法治網這一重大時代課題,提出了一系列原創性的新理念新思想新戰略,明確了網絡法治在黨和國家事業全局中的重要地位、戰略目標、原則要求、國際主張和基本方法,等等。這些重要論述以新的內涵豐富和完善了習近平法治思想、習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想,為我們做好網絡安全和信息化工作提供了科學指引。

習近平總書記深刻闡述了網絡法治建設的時代要求。當前,中華民族偉大復興戰略全局、世界百年未有之大變局與信息革命時代潮流發生歷史性交匯,新一輪科技革命和產業變革深入發展。習近平總書記准確把握人類社會正在經歷信息革命的時代大勢,強調互聯網這塊“新疆域”不是“法外之地”,同樣要講法治,同樣要維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,要加強重點領域、新興領域、涉外領域立法,統籌推進國內法治和涉外法治,以良法促進發展、保障善治,要把依法治網作為基礎性手段,繼續加快制定完善互聯網領域法律法規,推動依法管網、依法辦網、依法上網,確保互聯網在法治軌道上健康運行,等等。這些重要論述,科學標定了網絡法治建設的時代背景和歷史方位,充分體現了對信息時代發展脈搏的深刻洞察、對網絡空間全新特征的精准把握,進一步深化了我們對網絡法治建設歷史必然性和現實緊迫性的認識。

習近平總書記科學指明了網絡法治建設的實踐路徑。習近平總書記在深刻總結我國全功能接入國際互聯網以來依法治網實踐經驗的基礎上,聚焦新時代以來網絡法治工作面臨的新形勢新任務新情況新問題,對網絡法治建設作出全面部署,強調要深入實施網絡安全法,要以良法善治保障新業態新模式健康發展,要抓緊制定立法規劃,完善互聯網信息內容管理、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等法律法規,要依法加強網絡社會管理,等等。這些重要論述,深深植根我國網絡法治建設實踐沃土,源於實踐、指導實踐、又被實踐所驗証,引領我國網絡法治建設邁上新台階,展現出堅實的實踐根基、鮮明的實踐導向和強大的實踐偉力。

習近平總書記突出強調了網絡法治建設的為民理念。網絡法治與10億多網民直接相連,與14億多人民群眾的獲得感、幸福感、安全感息息相關。習近平總書記多次強調,要本著對社會負責、對人民負責的態度,依法加強網絡空間治理,要依法嚴厲打擊網絡黑客、電信網絡詐騙、侵犯公民個人隱私等違法犯罪行為,維護公民在網絡空間的合法權益,等等。這些重要論述,堅持網絡法治為了人民、依靠人民、造福人民、保護人民,為網絡法治建設注入了最深沉最持久的動力源泉和發展基礎。

習近平總書記明確提出了網絡法治國際交流合作的中國主張。習近平總書記創造性地提出了推進全球互聯網治理體系變革的“四項原則”和構建網絡空間命運共同體的“五點主張”,明確提出各國應該共同努力,防范和反對利用網絡空間進行的恐怖、淫穢、販毒、洗錢、賭博等犯罪活動﹔中國願同各國一道,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,共同維護網絡空間和平安全,等等。這些重要論述,把法治作為推動全球互聯網治理體系變革和構建網絡空間命運共同體的重要保障,提出一系列契合網絡發展實踐、反映各國共同意願的思想理念、原則准則,為網絡法治建設提出了中國方案、貢獻了中國智慧。

習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述,思想深邃、內涵豐富,具有很強的政治性、思想性、前瞻性、指導性,是習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想的重要組成部分,為我們做好新時代網絡法治工作提供了根本遵循和行動指南。我們要深入學習和全面把握習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述的豐富內涵、實踐要求、鮮明特征,切實增強學習貫徹的思想自覺、政治自覺、行動自覺。

二、全面把握新時代我國網絡法治建設取得的歷史性成就

自1994年全功能接入國際互聯網以來,我國高度重視網絡法治建設,不斷探索符合中國互聯網發展特點的依法治網之路。進入新時代,在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,在習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想的科學指引下,我們認真學習貫徹習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述,堅持把依法治網擺在更加突出位置,取得了一系列顯著成就,為網絡強國建設、全面依法治國、黨在信息化條件下治國理政作出了重要貢獻。

推進科學立法,奠定網絡空間法治基礎。把握互聯網發展規律,著力建立網絡權益保障法律制度、健全數字經濟法治規則、劃定網絡安全法律紅線、完善網絡生態治理規范,先后制定出台了網絡安全法、電子商務法、數據安全法、個人信息保護法等基礎性、綜合性、全局性法律。截至目前,已制定出台網絡領域立法140余部,基本形成了以憲法為根本,以法律、行政法規、部門規章和地方性法規、地方政府規章為依托,以傳統立法為基礎,以網絡內容建設與管理、網絡安全和信息化等網絡專門立法為主干的網絡法律體系,為網絡強國建設提供了堅實的制度保障。

推進嚴格執法,保障網絡空間規范有序。堅持嚴格規范公正文明網絡執法,加大重點領域執法力度,全面保護人民群眾合法權益、維護社會公共利益。加大個人信息保護執法力度,加強網絡知識產權保護,積極探索與網絡市場新業態相適應的執法模式,依法整治壟斷和不正當競爭行為。加強網絡基礎資源、重要網絡系統、網絡數據等領域安全執法工作,持續深入開展“淨網”“清朗”“護苗”等系列專項行動,加大對人民群眾反映強烈的網絡淫穢色情、虛假信息、網絡暴力、算法濫用、未成年人沉迷網絡游戲等問題的治理力度,推動網絡空間持續向好、天朗氣清。

推進公正司法,捍衛網絡空間公平正義。積極回應信息時代司法新需求,運用網絡信息技術賦能傳統司法。創新網絡司法規則,及時制定涉網司法解釋,依法審理新類型、疑難復雜和互聯網特性突出的司法案件。探索網絡司法模式,積極推行大數據、雲計算、人工智能等現代科技在訴訟服務、審判執行、司法管理等領域的深度應用,相繼設立杭州、北京、廣州互聯網法院,探索實行“網上案件網上審理”,審判質量、效率和效果呈現良好態勢。

推進全民守法,提升全社會網絡法治意識和素養。創新網絡法治宣傳教育的內容、形式、手段,拓展“互聯網+普法”新模式,積極運用網絡媒體開展網上普法活動,推進線下普法向線上延伸。圍繞青少年、互聯網企業從業人員等重要普法對象開展法治宣傳,全社會網絡法治意識和素養明顯增強。強化網絡法學科專業建設和人才培養,積極推進網絡法治智庫建設,為網絡法治建設提供了智力支持和人才保障。

推進國際交流,積極參與全球網絡法治建設。堅持以習近平總書記關於構建網絡空間命運共同體的理念主張為指引,積極開展網絡法治國際交流合作。支持發揮聯合國在網絡國際治理中的主渠道作用,提出《全球數據安全倡議》。積極參與形成區域性網絡治理規則。開展網絡法治雙多邊對話交流,加強網絡安全國際執法司法合作。搭建網絡法治國際對話合作平台,舉辦世界互聯網大會,發布《攜手構建網絡空間命運共同體行動倡議》等。

三、認真總結新時代我國網絡法治建設的寶貴經驗

黨的十八大以來,我國網絡法治建設之所以取得歷史性成就、實現跨越式發展,根本在於習近平總書記作為黨中央的核心、全黨的核心領航掌舵,在於習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想特別是習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想科學指引。新時代以來,網絡法治建設在實踐中發展,在繼承中創新,積累了一系列來之不易、彌足珍貴的經驗。

堅持以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想統領網絡法治工作全局。習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想是當代中國馬克思主義、二十一世紀馬克思主義,是全黨全國人民為實現中華民族偉大復興而奮斗的行動指南,也是推進網絡法治工作的根本遵循。我們要深入學習貫徹習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想,特別是把學習貫徹習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想緊密結合起來,認真貫徹落實習近平總書記關於網絡法治的重要論述,切實用以武裝頭腦、指導實踐、推動工作。

堅持加強黨對網絡法治工作的全面領導。黨的全面領導是做好網絡法治工作的根本政治保証。必須加強黨對網信工作的全面領導,堅持黨管互聯網,深刻領悟“兩個確立”的決定性意義,增強“四個意識”、堅定“四個自信”、做到“兩個維護”,不斷提高政治判斷力、政治領悟力、政治執行力,把黨的領導貫穿到依法治網全過程和各方面,確保網絡法治工作始終沿著正確政治方向和道路前進。

堅持以人民為中心。網絡法治工作與人民群眾切身利益密切相關,必須始終堅持以人民為中心的發展思想,把體現人民利益、反映人民願望、維護人民權益、增進人民福祉落實到網絡法治建設全過程各方面,為人民群眾營造安全、公平、健康、文明、清朗的網絡空間。

堅持走中國特色的網絡法治道路。中國特色網絡法治道路本質上是中國特色社會主義法治道路在網信領域的具體體現,是我國網絡法治建設成就和經驗的集中體現。必須堅持中國特色治網之道,立足國情、民情、網情,運用法治思維和法治方式解決制約互聯網發展的瓶頸問題,走好中國特色的網絡法治道路,為推動全球互聯網治理體系變革提出中國方案、貢獻中國智慧。

堅持把握網絡法治工作規律。網絡法治是一門大學問、新學問,必須科學把握內在規律,處理好發展和安全、自由和秩序、開放和自主、管理和服務的關系,堅持依法治網和以德潤網相統一、規范發展和鼓勵支持相協調、國內法治和涉外法治相銜接,以高質量法治建設助推網信事業高質量發展,為互聯網健康有序發展提供保障,為網絡強國建設夯實法治基礎。

堅持推進網絡法治工作創新。互聯網因創新而生、因創新而興,網絡法治工作尤其需要創新。必須順應全球信息化發展大勢,立足我國互聯網發展實踐,加快推進網絡法治理念、內容、方式、方法等全方位創新,完善和創新新技術新領域規則,提升網絡法治工作的針對性和實效性,以創新引領網絡法治實踐。

堅持凝聚網絡法治工作合力。網絡法治工作是一項系統工程,必須統籌兼顧、把握重點、整體謀劃,更好發揮各方面的積極性、主動性、創造性,協調推進網絡內容建設與管理、網絡安全、信息化和網絡空間國際合作等各領域法治工作,讓互聯網在法治軌道上健康運行。

四、奮力開創新時代網絡法治工作新局面

推進依法治網是全面依法治國的必然要求,網絡法治工作是網絡強國建設的重要保障。我們要深入學習宣傳貫徹黨的二十大精神,以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想特別是習近平法治思想和習近平總書記關於網絡強國的重要思想為指引,筑法治之基、行法治之力、積法治之勢,深入推進網絡空間法治化進程,奮力開創網絡法治工作新局面。

切實提高政治站位,加強黨對網絡法治工作的全面領導。深刻領悟“兩個確立”的決定性意義,增強“四個意識”、堅定“四個自信”、做到“兩個維護”,把黨管互聯網全面貫穿於網絡立法、執法、司法、普法等工作的全過程和各方面。完善黨領導依法治網的制度和機制,形成強大工作合力。

強化重點領域立法,構建系統完備的網絡法律體系。立足“十四五”時期網信事業發展,進一步健全以網絡安全法、數據安全法、個人信息保護法等法律為引領,涵蓋網絡內容建設與管理、網絡安全、信息化、網絡空間國際合作等領域,法律、行政法規、部門規章等多個位階,民商法、刑法、行政法等多個法律部門的網絡法律體系。強化網絡重點立法,加快制定修訂網絡安全法、未成年人網絡保護條例、網絡數據安全管理條例等法律法規。堅持急用先行,豐富“小快靈”立法。強化前沿問題研究,加快推進數字經濟、互聯網金融、人工智能、大數據、雲計算等新興領域立法步伐,做到新技術新應用發展到哪裡、法治建設就覆蓋到哪裡。

深入開展網絡執法,保障網絡法律法規實施。深入推進網絡執法協調機制建設,強化跨領域跨部門聯合執法,推動形成橫向協同、縱向聯動的全國網絡行政執法工作體系,完善行政執法與刑事司法銜接機制。加強網絡傳播秩序規范治理。聚焦人民群眾反映強烈的突出問題,持續開展“清朗”系列專項行動,綜合運用多種懲戒方式,開展分類分級監管執法。依法打擊利用網絡從事危害國家安全和社會公共利益、擾亂經濟秩序和社會秩序、侵害他人合法權益等違法犯罪活動,嚴厲懲處利用網絡傳播違法信息行為。加強網絡執法人才隊伍建設,推進嚴格規范公正文明執法。

加強法治宣傳研究,凝聚依法治網強大力量。全面實施網信系統“八五”普法規劃,將“誰立法誰普法”“誰執法誰普法”“誰管理誰普法”“誰服務誰普法”貫穿於依法治網全過程。將領導干部和青少年網絡法治宣傳教育作為工作重點,加大互聯網行業從業人員法律法規教育培訓力度,不斷提升全社會網絡法治意識和素養。深化網絡法治研究與教育,推進網絡法治理論創新,建立健全網絡法治教育長效機制,推動網絡法治智庫建設,為網絡法治建設提供更強大的智力支持。

增進國際交流合作,推動構建網絡空間命運共同體。堅持以習近平總書記關於構建網絡空間命運共同體的理念主張為指引,加大我國互聯網治理實踐和理念主張的對外宣介力度,做好《新時代的中國網絡法治建設》白皮書宣傳解讀工作,加強對外傳播,講好中國故事。積極參與數字貨幣、數字稅、數據安全、個人信息保護等領域國際規則制定。充分發揮聯合國主渠道作用,通過金磚國家合作機制、上海合作組織、亞非法律協商組織、世界互聯網大會等平台,加強網絡立法和政策機制建設交流合作。

(作者為中央宣傳部副部長,中央網絡安全和信息化委員會辦公室主任、國家互聯網信息辦公室主任)

《 人民日報 》( 2023年03月17日 10 版)

In-depth study and implementation of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important expositions, and strive to create a new situation in the work of Internet rule of law in the new era

Zhuang RongwenMarch 17, 2023 06:41 | Source: 

People’s Daily Online – People’s Daily

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Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has put forward a series of original new ideas, new ideas, and new strategies in leading the great practice of comprehensively governing the country according to law and building a cyber power, forming Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and President Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law. The secretary’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping has a deep grasp of the “time” and “trend” of the information age, attaches great importance to the work of the rule of law on the Internet, and incorporates the rule of law into the overall law-based governance of the country and the construction of a strong network country. Discuss and make clear requirements. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, my country’s rule of law in the Internet has been further advanced, and the Internet legal system with Chinese characteristics has been continuously improved. , and the road to governing the Internet according to law with Chinese characteristics, the construction of the Internet rule of law has made historic achievements.

The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out profoundly: “Comprehensively ruling the country according to law is a profound revolution in state governance. This is the first time that my country has released a white paper on the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. It is important for in-depth study and implementation of the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and to accelerate the construction of a powerful network country and a digital China in the new era. On the track of the rule of law It is of great significance to build a modern socialist country in an all-round way. We must take the opportunity of the release of the white paper “Construction of the Internet Rule of Law in China in the New Era” to study and implement Xi Jinping’s thought on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet. The decisive significance of “two establishments” is to strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve “two maintenances”, and fully implement the major decisions and deployments of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on comprehensively governing the country according to law and building a powerful network country , strive to create a new situation in the work of the rule of law on the Internet in the new era, escort the high-quality development of digital China with the power of the rule of law, and provide a solid rule of law guarantee for the construction of a powerful network country.

1. In-depth study and implementation of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet

General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forward a series of original new ideas, new ideas and new strategies centering on the major era issue of governing the Internet according to the law, and clarified the important position, strategic goals, principle requirements, and international propositions of the Internet rule of law in the overall situation of the party and the country. and basic methods, etc. These important expositions have enriched and perfected Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet with new connotations, and provided scientific guidance for us to do a good job in network security and informatization.

General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly expounded the requirements of the times for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. At present, the overall strategy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the major changes in the world unseen in a century, and the trend of the information revolution era have historically converged, and a new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation has developed in depth. General Secretary Xi Jinping accurately grasped the general trend of the era when human society is undergoing an information revolution, and emphasized that the “new frontier” of the Internet is not a “land outside the law”. Legislation in key fields, emerging fields, and foreign-related fields, coordinate the advancement of domestic and foreign-related rule of law, promote development with good laws, and ensure good governance. We must use law-based governance of the Internet as a basic means, continue to accelerate the formulation and improvement of laws and regulations in the Internet field, and promote law-based management of the Internet. Run the Internet according to the law, access the Internet according to the law, ensure that the Internet operates on the track of the rule of law, and so on. These important expositions scientifically calibrate the background and historical orientation of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet, fully reflect the profound insight into the development pulse of the information age, and the precise grasp of the new characteristics of cyberspace, and further deepen our understanding of the historical inevitability and reality of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. awareness of urgency.

General Secretary Xi Jinping scientifically pointed out the practical path for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping, on the basis of profoundly summarizing the practical experience of law-based network governance since my country’s full-featured access to the international Internet, focused on the new situation, new tasks, new situations, and new problems faced by the network legal work since the new era, and made a comprehensive deployment of the network legal construction, emphasizing It is necessary to thoroughly implement the Cybersecurity Law, ensure the healthy development of new business forms and models with good laws and good governance, formulate legislative plans as soon as possible, improve laws and regulations such as Internet information content management and key information infrastructure protection, and strengthen network social management in accordance with the law, etc. These important expositions are deeply rooted in the fertile soil of practice in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country. They originate from practice, guide practice, and are verified by practice. Powerful practical power.

General Secretary Xi Jinping highlighted the concept of serving the people in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. The rule of law on the Internet is directly connected to more than 1 billion Internet users, and is closely related to the sense of gain, happiness, and security of more than 1.4 billion people. General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly stressed that cyberspace governance must be strengthened in accordance with the law in an attitude of being responsible to the society and the people, and that illegal and criminal acts such as cyber hacking, telecommunications and network fraud, and infringement of citizens’ personal privacy must be severely cracked down in accordance with the law, so as to protect citizens’ cyberspace security. Legal rights to space, etc. These important expositions, insisting that the rule of law on the Internet is for the people, rely on the people, benefit the people, and protect the people, have injected the deepest and most lasting source of motivation and development foundation for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet.

General Secretary Xi Jinping clearly put forward China’s proposition of international exchanges and cooperation on the rule of law on the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping creatively put forward the “Four Principles” to promote the reform of the global Internet governance system and the “Five Proposals” to build a community with a shared future in cyberspace. , drug trafficking, money laundering, gambling and other criminal activities; China is willing to work with other countries to promote the formulation of universally accepted international rules in cyberspace, improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, and jointly maintain peace and security in cyberspace, etc. These important expositions regard the rule of law as an important guarantee for promoting the reform of the global Internet governance system and building a community with a shared future in cyberspace, put forward a series of ideologies, principles and guidelines that conform to the practice of network development and reflect the common wishes of all countries, and propose a Chinese plan for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet , Contributed Chinese wisdom.

General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet has profound thoughts and rich connotations, and is highly political, ideological, forward-looking, and instructive. It provides us with a fundamental follow-up and action guide for us to do a good job in the work of the rule of law on the Internet in the new era. We must in-depth study and comprehensively grasp the rich connotations, practical requirements, and distinctive features of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important expositions on the rule of law on the Internet, and earnestly enhance the ideological, political, and action awareness of learning and implementing them.

2. Comprehensively grasp the historic achievements made in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country in the new era

Since full-featured access to the international Internet in 1994, my country has attached great importance to the construction of the rule of law on the Internet, and has continuously explored the way to rule the Internet according to the law in line with the characteristics of China’s Internet development. Entering the new era, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, and under the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we have conscientiously studied and implemented General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet, and insisted on governing the Internet by law. It has been placed in a more prominent position and has achieved a series of remarkable achievements, making important contributions to the construction of a strong network country, the comprehensive rule of law, and the party’s governance of the country under the conditions of informationization.

Promote scientific legislation and lay the foundation for the rule of law in cyberspace. Grasp the law of Internet development, focus on establishing a legal system for the protection of network rights and interests, improve the legal rules of the digital economy, delineate legal red lines for network security, and improve network ecological governance norms. Fundamental, comprehensive, and overall laws such as protection laws. Up to now, more than 140 pieces of legislation in the network field have been formulated and promulgated, basically forming a constitution based on the Constitution, relying on laws, administrative regulations, departmental regulations, local regulations, and local government regulations, based on traditional legislation, and based on network content construction and cooperation. The network legal system with special network legislation on management, network security and informatization as the main body provides a solid institutional guarantee for the construction of a strong network country.

Promote strict law enforcement to ensure orderly cyberspace. Adhere to strict, standardized, fair and civilized law enforcement on the Internet, increase law enforcement in key areas, comprehensively protect the legitimate rights and interests of the people, and safeguard social and public interests. Increase law enforcement efforts to protect personal information, strengthen network intellectual property protection, actively explore law enforcement models that are compatible with new business forms in the network market, and rectify monopoly and unfair competition behaviors in accordance with the law. Strengthen security law enforcement in areas such as network basic resources, important network systems, and network data, continue to carry out a series of special campaigns such as “cleaning the network”, “clearing the sky” and “protecting seedlings” , Internet violence, algorithm abuse, and minors’ addiction to online games, and other issues, to promote the continuous improvement of cyberspace and clear skies.

Promote fair justice and safeguard fairness and justice in cyberspace. Actively respond to the new demands of justice in the information age, and use network information technology to empower traditional justice. Innovate Internet judicial rules, formulate Internet-related judicial interpretations in a timely manner, and try new types of judicial cases that are difficult and complex and have prominent Internet characteristics in accordance with the law. Explore the network judicial model, actively promote the in-depth application of modern technologies such as big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence in the fields of litigation services, trial enforcement, and judicial management. The quality, efficiency and effect of trials are showing a good trend.

Promote the law-abiding of the whole people, and enhance the awareness and literacy of the rule of law in the Internet of the whole society. Innovate the content, form, and means of online legal publicity and education, expand the new model of “Internet + law popularization”, actively use online media to carry out online legal popularization activities, and promote the extension of offline legal popularization to online. Publicity on the rule of law was carried out around young people, employees of Internet companies and other important objects of law popularization, and the awareness and literacy of the rule of law in the Internet of the whole society were significantly enhanced. Strengthen the professional construction and personnel training of Internet law disciplines, actively promote the construction of Internet rule of law think tanks, and provide intellectual support and talent guarantee for the construction of Internet rule of law.

Promote international exchanges and actively participate in the construction of the rule of law on the global network. Adhere to the guidance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s concept and proposition of building a community of shared future in cyberspace, and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation on the rule of law in the Internet. Support the role of the United Nations as the main channel in the international governance of the Internet, and put forward the “Global Data Security Initiative”. Actively participate in the formation of regional network governance rules. Carry out bilateral and multilateral dialogues and exchanges on the rule of law on the Internet, and strengthen international law enforcement and judicial cooperation on Internet security. Establish a platform for international dialogue and cooperation on the rule of law in the Internet, hold the World Internet Conference, and release the “Action Initiative to Build a Community of Shared Future in Cyberspace”, etc.

3. Conscientiously summarize the valuable experience in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country in the new era

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the reason why my country’s Internet rule of law has achieved historic achievements and achieved leapfrog development is fundamentally that General Secretary Xi Jinping, as the core of the Party Central Committee and the core of the whole party, is at the helm at the helm, and lies in Xi Jinping’s new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics In particular, Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important scientific guidance on the network power. Since the new era, the construction of the rule of law on the Internet has developed in practice, innovated in inheritance, and accumulated a series of hard-won and precious experiences.

Persist in guiding the overall work of the rule of law on the Internet with Xi Jinping’s socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era is Marxism in contemporary China and Marxism in the 21st century. We must thoroughly study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially closely combine the study and implementation of Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law with General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, conscientiously implement General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet, and earnestly implement it. It is used to arm the mind, guide practice, and promote work.

Persist in strengthening the party’s overall leadership over the rule of law work on the Internet. The party’s overall leadership is the fundamental political guarantee for doing a good job in the rule of law on the Internet. It is necessary to strengthen the party’s overall leadership over the Internet and information work, insist on the party’s management of the Internet, deeply understand the decisive significance of the “two establishments”, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve the “two maintenances”, and constantly Improve political judgment, political comprehension, and political execution, and implement the party’s leadership throughout the entire process and all aspects of governing the Internet by law, so as to ensure that Internet rule of law work always advances along the correct political direction and path.

Adhere to the people as the center. The work of the rule of law on the Internet is closely related to the vital interests of the people. We must always adhere to the people-centered development idea, and implement the interests of the people, reflect the wishes of the people, safeguard the rights and interests of the people, and improve the well-being of the people in all aspects of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. The masses create a safe, fair, healthy, civilized, and clear cyberspace.

Adhere to the road of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics. The path of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics is essentially a concrete manifestation of the path of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics in the field of Internet information, and it is a concentrated expression of the achievements and experience of my country’s Internet rule of law construction. We must adhere to the way of governing the Internet with Chinese characteristics, based on national conditions, public conditions, and Internet conditions, use legal thinking and methods to solve bottlenecks that restrict Internet development, take the road of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics, and propose Chinese solutions for promoting the reform of the global Internet governance system , Contribute Chinese wisdom.

Persist in grasping the law of network rule of law work. The rule of law on the Internet is a university and a new study. It is necessary to scientifically grasp the internal laws, properly handle the relationship between development and security, freedom and order, openness and autonomy, and management and service. Coordinating with encouragement and support, linking domestic rule of law with foreign-related rule of law, boosting the high-quality development of cybersecurity and informatization with high-quality rule of law construction, providing guarantees for the healthy and orderly development of the Internet, and laying a solid foundation for the rule of law for the construction of a strong network country.

Persist in advancing the innovation of network rule of law work. The Internet was born and prospered because of innovation, and the rule of law on the Internet especially needs innovation. It is necessary to conform to the general trend of global informatization development, based on the practice of my country’s Internet development, accelerate the promotion of all-round innovations in the concept, content, methods, and methods of the rule of law on the Internet, improve and innovate the rules of new technologies and new fields, and enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of the rule of law work on the Internet. Lead the practice of the rule of law on the Internet with innovation.

Persist in cohesive efforts in network rule of law work. The rule of law work on the Internet is a systematic project, and it is necessary to make overall plans, grasp the key points, and make overall plans, better exert the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of all parties, and coordinate and promote the construction and management of Internet content, Internet security, informatization, and international cooperation in cyberspace The rule of law work in various fields, so that the Internet can run healthily on the track of the rule of law.

4. Strive to create a new situation in the network rule of law work in the new era

Promoting law-based governance of the Internet is an inevitable requirement for comprehensive law-based governance, and Internet rule of law work is an important guarantee for the construction of a powerful Internet country. We must thoroughly study, publicize and implement the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, build the foundation of the rule of law, practice the power of the rule of law, Accumulate the momentum of the rule of law, deeply promote the process of the rule of law in cyberspace, and strive to create a new situation in the work of the rule of law in the Internet.

Effectively improve political standing, and strengthen the party’s overall leadership over the rule of law on the Internet. Deeply comprehend the decisive significance of the “two establishments”, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve the “two maintenances”, and fully implement the party’s management of the Internet in the work of online legislation, law enforcement, judiciary, and law popularization the whole process and all aspects. Improve the system and mechanism for the party leadership to rule the Internet according to the law, and form a strong working force.

Strengthen legislation in key areas, and build a systematic and complete network legal system. Based on the development of the Internet information business during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, further improve laws such as the Network Security Law, Data Security Law, and Personal Information Protection Law, covering network content construction and management, network security, informatization, international cooperation in cyberspace, etc. Fields, laws, administrative regulations, departmental rules and other levels, civil and commercial law, criminal law, administrative law and other legal departments of the network legal system. Strengthen key legislation on the Internet, and speed up the formulation and revision of laws and regulations such as the Internet Security Law, the Regulations on the Internet Protection of Minors, and the Regulations on the Management of Internet Data Security. Adhere to urgent needs first, and enrich the “small, fast and smart” legislation. Strengthen research on cutting-edge issues, accelerate the pace of legislation in emerging fields such as digital economy, Internet finance, artificial intelligence, big data, and cloud computing, so that wherever new technologies and applications develop, the rule of law will be covered.

Carry out in-depth cyber law enforcement to ensure the implementation of cyber laws and regulations. Deeply promote the construction of network law enforcement coordination mechanisms, strengthen cross-field and cross-departmental joint law enforcement, promote the formation of a national network administrative law enforcement work system with horizontal coordination and vertical linkage, and improve the connection mechanism between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice. Strengthen the orderly and standardized governance of online communication. Focus on outstanding issues that the people have strongly reported, continue to carry out the “Qinglang” series of special actions, comprehensively use various punishment methods, and carry out classified and hierarchical supervision and law enforcement. Crack down on the use of the Internet to engage in illegal and criminal activities that endanger national security and social and public interests, disrupt economic and social order, and infringe on the legitimate rights and interests of others, and severely punish the use of the Internet to disseminate illegal information. Strengthen the construction of online law enforcement talent teams, and promote strict, standardized, fair and civilized law enforcement.

Strengthen the publicity and research of the rule of law, and gather powerful forces to rule the Internet according to the law. Fully implement the “Eighth Five-Year” law popularization plan of the network information system, and “whoever makes the law popularizes the law”, “whoever enforces the law popularizes the law”, “whoever manages the law popularizes”, and “whoever serves the service popularizes the law” runs through the entire process of governing the Internet by law. Make the publicity and education of the rule of law on the Internet for leading cadres and youth a priority, increase the education and training of laws and regulations for Internet industry practitioners, and continuously improve the awareness and quality of the rule of law in the entire society. Deepen research and education on the rule of law on the Internet, promote theoretical innovation on the rule of law on the Internet, establish and improve a long-term mechanism for education on the rule of law on the Internet, promote the construction of think tanks on the rule of law on the Internet, and provide stronger intellectual support for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet.

Enhance international exchanges and cooperation, and promote the building of a community of shared future in cyberspace. Adhere to the guidance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s concept and proposition of building a community with a shared future in cyberspace, increase the intensity of publicity of my country’s Internet governance practices and concepts to the outside world, do a good job in the publicity and interpretation of the white paper “Construction of China’s Internet Rule of Law in the New Era”, and strengthen external communication. Spread and tell Chinese stories well. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules in the fields of digital currency, digital taxation, data security, and personal information protection. Give full play to the role of the United Nations as the main channel, and strengthen exchanges and cooperation in the construction of online legislation and policy mechanisms through platforms such as the BRICS cooperation mechanism, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization, and the World Internet Conference.

(The author is the deputy director of the Central Propaganda Department, the director of the Office of the Central Cyber ​​Security and Informatization Commission, and the director of the State Internet Information Office)

“People’s Daily” (version 10, March 17, 2023)

http://politics.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2023/0317/c1001-32645866.html

(受權發布)中華人民共和國生物安全法

(Authorized to Publish) Biosafety Law of the People’s Republic of China

Modern English:

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, October 17th

Biosafety Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Adopted at the 22nd Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress on October 17, 2020)

table of Contents

Chapter One   General Provisions

Chapter Two: Biosafety Risk Prevention and Control System

Chapter III: Prevention and Control of Major New Emergent Infectious Diseases, Animal and Plant Epidemics

Chapter Four: Biotechnology Research, Development and Application Safety

Chapter 5: Biosafety of Pathogenic Microorganism Laboratory

Chapter VI: Human Genetic Resources and Biological Resources Security

Chapter 7: Preventing Bioterrorism and Biological Weapons Threats

Chapter 8: Biosafety Capacity Building

Chapter 9 Legal Liability

Chapter 10 Supplementary Provisions

Chapter One   General Provisions

Article 1 “In order to maintain national security, prevent and respond to biosecurity risks, protect people’s lives and health, protect biological resources and the ecological environment, promote the healthy development of biotechnology, promote the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind, and realize the harmonious coexistence of man and nature, this law is formulated.

Article 2 “Biosecurity” as used in this law means that the state effectively prevents and responds to the threats of dangerous biological factors and related factors. Biotechnology can develop stably and healthily. People’s lives and health and ecosystems are relatively in a state of no danger and no threats. The field has the ability to maintain national security and sustainable development.

This law applies to the following activities:

(1) Preventing and controlling major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics;

(2) Research, development and application of biotechnology;

(3) Biosafety management of pathogenic microorganism laboratories;

(4) Safety management of human genetic resources and biological resources;

(5) Prevent the invasion of alien species and protect biodiversity;

(6) Dealing with microbial resistance;

(7) Preventing bioterrorism attacks and defending against the threat of biological weapons;

(8) Other activities related to biosafety.

Article 3: Biosecurity is an important part of national security. Maintaining biosecurity should implement the overall national security concept, coordinate development and security, and adhere to the principles of people-oriented, risk prevention, classified management, and coordination.

Article 4: Persist in the leadership of the Communist Party of China in national biosafety work, establish and improve the national biosafety leadership system, strengthen the construction of the national biosafety risk prevention and control and governance system, and improve the national biosafety governance capabilities.

Article 5: The state encourages innovation in biotechnology, strengthens the construction of biosafety infrastructure and biotechnology personnel, supports the development of the bioindustry, promotes the level of biotechnology with innovation, and enhances the ability to guarantee biosafety.

Article 6: The state strengthens international cooperation in the field of biosafety, fulfills the obligations stipulated in the international treaties that the People’s Republic of China has concluded or participated in, supports participation in biotechnology exchanges and cooperation and international rescue of biosafety incidents, and actively participates in the research and formulation of international biosafety regulations, Promote the improvement of global biosafety governance.

Article 7 People’s governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall strengthen the publicity and popularization of biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge, guide grassroots mass autonomous organizations and social organizations to carry out biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge publicity, and promote biosafety in the whole society Raising awareness.

Relevant scientific research institutions, medical institutions, and other enterprises and institutions shall incorporate biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge into the content of education and training, and strengthen the cultivation of biosafety awareness and ethical awareness of students and practitioners.

The news media should carry out public welfare propaganda of biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge, conduct public opinion supervision on biosafety violations, and enhance the public’s awareness of social responsibility for maintaining biosafety.

Article 8: No unit or individual may endanger biological safety.

Any unit or individual has the right to report acts endangering biosafety; the department receiving the report shall deal with it in a timely manner in accordance with the law.

Article 9: People’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall commend and reward units and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to biosafety work in accordance with national regulations.

Chapter Two: Biosafety Risk Prevention and Control System

Article 10: The central national security leadership agency is responsible for the decision-making and coordination of national biosecurity work, researching, formulating and guiding the implementation of the national biosecurity strategy and related major guidelines and policies, coordinating major issues and important tasks of national biosecurity, and establishing national biosecurity Work coordination mechanism.

Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government have established biosafety work coordination mechanisms to organize, coordinate, and supervise and promote biosafety-related work within their administrative regions.

Article 11: The national biosafety work coordination mechanism is composed of the competent departments of the State Council for health, agriculture and rural areas, science and technology, foreign affairs and other relevant military agencies, analyzes and judges the national biosafety situation, organizes, coordinates, and supervises and promotes national biosafety related work. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism establishes an office to be responsible for the daily work of the coordination mechanism.

The member units of the National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism and other relevant departments of the State Council are responsible for biosafety-related work according to the division of responsibilities.

Article 12: The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism shall establish an expert committee to provide decision-making consultation for the research, policy formulation and implementation of the national biosafety strategy.

Relevant departments of the State Council organize the establishment of biosafety technical consultation expert committees in related fields and industries to provide technical support such as consultation, evaluation, and demonstration for biosafety work.

Article 13: Local people’s governments at all levels are responsible for the biosafety work within their administrative areas.

Relevant departments of local people’s governments at or above the county level are responsible for biosafety-related work according to the division of responsibilities.

The grassroots mass autonomous organizations shall assist the local people’s government and relevant departments in the prevention and control of biosafety risks, emergency response, publicity and education, etc.

Relevant units and individuals shall cooperate in the prevention and control of biosafety risks and emergency response.

Article 14: The state establishes a biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes the establishment of a national biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system to improve biosafety risk identification and analysis capabilities.

Article 15: The State establishes a biosafety risk investigation and assessment system. The national biosafety work coordination mechanism should regularly organize and conduct biosafety risk surveys and assessments based on risk monitoring data, materials and other information.

Under any of the following circumstances, relevant departments shall promptly conduct biosafety risk investigation and assessment, and take necessary risk prevention and control measures in accordance with the law:

(1) It is found that there may be a biosafety risk through risk monitoring or receiving a report;

(2) In order to determine the key areas and key projects for supervision and management, formulate and adjust biosafety-related directories or lists;

(3) The occurrence of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics and other incidents that endanger biological safety;

(4) Other situations that need to be investigated and evaluated.

Article 16: The state establishes a biosafety information sharing system. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes the establishment of a unified national biosafety information platform. Relevant departments should submit biosafety data, materials and other information to the national biosafety information platform to realize information sharing.

Article 17: The state establishes a biosafety information release system. Major biosafety information such as the overall national biosafety situation, major biosafety risk warning information, major biosafety incidents and their investigation and processing information, will be released by the member units of the National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism according to the division of responsibilities; other biosafety information will be released by relevant departments of the State Council And local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments in accordance with their duties and powers.

No unit or individual may fabricate or disseminate false biosafety information.

Article 18: The state establishes a biosafety list and inventory system. According to the needs of biosafety work, the State Council and its relevant departments formulate and publish lists or lists of materials, equipment, technologies, activities, important biological resource data, infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases, and invasive alien species that involve biosafety, and adjust them dynamically .

Article 19: The state establishes a biosafety standard system. The standardization department of the State Council and other relevant departments of the State Council shall formulate and improve relevant standards in the field of biosafety in accordance with the division of responsibilities.

The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes relevant departments to strengthen the coordination and connection of biosafety standards in different fields, and establish and improve a biosafety standard system.

Article 20: The state establishes a biosafety review system. For major events and activities in the biological field that affect or may affect national security, relevant departments of the State Council shall conduct a biosafety review to effectively prevent and resolve biosafety risks.

Article 21: The state establishes an orderly and efficient biosafety emergency system with unified leadership, coordination and linkage.

Relevant departments of the State Council shall organize the formulation of emergency plans for biosafety incidents in related fields and industries, and carry out emergency drills, emergency handling, emergency rescue and post-event recovery in accordance with the emergency plans and unified deployment.

Local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall formulate, organize, guide and supervise relevant enterprises and institutions to formulate emergency plans for biosafety incidents, strengthen emergency preparedness, personnel training and emergency drills, and carry out emergency response to biosafety incidents, emergency rescue and after-events Restoration and other work.

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, in accordance with the order of the Central Military Commission, participate in the emergency response and rescue of biosecurity incidents in accordance with the law.

Article 22: The state establishes a system for investigating and tracing the source of biosafety incidents. In the event of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, and unexplained biosafety incidents, the national biosafety work coordination mechanism should organize investigation and traceability, determine the nature of the incident, comprehensively evaluate the impact of the incident, and provide opinions and suggestions.

Article 23: The state establishes a national entry system for animals and plants, animal and plant products, and high-risk biological factors that enter the country for the first time or resume entry after a suspension.

People, transportation vehicles, containers, goods, articles, packaging, and ballast water discharge of ships entering and leaving the country shall meet the requirements of my country’s biosafety management.

The customs shall deal with the discovered inbound, outbound and transit biosafety risks in accordance with the law. Persons, means of transportation, goods, articles, etc. that have been assessed as high risk of biosafety shall enter the country through designated frontier ports and adopt strict risk prevention and control measures.

Article 24: The state establishes a system for responding to major overseas biosecurity incidents. In the event of a major biosafety incident abroad, the customs shall adopt emergency biosafety prevention and control measures in accordance with the law, strengthen document verification, increase the proportion of inspections, and suspend the entry of relevant personnel, means of transport, goods, and articles. When necessary, with the consent of the State Council, measures such as temporary closure of relevant ports and blockade of relevant borders may be adopted.

Article 25: Relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level shall carry out biosafety supervision and inspection work in accordance with the law, and the units and individuals inspected shall cooperate, truthfully explain the situation, provide information, and shall not refuse or obstruct.

Supervision and inspection work involving high professional and technical requirements and difficult law enforcement operations should involve biosafety professional and technical personnel.

Article 26: Relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level may take the following measures in accordance with the law to implement biosafety supervision and inspection:

(1) Enter the inspected unit, location, or place suspected of committing biosafety violations to conduct on-site monitoring, survey, inspection or verification;

(2) Get information from relevant units and individuals;

(3) Consult and copy relevant documents, data, files, records, vouchers, etc.;

(4) Sealing up places and facilities suspected of committing biosafety violations;

(5) Detain tools, equipment and related items suspected of committing biosafety violations;

(6) Other measures stipulated by laws and regulations.

Biosafety illegal information of relevant entities and individuals shall be included in the national credit information sharing platform in accordance with the law.

Chapter III: Prevention and Control of Major New Emergent Infectious Diseases, Animal and Plant Epidemics

Article 27 The competent departments of the State Council for health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, customs, and ecological environment shall establish a network of newly emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, entry and exit quarantine, and biotechnology environmental safety monitoring networks, and organize the layout of monitoring sites, Establish and improve the monitoring information reporting system, carry out active monitoring and pathogen detection, and incorporate it into the national biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system.

Article 28 Disease prevention and control agencies, animal disease prevention and control agencies, and plant disease and insect pest prevention and control agencies (hereinafter collectively referred to as professional agencies) shall carry out active monitoring of infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases and diseases of unknown origin that are included in the monitoring scope, collecting, Analyze and report monitoring information to predict the occurrence and prevalence of emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases.

Relevant departments of the State Council, local people’s governments at or above the county level, and their relevant departments shall issue early warnings in a timely manner based on forecasts and duties and powers, and take corresponding prevention and control measures.

Article 29: Any unit or individual discovering infectious diseases or animal or plant diseases shall promptly report to medical institutions, relevant professional institutions or departments.

Medical institutions, professional institutions and their staff shall report infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases or cluster diseases of unknown cause in a timely manner and adopt protective measures.

If a report is required in accordance with the law, no unit or individual shall conceal, misrepresent, postpone the report, or omit the report, or instruct others to conceal, misrepresent, or postpone the report, or hinder others from reporting.

Article 30: The state establishes a joint prevention and control mechanism for major newly emerging infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics.

In the event of a major new outbreak of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, timely control measures shall be taken in accordance with relevant laws and regulations and emergency plans; the competent departments of health, agriculture, rural areas, and forestry and grassland under the State Council shall immediately organize epidemic consultations, discussion, and judgment, The conclusions of the research are reported to the central national security leadership agency and the State Council, and other member units of the National Biosecurity Work Coordination Mechanism and other relevant departments of the State Council are notified.

In the occurrence of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, local people’s governments at all levels shall perform the responsibilities of epidemic prevention and control in their respective administrative areas, strengthen organization and leadership, carry out group prevention and control, medical treatment, and mobilize and encourage social forces in an orderly manner Participate in epidemic prevention and control work.

Article 31 The State strengthens the construction of the joint prevention and control capacity of infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics at borders and ports, and establishes an international cooperation network for the prevention and control of infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics to detect and control major emerging and sudden infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics as early as possible .

Article 32: The state protects wild animals, strengthens animal epidemic prevention, and prevents the spread of animal-borne infectious diseases.

Article 33: The State strengthens the management of the use and residues of antimicrobial drugs and other antimicrobial drugs, and supports basic research and scientific and technological breakthroughs in response to microbial resistance.

The health authorities of the people’s governments at or above the county level shall strengthen the guidance and supervision of the rational use of drugs by medical institutions, and take measures to prevent the unreasonable use of antimicrobial drugs. The agricultural, rural and forestry and grassland administrative departments of the people’s governments at or above the county level shall strengthen the guidance and supervision of the rational use of drugs in agricultural production, take measures to prevent the unreasonable use of antimicrobial drugs, and reduce the residues in the agricultural production environment.

The State Council’s health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, ecological environment and other competent departments and drug supervision and administration departments shall assess the harm of antimicrobial drug residues to human health and the environment according to the division of responsibilities, and establish an antimicrobial pollutant index evaluation system.

Chapter Four: Biotechnology Research, Development and Application Safety

Article 34 The State strengthens the safety management of biotechnology research, development, and application activities, and prohibits engaging in biotechnology research, development, and application activities that endanger public health, damage biological resources, destroy ecosystems and biodiversity, and other activities that endanger biosafety .

Engaged in biotechnology research and development

Development and application activities.

Engaging in biotechnology research, development and application activities shall comply with ethical principles.

Article 35 Units engaged in biotechnology research, development and application activities shall be responsible for the safety of their own biotechnology research, development and application, adopt biosafety risk prevention and control measures, and formulate biosafety training, follow-up inspections, regular reports, etc. System, strengthen process management.

Article 36: The State implements classified management of biotechnology research and development activities. According to the degree of risk of harm to public health, industrial agriculture, ecological environment, etc., biotechnology research and development activities are divided into three categories: high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk.

The risk classification standards and directories of biotechnology research and development activities are formulated, adjusted and published by the competent departments of the State Council for science and technology, health, agriculture and rural areas in accordance with the division of responsibilities, and in conjunction with other relevant departments of the State Council.

Article 37: Engaging in biotechnology research and development activities shall abide by the national biotechnology research and development safety management regulations.

To engage in biotechnology research and development activities, one should judge the risk categories, pay close attention to changes in risks, and take timely response measures.

Article 38: Engaging in high-risk and medium-risk biotechnology research and development activities shall be conducted by a legal person organization established in accordance with the law within the territory of my country, and approval or filing shall be obtained in accordance with the law.

To engage in high-risk and medium-risk biotechnology research and development activities, risk assessment should be conducted, risk prevention and control plans and biosafety incident emergency plans should be formulated to reduce the risk of the implementation of research and development activities.

Article 39: The State implements retrospective management of important equipment and special biological factors involved in biological safety. The purchase or introduction of important equipment and special biological factors included in the control list shall be registered to ensure traceability and be reported to the relevant department of the State Council for the record.

Individuals are not allowed to purchase or possess important equipment and special biological factors that are included in the control list.

Article 40 “Clinical research on new biomedical technologies shall pass ethical review and be carried out in medical institutions with corresponding conditions; for human clinical research operations, it shall be carried out by health professionals who meet the corresponding conditions.

Article 41: Relevant departments of the State Council shall follow up and evaluate biotechnology application activities in accordance with the law, and if they find that there are biosafety risks, they shall take effective remedial and control measures in a timely manner.

Chapter 5: Biosafety of Pathogenic Microorganism Laboratory

Article 42: The State shall strengthen the management of the biosafety of pathogenic microorganism laboratories and formulate uniform laboratory biosafety standards. The pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall meet the national standards and requirements of biosafety.

To engage in pathogenic microorganism experiment activities, it is necessary to strictly abide by relevant national standards, laboratory technical specifications, and operating procedures, and take safety precautions.

Article 43: The State implements classified management of pathogenic microorganisms according to the infectivity of pathogenic microorganisms and the degree of harm to humans and animals after infection or groups.

Those engaged in the collection, preservation, and transportation of samples of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic microorganisms shall have the corresponding conditions and comply with the biosafety management regulations. The specific measures shall be formulated by the health, agricultural and rural administration departments of the State Council.

Article 44: The establishment of a pathogenic microbiology laboratory shall be approved or filed in accordance with the law.

Individuals shall not establish pathogenic microorganism laboratories or engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities.

Article 45: The State implements hierarchical management of pathogenic microorganism laboratories in accordance with the level of biological safety protection against pathogenic microorganisms.

The experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms shall be carried out in laboratories of the corresponding level. Low-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories shall not engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities that should be conducted in high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories as stipulated in the National Pathogenic Microorganism Catalog.

Article 46 High-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories engaged in experimental activities of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic pathogens shall be approved by the health or agricultural and rural authorities of the people’s government at or above the provincial level, and the conditions of the experimental activities shall be approved. Department report.

For pathogenic microorganisms that have not been discovered or declared to be eliminated in my country, no relevant experimental activities shall be allowed without approval.

Article 47  The pathogenic microbiology laboratory shall take measures to strengthen the management of experimental animals, prevent the escape of experimental animals, and treat the experimental animals after use in a harmless manner in accordance with national regulations, so as to realize the traceability of experimental animals. It is forbidden to introduce used experimental animals into the market.

The pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall strengthen the management of waste from experimental activities, dispose of waste water, waste gas and other wastes in accordance with the law, and adopt measures to prevent pollution.

Article 48 The establishment unit of the pathogenic microorganism laboratory is responsible for the biosafety management of the laboratory, formulates a scientific and strict management system, regularly inspects the implementation of relevant biosafety regulations, and conducts laboratory facilities, equipment, materials, etc. Check, maintain and update to ensure that it meets national standards.

The legal representative and the person in charge of the laboratory establishing the pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall be responsible for the biological safety of the laboratory.

Article 49: The establishment of a pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall establish and improve a safety protection system and adopt safety protection measures to ensure the safety of the laboratory and its pathogenic microorganisms.

The state strengthens the security of high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories. High-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories shall accept the supervision and guidance of the relevant laboratory safety and security work of public security organs and other departments, and strictly prevent the leakage, loss, theft and robbing of highly pathogenic microorganisms.

The state establishes a high-level pathogenic microbial laboratory personnel entry review system. Personnel entering a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall be approved by the person in charge of the laboratory. Those that may affect the biosafety of the laboratory shall not be approved; for those approved to enter, safety measures shall be taken.

Article 50: The establishment of a pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall formulate emergency plans for biosafety incidents, and organize personnel training and emergency drills on a regular basis. Where highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms are leaked, lost, stolen, robbed, or other biosafety risks, timely control measures shall be taken in accordance with the provisions of the emergency plan, and reports shall be made in accordance with national regulations.

Article 51: The people’s government at the provincial level where the pathogenic microbiology laboratory is located and its health authority shall strengthen the allocation of medical resources for infectious diseases at the laboratory location, and improve the medical treatment and treatment capabilities for infectious diseases.

Article 52: The enterprise’s biosafety management of production workshops involving pathogenic microorganism operations shall be carried out in accordance with the regulations of the relevant pathogenic microorganism laboratory and other biosafety management regulations.

The construction and management of biosafety laboratories involving the operation of biological toxins, plant pests and other biological factors shall be implemented in accordance with the regulations of the relevant pathogenic microorganism laboratories.

Chapter VI: Human Genetic Resources and Biological Resources Security

Article 53: The state strengthens the management and supervision of the collection, preservation, utilization, and external provision of human genetic resources and biological resources in our country to ensure the safety of human genetic resources and biological resources.

The country has sovereignty over my country’s human genetic resources and biological resources.

Article 54: The State conducts surveys of human genetic resources and biological resources.

The competent department of science and technology of the State Council organizes the investigation of human genetic resources in my country, and formulates the declaration and registration methods for human genetic resources of important genetic families and specific regions.

The competent departments of the State Council for science and technology, natural resources, ecological environment, health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, and traditional Chinese medicine, according to the division of responsibilities, organize biological resource surveys and formulate important biological resource declaration and registration methods.

Article 55: The collection, preservation, utilization, and external provision of my country’s human genetic resources shall conform to ethical principles and shall not endanger public health, national security and social public interests.

Article 56 The following activities shall be approved by the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council:

(1) Collecting human genetic resources of important genetic families in my country, specific regions, or the types and quantities of human genetic resources specified by the competent department of science and technology under the State Council;

(2) Preserving my country’s human genetic resources;

(3) Utilizing my country’s human genetic resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation;

(4) Transporting, mailing, and carrying out of my country’s human genetic resources materials.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not include the collection and preservation of human genetic resources and related activities for the purposes of clinical diagnosis and treatment, blood collection and supply services, investigation and punishment of illegal crimes, doping testing, and funerals.

In order to obtain the marketing authorization of relevant drugs and medical devices in my country, the use of human genetic resources in clinical trial institutions to carry out international cooperative clinical trials without involving the export of human genetic resources does not require approval; however, the intended use should be used before the clinical trials The types, quantities and uses of the human genetic resources shall be filed with the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council.

Overseas organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them shall not collect or preserve my country’s human genetic resources within the territory of my country, or provide my country’s human genetic resources abroad.

Article 57: Where the information on human genetic resources of our country is provided or open for use to overseas organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them, they shall report to the competent department of science and technology under the State Council in advance and submit a backup of the information.

Article 58 “The collection, preservation, utilization, and transportation of rare, endangered, endemic species and genetic resources such as individuals, organs, tissues, cells, genes, etc., that can be used for regeneration or reproduction and passage out of our country shall comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Foreign organizations, individuals, and institutions established or actually controlled by them shall obtain approval in accordance with the law to obtain and utilize my country’s biological resources.

Article 59: The use of my country’s biological resources for international scientific research cooperation shall be approved in accordance with the law.

The use of my country’s human genetic resources and biological resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation should ensure that the Chinese unit and its researchers participate in the research in the whole process and substantively, and share relevant rights and interests in accordance with the law.

Article 60: The state strengthens the prevention and response to the invasion of alien species and protects biodiversity. The agricultural and rural authorities of the State Council, in conjunction with other relevant departments of the State Council, formulate lists of invasive alien species and management measures.

Relevant departments of the State Council strengthen the investigation, monitoring, early warning, control, evaluation, removal, and ecological restoration of invasive alien species in accordance with the division of responsibilities.

No unit or individual may introduce, release or discard alien species without approval.

Chapter 7: Preventing Bioterrorism and Biological Weapons Threats

Article 61: The state shall take all necessary measures to prevent the threat of bioterrorism and biological weapons.

It is prohibited to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire, store, possess and use biological weapons.

It is prohibited to instigate, fund, assist others to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire biological weapons in any way.

Article 62: Relevant departments of the State Council shall formulate, modify, and publish lists of organisms, biotoxins, equipment or technologies that can be used in bioterrorism activities and the manufacture of biological weapons, strengthen supervision and control, and prevent their use in the manufacture of biological weapons or terrorist purposes .

Article 63: Relevant departments of the State Council and relevant military agencies shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, strengthen the control of the entry and exit, import and export, acquisition, manufacture, and transfer of organisms, biotoxins, equipment or technology that can be used in bioterrorism activities and the manufacture of biological weapons. The monitoring and investigation of activities such as release and release, and take necessary preventive and disposal measures.

Article 64: Relevant departments of the State Council, provincial people’s governments and their relevant departments are responsible for organizing the rescue and placement of personnel after bioterrorism attacks and biological weapons attacks, environmental disinfection, ecological restoration, safety monitoring, and social order restoration.

The relevant departments of the State Council, the provincial people’s governments and their relevant departments shall effectively guide public opinion to scientifically and accurately report on bioterrorism attacks and biological weapon attacks, and timely release information on evacuation, transfer and emergency evacuation, and deal with pollution during emergency response and recovery. Long-term environmental monitoring and health monitoring are carried out in the area and personnel.

Article 65: The State organizes and conducts investigations on biological weapons left over from war in our country and their harmful results and potential impacts.

The state organizes the construction of facilities for storing and processing biological weapons left over from war to ensure the safe disposal of biological weapons left over from war.

Chapter 8: Biosafety Capacity Building

Article 66: The State shall formulate a biosafety development plan, strengthen the construction of biosafety capabilities, and improve the ability and level of responding to biosafety incidents.

People’s governments at or above the county level shall support the development of biosafety undertakings, and according to the division of powers, include the relevant expenditures for supporting the development of the following biosafety undertakings into the government budget:

(1) Construction and operation of the monitoring network;

(2) Reserves of emergency response and prevention and control materials;

(3) Construction and operation of key infrastructure;

(4) Research and development of key technologies and products;

(5) Investigation and preservation of human genetic resources and biological resources;

(6) Other important biosafety undertakings stipulated by laws and regulations.

Article 67 The State takes measures to support biosafety technology research, strengthens biosafety risk prevention and management technology research, integrates superior strengths and resources, establishes a multidisciplinary and multisectoral collaborative innovation joint research mechanism, and promotes the core and key technologies of biosafety. The output, transformation and application of major defense products will improve the scientific and technological guarantee capabilities of biosafety.

Article 68: The State shall make overall arrangements for the construction of national biosafety infrastructure. According to the division of responsibilities, the relevant departments of the State Council will speed up the construction of a biosafety national strategic resource platform for biological information, human genetic resource preservation, bacterial (viral) species preservation, animal and plant genetic resource preservation, high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories, etc., and establish a shared utilization mechanism , To provide strategic guarantee and support for biosafety technological innovation.

Article 69: Relevant departments of the State Council shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, strengthen the training of basic biological scientific research personnel and professional technical personnel in the biological field, and promote the construction of basic biological sciences and scientific research.

Practitioners in important positions in the national biosafety infrastructure shall have qualified qualifications, and relevant information shall be filed with the relevant departments of the State Council and receive on-the-job training.

Article 70: The state strengthens material reserves for the prevention and control of major emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics and other biological safety risks.

The state strengthens the research, development and technical reserves of materials such as biosafety emergency medicines and equipment. The relevant departments of the State Council shall implement relevant measures for the research, development and technical reserve of materials such as biosafety emergency medicines and equipment according to the division of responsibilities.

The relevant departments of the State Council and local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall guarantee the production, supply and deployment of medical rescue equipment, medicines, medical devices and other materials required for emergency response to biosafety incidents; the competent department of transportation shall organize and coordinate in a timely manner Transport business units give priority to delivery.

Article 71: The State shall provide effective protective measures and medical security for personnel engaged in high-risk biosafety work such as experimental activities of highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms and on-site disposal of biosafety incidents.

Chapter 9 Legal Liability

Article 72: In violation of the provisions of this law, personnel who perform biosafety management duties abuse their powers, neglect their duties, engage in malpractices for personal gain or commit other illegal acts in biosafety work, and shall be punished in accordance with the law.

Article 73 In violation of the provisions of this law, medical institutions, professional institutions or their staff conceal, lie, postpone, or omit reporting, instruct others to conceal, lie, postpone reporting, or prevent others from reporting infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases Or cluster diseases of unknown cause, people at or above the county level

, Give sanctions according to law, and can suspend practice activities for a certain period of time according to law until the relevant practice certificate is revoked.

Violation of the provisions of this law by fabricating or disseminating false biosafety information constitutes a violation of public security management, the public security organ shall impose public security management penalties in accordance with the law.

Article 74 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and engages in biotechnology research, development, and application activities prohibited by the state shall be ordered by the health, science and technology, agricultural and rural authorities of the people’s government at or above the county level to stop the illegal activities and confiscate them. Illegal gains, technical materials, tools, equipment, raw materials and other items used for illegal acts shall be fined not less than 1 million yuan but not more than 10 million yuan; if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, more than ten times the illegal gains shall be imposed. A fine of less than ten times, and it is possible to prohibit the relevant biotechnology research, development and application activities within a certain period of time according to law, and to revoke relevant licenses; for the legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons, Penalties shall be imposed in accordance with the law, and a fine of 100,000 yuan up to 200,000 yuan shall be imposed, the corresponding biotechnology research, development and application activities shall be prohibited from ten years to life, and the relevant practice certificates shall be revoked in accordance with the law.

Article 75 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and engages in biotechnology research and development activities that fails to comply with the national biotechnology research and development safety management regulations shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to make corrections and give warnings, and may be dealt with concurrently. A fine of not less than 20,000 yuan but not more than 200,000 yuan; if it refuses to make corrections or causes serious consequences, it shall be ordered to stop research and development activities, and a fine of not less than 200,000 yuan but not more than 2 million yuan shall be imposed.

Article 76 Violation of the provisions of this law by engaging in experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms and failing to conduct experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms at the corresponding level, or a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory engaged in experimental activities of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic microorganisms without approval According to the division of responsibilities, the health, agricultural and rural authorities of the local people’s government at or above the county level shall order to stop illegal activities, supervise the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms used in experimental activities or send them to the preservation institution, and give warnings; cause the spread and epidemic of infectious diseases Or if there are other serious consequences, the legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge, and other directly responsible persons shall be dismissed or expelled in accordance with the law.

Article 77 Anyone who, in violation of the provisions of this Law, introduces used experimental animals into the market shall be ordered to make corrections by the competent science and technology department of the people’s government at or above the county level, the illegal gains shall be confiscated, and the penalty shall be between RMB 200,000 and RMB 1 million. If the illegal income is more than 200,000 yuan, a fine of five to ten times the illegal income shall be imposed; if the circumstances are serious, the relevant permit shall be revoked by the issuing department.

Article 78 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and commits one of the following acts shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to make corrections, confiscate illegal gains, give a warning, and may also impose a penalty of more than 100,000 yuan and 1 million yuan. The following fines:

(1) The purchase or introduction of important equipment and special biological factors included in the control list have not been registered, or have not been reported to the relevant department of the State Council for the record;

(2) Individuals purchase or possess important equipment or special biological factors included in the control list;

(3) Individuals set up pathogenic microorganism laboratories or engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities;

(4) Enter a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory without the approval of the person in charge of the laboratory.

Article 79 Anyone who, in violation of the provisions of this law, collects and preserves China’s human genetic resources or uses China’s human genetic resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation shall be ordered by the State Council’s science and technology department to stop illegal activities and confiscate illegal gains and illegal activities. The collection and preservation of human genetic resources shall also be fined between 500,000 yuan and 5 million yuan, and if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, a fine of 5 times to 10 times the illegal gains shall be imposed; if the circumstances are serious, The legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished in accordance with the law, and shall be prohibited from engaging in corresponding activities within five years.

Article 80: In violation of the provisions of this Law, foreign organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them collect and preserve human genetic resources in my country, or provide human genetic resources in my country abroad, shall be ordered to stop by the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council. For illegal acts, confiscate illegal income and illegally collected and preserved human genetic resources, and impose a fine of 1 million yuan to 10 million yuan; if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, the illegal gains shall be imposed 10 times more than 20 times. Fines below times.

Article 81 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and introduces alien species without approval shall be confiscated by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level in accordance with the division of responsibilities, and impose a penalty of 50,000 yuan to 250,000 yuan. Fine.

Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and releases or discards alien species without approval shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to capture, retrieve, release or discard the alien species within a time limit, and impose a penalty of 10,000 yuan to 50,000 yuan. Fines below RMB yuan.

Article 82: Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and constitutes a crime shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with the law; those who cause personal, property or other damage shall bear civil responsibility in accordance with the law.

Article 83: For biosafety violations that violate the provisions of this law, this law does not provide for legal responsibilities, and other relevant laws and administrative regulations have provisions in accordance with those provisions.

Article 84: Foreign organizations or individuals who enter the country through transportation, mailing, carrying dangerous biological factors, or otherwise endanger my country’s biological safety, shall be investigated for legal responsibility in accordance with the law and may take other necessary measures.

Chapter 10 Supplementary Provisions

Article 85 The meaning of the following terms in this law:

(1) Biological factors refer to animals, plants, microorganisms, biological toxins and other biologically active substances.

(2) A major emerging and sudden infectious disease refers to an infectious disease that has appeared in my country for the first time or has been declared eliminated and reoccurs, or occurs suddenly, causing or likely to cause serious damage to public health and life safety, causing social panic, and affecting social stability. .

(3) Major new sudden animal epidemics refer to the recurrence of animal epidemics that have occurred in my country for the first time or have been declared to be eliminated, or latent animal epidemics with high morbidity and mortality have suddenly occurred and spread rapidly, giving the breeding industry production safety Circumstances that cause serious threats, hazards, and may cause harm to public health and life safety.

(4) A major new outbreak of plant epidemics refers to fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, nematodes, weeds, rodents, mollusks, etc. that have severely harmed plants that have occurred in my country for the first time or have already been announced to be eliminated, or cause pests and diseases again, or A situation where local pests suddenly occur on a large scale and spread rapidly, causing serious damage to crops, forests and other plants.

(5) The research, development and application of biotechnology refers to the activities of scientific research, technological development and application that are engaged in the understanding, transformation, synthesis, and utilization of biology through scientific and engineering principles.

(6) Pathogenic microorganisms refer to microorganisms that can invade humans and animals and cause infections and even infectious diseases, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, rickettsia, parasites, etc.

(7) Plant pests refer to organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, nematodes, weeds, rodents, mollusks, etc. that can cause harm to crops, forest trees and other plants.

(8) Human genetic resources, including human genetic resource materials and information on human genetic resources. Human genetic resource materials refer to organs, tissues, cells and other genetic materials that contain human genomes, genes, and other genetic materials. Human genetic resource information refers to information such as data generated by using human genetic resource materials.

(9) Microbial resistance refers to the development of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs, resulting in the inability of antimicrobial drugs to effectively control microbial infections.

(10) Biological weapons refer to microbial agents, other biological agents, and biological toxins produced by any source or any method that are not legitimately required for prevention, protection or other peaceful purposes; Biological toxins are used in weapons, equipment or delivery vehicles designed for hostile purposes or armed conflicts.

(11) Bioterrorism refers to the deliberate use of pathogenic microorganisms, biological toxins, etc. to carry out attacks, damage human or animal and plant health, cause social panic, and attempt to achieve specific political goals.

Article 86: If biosafety information is a state secret, it shall be managed in accordance with the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Keeping State Secrets” and other relevant state secrets regulations.

Article 87: The biosecurity activities of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force shall be separately prescribed by the Central Military Commission in accordance with the principles stipulated in this law.

Article 88: This law shall come into force on April 15, 2021.

Mandarin Chinese:

新華社北京10月17日電

中華人民共和國生物安全法
(2020年10月17日第十三屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第二十二次會議通過)

目錄

第一章 總則

第二章 生物安全風險防控體制

第三章 防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情

第四章 生物技術研究、開發與應用安全

第五章 病原微生物實驗室生物安全

第六章 人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全

第七章 防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅

第八章 生物安全能力建設

第九章 法律責任

第十章 附則

第一章 總則

第一條 為了維護國家安全,防範和應對生物安全風險,保障人民生命健康,保護生物資源和生態環境,促進生物技術健康發展,推動構建人類命運共同體,實現人與自然和諧共生,制定本法。

第二條本法所稱生物安全,是指國家有效防範和應對危險生物因子及相關因素威脅,生物技術能夠穩定健康發展,人民生命健康和生態系統相對處於沒有危險和不受威脅的狀態,生物領域具備維護國家安全和持續發展的能力。

從事下列活動,適用本法:

(一)防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情;

(二)生物技術研究、開發與應用;

(三)病原微生物實驗室生物安全管理;

(四)人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全管理;

(五)防範外來物種入侵與保護生物多樣性;

(六)應對微生物耐藥;

(七)防範生物恐怖襲擊與防禦生物武器威脅;

(八)其他與生物安全相關的活動。

第三條 生物安全是國家安全的重要組成部分。維護生物安全應當貫徹總體國家安全觀,統籌發展和安全,堅持以人為本、風險預防、分類管理、協同配合的原則。

第四條 堅持中國共產黨對國家生物安全工作的領導,建立健全國家生物安全領導體制,加強國家生物安全風險防控和治理體系建設,提高國家生物安全治理能力。

第五條 國家鼓勵生物科技創新,加強生物安全基礎設施和生物科技人才隊伍建設,支持生物產業發展,以創新驅動提升生物科技水平,增強生物安全保障能力。

第六條國家加強生物安全領域的國際合作,履行中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約規定的義務,支持參與生物科技交流合作與生物安全事件國際救援,積極參與生物安全國際規則的研究與製定,推動完善全球生物安全治理。

第七條各級人民政府及其有關部門應當加強生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識宣傳普及工作,引導基層群眾性自治組織、社會組織開展生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識宣傳,促進全社會生物安全意識的提升。

相關科研院校、醫療機構以及其他企業事業單位應當將生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識納入教育培訓內容,加強學生、從業人員生物安全意識和倫理意識的培養。

新聞媒體應當開展生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識公益宣傳,對生物安全違法行為進行輿論監督,增強公眾維護生物安全的社會責任意識。

第八條 任何單位和個人不得危害生物安全。

任何單位和個人有權舉報危害生物安全的行為;接到舉報的部門應當及時依法處理。

第九條 對在生物安全工作中做出突出貢獻的單位和個人,縣級以上人民政府及其有關部門按照國家規定予以表彰和獎勵。

第二章 生物安全風險防控體制

第十條中央國家安全領導機構負責國家生物安全工作的決策和議事協調,研究制定、指導實施國家生物安全戰略和有關重大方針政策,統籌協調國家生物安全的重大事項和重要工作,建立國家生物安全工作協調機制。

省、自治區、直轄市建立生物安全工作協調機制,組織協調、督促推進本行政區域內生物安全相關工作。

第十一條 國家生物安全工作協調機制由國務院衛生健康、農業農村、科學技術、外交等主管部門和有關軍事機關組成,分析研判國家生物安全形勢,組織協調、督促推進國家生物安全相關工作。國家生物安全工作協調機制設立辦公室,負責協調機制的日常工作。

國家生物安全工作協調機製成員單位和國務院其他有關部門根據職責分工,負責生物安全相關工作。

第十二條 國家生物安全工作協調機制設立專家委員會,為國家生物安全戰略研究、政策制定及實施提供決策諮詢。

國務院有關部門組織建立相關領域、行業的生物安全技術諮詢專家委員會,為生物安全工作提供諮詢、評估、論證等技術支撐。

第十三條 地方各級人民政府對本行政區域內生物安全工作負責。

縣級以上地方人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,負責生物安全相關工作。

基層群眾性自治組織應當協助地方人民政府以及有關部門做好生物安全風險防控、應急處置和宣傳教育等工作。

有關單位和個人應當配合做好生物安全風險防控和應急處置等工作。

第十四條 國家建立生物安全風險監測預警制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制組織建立國家生物安全風險監測預警體系,提高生物安全風險識別和分析能力。

第十五條 國家建立生物安全風險調查評估制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制應當根據風險監測的數據、資料等信息,定期組織開展生物安全風險調查評估。

有下列情形之一的,有關部門應當及時開展生物安全風險調查評估,依法採取必要的風險防控措施:

(一)通過風險監測或者接到舉報發現可能存在生物安全風險;

(二)為確定監督管理的重點領域、重點項目,制定、調整生物安全相關名錄或者清單;

(三)發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情等危害生物安全的事件;

(四)需要調查評估的其他情形。

第十六條 國家建立生物安全信息共享制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制組織建立統一的國家生物安全信息平台,有關部門應當將生物安全數據、資料等信息匯交國家生物安全信息平台,實現信息共享。

第十七條 國家建立生物安全信息發布製度。國家生物安全總體情況、重大生物安全風險警示信息、重大生物安全事件及其調查處理信息等重大生物安全信息,由國家生物安全工作協調機製成員單位根據職責分工發布;其他生物安全信息由國務院有關部門和縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門根據職責權限發布。

任何單位和個人不得編造、散佈虛假的生物安全信息。

第十八條 國家建立生物安全名錄和清單制度。國務院及其有關部門根據生物安全工作需要,對涉及生物安全的材料、設備、技術、活動、重要生物資源數據、傳染病、動植物疫病、外來入侵物種等製定、公佈名錄或者清單,並動態調整。

第十九條 國家建立生物安全標準制度。國務院標準化主管部門和國務院其他有關部門根據職責分工,制定和完善生物安全領域相關標準。

國家生物安全工作協調機制組織有關部門加強不同領域生物安全標準的協調和銜接,建立和完善生物安全標準體系。

第二十條 國家建立生物安全審查制度。對影響或者可能影響國家安全的生物領域重大事項和活動,由國務院有關部門進行生物安全審查,有效防範和化解生物安全風險。

第二十一條 國家建立統一領導、協同聯動、有序高效的生物安全應急制度。

國務院有關部門應當組織製定相關領域、行業生物安全事件應急預案,根據應急預案和統一部署開展應急演練、應急處置、應急救援和事後恢復等工作。

縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當制定並組織、指導和督促相關企業事業單位制定生物安全事件應急預案,加強應急準備、人員培訓和應急演練,開展生物安全事件應急處置、應急救援和事後恢復等工作。

中國人民解放軍、中國人民武裝警察部隊按照中央軍事委員會的命令,依法參加生物安全事件應急處置和應急救援工作。

第二十二條 國家建立生物安全事件調查溯源製度。發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情和不明原因的生物安全事件,國家生物安全工作協調機制應當組織開展調查溯源,確定事件性質,全面評估事件影響,提出意見建議。

第二十三條 國家建立首次進境或者暫停後恢復進境的動植物、動植物產品、高風險生物因子國家准入制度。

進出境的人員、運輸工具、集裝箱、貨物、物品、包裝物和國際航行船舶壓艙水排放等應當符合我國生物安全管理要求。

海關對發現的進出境和過境生物安全風險,應當依法處置。經評估為生物安全高風險的人員、運輸工具、貨物、物品等,應當從指定的國境口岸進境,並採取嚴格的風險防控措施。

第二十四條 國家建立境外重大生物安全事件應對製度。境外發生重大生物安全事件的,海關依法採取生物安全緊急防控措施,加強證件核驗,提高查驗比例,暫停相關人員、運輸工具、貨物、物品等進境。必要時經國務院同意,可以採取暫時關閉有關口岸、封鎖有關國境等措施。

第二十五條 縣級以上人民政府有關部門應當依法開展生物安全監督檢查工作,被檢查單位和個人應當配合,如實說明情況,提供資料,不得拒絕、阻撓。

涉及專業技術要求較高、執法業務難度較大的監督檢查工作,應當有生物安全專業技術人員參加。

第二十六條 縣級以上人民政府有關部門實施生物安全監督檢查,可以依法採取下列措施:

(一)進入被檢查單位、地點或者涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的場所進行現場監測、勘查、檢查或者核查;

(二)向有關單位和個人了解情況;

(三)查閱、複製有關文件、資料、檔案、記錄、憑證等;

(四)查封涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的場所、設施;

(五)扣押涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的工具、設備以及相關物品;

(六)法律法規規定的其他措施。

有關單位和個人的生物安全違法信息應當依法納入全國信用信息共享平台。

第三章 防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情

第二十七條國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、海關、生態環境主管部門應當建立新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情、進出境檢疫、生物技術環境安全監測網絡,組織監測站點佈局、建設,完善監測信息報告系統,開展主動監測和病原檢測,並納入國家生物安全風險監測預警體系。

第二十八條疾病預防控制機構、動物疫病預防控制機構、植物病蟲害預防控制機構(以下統稱專業機構)應當對傳染病、動植物疫病和列入監測範圍的不明原因疾病開展主動監測,收集、分析、報告監測信息,預測新發突發傳染病、動植物疫病的發生、流行趨勢。

國務院有關部門、縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當根據預測和職責權限及時發布預警,並採取相應的防控措施。

第二十九條 任何單位和個人發現傳染病、動植物疫病的,應當及時向醫療機構、有關專業機構或者部門報告。

醫療機構、專業機構及其工作人員發現傳染病、動植物疫病或者不明原因的聚集性疾病的,應當及時報告,並採取保護性措施。

依法應當報告的,任何單位和個人不得瞞報、謊報、緩報、漏報,不得授意他人瞞報、謊報、緩報,不得阻礙他人報告。

第三十條 國家建立重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情聯防聯控機制。

發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情,應當依照有關法律法規和應急預案的規定及時採取控制措施;國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原主管部門應當立即組織疫情會商研判,將會商研判結論向中央國家安全領導機構和國務院報告,並通報國家生物安全工作協調機制其他成員單位和國務院其他有關部門。

發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情,地方各級人民政府統一履行本行政區域內疫情防控職責,加強組織領導,開展群防群控、醫療救治,動員和鼓勵社會力量依法有序參與疫情防控工作。

第三十一條國家加強國境、口岸傳染病和動植物疫情聯合防控能力建設,建立傳染病、動植物疫情防控國際合作網絡,儘早發現、控制重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情。

第三十二條 國家保護野生動物,加強動物防疫,防止動物源性傳染病傳播。

第三十三條 國家加強對抗生素藥物等抗微生物藥物使用和殘留的管理,支持應對微生物耐藥的基礎研究和科技攻關。

縣級以上人民政府衛生健康主管部門應當加強對醫療機構合理用藥的指導和監督,採取措施防止抗微生物藥物的不合理使用。縣級以上人民政府農業農村、林業草原主管部門應當加強對農業生產中合理用藥的指導和監督,採取措施防止抗微生物藥物的不合理使用,降低在農業生產環境中的殘留。

國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、生態環境等主管部門和藥品監督管理部門應當根據職責分工,評估抗微生物藥物殘留對人體健康、環境的危害,建立抗微生物藥物污染物指標評價體系。

第四章 生物技術研究、開發與應用安全

第三十四條國家加強對生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的安全管理,禁止從事危及公眾健康、損害生物資源、破壞生態系統和生物多樣性等危害生物安全的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動。

從事生物技術研究、開

發與應用活動。

從事生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,應當符合倫理原則。

第三十五條從事生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的單位應當對本單位生物技術研究、開發與應用的安全負責,採取生物安全風險防控措施,制定生物安全培訓、跟踪檢查、定期報告等工作制度,強化過程管理。

第三十六條 國家對生物技術研究、開發活動實行分類管理。根據對公眾健康、工業農業、生態環境等造成危害的風險程度,將生物技術研究、開發活動分為高風險、中風險、低風險三類。

生物技術研究、開發活動風險分類標準及名錄由國務院科學技術、衛生健康、農業農村等主管部門根據職責分工,會同國務院其他有關部門製定、調整併公佈。

第三十七條 從事生物技術研究、開發活動,應當遵守國家生物技術研究開發安全管理規範。

從事生物技術研究、開發活動,應當進行風險類別判斷,密切關注風險變化,及時採取應對措施。

第三十八條 從事高風險、中風險生物技術研究、開發活動,應當由在我國境內依法成立的法人組織進行,並依法取得批准或者進行備案。

從事高風險、中風險生物技術研究、開發活動,應當進行風險評估,制定風險防控計劃和生物安全事件應急預案,降低研究、開發活動實施的風險。

第三十九條 國家對涉及生物安全的重要設備和特殊生物因子實行追溯管理。購買或者引進列入管控清單的重要設備和特殊生物因子,應當進行登記,確保可追溯,並報國務院有關部門備案。

個人不得購買或者持有列入管控清單的重要設備和特殊生物因子。

第四十條 從事生物醫學新技術臨床研究,應當通過倫理審查,並在具備相應條件的醫療機構內進行;進行人體臨床研究操作的,應當由符合相應條件的衛生專業技術人員執行。

第四十一條 國務院有關部門依法對生物技術應用活動進行跟踪評估,發現存在生物安全風險的,應當及時採取有效補救和管控措施。

第五章 病原微生物實驗室生物安全

第四十二條 國家加強對病原微生物實驗室生物安全的管理,制定統一的實驗室生物安全標準。病原微生物實驗室應當符合生物安全國家標準和要求。

從事病原微生物實驗活動,應當嚴格遵守有關國家標準和實驗室技術規範、操作規程,採取安全防範措施。

第四十三條 國家根據病原微生物的傳染性、感染後對人和動物的個體或者群體的危害程度,對病原微生物實行分類管理。

從事高致病性或者疑似高致病性病原微生物樣本採集、保藏、運輸活動,應當具備相應條件,符合生物安全管理規範。具體辦法由國務院衛生健康、農業農村主管部門製定。

第四十四條 設立病原微生物實驗室,應當依法取得批准或者進行備案。

個人不得設立病原微生物實驗室或者從事病原微生物實驗活動。

第四十五條 國家根據對病原微生物的生物安全防護水平,對病原微生物實驗室實行分等級管理。

從事病原微生物實驗活動應當在相應等級的實驗室進行。低等級病原微生物實驗室不得從事國家病原微生物目錄規定應當在高等級病原微生物實驗室進行的病原微生物實驗活動。

第四十六條高等級病原微生物實驗室從事高致病性或者疑似高致病性病原微生物實驗活動,應當經省級以上人民政府衛生健康或者農業農村主管部門批准,並將實驗活動情況向批准部門報告。

對我國尚未發現或者已經宣布消滅的病原微生物,未經批准不得從事相關實驗活動。

第四十七條 病原微生物實驗室應當採取措施,加強對實驗動物的管理,防止實驗動物逃逸,對使用後的實驗動物按照國家規定進行無害化處理,實現實驗動物可追溯。禁止將使用後的實驗動物流入市場。

病原微生物實驗室應當加強對實驗活動廢棄物的管理,依法對廢水、廢氣以及其他廢棄物進行處置,採取措施防止污染。

第四十八條病原微生物實驗室的設立單位負責實驗室的生物安全管理,制定科學、嚴格的管理制度,定期對有關生物安全規定的落實情況進行檢查,對實驗室設施、設備、材料等進行檢查、維護和更新,確保其符合國家標準。

病原微生物實驗室設立單位的法定代表人和實驗室負責人對實驗室的生物安全負責。

第四十九條 病原微生物實驗室的設立單位應當建立和完善安全保衛制度,採取安全保衛措施,保障實驗室及其病原微生物的安全。

國家加強對高等級病原微生物實驗室的安全保衛。高等級病原微生物實驗室應當接受公安機關等部門有關實驗室安全保衛工作的監督指導,嚴防高致病性病原微生物洩漏、丟失和被盜、被搶。

國家建立高等級病原微生物實驗室人員進入審核制度。進入高等級病原微生物實驗室的人員應當經實驗室負責人批准。對可能影響實驗室生物安全的,不予批准;對批准進入的,應當採取安全保障措施。

第五十條 病原微生物實驗室的設立單位應當制定生物安全事件應急預案,定期組織開展人員培訓和應急演練。發生高致病性病原微生物洩漏、丟失和被盜、被搶或者其他生物安全風險的,應當按照應急預案的規定及時採取控制措施,並按照國家規定報告。

第五十一條 病原微生物實驗室所在地省級人民政府及其衛生健康主管部門應當加強實驗室所在地感染性疾病醫療資源配置,提高感染性疾病醫療救治能力。

第五十二條 企業對涉及病原微生物操作的生產車間的生物安全管理,依照有關病原微生物實驗室的規定和其他生物安全管理規范進行。

涉及生物毒素、植物有害生物及其他生物因子操作的生物安全實驗室的建設和管理,參照有關病原微生物實驗室的規定執行。

第六章 人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全

第五十三條 國家加強對我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源採集、保藏、利用、對外提供等活動的管理和監督,保障人類遺傳資源和生物資源安全。

國家對我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源享有主權。

第五十四條 國家開展人類遺傳資源和生物資源調查。

國務院科學技術主管部門組織開展我國人類遺傳資源調查,制定重要遺傳家系和特定地區人類遺傳資源申報登記辦法。

國務院科學技術、自然資源、生態環境、衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、中醫藥主管部門根據職責分工,組織開展生物資源調查,制定重要生物資源申報登記辦法。

第五十五條 採集、保藏、利用、對外提供我國人類遺傳資源,應當符合倫理原則,不得危害公眾健康、國家安全和社會公共利益。

第五十六條 從事下列活動,應當經國務院科學技術主管部門批准:

(一)採集我國重要遺傳家系、特定地區人類遺傳資源或者採集國務院科學技術主管部門規定的種類、數量的人類遺傳資源;

(二)保藏我國人類遺傳資源;

(三)利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際科學研究合作;

(四)將我國人類遺傳資源材料運送、郵寄、攜帶出境。

前款規定不包括以臨床診療、採供血服務、查處違法犯罪、興奮劑檢測和殯葬等為目的採集、保藏人類遺傳資源及開展的相關活動。

為了取得相關藥品和醫療器械在我國上市許可,在臨床試驗機構利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際合作臨床試驗、不涉及人類遺傳資源出境的,不需要批准;但是,在開展臨床試驗前應當將擬使用的人類遺傳資源種類、數量及用途向國務院科學技術主管部門備案。

境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構不得在我國境內採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源,不得向境外提供我國人類遺傳資源。

第五十七條 將我國人類遺傳資源信息向境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構提供或者開放使用的,應當向國務院科學技術主管部門事先報告並提交信息備份。

第五十八條 採集、保藏、利用、運輸出境我國珍貴、瀕危、特有物種及其可用於再生或者繁殖傳代的個體、器官、組織、細胞、基因等遺傳資源,應當遵守有關法律法規。

境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構獲取和利用我國生物資源,應當依法取得批准。

第五十九條 利用我國生物資源開展國際科學研究合作,應當依法取得批准。

利用我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源開展國際科學研究合作,應當保證中方單位及其研究人員全過程、實質性地參與研究,依法分享相關權益。

第六十條 國家加強對外來物種入侵的防範和應對,保護生物多樣性。國務院農業農村主管部門會同國務院其他有關部門製定外來入侵物種名錄和管理辦法。

國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加強對外來入侵物種的調查、監測、預警、控制、評估、清除以及生態修復等工作。

任何單位和個人未經批准,不得擅自引進、釋放或者丟棄外來物種。

第七章 防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅

第六十一條 國家採取一切必要措施防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅。

禁止開發、製造或者以其他方式獲取、儲存、持有和使用生物武器。

禁止以任何方式唆使、資助、協助他人開發、製造或者以其他方式獲取生物武器。

第六十二條國務院有關部門製定、修改、公佈可被用於生物恐怖活動、製造生物武器的生物體、生物毒素、設備或者技術清單,加強監管,防止其被用於製造生物武器或者恐怖目的。

第六十三條國務院有關部門和有關軍事機關根據職責分工,加強對可被用於生物恐怖活動、製造生物武器的生物體、生物毒素、設備或者技術進出境、進出口、獲取、製造、轉移和投放等活動的監測、調查,採取必要的防範和處置措施。

第六十四條 國務院有關部門、省級人民政府及其有關部門負責組織遭受生物恐怖襲擊、生物武器攻擊後的人員救治與安置、環境消毒、生態修復、安全監測和社會秩序恢復等工作。

國務院有關部門、省級人民政府及其有關部門應當有效引導社會輿論科學、準確報導生物恐怖襲擊和生物武器攻擊事件,及時發布疏散、轉移和緊急避難等信息,對應急處置與恢復過程中遭受污染的區域和人員進行長期環境監測和健康監測。

第六十五條 國家組織開展對我國境內戰爭遺留生物武器及其危害結果、潛在影響的調查。

國家組織建設存放和處理戰爭遺留生物武器設施,保障對戰爭遺留生物武器的安全處置。

第八章 生物安全能力建設

第六十六條 國家製定生物安全事業發展規劃,加強生物安全能力建設,提高應對生物安全事件的能力和水平。

縣級以上人民政府應當支持生物安全事業發展,按照事權劃分,將支持下列生物安全事業發展的相關支出列入政府預算:

(一)監測網絡的構建和運行;

(二)應急處置和防控物資的儲備;

(三)關鍵基礎設施的建設和運行;

(四)關鍵技術和產品的研究、開發;

(五)人類遺傳資源和生物資源的調查、保藏;

(六)法律法規規定的其他重要生物安全事業。

第六十七條國家採取措施支持生物安全科技研究,加強生物安全風險防禦與管控技術研究,整合優勢力量和資源,建立多學科、多部門協同創新的聯合攻關機制,推動生物安全核心關鍵技術和重大防禦產品的成果產出與轉化應用,提高生物安全的科技保障能力。

第六十八條 國家統籌佈局全國生物安全基礎設施建設。國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加快建設生物信息、人類遺傳資源保藏、菌(毒)種保藏、動植物遺傳資源保藏、高等級病原微生物實驗室等方面的生物安全國家戰略資源平台,建立共享利用機制,為生物安全科技創新提供戰略保障和支撐。

第六十九條 國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加強生物基礎科學研究人才和生物領域專業技術人才培養,推動生物基礎科學學科建設和科學研究。

國家生物安全基礎設施重要崗位的從業人員應當具備符合要求的資格,相關信息應當向國務院有關部門備案,並接受崗位培訓。

第七十條 國家加強重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情等生物安全風險防控的物資儲備。

國家加強生物安全應急藥品、裝備等物資的研究、開發和技術儲備。國務院有關部門根據職責分工,落實生物安全應急藥品、裝備等物資研究、開發和技術儲備的相關措施。

國務院有關部門和縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當保障生物安全事件應急處置所需的醫療救護設備、救治藥品、醫療器械等物資的生產、供應和調配;交通運輸主管部門應當及時組織協調運輸經營單位優先運送。

第七十一條 國家對從事高致病性病原微生物實驗活動、生物安全事件現場處置等高風險生物安全工作的人員,提供有效的防護措施和醫療保障。

第九章 法律責任

第七十二條 違反本法規定,履行生物安全管理職責的工作人員在生物安全工作中濫用職權、玩忽職守、徇私舞弊或者有其他違法行為的,依法給予處分。

第七十三條違反本法規定,醫療機構、專業機構或者其工作人員瞞報、謊報、緩報、漏報,授意他人瞞報、謊報、緩報,或者阻礙他人報告傳染病、動植物疫病或者不明原因的聚集性疾病的,由縣級以上人民

,依法給予處分,並可以依法暫停一定期限的執業活動直至吊銷相關執業證書。

違反本法規定,編造、散佈虛假的生物安全信息,構成違反治安管理行為的,由公安機關依法給予治安管理處罰。

第七十四條違反本法規定,從事國家禁止的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的,由縣級以上人民政府衛生健康、科學技術、農業農村主管部門根據職責分工,責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得、技術資料和用於違法行為的工具、設備、原材料等物品,處一百萬元以上一千萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在一百萬元以上的,處違法所得十倍以上二十倍以下的罰款,並可以依法禁止一定期限內從事相應的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,吊銷相關許可證件;對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員,依法給予處分,處十萬元以上二十萬元以下的罰款,十年直至終身禁止從事相應的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,依法吊銷相關執業證書。

第七十五條違反本法規定,從事生物技術研究、開發活動未遵守國家生物技術研究開發安全管理規範的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令改正,給予警告,可以並處二萬元以上二十萬元以下的罰款;拒不改正或者造成嚴重後果的,責令停止研究、開發活動,並處二十萬元以上二百萬元以下的罰款。

第七十六條違反本法規定,從事病原微生物實驗活動未在相應等級的實驗室進行,或者高等級病原微生物實驗室未經批准從事高致病性、疑似高致病性病原微生物實驗活動的,由縣級以上地方人民政府衛生健康、農業農村主管部門根據職責分工,責令停止違法行為,監督其將用於實驗活動的病原微生物銷毀或者送交保藏機構,給予警告;造成傳染病傳播、流行或者其他嚴重後果的,對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予撤職、開除處分。

第七十七條違反本法規定,將使用後的實驗動物流入市場的,由縣級以上人民政府科學技術主管部門責令改正,沒收違法所得,並處二十萬元以上一百萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在二十萬元以上的,並處違法所得五倍以上十倍以下的罰款;情節嚴重的,由發證部門吊銷相關許可證件。

第七十八條違反本法規定,有下列行為之一的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令改正,沒收違法所得,給予警告,可以並處十萬元以上一百萬元以下的罰款:

(一)購買或者引進列入管控清單的重要設備、特殊生物因子未進行登記,或者未報國務院有關部門備案;

(二)個人購買或者持有列入管控清單的重要設備或者特殊生物因子;

(三)個人設立病原微生物實驗室或者從事病原微生物實驗活動;

(四)未經實驗室負責人批准進入高等級病原微生物實驗室。

第七十九條違反本法規定,未經批准,採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源或者利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際科學研究合作的,由國務院科學技術主管部門責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得和違法採集、保藏的人類遺傳資源,並處五十萬元以上五百萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在一百萬元以上的,並處違法所得五倍以上十倍以下的罰款;情節嚴重的,對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員,依法給予處分,五年內禁止從事相應活動。

第八十條違反本法規定,境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構在我國境內採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源,或者向境外提供我國人類遺傳資源的,由國務院科學技術主管部門責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得和違法採集、保藏的人類遺傳資源,並處一百萬元以上一千萬元以下的罰款;違法所得在一百萬元以上的,並處違法所得十倍以上二十倍以下的罰款。

第八十一條違反本法規定,未經批准,擅自引進外來物種的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,沒收引進的外來物種,並處五萬元以上二十五萬元以下的罰款。

違反本法規定,未經批准,擅自釋放或者丟棄外來物種的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令限期捕回、找回釋放或者丟棄的外來物種,處一萬元以上五萬元以下的罰款。

第八十二條 違反本法規定,構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任;造成人身、財產或者其他損害的,依法承擔民事責任。

第八十三條 違反本法規定的生物安全違法行為,本法未規定法律責任,其他有關法律、行政法規有規定的,依照其規定。

第八十四條 境外組織或者個人通過運輸、郵寄、攜帶危險生物因子入境或者以其他方式危害我國生物安全的,依法追究法律責任,並可以採取其他必要措施。

第十章 附則

第八十五條 本法下列術語的含義:

(一)生物因子,是指動物、植物、微生物、生物毒素及其他生物活性物質。

(二)重大新發突發傳染病,是指我國境內首次出現或者已經宣布消滅再次發生,或者突然發生,造成或者可能造成公眾健康和生命安全嚴重損害,引起社會恐慌,影響社會穩定的傳染病。

(三)重大新發突發動物疫情,是指我國境內首次發生或者已經宣布消滅的動物疫病再次發生,或者發病率、死亡率較高的潛伏動物疫病突然發生並迅速傳播,給養殖業生產安全造成嚴重威脅、危害,以及可能對公眾健康和生命安全造成危害的情形。

(四)重大新發突發植物疫情,是指我國境內首次發生或者已經宣布消滅的嚴重危害植物的真菌、細菌、病毒、昆蟲、線蟲、雜草、害鼠、軟體動物等再次引發病蟲害,或者本地有害生物突然大範圍發生並迅速傳播,對農作物、林木等植物造成嚴重危害的情形。

(五)生物技術研究、開發與應用,是指通過科學和工程原理認識、改造、合成、利用生物而從事的科學研究、技術開發與應用等活動。

(六)病原微生物,是指可以侵犯人、動物引起感染甚至傳染病的微生物,包括病毒、細菌、真菌、立克次體、寄生蟲等。

(七)植物有害生物,是指能夠對農作物、林木等植物造成危害的真菌、細菌、病毒、昆蟲、線蟲、雜草、害鼠、軟體動物等生物。

(八)人類遺傳資源,包括人類遺傳資源材料和人類遺傳資源信息。人類遺傳資源材料是指含有人體基因組、基因等遺傳物質的器官、組織、細胞等遺傳材料。人類遺傳資源信息是指利用人類遺傳資源材料產生的數據等信息資料。

(九)微生物耐藥,是指微生物對抗微生物藥物產生抗性,導致抗微生物藥物不能有效控制微生物的感染。

(十)生物武器,是指類型和數量不屬於預防、保護或者其他和平用途所正當需要的、任何來源或者任何方法產生的微生物劑、其他生物劑以及生物毒素;也包括為將上述生物劑、生物毒素使用於敵對目的或者武裝衝突而設計的武器、設備或者運載工具。

(十一)生物恐怖,是指故意使用致病性微生物、生物毒素等實施襲擊,損害人類或者動植物健康,引起社會恐慌,企圖達到特定政治目的的行為。

第八十六條 生物安全信息屬於國家秘密的,應當依照《中華人民共和國保守國家秘密法》和國家其他有關保密規定實施保密管理。

第八十七條 中國人民解放軍、中國人民武裝警察部隊的生物安全活動,由中央軍事委員會依照本法規定的原則另行規定。

第八十八條 本法自2021年4月15日起施行

Official Referring url: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2020-10/18/content_5552108.htm

中國軍事生物安全:國防戰略制高點

Chinese Military Bio-Defense : Achieve the Commanding Heights of Military Dominance

Original title: Biosecurity: the commanding heights of national defense strategy
The frequent occurrence of serious “biological incidents” worldwide has enabled national defense to break through the boundaries of land, sea, air, space, and electricity, and expand into the category of “biological territory.” “Biological territory” is the range of biological security protection and biological threat defense capabilities that a country should have in order to protect life resources and related rights and interests. The security of “biological territory” is closely related to the core national interests and is an important part of national security. It is increasingly being valued by governments of various countries. Many countries have incorporated biosecurity into their national strategies as the commanding heights of the game between national defense and military affairs. As our country is undergoing a transitional period of economic development and a period of prominent social contradictions, it is more necessary to deeply understand the global biosafety situation from the strategic height of national security, fully learn from advanced biosafety management experience, build a new type of biological threat defense system, and ensure the realization of the goal of a prosperous country and a strong military. convoy.

  1. The global biosecurity situation is severe, and my country is facing serious biological threats

With the increasing complexity of the international situation, biosafety issues caused by geo-environment and interest disputes have become more prominent. To maintain national security and social stability, it is necessary to firmly establish the awareness of “biological territory” and earnestly recognize the biological threats facing.

The global biosecurity situation is very severe. The global biosecurity situation presents the characteristics of affecting internationalization, extreme hazards, and complicated development. The United Nations “Convention on the Prohibition of Biological Weapons” is difficult to implement. The research and development of biological weapons has been repeatedly banned, and the threat of biological warfare still exists; pathogens are infected across species and spread across regions, resulting in the continuous emergence of new and emerging infectious diseases; caused by natural disasters and human factors Public health emergencies emerge in an endless stream; environmental pollution, invasion of alien species, etc. have caused serious damage to the ecological environment, and the loss of genetic resources has occurred from time to time. These have become major biosafety issues that all countries in the world are facing.

The characteristics of new biological threats have changed significantly. Affected by factors such as the ongoing international political struggle, high-tech weapons and equipment, and deliberate man-made actions, the characteristics of new biological threats have changed significantly. In the future, the main manifestation of biological threats may be sudden human, animal, and plant epidemics, which are difficult to distinguish from naturally occurring infectious disease epidemics or public health emergencies; pathogens may tend to be low-fatality, high-pathogenicity, easy to spread, and difficult. The characteristics of retrospective; the means of implementation may be the synthesis and release of new pathogens to create a suspicious epidemic; the scope of harm not only points to life and health, but also focuses on threatening society and the government to achieve political, economic, and military goals.

The types of biosecurity threats in our country have increased. As a rapidly developing emerging economy in the world today, my country is at the center of the world’s complex structure, the vortex of the game of great powers, and faces many biological threats. The risk of some countries or organizations using pathogens to implement biological threats continues to increase, becoming a major challenge to national security. Major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, food-borne diseases, and increased animal diseases have seriously endangered people’s health. Genomics, synthetic biotechnology applications, and biological laboratory leak accidents, there are potential risks. The invasion of alien species has accelerated the rate of species extinction, the loss of genetic diversity, and the increasing trend of environmental damage. According to the People’s Daily on October 25, 2013, almost all ecosystems in my country have been invaded, and 544 alien invasive organisms have been confirmed, of which more than 100 occur in large areas and are seriously harmful.

  1. The status of biosafety is important, and my country’s ability to defend against biological threats urgently needs to be strengthened

my country needs to strengthen the awareness of “biological defense”, learn from international advanced biosafety management experience, and make up for the lack of biological threat defense capabilities as soon as possible.

Biosecurity is an important guarantee for the country’s core interests. If a country has a biosafety problem, it will seriously affect people’s health, economic operations, social order, national security, and political stability. For example, in the 2001 anthrax incident in the United States, although there were only 22 patients and 5 deaths, more than 30,000 people received preventive treatment alone, and the economic loss caused cannot be estimated. The First World War was caused by an outbreak of infectious diseases, which had an important impact on the outcome of the war between the two warring parties. Therefore, doing a good job in the defense of biological threats involves core interests such as national security and must be strengthened.

Biosecurity is an important pillar of national strategic goals. Many countries have incorporated biosecurity into their national security strategies, established a biodefense system based on military-related institutions, and actively seized the strategic commanding heights from the perspective of national defense and military affairs. The United States has successively formulated and promulgated the Biological Shield Plan, Biological Monitoring Plan and Biological Sensing Plan, and deployed a series of projects with obvious national defense and military intentions around these three plans, playing an important role in biological counter-terrorism and epidemic management; Germany Defining infectious diseases as a national security threat; Britain, Australia and other countries have also incorporated security and defense departments into their public health systems. These are enough to prove the important position of biosafety in national strategic deployment.

my country’s biological threat defense capability needs to be strengthened urgently. Our party and government pay close attention to the issue of biosafety, and propose to accelerate the development of biosafety technology, build an advanced national security and public safety system, and effectively prevent biological threats to people’s lives and the ecological environment. At present, my country has gradually established scientific and technological support platforms such as the State Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microorganism Biosafety, the National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Bioprotective Equipment, and has incorporated military disease prevention and control institutions into the construction of the national public health system, and has established a preliminary biological threat defense. The system plays an important role in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases such as atypical pneumonia and highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. However, compared with the advanced biosafety management experience of developed countries, my country still has many weak links in the areas of biological threat monitoring and early warning, emergency response and scientific and technological support. It is urgently needed from strategic planning research, organizational management system, scientific and technological research, and publicity. Strengthen construction in areas such as education and training.

  1. Biosecurity involves a wide range of areas, and there is an urgent need to build a new type of biological threat defense system

There are many departments involved in biosecurity in my country, and it is urgent to take deepening reform as an opportunity to strengthen the national will, formulate strategic plans, and build a new type of biological threat defense system featuring unified command, complementary military and local forces, coordination of departments, and participation of the whole people.

Establish an authoritative and efficient biological threat defense organization and management system. Break up the fragmented biosafety management pattern, establish authoritative biosafety management institutions at all levels of government, and implement unified leadership, coordination and command. Strengthen the special status and important role of the military in national biological threat defense, give full play to the obvious advantages of the military’s high concentration and unity, strong scientific and technological strength, and quick emergency response. With the relevant professional forces of the military as the main body, build a united connection between peacetime and warfare. Integrate the development of the national biological threat defense system and emergency response network, establish a joint military-civilian consultation and judgment mechanism, and a multi-department joint handling division and coordination mechanism, and strengthen the construction of corresponding laws and regulations.

Establish a scientific and technological support system for defense against biological threats that are complementary to the military and the ground. In accordance with the principle of “military and local alliances and complementary advantages,” we will build a scientific and technological support system for biological threat defense, and make up for deficiencies on the basis of understanding the current status of my country’s biological threat defense capability system to improve the overall level. In view of the global biosecurity situation and the biological threats that my country may face in the future, systematically demonstrate the scientific and technological needs of biological threat defense, forward-looking deployment of major national and military biological threat defense projects, focusing on monitoring and early warning, emergency response, basic research, etc. to increase technology Support efforts and strengthen countermeasure research in the safety management and control of dual-use biological products.

Establish a multi-layered biological threat defense education and training system. Incorporate biosafety knowledge into the national defense education system, establish an education and training system with military medical scientific research and military disease prevention and control institutions as the backbone, and rely on corresponding national institutions to carry out biosafety publicity and education through various forms, so that governments at all levels, All sectors of society fully understand the importance of biosafety. The military must always play its role as an “outpost”, keep track of global biosecurity trends, focus on anti-biological warfare and anti-biological terrorism, in-depth study and judgment of the ever-changing biological threats facing our country, and resolutely defend the country’s “biological territory” “Safety.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

原標題:生物安全:國防戰略制高點
世界範圍內頻發的嚴重“生物事件”,使得國防已經突破陸、海、空、天、電的疆界,拓展至“生物疆域”範疇。 “生物疆域”是一個國家為了保護生命資源以及與之相關的權益空間,應該具備的生物安全保護和生物威脅防禦實力的範圍。 “生物疆域”安全與國家核心利益密切相關,是國家安全的重要組成部分,越來越受到各國政府的高度重視,許多國家把生物安全納入國家戰略,作為國防和軍事博弈的製高點。我國正值經濟發展轉型期和社會矛盾凸顯期,更需從國家安全的戰略高度深刻認識全球生物安全形勢,充分借鑒先進生物安全管理經驗,構建新型生物威脅防禦體系,為實現富國強軍目標保駕護航。

一、全球生物安全形勢嚴峻,我國面臨嚴重生物威脅

隨著國際形勢日趨複雜,由地緣環境、利益爭端等引發的生物安全問題愈加突出。維護國家安全和社會穩定,需要牢固樹立“生物疆域”意識,切實認清面臨的生物威脅。

全球生物安全形勢非常嚴峻。全球生物安全形勢呈現影響國際化、危害極端化、發展複雜化的特點。聯合國《禁止生物武器公約》有令難行,生物武器研發屢禁不止,生物戰的威脅仍然存在;病原體跨物種感染、跨地域傳播,造成新發突發傳染病不斷出現;由自然災害、人為因素造成的突發公共衛生事件層出不窮;環境污染、外來物種入侵等造成嚴重生態環境破壞,基因資源流失現象時有發生。這些均成為世界各國共同面對的重大生物安全問題。

新型生物威脅特點明顯變化。受國際政治鬥爭持續進行、武器裝備高新技術化、人為故意行動等因素的影響,新型生物威脅的特點發生明顯變化。未來生物威脅主要表現形式可能是突發的人或動、植物疫情,與自然發生的傳染病疫情或突發公共衛生事件很難分清;病原體可能趨於低致死、高致病、易傳播、難追溯的特性;實施手段可能是合成和施放新病原體製造可疑疫情等;危害範圍不僅指向生命健康,而且重在威脅社會和政府,以達成政治、經濟、軍事目的。

我國生物安全威脅種類增多。我國作為當今世界快速發展的新興經濟體,處於世界複雜格局的中心、大國博弈的漩渦,面臨多種生物威脅。一些國家或組織利用病原體實施生物威脅的風險不斷增加,成為國家安全面臨的重大挑戰。重大新發突發傳染病疫情、食源性疾病、動物疫病增加等問題,嚴重危害人民健康。基因組學、合成生物技術應用,以及生物實驗室洩漏事故,存在著潛在風險。外來物種入侵造成物種滅絕速度加快、遺傳多樣性喪失、生態環境破壞趨勢不斷加劇。據2013年10月25日《人民日報》消息,我國幾乎所有生態系統均遭入侵,已確認544種外來入侵生物,其中大面積發生、危害嚴重的達100多種。

二、生物安全地位重要,我國生物威脅防禦能力急需加強

我國需要強化“生物國防”意識,借鑒國際先進的生物安全管理經驗,盡快彌補生物威脅防禦能力的不足。

生物安全是國家核心利益的重要保證。一個國家如果出現生物安全問題,將會嚴重影響到民眾健康、經濟運行、社會秩序、國家安全和政局穩定。例如,2001年美國炭疽事件,雖然只有22例患者、5例死亡,但僅接受預防性治療的就達3萬多人,對經濟造成的損失無法估計。第一次世界大戰曾因傳染病暴發流行,對交戰雙方的戰爭勝負產生了重要影響。因此,做好生物威脅防禦工作,涉及國家安全等核心利益,必須加強。

生物安全是國家戰略目標的重要支柱。許多國家把生物安全納入國家安全戰略,建立以軍隊相關機構為主的生物防禦體系,並從國防和軍事角度積極搶占戰略制高點。美國先後製訂頒布了生物盾牌計劃、生物監測計劃和生物傳感計劃,並圍繞這三個計劃部署了一系列明顯具有國防和軍事意圖的項目任務,在生物反恐和疫情處置中發揮重要作用;德國將傳染病定性為國家安全威脅;英國、澳大利亞等國也分別把安全、國防等部門納入公共衛生體系。這些足以證明生物安全在國家戰略部署中的重要地位。

我國生物威脅防禦能力建設急需加強。我們黨和政府密切關註生物安全問題,提出要加快發展生物安全技術,構建先進國家安全和公共安全體系,有效防範對人民生活和生態環境的生物威脅。目前,我國逐步建立了病原微生物生物安全國家重點實驗室、國家生物防護裝備工程技術研究中心等科技支撐平台,並把軍隊疾病預防控制機構納入國家公共衛生體系建設,已經構建了初步的生物威脅防禦體系,在非典型肺炎、高致病性H5N1禽流感等重大傳染病疫情防控中發揮重要作用。然而,與發達國家先進的生物安全管理經驗相比,我國在生物威脅監測預警、應急處置和科技支撐等方面仍然存在不少薄弱環節,急需從戰略規劃研究、組織管理體制、科學技術研究、宣傳教育培訓等方面加強建設。

三、生物安全涉及面廣,急需構建新型生物威脅防禦體系

我國生物安全涉及部門較多,急需以深化改革為契機,強化國家意志,制訂戰略規劃,構建統一指揮、軍地互補、部門協同、全民參與的新型生物威脅防禦體系。

建立權威高效的生物威脅防禦組織管理體系。打通條塊分割的生物安全管理格局,在各級政府建立權威的生物安全管理機構,實施統一領導、協調和指揮。強化軍隊在國家生物威脅防禦中的特殊地位和重要作用,發揮軍隊高度集中統一、科技實力較強、應急反應較快的明顯優勢,以軍隊相關專業力量為主體,構建平戰一體銜接、軍地融合發展的國家生物威脅防禦體系和應急反應網絡,建立軍地聯席的會商研判機制,以及多部門聯合處置的分工協調機制,同時加強相應的法規制度建設。

建立軍地互補的生物威脅防禦科技支撐體系。按照“軍地聯合、優勢互補”的原則,構建生物威脅防禦科技支撐體系,在摸清我國生物威脅防禦能力體系建設現狀的基礎上進行補缺配套,提高整體水平。針對全球生物安全形勢以及我國未來可能面臨的生物威脅,系統論證生物威脅防禦的科技需求,前瞻部署國家和軍隊生物威脅防禦重大科技專項,重點在監測預警、應急處置、基礎研究等方面加大科技支撐力度,在生物兩用品安全管控方面加強對策研究。

建立多元分層的生物威脅防禦教育培訓體系。把生物安全知識納入國防教育體系,建立以軍事醫學科研和軍隊疾病預防控制機構為骨幹,以國家相應機構為依託的教育培訓體系,通過多種形式,開展生物安全宣傳教育,使各級政府、社會各界充分認識生物安全的重要性。軍隊要始終發揮好“前哨”的作用,時刻追踪全球的生物安全動態,重點從反生物戰、反生物恐怖的角度,深入研判我國面臨的、不斷變化的生物威脅,堅決捍衛國家的“生物疆域”安全。

Original referring Communist Party of China link: http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2014/0101/c40531-23995992.html

中國軍事現代化目標, “捍衛”, “接續”, “競爭”, “未來”

On October 29, the Communiqué of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee was announced. In the section “Accelerating the modernization of national defense and the armed forces , and realizing the unity of a prosperous country and a strong armed forces”, the most striking statement is “to comprehensively strengthen military training and preparations, improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure that the year 2027 Realize the goal of building the army for a century.”

In the National Day military parade in 2017, three flag groups of the party flag and the national flag passed through Tiananmen Square for the first time. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

On the basis of the “two centenary” goals we are familiar with, the “100 years of the founding of the party” and the “100 years of the founding of the nation”, this plenary session put forward the “100-year goal of the army.” This is the first time that the army, based on obeying and serving the direction of the party and the country, combined with the characteristics and laws of its own development, put forward the goal that the people’s army should achieve when it is established a century ago. This goal is based on understanding and responding to special and complex environments, and is also a guide for the development of military construction.

On the road of the people’s army courageously advancing, the establishment of the goal of the army’s centennial struggle has undoubtedly set up an exciting spiritual battle banner. The author combined the personal accumulated information and learning experience to extract 4 key words to understand this goal, and discuss with everyone.

Modern Mandarin Chinese:

10月29日,十九屆五中全會公報公佈。在“加快國防和軍隊現代化,實現富國和強軍相統一”部分,最引人注目的表述就是“全面加強練兵備戰,提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力,確保二〇二七年實現建軍百年奮鬥目標。”

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

2017年國慶閱兵,首次出現黨旗國旗軍旗3個旗組通過天安門廣場。 (圖/新華社)

在我們熟知的“建黨一百年”、“建國一百年”這“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標基礎上,此次全會提出“建軍百年奮鬥目標”。這是軍隊在服從服務於黨和國家前進方向的基礎上,首次結合自身發展的特點規律,提出到人民軍隊建立一百年時應該達到的目標。這一目標,是基於對特殊複雜環境的把握和應對,也是對軍隊建設發展的引領。

在人民軍隊奮勇前進的道路上,建軍百年奮鬥目標的確立,無疑又立起了一面令人振奮的精神戰旗。筆者結合個人積累的資料和學習體悟,提煉出理解這一目標的4個關鍵詞,與大家一同討論。

1. “Defend”

The goal of the army’s centennial struggle is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests . And back to August 1, 2017, in the Army 90 anniversary of the relevant expression is “people’s army must firmly uphold the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the socialist system, Kennedy decided to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests , Resolutely maintain regional and world peace.” From the “maintenance” used many times before to the “defense” proposed in the plenary communiqué, although it is only a difference of two words, it has a profound meaning and a strong practical orientation.

On October 31, the People’s Daily published “A Far-reaching and Pragmatic Era-Sidelights on the Fifth Plenary Session of the Nineteenth Central Committee of the Party”, which stated: “General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out,’We are increasingly aware of “Safety is the prerequisite for development, and development is the guarantee of safety.” The proposed draft set up a special chapter to make strategic arrangements for overall development and safety, which he personally planned and finalized.”

In the past two years, we have been particularly deeply impressed by the nervousness of raging smoke and frequent alarms, and the sense of crisis that is very likely to wipe out guns. The frequency and intensity of interference and intrusion by the US and Western forces on China are increasing. In addition to the frequent intrusion of US naval vessels and aircraft into the sea and airspace near China’s South Island and reefs, and approaching China’s territorial waters and airspace for reconnaissance, warships of Canada, France, Australia and other countries They were all sailing across the Taiwan Strait, and the demonstrations meant even more pressure testing. The activities of “Taiwan independence” forces have become more rampant. Recently, they have purchased “harpoons” and other offensive weapons from the United States for four consecutive times, and have frequently colluded with Western forces in an attempt to seek independence through the “epidemic”. In the west, India’s adventurous moves have not subsided, and the confrontation in places such as Pangong Lake still has the possibility of intensifying.

It is precisely in response to the increasingly complex national security environment that the goal of the army’s century-old struggle has been proposed to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. This also means that by 2027, the People’s Army’s strategic capabilities will have been greatly improved, and it will be able to promptly, effectively and resolutely combat all actions that endanger our sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure that every inch of our territory is indispensable. All foreign interventions have failed.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

10月份,解放军飞机连续27次到台湾上空“打卡”,创造了新的记录。(图/台媒)

这方面,最新的例证是10月29日下午,在国防部新闻发布会上,有记者提及距离台湾只有500公里的浙江衢州机场出现中国第五代隐身战机歼-20,随后解放军又在东南沿海地区部署了东风-17导弹,有消息称解放军之所以部署这些武器装备是为了震慑“台独”分子,那么到底是否如此呢?

国防部发言人吴谦大校表示,关于武器装备的具体部署,由于事关军事机密,恕无可奉告。但是解放军有足够的能力保卫祖国国家安全以及领土完整,并直接挫败任何形式的“台独”分裂行为。不行动并不是没有能力,不言语并不是没有信心,相反能力始终都在,意志坚定不移。

王若愚:建军百年奋斗目标——一面令人振奋的精神战旗

东风17在台海一线前推部署。(图/新华社)

可以预见,在今后的军事斗争准备中,类似歼-20、东风-17之类的“大国重器”向边境边防一线部署、向最接近可能爆发冲突的前沿推进,将会变得更多、更普遍。而这些军事部署,也必将不断增加“捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益的战略能力”。

此外,知名军事专家、凤凰卫视评论员宋忠平表示,此次提出“捍卫发展利益”是一个重要变化。这是因为过去中国用兵都是在国土范围之内,在近海、近岸,现在加上了发展利益,就表明中国未来不仅要为自身的和平发展维护好安全稳定的外部环境,还将会增加在海外用兵的机会,以维护中国在海外日益增长的利益。

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

In October, the PLA planes “checked in” over Taiwan 27 consecutive times, setting a new record. (Photo/Taiwan Media)

In this regard, the latest example is that on the afternoon of October 29, at a press conference of the Ministry of National Defense, a reporter mentioned that China’s fifth-generation stealth fighter J-20 appeared at Zhejiang Quzhou Airport, which is only 500 kilometers away from Taiwan, and the PLA was in the southeast. Dongfeng-17 missiles have been deployed in coastal areas. It is reported that the PLA deployed these weapons and equipment to deter “Taiwan independence” elements. Is that true?

The spokesperson of the Ministry of National Defense, Colonel Wu Qian, said that there is no comment on the specific deployment of weapons and equipment due to military secrets. However, the People’s Liberation Army is capable of defending the national security and territorial integrity of the motherland, and directly defeating any form of “Taiwan independence” separatist behavior. Inaction does not mean lack of ability, and silent does not mean lack of confidence. On the contrary, the ability is always there and the will is unwavering.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

Dongfeng 17 is deployed on the front line of the Taiwan Strait. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

It is foreseeable that in the future preparations for military struggles, “big power weapons” such as the J-20 and Dongfeng-17 will be deployed to the front line of border defense and advance to the front line closest to the possible conflict. More common. And these military deployments will surely increase “strategic capabilities to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests.”

In addition, Song Zhongping, a well-known military expert and commentator on Phoenix Satellite TV, said that the proposal to “defend development interests” is an important change. This is because in the past, China’s military use was within the boundaries of the country, in offshore and inshore areas. Now that development benefits are added, it shows that China will not only maintain a safe and stable external environment for its own peaceful development in the future, but will also increase it. Opportunities to use troops overseas to safeguard China’s growing interests overseas.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

In October, the PLA planes “checked in” over Taiwan 27 consecutive times, setting a new record. (Photo/Taiwan Media)

In this regard, the latest example is that on the afternoon of October 29, at a press conference of the Ministry of National Defense, a reporter mentioned that China’s fifth-generation stealth fighter J-20 appeared at Zhejiang Quzhou Airport, which is only 500 kilometers away from Taiwan, and the PLA was in the southeast. Dongfeng-17 missiles have been deployed in coastal areas. It is reported that the PLA deployed these weapons and equipment to deter “Taiwan independence” elements. Is that true?

The spokesperson of the Ministry of National Defense, Colonel Wu Qian, said that there is no comment on the specific deployment of weapons and equipment due to military secrets. However, the People’s Liberation Army is capable of defending the national security and territorial integrity of the motherland, and directly defeating any form of “Taiwan independence” separatist behavior. Inaction does not mean lack of ability, and silent does not mean lack of confidence. On the contrary, the ability is always there and the will is unwavering.

Dongfeng 17 is deployed on the front line of the Taiwan Strait. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

It is foreseeable that in the future preparations for military struggles, “big power weapons” such as the J-20 and Dongfeng-17 will be deployed to the front line of border defense and advance to the front line closest to the possible conflict. More common. And these military deployments will surely increase “strategic capabilities to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests.”

In addition, Song Zhongping, a well-known military expert and commentator on Phoenix Satellite TV, said that the proposal to “defend development interests” is an important change. This is because in the past, China’s military use was within the boundaries of the country, in offshore and inshore areas. Now that development benefits are added, it shows that China will not only maintain a safe and stable external environment for its own peaceful development in the future, but will also increase it. Opportunities to use troops overseas to safeguard China’s growing interests overseas.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1.“捍衛”

建軍百年奮鬥目標,其內涵寓意就是提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。而回到2017年8月1日,在建軍90週年紀念大會上,相關的表述則是“人民軍隊要堅決維護中國共產黨領導和我國社會主義制度,堅決維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,堅決維護地區和世界和平”。從此前多次使用的“維護”,到這次全會公報提出的“捍衛”,雖然只是兩字之別,但是有著深刻的寓意,以及強烈的現實指向性。

10月31日,人民日報刊發《高遠務實的時代擘畫——黨的十九屆五中全會側記》,其中有這樣的表述:“習近平總書記指出,’我們越來越深刻地認識到,安全是發展的前提,發展是安全的保障。’建議稿設置專章對統籌發展和安全作出戰略部署,也是他親自謀劃和敲定的。”

這兩年,我們尤其感受深刻的,就是那種狼煙四起、警報頻響的緊張感,有那種極有可能擦槍走火的危機感。美西方軍隊對我干涉、侵擾的頻度和烈度都在上升,除了美軍艦艇、飛機頻頻闖入我南海島礁附近海空域、抵近我領海領空進行偵察,加拿大、法國、澳大利亞等國的軍艦都在過航台灣海峽,示威試壓的意味更濃。 “台獨”勢力活動更加猖獗,近期連續4次向美國購買“魚叉”等進攻性武器,頻繁勾結西方勢力,妄圖以“疫”謀獨。而在西部,印度的冒險盲動並沒有消退,在班公湖等地的對峙依然存在加劇的可能性。

正是因應日趨複雜的國家安全環境,建軍百年奮鬥目標提出,提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。這也就意味著,到2027年的時候,人民軍隊的戰略能力得到了很大的提高,能夠及時、有效、堅決地打擊一切危害我主權、安全和發展利益的行為,保證領土一寸都少不了,外來干涉都遭遇失敗的下場。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

10月份,解放軍飛機連續27次到台灣上空“打卡”,創造了新的記錄。 (圖/台媒)

這方面,最新的例證是10月29日下午,在國防部新聞發布會上,有記者提及距離台灣只有500公里的浙江衢州機場出現中國第五代隱身戰機殲-20,隨後解放軍又在東南沿海地區部署了東風-17導彈,有消息稱解放軍之所以部署這​​些武器裝備是為了震懾“台獨”分子,那麼到底是否如此呢?

國防部發言人吳謙大校表示,關於武器裝備的具體部署,由於事關軍事機密,恕無可奉告。但是解放軍有足夠的能力保衛祖國國家安全以及領土完整,並直接挫敗任何形式的“台獨”分裂行為。不行動並不是沒有能力,不言語並不是沒有信心,相反能力始終都在,意志堅定不移。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

東風17在台海一線前推部署。 (圖/新華社)

可以預見,在今後的軍事鬥爭準備中,類似殲-20、東風-17之類的“大國重器”向邊境邊防一線部署、向最接近可能爆發衝突的前沿推進,將會變得更多、更普遍。而這些軍事部署,也必將不斷增加“捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力”。

此外,知名軍事專家、鳳凰衛視評論員宋忠平表示,此次提出“捍衛發展利益”是一個重要變化。這是因為過去中國用兵都是在國土範圍之內,在近海、近岸,現在加上了發展利益,就表明中國未來不僅要為自身的和平發展維護好安全穩定的外部環境,還將會增加在海外用兵的機會,以維護中國在海外日益增長的利益

2. “Connect”

The formulation of medium and long-term development plans is an important experience of the Chinese Communist Party in governing the country. Earlier, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China carried out a plan for the modernization of national defense and the armed forces, and proposed that “in accordance with the national modernization process, we should comprehensively promote the modernization of military theory, the modernization of military organization, the modernization of military personnel, and the modernization of weapons and equipment. Realize the modernization of national defense and the army, and build the people’s army into a world-class army by the middle of this century.” This time, we put forward the goal of building the army in 2027, which has clarified three important time nodes in 2027, 2035, and 2050, so that the short, medium and long-term development goals can be continued, and a clearer path to a strong army can be formed.

Since the birth of the Nanchang Uprising in 1927, our army has been armed with millet and rifles for a long time. It is an army that has nothing to do with modernization. Chairman Mao once recalled, “Our army, first of all guerrillas, will be more regular in the future, and now it is better, but strictly speaking, it is still far from modernization.”

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea greatly promoted the modernization of national defense and the army. (Data map)

In the process of our army’s exploration of modernization, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea was an important milestone. On October 23, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the meeting to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Chinese People’s Volunteers’ mission to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea. “After this war, the People’s Army learned about war in the war. Experience has realized the transition from a single service to a combined army of various services and arms, which has greatly promoted the modernization of national defense and the army.” Among them, the Volunteer Army insisted on fighting in Shangganling, which was the pinnacle of the combat effectiveness of the world army in the 1950s.

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, our army has been streamlined and reorganized many times, gradually transforming from a single army to a modern army composed of various services and arms. After the reform and opening up, based on a new judgment on the international strategic situation, Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward the general goal of building a powerful, modernized and regularized revolutionary army. During the period from mid-1985 to the end of 1987, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, our army carried out a “millions of disarmament.” After many reforms since then, our army has continued to move in the direction of “strengthening, synthesis, and efficiency.”

In 2015, our army was disarmed by 300,000 people, and a new round of reforms was gradually carried out in the areas of leadership and command system, scale structure and force formation, and military policy systems. In 2017, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China further clarified the connotation of the modernization of national defense and the military, including the modernization of military theory, the modernization of military organization, the modernization of military personnel, and the modernization of weapons and equipment.

Putting forward the goal of the century-old military struggle this time is actually a further exploration of the direction and development path of our military’s modernization, and a further clarification of the modernization development goal. Song Zhongping believes that by 2027, our army will become a modernized army.

2.“接續”

制定中長期發展規劃,是中國共產黨治國理政的一條重要經驗。此前,十九大對國防和軍隊現代化進行了規劃,提出“同國家現代化進程相一致,全面推進軍事理論現代化、軍隊組織形態現代化、軍事人員現代化、武器裝備現代化,力爭到二〇三五年基本實現國防和軍隊現代化,到本世紀中葉把人民軍隊全面建成世界一流軍隊”。這次提出2027年建軍百年奮鬥目標,由此明確了2027、2035、2050年三個重要的時間節點,讓短、中、長期發展目標得以接續,連接形成一條更加清晰的強軍路徑。

從1927年南昌起義誕生,我軍在很長時間內都是一支靠著小米加步槍武裝起來的“土得掉渣的軍隊”,是基本與現代化無緣的軍隊。毛主席曾回憶說,“我們的軍隊,首先是游擊隊,以後比較正規一些,現在更好一些,但嚴格說來,距現代化還差很遠”。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

抗美援朝戰爭極大促進了國防和軍隊現代化。 (資料圖)

在我軍探索現代化的進程中,抗美援朝戰爭是一個重要的里程碑。 10月23日,習近平總書記在紀念中國人民志願軍抗美援朝出國作戰70週年大會上指出,“經此一戰,人民軍隊在戰爭中學習戰爭,愈戰愈勇,越打越強,取得了重要軍事經驗,實現了由單一軍種向諸軍兵種合成軍隊轉變,極大促進了國防和軍隊現代化。”這其中,志願軍堅守上甘嶺的作戰,堪稱20世紀50年代世界陸軍戰鬥力的巔峰。

建國以來,我軍通過多次精簡整編,逐步由單一陸軍向諸軍兵種合成的現代軍隊轉變。改革開放後,基於對國際戰略形勢的新判斷,鄧小平同志提出了建設一支強大的現代化正規化革命軍隊的總目標。 1985年中至1987年底期間,在鄧小平領導下,我軍進行“百萬大裁軍”。此後又經過多番改革,我軍朝著“精兵、合成、高效”的方向不斷邁進。

2015年,我軍裁軍30萬人,新一輪改革在領導指揮體制、規模結構和力量編成、軍事政策制度等領域逐步展開。 2017年,十九大進一步明確國防和軍隊的現代化的內涵,包括軍事理論現代化、軍隊組織形態現代化、軍事人員現代化、武器裝備現代化“四個現代化”。

這一次提出建軍百年奮鬥目標,實際上是對我軍現代化前進方向和發展道路的進一步探索,是對現代化發展目標的進一步明確。宋忠平認為,到2027年我軍將成為一支初步實現現代化的軍隊。

3. “Competition”

The centennial goal of the army’s founding was not only determined according to the phased characteristics of our army’s construction and development, but also in line with the trend of world military development. It is a reference and comprehensive grasp of the development goals of major military forces in the world.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

Schematic diagram of the concept of joint global command and control (Photo/U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command)

The various branches of the U.S. military regularly formulate and release development strategies in different areas to clarify long-term development goals. Among these goals, 2027 and 2028 are important time nodes. For example, the U.S. Army formulates a development strategy for 2028, proposing that the U.S. Army in 2028 will be prepared for deployment in joint, combined, multi-domain, and high-intensity conflicts at any time, any place, and facing any opponent. Win a decisive victory.

The U.S. Navy’s command for the development of C4ISR, the Space Warfare and Naval Warfare System Command, released its 2018-2027 strategic vision. The “2017 Marine Corps Aviation Plan” issued by the U.S. Marine Corps states that between 2017 and 2027, the Marine Corps will have most of the Navy’s fifth-generation aircraft.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

The “Pioneer” strategic-level hypersonic missile system is included in Russia’s development plan. The picture shows the “Pioneer” warhead design

The Russian military also clarified the construction and development goals for 2027. At the end of 2017, the military operations in Syria had just ended. President Putin signed the National Equipment Development Plan for 2018-2027. Russia will allocate more than 20 trillion rubles to equip the army, aerospace forces and navy, purchase new weapons, and The minimum goal of upgrading active combat equipment is to reach 70% of modern weapons and equipment by 2021.

The establishment of our army’s goal for the century-long struggle is actually aspiring to stand shoulder to shoulder with the armed forces of major powers such as the United States and Russia, which is conducive to facing difficulties and taking the initiative in the fierce international military competition. In this regard, we must know ourselves but also the enemy, aim at the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, and strive to find the key hub of innovation and breakthroughs, so as to achieve “curve overtaking”.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

3.“競爭”

建軍百年目標的提出,既是根據我軍建設發展的階段性特徵確定的,也是順應世界軍事發展潮流提出來的,是對世界主要軍事力量發展目標的參考借鑒和綜合把握。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

聯合全域指揮控制概念示意圖(圖/美國陸軍訓練與條令司令部)

美軍各軍兵種經常分領域制定和發布發展戰略,明確遠景發展目標。在這些目標中,2027、2028年是重要時間節點。比如,美國陸軍制定2028年發展戰略,提出2028年的美國陸軍將在聯合、合成、多域和高強度衝突中,在任何時間、任何地點,面對任何對手都能做好部署準備,作戰並贏得決定性勝利。

美海軍負責C4ISR發展的司令部——空間戰與海戰系統司令部發布了2018-2027戰略構想。美國海軍陸戰隊發布的《2017年海軍陸戰隊航空兵規劃》,提出在2017至2027年間,海軍陸戰隊將擁有海軍第5代飛機的大部分機型。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

“先鋒”戰略級高超聲速導彈系統列入了俄羅斯發展規劃。圖為“先鋒”彈頭設想圖

俄羅斯軍隊同樣明確了2027年的建設發展目標。 2017年底,剛剛結束在敘利亞的軍事行動,普京總統簽署了《2018—2027年國家裝備發展規劃》,俄將撥款20多萬億盧布用於裝備陸軍、空天軍和海軍,購買新式武器,以及升級現役作戰裝備,其最低目標是在2021年前使現代化武器裝備比例達到70%。

我軍確立建軍百年奮鬥目標,實際上是志在與美、俄等大國軍隊比肩,有利於在激烈的國際軍事競爭中迎難而上、佔據主動。這方面,要知己更要知彼,瞄準對手的長處和短板,努力找到創新突破的關鍵樞紐,從而實現“彎道超車”。

4. “Future”

What kind of modernization path will the People’s Army, which is heading for a century, take? The century-old goal of the army has given the answer, which is to take the road of mechanized, informatized and intelligent integrated development.

Prior to this, the military mentioned more about mechanization and informatization. For example, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that by 2020, “mechanization will be basically achieved, major progress will be made in information construction, and strategic capabilities will be greatly improved.” The first proposal of intelligentization was in the 22nd collective study of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee on July 31 this year, which requested “accelerate the integration of mechanization, informatization, and intelligentization.”

From the “two modernizations” of mechanization and informationization to the current “three modernizations”, this reveals the future development direction and focus of our military. In recent years, military intelligence has developed rapidly, and the rules of war are constantly changing. Some time ago, in the conflict between Serbia and Azerbaijan in the Naka region, the Turkish TB-2 medium-sized surveillance drone used by Azerbaijan almost ruled the battlefield, leaving a deep impression on people.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

During the Naqa War, drones were in the limelight

The U.S. military has invested heavily in intelligence and achieved outstanding results, while the Russian army put intelligence into actual combat during the Syrian war. In December 2015, the Russian army invested a robot combat company in the battle, including 6 “Platform-M” crawler combat robots, 4 “Secret Whisper” wheeled combat robots, 1 “Acacia” self-propelled artillery group, and An unmanned aerial vehicle and a set of “Andromeda-D” accusation system assisted the Syrian government forces in successfully capturing a high ground of “Islamic State” militants. In January 2018, the Russian army also shot down a swarm of 13 drones through a combination of electromagnetic attack and fire strike. These real war scenes all show us a possible scene of intelligent warfare in the future.

At present, the world’s military powers are vying to design intelligent warfare, study intelligent combat theory, build an intelligent army, and seize the commanding heights of military intelligence technology. If our military wants to catch up to the advanced level, it must focus on intelligence and strive to make breakthroughs.

Of course, Rome was not built in a day. To achieve intelligence, it must be based on existing conditions and foundations. Therefore, the goal of the army’s centennial struggle is “integrated development”, that is, intelligent construction based on the existing mechanization and information transformation that has not been completely completed.

This “three transformations” is not as uniform and even force as sprinkling pepper noodles, but has its own emphasis. On the one hand, it is the intelligent transformation of existing armed equipment and combat platforms, such as transforming old aircraft into unmanned aerial vehicles and upgrading main battle tanks and aircraft; on the other hand, it is vigorously researching intelligent weapons and equipment. , Generate new quality combat power.

To sum up, the goal of the army’s century-old struggle is to deal with complex environments, continue the struggle process, aim at the military frontier, and seize opportunities in the future. The planning and design will surely drive the development of our army with a new look, comprehensively improve its combat capabilities, and build a world-class army. The magnificent blueprint is running fast.

Reference materials: 1. People’s Daily editorials and commentators’ articles; 2. Hong Kong Wen Wei Po’s articles on the goal of a century-old military; 3. Chai Shan: “The Essence of Intelligent Warfare”; 4. Li Minghai, “Accelerating the Advancement of Military Intelligence” .

Original Mandarin Chinese:

4.“”

走向一百年的人民軍隊,將走出一條什麼樣的現代化路徑?建軍百年奮鬥目標給出了答案,那就是走開機械化信息化智能化融合發展的路子。

此前,軍隊提得多的是機械化、信息化。比如,十九大提出,到2020年“基本實現機械化,信息化建設取得重大進展,戰略能力有大的提升”。首次提出智能化,是在今年7月31日中央政治局第22次集體學習上,要求“加快機械化信息化智能化融合發展”。

從機械化信息化的“兩化”,到現在的“三化”,這揭示了未來我軍的發展方向和著力重點。這幾年,軍事智能化發展日新月異,正在不斷地改變戰爭規則。前段時間,塞爾維亞和阿塞拜疆在納卡地區爆發的衝突中,阿塞拜疆使用的土耳其TB-2中型察打一體無人機幾乎統治了戰場,給人留下了深刻的印象。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

納卡戰爭中,無人機大出風頭

美軍在智能化方面投入巨大、成績不凡,而俄羅斯軍隊在參加敘利亞戰爭期間,把智能化較好地投入實戰。 2015年12月,俄軍在戰鬥中投入了一個機器人作戰連,包括6部“平台-M”履帶式戰鬥機器人、4部“暗語”輪式戰鬥機器人、1個“洋槐”自行火砲群、數架無人機和一套“仙女座-D”指控系統,協助敘政府軍成功攻占“伊斯蘭國”武裝分子的一座高地。 2018年1月,俄軍還通過電磁攻擊和火力打擊相結合的方式,擊落了13架無人機組成的蜂群作戰。這些真實的戰爭場景,都為我們展示了未來智能化戰爭的一種可能場景。

當前,世界軍事強國都在爭相設計智能化戰爭,研究智能化作戰理論,打造智能化軍隊,搶占軍事智能技術制高點。我軍要想爭趕先進,就得在智能化方面抓緊投棋布子,努力取得突破。

當然,羅馬不是一天建成的,要想實現智能化,也要基於現有的條件和基礎。因此,建軍百年奮鬥目標提出的是“融合發展”,即在現有機械化和信息化改造尚未徹底完成的基礎上進行的智能化建設。

這“三化”並非像撒胡椒面一樣均勻、平均用力,而是各有側重。一方面,是對現有的武裝裝備和作戰平台進行智能化改造,比如把老舊飛機改造成為無人機,把主戰坦克、飛機進行升級;另一方面,是大力研究智能化的武器裝備,生成新質戰鬥力。

綜上所述,建軍百年奮鬥目標是應對複雜環境、接續奮鬥進程、瞄準軍事前沿、搶占未來先機的籌劃設計,必將帶動我軍發展面貌煥然一新,全面提高打仗本領,向著建設世界一流軍隊的宏偉藍圖極速奔跑。

參考資料:1.人民日報社論、評論員文章;2.香港文匯報有關建軍百年奮鬥目標的文章;3. 柴山:《智能化戰爭的製勝精髓》;4. 李明海《加速推進軍事智能化》 。

Referring URL from Chinese People’s Liberation Army: https://news.163.com/20/1102/08/

中國新型軍事網絡戰和信息化武器

China’s new military cyber warfare & information weapons

信息作战第1方队:信息制胜的“尖刀铁拳”

2019-10-2 09:37:33 Source: PLA Daily

  滚滚铁流之中,车辆上装着形状各异天线的信息作战第1方队,格外引人注目。这个方队由某部145名官兵组成,是一支维护国家安全的新型作战力量。方队领队为徐桂明少将、孟繁浩少将。

  作为信息作战模块的排头兵,方队官兵整齐列队、神采飞扬,首次在天安门广场接受习主席和祖国人民的检阅。

  此次受阅的信息侦测、数据干扰等信息作战车组,是我国自主研发的新一代信息作战装备,具有破击节点、瘫痪体系、出奇制胜的能力,可为掌握复杂电磁环境下战场主动权提供有效支撑,被称为无形战场的“信息尖兵”。

  这是一支历史悠久战功卓著的光荣部队。该部队前身在土地革命战争时期诞生成长,经受了炮火硝烟的洗礼和艰难困苦的考验,在捍卫国家主权安全和领土完整、维护社会安全稳定中,发挥了重要作用。

  这是一支在改革强军大潮中光荣诞生的新型作战力量。在习近平强军思想指引下,该部官兵以对历史和事业高度负责的精神推进转型重塑,坚持体系抓建促发展,形成各项工作齐头并进、相互促进的良好格局,部队全面建设取得新进步,能力建设实现新突破,正成为我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。

  这是一支以青年军官为主体的高技术部队。受阅官兵平均年龄28岁,干部占总人数的58%,其中20%具有硕士以上学历。在现代信息化战争中,他们所在的部队担负夺取战场制信息权的重要任务。该部党委着眼培育“四有”新时代革命军人,体系化推进人才队伍建设,确保各类人才学研有项目、升级有导师、实践有平台、成才有岗位、能力有提升,深度汇聚释放人才建设整体效能,努力打造高素质新型人才方阵。

  创新开路、技术制胜是这支部队的不懈追求。该部队党委提出“十个一流”标准,找准实践抓手,找准方法路径,一步一个脚印、一年一个台阶,推动部队建设实现新跨越。广大官兵牢牢把握自主创新战略基点,瞄准新兴前沿,强固优势能力,发展特色能力,培育新质能力,加速打造威慑制衡强敌的“尖刀铁拳”。

  调整改革后,这支部队从一起步就坚持抓规范、补短板、强特色、建窗口,着力加强基层建设,建强组织堡垒,强化服务保障,不断夯实部队建设和战斗力基础。着眼有效履行新时代使命任务,该部党委带头思战谋战、研战练战,重大保障任务完成出色,关键技术攻关成果丰硕,实战化训练迈出坚实步伐。他们瞄准“为指挥员服务、为作战部队服务、为战备训练服务”,探索走开高科技部队组训练兵新路子,确保随时能够拉得出、顶得上、打得赢。

  迈步改革强军新征程,该部官兵表示,将牢记统帅重托,牢记初心使命,以使命如山、时不我待、务求必成的信心决心,挺立时代潮头、自觉担当大任、锐意开拓进取,守好祖国的信息疆场,在伟大征程上再立新功。

Translation:

  Among the rolling irons, the information battled first party team with different antennas on the vehicle is particularly eye-catching. This team consists of 145 officers and men of a certain department and is a new type of combat force for national security. The team leader is Major General Xu Guiming and Major General Meng Fanhao.

  As the vanguard of the information warfare module, the officers and men of the party team lined up in a neat way, and they first accepted the review of President Xi and the people of the motherland in Tiananmen Square.

  The information combat vehicle group, such as information detection and data interference, which is read this time, is a new generation of information combat equipment independently researched and developed by China. It has the ability to break the node, the system, and the superior ability to win. It can master the battlefield initiative in complex electromagnetic environment. Providing effective support, known as the “information squad” of the invisible battlefield.

  This is a glorious army with a long history and outstanding achievements. The predecessor of the army was born and raised during the Agrarian Revolutionary War. It has withstood the baptism of hardships and the hardships and hardships. It has played an important role in safeguarding the sovereign security and territorial integrity of the country and safeguarding social security and stability.

  This is a new type of combat force that was gloriously born in the tide of reform and strong army. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s strong military ideology, officers and men of the ministry promoted transformation and reshaping in a spirit of high responsibility for history and career, adhered to the system of building and promoting development, and formed a good pattern in which all work went hand in hand and promoted each other. New breakthroughs in capacity building are becoming an important growth point for our military’s new capabilities.

  This is a high-tech force with young officers as the main body. The average age of the officers and men under review is 28 years old, and the cadres account for 58% of the total number, of which 20% have master’s degree or above. In the modern information warfare, their troops are responsible for the important task of capturing the right to information on the battlefield system. The party committee of the ministry focused on cultivating the “four-owned” revolutionary soldiers in the new era, systematically promoted the construction of the talent team, ensured that all kinds of talents had research projects, upgraded tutors, practiced platforms, talented positions, and improved capabilities, and deepened the release of talents. Overall efficiency, and strive to create a high-quality new talents square.

  Innovative openness and technological success are the unremitting pursuit of this unit. The party committee of the army put forward the “ten first-class” standards, find the right hands, find the path of the method, step by step, one step at a time, and promote the new leap in army building. The majority of officers and men firmly grasp the strategic base of independent innovation, aim at emerging frontiers, strengthen superiority, develop distinctive capabilities, foster new quality capabilities, and accelerate the creation of “smart knives” for deterrent checks and balances.

  After adjusting and reforming, this unit insisted on grasping norms, supplementing shortcomings, strengthening characteristics, and building windows from one step at a time, focusing on strengthening grassroots construction, building strong organizational fortresses, strengthening service guarantees, and constantly consolidating the foundation of force building and combat effectiveness. Focusing on the effective fulfillment of the mission of the new era, the party committee of the ministry took the lead in thinking and fighting, researching and fighting, and the major guarantee tasks were completed well, the key technical research results were fruitful, and the actual combat training took solid steps. They aim to “serve the commander, serve the combat troops, and provide training for combat readiness”, and explore the new way of training high-tech units to ensure that they can pull, win, and win at any time.

  Stepping forward to reform and strengthening the new army, the officers and men of the ministry said that they will bear in mind the command of the commander, bear in mind the mission of the heart, and the determination of confidence that the mission is like a mountain, time to wait, and must be fulfilled, stand up to the times, consciously take the responsibility, forge ahead, and keep the motherland. The information field, on the great journey to make new contributions.

信息作战第2方队:“电磁利剑”决胜无形战场

  伴着雄壮的阅兵进行曲,信息作战第2方队迎面驶来。

  作为一支重要的新型作战力量,这一方队代表着陆军部队的一柄电磁利剑。受阅装备为某型微波侦察干扰车、某型超短波侦察干扰车和某型区域拦阻式通信干扰系统,是我军新一代战术电子对抗装备体系的重要组成部分,集“侦、测、扰”为一体,具有较强的作战能力。

  方队受阅装备均为我国自主研发,搭载于第三代“猛士”系列底盘车型。这些新型电子对抗装备,能满足信息化条件下作战任务的快节奏、高精度、多协同、多战法需求。

  方队受阅官兵以陆军某电子对抗旅为主体抽组而成。该旅是一支诞生于特殊时期、肩负特殊使命的过硬部队。1978年,我国开启改革开放的大幕。就在同一年,作为该旅前身的某独立电子对抗营组建成立,并正式纳入部队编制序列。

  伴随着国家改革开放的伟大进程,40年来,该部队扭住练兵备战不放松,不断砥砺能打胜仗的“电抗利剑”,一代代电抗官兵先后历经8次调整改编,用青春与热血书写出辉煌篇章。

  1985年,该独立电子对抗营通信侦察干扰连受命火速出动,执行赴边疆作战任务。参战官兵进入作战配置地域,并在多个方向接替电子对抗阵地作战任务。因部队多次出击作战,瘫痪了敌主要指挥通信,有力支援了步兵分队的战斗行动,被誉为“制敌神兵”。1987年,参战部队召开庆功大会,通信侦察干扰连党支部被评为“战地模范党支部”。

  近年来,这支部队积极组织开展“搞清作战对手、摸准装备性能、研究战法训法”活动,常态开展挑应战、战斗体能、抗饥饿生存训练和实兵对抗演练,圆满完成了作战侦察和联合战役演习等多项任务。

  进入新时代,该部由战术级力量转变为战区所属的战役级力量。在习近平强军思想指引下,官兵积极投身强军实践,坚持聚力务战、潜心谋战、真练为战,蹄疾步稳推进部队转型建设,出色完成了各类比赛和演训任务。

  陆军“网电奇兵”竞赛金牌数第一,“网电力量”集训总评第一,某作战侦察任务中成果排名战区第一……一个个第一,续写出该旅新的辉煌荣誉,也凝聚成了“忠诚使命、创新图强、经略时空、决胜无形”的电磁利剑精神。

  前不久,一场复杂电磁环境下的拉动演练在西北某地域打响。演练中,该旅担负电子对抗任务,因电磁环境复杂,某型装备信号一直不稳定。维修技师、二级军士长刘加平手提工具箱,钻进装备操作间,只用了半个小时就让装备重新“耳聪目明”。演练中,该装备发挥了重要作用。

  近年来,该旅一直把人才队伍建设作为一项重要任务抓紧抓实,通过邀请军队院校、科研厂家的专家授课辅导,举办各类尖子骨干培训班,为单位培养了一批军事素养和专业技能双过硬的军队人才队伍。他们还举办一系列军事对抗赛,在单位形成了浓厚的比、学、赶、帮、超氛围。

  “向右——看!”当信息作战第2方队行至检阅台前时,伴着一声响亮的口令,方队将军领队李发义、杨小康举手敬礼。他们身后16台受阅装备整齐列队,装备天线直指苍穹,车辆乘载员手握钢枪、目视前方、雄姿勃发。

  这是一次光荣的受阅,也是一次豪迈的宣誓。走下阅兵场,信息作战第2方队官兵表示,他们将牢记使命重托,永葆受阅荣光,以使命如山、时不我待、务求必胜的信心决心,自觉担当大任、矢志奋发图强,瞄准未来信息化战场,锻造克敌制胜的电磁利剑。

Translation:

  With the majestic military parade, the 2nd Party of Information Operations came on the road.

  As an important new combat force, this team represents an electromagnetic sword for the Army. The equipment to be read is a type of microwave reconnaissance jamming vehicle, a type of ultrashort wave reconnaissance jamming vehicle and a certain type of regional jamming communication jamming system. It is an important part of our new generation of tactical electronic countermeasure equipment system, which integrates “detection, measurement and disturbance”. As one, it has strong combat capability.

  The team’s equipment for reading is independently developed by China and is installed in the third-generation “Warrior” series chassis models. These new electronic countermeasures equipment can meet the fast-paced, high-precision, multi-coordination and multi-warfare requirements of combat missions under informatized conditions.

  The party team was read and formed by an army electronic warfare brigade. The brigade is a good force born in a special period with a special mission. In 1978, China opened the curtain of reform and opening up. In the same year, an independent electronic confrontation battalion, which was the predecessor of the brigade, was formed and officially incorporated into the force preparation sequence.

  Along with the great process of national reform and opening up, in the past 40 years, the troops have been entangled in training and preparing for war. They have been unable to relax and continue to fight against the “reactance of sharp swords”. The generations of rebel officers and men have undergone eight adjustments and have been written with youth and blood. Brilliant chapter.

  In 1985, the independent electronic countermeasures battalion communication reconnaissance and interception was ordered to be dispatched to the frontier combat mission. The officers and men participating in the war entered the operational configuration area and took over the electronic confrontation position combat missions in multiple directions. Because the troops repeatedly attacked the battle, they smashed the enemy’s main command communication, and effectively supported the combat operations of the infantry detachment. They were hailed as “the enemy soldiers.” In 1987, the participating troops held a celebration meeting, and the communications and reconnaissance interfering party branch was awarded the “Battlefield Model Party Branch.”

  In recent years, this unit has actively organized the activities of “clearing the combat opponents, aligning the performance of the equipment, and studying the law of the warfare”. In the normal state, it carried out the challenge, the combat physical fitness, the anti-hunger survival training and the actual combat confrontation drill, and successfully completed the combat. Reconnaissance and joint campaign exercises and many other tasks.

  In the new era, the Ministry has been transformed from a tactical-level force to a battle-level force in the theater. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s strong military ideology, the officers and men actively participated in the practice of strengthening the army, insisted on coordinating the war, concentrating on the battle, and practicing the battle. The hoof steadily promoted the transformation and construction of the troops, and successfully completed various competitions and training tasks.

  The number of gold medals in the Army’s “Net-powered Raiders” competition was the first, and the “Network Power Volume” was the first in the total training. The results of a combat reconnaissance mission ranked first in the theater… one by one, and continued to write the new glorious honor of the brigade. It has become the spirit of the electromagnetic sword of “loyal mission, innovation, strong time and space, and indecision invisible”.

  Not long ago, a pull drill in a complex electromagnetic environment started in a certain area in the northwest. During the drill, the brigade was responsible for the electronic countermeasures. Due to the complex electromagnetic environment, the signal of a certain type of equipment has been unstable. The maintenance technician, the second-level sergeant Liu Jiaping’s portable toolbox, and the drilling equipment operation room, only took half an hour to re-equip the equipment. The equipment played an important role in the drill.

  In recent years, the brigade has always taken the construction of the talent team as an important task to grasp the reality. By inviting experts from military academies and scientific research institutes to provide tutoring, we have organized various top-level training courses for the military, and trained a group of military literacy and professional Skilled double-strong military talent team. They also held a series of military confrontation competitions, which formed a strong ratio, learning, rush, help, and super atmosphere in the unit.

  ”Right–Look!” When the 2nd Party of Information Operations went to the reviewing platform, accompanied by a loud password, the generals of the team, Li Fayi and Yang Xiaokang, raised their hands to salute. The 16 units behind them were neatly lined up, equipped with antennas pointing directly at the sky, and the vehicle carriers held steel guns, looking ahead and looking forward.

  This is a glorious reading and a heroic oath. Walking down the parade ground, the officers and men of the 2nd Party of Information Operations said that they will bear in mind the mission, trust and glory, and the determination of the mission to be as good as the mountains, to wait for the future, and to be determined to win, to take the initiative, take the initiative, and aim for the future informationization. The battlefield, forging the electromagnetic sword that defeated the enemy.

  在整齐划一的装备方阵中,一个方队身披数码迷彩,高擎通信天线,远远望去蔚为壮观。它就是信息作战第3方队——我军信息通信的一支拳头力量。

  这个方队的4个排面,由最新国产四型装备组成,车上形状各异的信号装置,生动展现了我军信息通信装备的发展与进步。方队领队为孙宝泰少将、景贤舫少将。

  这次受阅的四型装备是我国机动通信装备的最新成果,具有通信距离远、传输容量大、手段功能多、信息化程度高、抗干扰性能强等特点,对提升我军基于网络信息体系的联合作战、全域作战能力,有着十分重要的作用。

  未来战场信息制胜,高效可靠的指挥通联左右战争胜负。为战场打赢织就信息天网、传递制胜号令,通信兵就是信息化战场的排头兵。

  人民军队的通信兵诞生于南昌起义的隆隆炮火声中,以“一部半电台”起家,以简陋的通信装备,与优势之敌展开了高强度的电波较量。在反“围剿”、四渡赤水、百团大战、转战陕北、三大战役决战等革命战争中,通信兵屡建奇功。毛主席曾赞誉道:“你们是科学的千里眼顺风耳”。

  几十年来,我军通信兵从无到有、由小到大、由弱到强,从单一手段发展到多种手段、从单台单站发展到综合网系、从保障“中枢”发展到体系保障,信息通信力量已嵌入信息化战场的各个环节。

  养兵千日千日用,决胜千里千里通。不管是战争年代,还是和平时期,方队官兵所属的这支部队始终常备不懈。在人民群众遭遇特大自然灾害时,他们视灾情为命令,在第一时间建立起通信联络,为党中央、中央军委决策指挥救灾抢得先机。在历次阅兵、香港澳门回归、奥运会等重大活动中,他们精心组织、精心保障,出色完成了上级赋予的保障任务。

  2009年和2015年,这支部队两次在阅兵中精彩亮相。受阅官兵传承红色传令兵的光荣传统,在阅兵场上不断追求极致、超越自我,一次次用汗水浇灌出荣誉之花。

  驾驶1号基准车的丁玉森已是第3次参加阅兵。3次受阅3次驾驶1号车,他是整个方队的“引导员”。这个身材挺拔、目光坚毅,脸上洋溢着自信笑容的老兵说:“能够驾驶1号车,引导方队通过天安门,是我一生最荣耀的时刻……”

  10年之间3次受阅,丁玉森亲眼见证了我军信息通信力量的发展壮大。2009年国庆阅兵,通信兵方队只有两型受阅装备;2015年胜利日大阅兵,“指挥信息系统”方队展示了我军四型信通装备。“这次阅兵,我们方队列入信息作战模块,新一代信通战车性能更好、功能更全、科技含量更高,支撑作战能力更强……”丁玉森兴奋地告诉记者。

  装备在升级换代,人员素质也在不断提升。方队受阅的官兵90%以上拥有本科学历,均能操作2种以上信通装备,20%的官兵拥有执行大项任务经历。训练场上,这些信息化尖兵把体能和智能相结合,不断改进训练方法,发明训练辅助器材数十种,利用数据软件开展动态分析,在苦训、精训、巧训中向着完美无缺、毫厘不差的目标发起冲锋。

  新时代传令兵的“好样子”,既要留在阅兵场上,更要立起在未来战场上。面向战场、面向联合、面向体系,这支部队加快体系重塑、力量重组,职能任务进一步拓展,核心能力大大增强。

  他们不断构建完善空、天、地全域性动态信息网络,推进装备建设向数字化、集成化、多能化方向发展,已成为支撑联合作战、全域作战的“神经血脉”“耳目中枢”。

  近年来,他们先后完成海上维权、卫星发射、援建维和等重大通信指挥保障任务,机动通信力量还走出国门,参加了“东方-2018”“和平使命-2018”“和平友谊-2018”等重大联演任务。

  光荣受阅,使命在肩。伴随着隆隆的马达声,驶过阅兵场,驶向练兵场,官兵们正不断用实战标准锤炼打赢本领,向建设一支能打胜仗的新型作战力量的目标大步迈进。

Translation:

  In the neat and uniform equipment array, a square team wearing digital camouflage, high-tech communication antenna, is far from spectacular. It is the 3rd party of information warfare – a fist force of our military information communication.

  The four rows of this team consist of the latest domestic four-type equipment, and the signal devices of different shapes on the car vividly show the development and progress of our military information and communication equipment. The team leader is Major General Sun Baotai and Major General Jing Xianyu.

  The four types of equipment that I have read this time are the latest achievements of China’s mobile communication equipment. They have the characteristics of long communication distance, large transmission capacity, many means, high degree of information, and strong anti-interference performance. The joint operations and global combat capabilities play an important role.

  The future battlefield information will win, and the efficient and reliable command will lead the war to victory and defeat. For the battlefield to win and win the information Skynet, pass the winning command, the communications soldier is the vanguard of the informationized battlefield.

  The communications troops of the People’s Army were born in the rumble of gunfire in the Nanchang Uprising. They started with “a half-semi-radio” and launched a high-intensity wave contest with the superior enemy with simple communication equipment. In the anti-“encirclement and suppression”, the four crossings of Chishui, the Hundred Regiments, the war in northern Shaanxi, the three major battles and other decisive wars, the communications soldiers have repeatedly made great achievements. Chairman Mao once praised: “You are the eye of science.”

  For decades, our military communications troops have grown from scratch, from small to large, from weak to strong, from a single means to multiple means, from a single station to an integrated network, from the protection of the “central” to the system Assurance, information and communication forces have been embedded in all aspects of the informationization battlefield.

  Raising troops for thousands of days, and winning thousands of miles. Whether it is the war years or the peace period, this unit belonging to the officers and men of the square team has always been spared. When the people encountered a major natural disaster, they took the disaster as an order and established communication at the first time to seize the opportunity for the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to make decisions and command disaster relief. In the major events such as military parade, Hong Kong and Macao, and the Olympic Games, they organized and carefully safeguarded the outstanding tasks assigned by their superiors.

  In 2009 and 2015, this unit made two outstanding appearances during the military parade. The officers and men who passed through the army passed on the glorious tradition of the red passers-by. They constantly pursued the ultimate and surpassed themselves in the parade ground, and poured out the flowers of honor with sweat again and again.

  Ding Yusen, who is driving the No. 1 benchmark car, is the third time to participate in the military parade. He was driving the No. 1 car three times and was the “leader” of the entire team. This tall, straight-eyed, eager-eyed veteran with a confident smile on his face said: “It is the most glorious moment of my life to be able to drive the No. 1 car and lead the team through Tiananmen.”

  Three times in 10 years, Ding Yusen witnessed the development and growth of our military’s information and communication forces. In the National Day military parade in 2009, the communications team only had two types of reading equipment; in the 2015 Victory Day military parade, the “Command Information System” team showed our military four-type ICT equipment. “This military parade, we queued into the information warfare module, the new generation of ICT vehicles has better performance, more complete functions, higher technology content, and stronger support capabilities…” Ding Yusen told reporters excitedly.

  The equipment is upgraded and the quality of personnel is constantly improving. More than 90% of the officers and men who are read by the team have a bachelor’s degree, and can operate more than two types of ICT equipment. 20% of the officers and men have experience in performing large tasks. On the training ground, these information-oriented soldiers combined physical fitness with intelligence, continuously improved training methods, invented dozens of training aids, and used data software to carry out dynamic analysis. In hard training, intensive training, and skill training, they were perfect. A bad target initiates a charge.

  The “good look” of the new era of the commander will not only remain on the parade ground, but also stand on the battlefield in the future. Facing the battlefield, facing the joint, and facing the system, this unit accelerated the reshaping of the system, reorganized its strength, further expanded its functional tasks, and greatly enhanced its core capabilities.

  They continue to build and improve the global dynamic information network of air, space and land, and promote the development of equipment construction towards digitalization, integration and versatility. It has become the “neural blood” and “ear and eye center” supporting joint operations and global operations.

  In recent years, they have completed major communications command and support tasks such as maritime rights protection, satellite launch, aid construction and peacekeeping, and mobile communication forces have also left the country to participate in the “Oriental-2018”, “Peace Mission-2018”, “Peace Friendship-2018” and other major issues. Joint task.

  Gloriously read, the mission is on the shoulder. Along with the sound of the rumble of the motor, driving through the parade ground and heading to the training ground, the officers and men are constantly using the actual combat standards to temper their skills and make great strides toward building a new combat force capable of winning the battle.

Mandarin Chinese:

信息作战第4方队:观天测地火眼金睛

2019-10-2 09:40:37 Source: PLA Daily

向右——看!”伴着将军领队铿锵有力的口令,信息作战第4方队受阅人员和装备整齐列阵,气势磅礴地通过天安门广场。

  参阅的四型装备分别为气象水文观测车、地形勘测车、预报保障车和测绘导航信息服务车,均是首次亮相天安门阅兵场。方队作为战场信息作战的重要力量之一,可获取、处理各类战场数据信息,为打赢信息化条件下战争提供有力的支撑和保障。

  方队领队为邓洪勤少将、金锋少将。参阅官兵来自一支有着悠久历史的部队,红色基因深植于官兵血脉之中。1982年11月29日,中央军委授予该部“丈量世界屋脊的英雄测绘大队”荣誉称号。该部官兵锁定珠穆朗玛峰8848.13米的精确高程,创下了世界重力测量的最高点纪录。

  部队组建之初,一直在西藏雪域高原执行各类测绘任务。从唐古拉山到喜马拉雅山,他们攀陡崖、越冰川、爬雪山、蹚冰河,用双脚丈量山川大地,完成了西藏高原第一代军用地形图的测绘任务,填补了世界上最后一块无图区的空白。

  从罗布泊到阿尔泰山,从塔克拉玛干到喀喇昆仑山,广袤的西北大地也见证了测绘官兵的执着与顽强,见证了他们书写的无数测绘领域的传奇故事。

  为了将国土精确“复制”到图纸上,测绘兵必须“走到、测准”。高级工程师张民入伍38年,两进罗布泊、三入塔克拉玛干沙漠、四上阿尔泰山、五登喀喇昆仑山,用一双“铁脚板”丈量216万平方公里的广袤土地,徒步行程累计15万公里,翻越海拔4000米以上雪山100多座。

  信仰穿透岁月,精神代代传承。该部官兵把对党的忠诚融入事业,始终铭记“事业高于一切”“责任重于泰山”,把一流的标准融入任务;始终追求准确、精美、卓越的成果质量,把制胜的担当融入岗位。

  几十年来,该部番号多次改变,保障打赢的职责使命从未改变,驻地多次变换,矢志强军的初心始终不改。官兵们先后进行了大兴安岭原始森林、青藏高原和西北荒漠的测量,填补了我国2项技术空白区,破解了多个制约新型作战力量建设测绘保障难题,完成了多项非战争军事行动、国防科研试验等重大保障任务。

  几十年来,随着多型装备更新换代,稳定性、可靠性、精准性得到大幅提升,该部保障能力也不断提升。走上阅兵场的几型装备,正是该部装备体系跨越式发展的一个缩影。

  装备方队中基准车驾驶员杨飞说,装备只是“看得见”的部分,在装备背后,还有着更大的体系在支撑。从个体到平台,从平台到体系,测绘官兵不惧珠峰的寒风暴雪,不畏战场的枪林弹雨,能打胜仗的底气越来越足了。

  盛夏时节,一场联合实兵演习的号角吹响,该部依令派出力量支援某演练课目保障任务。此时的训练场上,地表温度高达50℃。该部前出分队坚持走在队伍前列,踏遍几十万平米训练场的每个战位,反复勘察演练场地、研究课目内容、设计战术动作。演习当天,随着指挥中心一声令下,一条条作战信息化作一道道无线电波,在前线后方高速流转,一幅立体透明的战场图景,生动地呈现在指挥员面前。

  演习完成后,“中军帐”的一位参谋竖起大拇指称赞他们:“有了你们的支援保障,我们就有了看穿战场的火眼金睛!”

  永葆受阅荣光,争取更大光荣。投身改革强军新时代,该部官兵将肩负起新的使命任务,用“铁心向党”的忠诚和“建功必定有我”的担当,在一次次的南征北战中,锻造信息化作战条件下的精兵劲旅,书写新的壮丽篇章。

Translation:

  ”Right–Look!” With the strong password of the generals, the information combat 4th team was read and equipped neatly, passing the Tiananmen Square.

  The four types of equipment referred to are meteorological hydrological observation vehicles, topographic survey vehicles, forecast support vehicles and surveying and mapping navigation information service vehicles, all of which were debuted at the Tiananmen Parade. As one of the important forces in the battlefield information warfare, the square team can acquire and process all kinds of battlefield data information, and provide strong support and guarantee for winning war under the conditions of informationization.

  The team leader is Major General Deng Hongqin and Major General Jin Feng. See the officers and men from a force with a long history, the red gene is deeply embedded in the blood of the officers and men. On November 29, 1982, the Central Military Commission awarded the Ministry of the “Hero Surveying and Mapping Brigade for Measuring the Roof of the World” honorary title. The officers and men of the department locked the precise elevation of Mount Everest at 8884.13 meters, setting a record for the highest point of gravity measurement in the world.

  At the beginning of the formation of the troops, various surveying and mapping tasks have been carried out in the snowy plateau of Tibet. From the Tanggula Mountain to the Himalayas, they climbed steep cliffs, glaciers, snow-capped mountains, and glaciers. They measured the mountains and rivers with their feet and completed the mapping of the first generation of military topographic maps on the Tibetan Plateau, filling the last piece of the world without maps. The blank of the area.

  From Lop Nur to Altai Mountain, from Taklimakan to Karakorum Mountain, the vast northwestern land has also witnessed the persistence and tenacity of surveying and mapping officers and soldiers, and witnessed the legendary stories in the field of countless surveying and writing.

  In order to accurately “copy” the land to the drawings, the surveying and mapping personnel must “go to and measure.” Senior engineer Zhang Min enlisted in the army for 38 years, two into Lop Nur, three into the Taklimakan Desert, four on the Altai Mountains, and five in the Karakoram Mountains. With a pair of “iron feet” to measure 2.16 million square kilometers of vast land, the trekking trip totaled 150,000 kilometers. Over 4,000 meters above sea level, more than 100 snow-capped mountains.

  Faith penetrates the years and the spirit is passed down from generation to generation. The officers and men of the ministry have integrated the loyalty of the party into the cause, always bearing in mind that “the cause is above all else”, “the responsibility is more important than Taishan”, and the first-class standards are integrated into the task; always pursue the accuracy, exquisite and excellent quality of the results, and integrate the winning responsibility into the post. .

  Over the past few decades, the number of the Ministry has changed many times, and the mission of guaranteeing the win has never changed. The station has changed many times, and the initial heart of the company has never changed. The officers and men successively carried out the measurement of the Daxinganling primeval forest, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the northwest desert, filled two technical blank areas in China, and solved many problems that constrain the construction of new combat forces to build surveying and mapping, and completed a number of non-war military operations and national defense research. Major safeguard tasks such as tests.

  Over the past few decades, with the upgrading of multi-type equipment, the stability, reliability and accuracy have been greatly improved, and the guarantee capability of the Ministry has also been continuously improved. The several types of equipment that went on the parade ground were a microcosm of the leap-forward development of the equipment system of the Ministry.

  Yang Fei, the benchmark driver in the equipment team, said that the equipment is only a “visible” part, and behind the equipment, there is a bigger system to support. From the individual to the platform, from the platform to the system, the surveying and mapping officers and soldiers are not afraid of the cold storms of Mount Everest, and they are not afraid of the bullets and rains of the battlefield.

  In the midsummer season, the horn of a joint military exercise blew, and the ministry sent troops to support a drill to ensure the task. At this time on the training ground, the surface temperature is as high as 50 °C. The front team of the Ministry insisted on walking in the forefront of the team, stepping through every battle position in the hundreds of thousands of square meters of training grounds, and repeatedly surveying the training venues, researching the contents of the courses, and designing tactical actions. On the day of the exercise, with the command center’s command, a piece of combat information was turned into a radio wave, and a high-speed flow was carried out behind the front line. A three-dimensional transparent battlefield scene was vividly presented to the commander.

  After the exercise was completed, a staff member of the “Military Account” gave a thumbs up and praised them: “With your support and support, we have the eyes of the battlefield!”

  Always read the glory and strive for greater glory. In the new era of reform and strengthening the army, the officers and men of the Ministry will shoulder the new mission and task, using the loyalty of “Iron Heart to the Party” and the responsibility of “construction must have me”, forging information warfare in the Southern War Northern War. Under the conditions of the elite soldiers, write a new magnificent chapter.

美海军陆战队绘制新的信息战蓝图 US Marine Corps Blueprint for Information Warfare

 Forming an expeditionary force information group and stepping up the drill

    US Marine Corps draws a new information war blueprint

    US Marine Corps is conducting an amphibious landing exercise

    The US Marine Corps is currently developing a new information war blueprint, mainly to allow the Marine Corps Expeditionary Force Information Corps to form combat capabilities as soon as possible, and to provide field commanders with various types of information including networks, intelligence, and electronic warfare.

    The US Marine Corps formed an expeditionary force information group in July 2017, and then began to participate in various exercises, which is expected to form a full operational capability this year.

    Aiming at future amphibious operations

    After experiencing many wars such as Afghanistan and Iraq, the construction of the US Marine Corps has turned into a post-terrorism era. In September 2016, the US Marine Corps released the top-level operational concept document, “21st Century Expeditionary Force Operations,” which stated that information will become a weapon in the future operational environment. It is important to detect enemy signals and manage your own signals… The current structure, training and equipment of the troops are not enough to defeat the enemy. To this end, the document proposes to optimize the structure of the Marine Corps Airfield Task Force, using a variety of weapon combinations, including the use of information warfare in the sea, land, air, sky, electricity, network and other fields to achieve complementary, mobile combat missions. US Marine Corps Commander General Robert Neller stressed that any future battle will include information warfare and electromagnetic spectrum warfare. It is very important to combine traditional joint armed mobile warfare with information warfare. It is necessary to “discover enemy weaknesses and gaps.” Destroy their strength and try to break up their cohesiveness.”

    In several wars of terrorism in recent years, the US Marine Corps is the first-line ground force of the US military. Behind it is a strong support and support system, often under the obvious “I am weak and weak” combat conditions. Currently, the US Marine Corps is returning to the core mission of amphibious operations. Robert Neller pointed out that in the future, the US Marine Corps may be forced to deal with war conflicts without air superiority and global communication and information networks. Therefore, the US military needs to reinvigorate the concept of mobile operations as a way to defeat the enemy. At the same time, information and networks will also play an important role.

    Driven by the above ideas, the US Marine Corps proposes to integrate, integrate and utilize battlefield information resources including electronic warfare, C4ISR (ie, command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) and network electromagnetic space. In order to achieve the goal of transforming to information warfare, we will start from the multi-disciplinary planning, preparation reform, training exercises and other fields to enhance the information warfare capability of the Marine Corps expeditionary force including intelligence gathering and information processing.

    Form a full-time information unit

    The US Marine Corps was reorganized in the first half of 2017 to create a deputy commander responsible for information affairs, primarily to oversee all aspects of information warfare, including networking, electronic warfare, signal intelligence, and information operations. In July 2017, three expeditionary units of the US Marine Corps formed an information group. The Marine Corps Expeditionary Force is a large task force that includes command, ground, air, and logistics forces. The First Expeditionary Force was stationed in the Pendleton Barracks in California. The second expeditionary force at the Norfolk Barracks in Virginia and the third expeditionary force in Okinawa subsequently formed an information mission.

    The information group was restructured by the former headquarters of the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Forces to support the support mission. The resident remains unchanged. In addition to continuing to shoulder the tasks of command security, infrastructure, logistics, training and administrative support, The scope of the mission has been expanded to provide a series of information-based capabilities for the expeditionary forces to achieve rapid perception of threat environments, electromagnetic spectrum environments, and cyberspace environments, and to improve the information capabilities of the Marine Corps. Colonel Roberta Shay, the former commander of the First Expeditionary Force, said that the post-transformation mission was adjusted to provide information on cybersecurity, electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace operations and security breaches to the commander of the expeditionary force. Colonel David Owen, commander of the Second Expeditionary Force Information Corp., said that the “additional mission” would better coordinate with the support of the airspace task force in the information field.

    A headquarters group of the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Force has a total of 1,200 people. The restructured information group will add 150 posts, that is, recruiting members of the Marine Corps with network and electronic warfare experience, and adding one battalion to the establishment. The size of the six battalions is liaison camp, intelligence camp, radio camp, communications camp, law enforcement camp and logistics support camp. According to the schedule, the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Force Information Corps completed the recruitment and full formation of new professionals in FY 2018, and is expected to have full operational capability this year.

    Changing the amphibious battlefield situation

    The US Marine Corps will receive support from the national and military levels in intelligence and information operations during the war, and will also be supported by the information system within the Marine Corps. But these are all rear support, and the Expeditionary Forces Information Corps is directly involved in the Marine Corps operations, extending intelligence and information operations to the front line of the battlefield. Lieutenant General Robert Walsh, commander of the US Marine Corps Combat Development Command, believes that the rapid development of the Internet, wireless communications, and the widespread use of social media have changed the way the enemy uses information and also changed the operations of the US Marine Corps. the way. For example, the Marine Corps Information Corps invaded the target mobile phone on the battlefield, and then the intelligence personnel analyzed the extracted images, and then the electronic warfare personnel tried to use the handheld radio to prevent the enemy’s possible actions. This is one of the tasks of the Expeditionary Force Information Corps, or it will change the future amphibious battlefield situation.

    In order to speed up the formation of the expeditionary force information team and plan future information operations, the US Marine Corps is developing a new information war blueprint, which is expected to be completed this spring. The blueprint is a conceptual framework document that will be updated regularly to address the policies, standards, hardware and software facilities, technology, capabilities, etc. of the Marine Corps information warfare. A spokesperson for the US Marine Corps said that the current and future information environment is more complex than previous generations. Firepower alone is not enough to achieve operational objectives, and must be combined with information-related operational capabilities to win. The blueprint will refine the composition and capabilities of the Expeditionary Force Information Corps, particularly intelligence, information warfare, and electronic warfare capabilities.

    The Marine Expeditionary Force Information Corps also conducts drills to test and develop skills and coordinate and integrate with other forces through exercises. In August 2017, the Second Expeditionary Force Information Corps was formed to participate in a multi-country “large-scale exercise 17”. The first exercise provided support for the US Marine Corps in the information environment. From February to March 2018, the information unit held field exercises, which provided support for the combat troops for intelligence, information, and allegations, and improved the ability to integrate with the subordinate units through drills.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

组建远征部队信息团并抓紧进行演练

    美海军陆战队绘制新的信息战蓝图

    美海军陆战队在进行两栖登陆演练

    美国海军陆战队目前正在制定新的信息战蓝图,主要是尽快让海军陆战队远征部队信息团形成战斗力,为战地指挥官提供包括网络、情报、电子战等在内的各类信息。

    美国海军陆战队于2017年7月组建远征部队信息团,随后开始参加各类演练,预计今年形成完全作战能力。

    瞄准未来两栖作战

    在经历阿富汗、伊拉克等多场战争之后,美国海军陆战队的建设向后反恐时代转型。2016年9月,美国海军陆战队发布顶层作战构想文件《21世纪远征部队作战》,该文件指出,未来作战环境中,信息将成为一种武器。探测敌人的信号及管理自己的信号至关重要……部队当前的结构、训练和装备不足以克敌制胜。为此,该文件提出优化海军陆战队空地特遣部队的结构,利用多种武器组合,包括在海、陆、空、天、电、网等领域利用信息战实现互补,遂行机动作战任务。美国海军陆战队司令罗伯特·内勒上将强调,未来任何战斗都将包括信息作战和电磁频谱作战,将传统的联合武装机动作战和信息战相结合非常重要,要“发现敌人的弱点、差距,消灭他们的兵力,并尝试打散他们的凝聚力”。

    在近年的几场反恐战争中,美国海军陆战队是美军的一线地面部队,身后是强大的支援保障体系,常处于明显的“我强敌弱”的作战条件下。目前,美国海军陆战队正在回归两栖作战这一核心任务。罗伯特·内勒指出,未来,美国海军陆战队可能被迫在没有空中优势和全球通信、信息网络的情况下应对战争冲突,因此美军需要重振机动作战概念,并将其作为击败敌人的方式。同时,信息和网络也将起到重要作用。

    在上述构想的推动下,美国海军陆战队提出对包括电子战、C4ISR(即指挥、控制、通信、计算机、情报、监视与侦察)及网络电磁空间在内的战场信息资源进行整合、集成和利用,以达成向信息战转型的目标,从统筹规划、编制改革、训练演习等多领域入手,增强海军陆战队远征部队包括情报搜集、信息处理在内的信息战能力。

    组建专职信息部队

    美国海军陆战队在2017年上半年进行改组,增设专门负责信息事务的副司令,主要负责监督信息战的各个方面,包括网络、电子战、信号情报和信息行动。2017年7月,美国海军陆战队3个远征部队先后组建信息团。海军陆战队远征部队是包括指挥部、地面部队、空中部队及后勤部队的大型特遣部队。第一远征部队驻加利福尼亚州的彭德尔顿兵营,其率先组建信息团。驻弗吉尼亚州诺福克兵营的第二远征部队和驻冲绳的第三远征部队随后组建信息团。

    信息团由美国海军陆战队各远征部队负责支援保障任务的原总部团改制而成,驻地保持不变,除继续担负原有的指挥安全、基础设施、后勤、培训和行政支持等任务外,其任务范围扩大,为远征部队提供一系列基于信息的能力,实现对威胁环境、电磁频谱环境、网络空间环境的快速感知,提高海军陆战队信息作战能力。第一远征部队原总部团指挥官罗伯塔·谢伊上校表示,转制后的任务调整为向远征部队指挥官提供网络安全性、电磁频谱、网络空间作战与安全漏洞等相关信息。第二远征部队信息团指挥官大卫·欧文上校称,“额外的任务”将更好地协同支持空地特遣部队在信息领域的工作。

    美国海军陆战队远征部队的一个总部团原有1200人的编制,改制后的信息团将增加150个员额,即招募拥有网络及电子战经验的海军陆战队成员,在编制上新增1个营,达到6个营的规模,分别是联络营、情报营、无线电营、通信营、执法营和后勤支援营。根据时间安排,美国海军陆战队远征部队信息团在2018财年完成新增专业人员的招募及全部组建工作,预计今年将具备完全作战能力。

    改变两栖战场态势

    美国海军陆战队战时会得到国家、军队层面在情报、信息作战等方面的支援,也会得到陆战队建制内情报体系的支持。但这些都属于后方支援,远征部队信息团则直接伴随海军陆战队行动,将情报及信息作战前伸至战场一线。美国海军陆战队作战发展司令部司令罗伯特·沃尔什中将认为,互联网、无线通信的飞速发展以及社交媒体的广泛使用,改变了敌人使用信息的方式,同时也改变了美国海军陆战队作战的方式。比如,海军陆战队信息团在战场上对目标手机进行入侵,随后由情报人员对提取到的图像进行分析,再由电子战人员尝试利用手持电台阻止敌方可能的行动。这就是远征部队信息团的任务之一,或将改变未来两栖战场态势。

    为加快远征部队信息团战斗力生成及规划未来信息作战,美国海军陆战队正在制定新的信息战蓝图,预计在今年春季完成。蓝图是概念性的框架文件,将定期更新,主要阐述海军陆战队信息战的政策、标准、硬软件设施建设、技术、能力等。美国海军陆战队发言人对此表示,当前及未来信息环境比前几代更为复杂,单靠火力不足以实现作战目的,必须与信息相关的作战能力相结合才能取胜。蓝图将对远征部队信息团的组成及能力进行细化,特别是情报、信息战、电子战能力等。

    陆战队远征部队信息团还开展演练活动以测试和培养技能,并通过演习与其他部队进行协调和整合。2017年8月,第二远征部队信息团刚组建就参加了多国“大规模演习17”,首度演练为美国海军陆战队在信息环境下的作战提供支持。2018年2月至3月,这支信息部队举行野战演习,在演练中为作战部队进行情报、信息、指控方面的支持,并通过演练提高与下属部队的整合能力。

Referring url:
http://www.xinhuanet.com/mil/2019-01/02/

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

Anxious US Military Worried about China’s Information Warfare // 焦急美國軍方擔心中國信息戰

In the past few years, the Chinese military and folk experts have set off a wave of research information warfare. After reading their works, it is not difficult to find that China’s information warfare theory research has several obvious characteristics: First, China is eager to develop its own information warfare theory, which is related to its judgment on its own security threats; secondly, China’s information War theory is deeply influenced by its traditional military command art. Both the ancient “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” and “Thirty-six”, or Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts have deeply imprinted in the information warfare theory; third, China’s cognition and classification of information warfare is obviously different. In the United States, the originator of information warfare, the United States, although similar to Russia’s information warfare theory, is only similar and God is not.

Wei Wei Zhao

The advent of the information age has prompted people to rethink the way war is carried out. China is aware that its conventional armed forces are far less powerful than superpowers. In the near future, neither conventional forces nor nuclear weapons can pose a powerful deterrent to the United States. However, the ambitious Eastern Dragon believes that with the advent of the information age, there will be new changes in the form of war, military structure, methods of warfare and command means, and information will replace people in the future battlefield. As long as the focus of strategic research is placed on the warfare of information warfare and grasping the trend of the times, it is not difficult to shorten the distance and further gain a leading position.

In ancient China, there was a military book called “Thirty-six Meters”. One of them, “Wei Wei Zhao”, pointed out that if the enemy’s positive power is too strong, it should be avoided and it should be weak. The Chinese are used for the present, applying this strategy to the current struggle between countries – if you can’t launch a direct attack (nuclear strike), then fight information warfare, weak financial, electricity, etc.

The network system starts. Although conventional armed forces cannot compete with the United States, China’s information warfare forces theoretically threaten the political and economic security of the United States. Americans cannot afford the instant of the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ stock exchange. collapse. The global accessibility of information warfare and the spread of light speed are characteristics that nuclear war does not have. What Chinese want is to defeat opponents with the speed, accuracy and continuity of information warfare.

The power of information warfare can make up for the shortcomings of conventional armed forces. The establishment of various battlefield information networks can not only improve the management level of traditional warfare, enhance the overall combat effectiveness of the troops, but also compensate for the shortage of conventional forces to a certain extent. In the eyes of the Chinese, the information warfare seems to be more powerful, and it is the force multiplier of the conventional armed forces.

Information war think tank

In 1996, Shen Weiguang, the earliest expert on information warfare in China, defined the information warfare as: “The warring parties fight for the battlefield initiative by controlling information and intelligence resources.” and the United States “protecting the friendly information system and attacking enemy information.” Compared with the definition of “system”, Shen Weiguang emphasizes “controlling” the enemy.

In 1998, the Chinese military information warfare authority Wang saves the classification of information warfare: divided into normal time, crisis time, war time according to time; divided into attack and defense according to nature; divided into country, strategy, theater, tactic according to level According to the scale, it is divided into battlefield, theater, and local war. The characteristics of information warfare include command and control warfare, intelligence warfare, electronic warfare, psychological warfare, space control warfare, hacker warfare, virtual warfare, and economic warfare. In principle, information warfare measures such as cutting off, blinding, transparent, rapid, and improving viability. General Wang’s understanding of information warfare is closer to that of the West, and he focuses on the confrontation of advanced technology.

In 1999, Chinese experts launched a big discussion on information warfare. At this time, Shen Weiguang expanded the scope of information warfare. He believes that “information warfare, broadly refers to the war against the information space and the competition for information resources in the military (including political, economic, scientific, and social fields), narrowly refers to war. The confrontation between the two parties in the field of information. It is one of the essential characteristics of modern warfare. The essence of information warfare is to achieve the ‘no war and defeat the soldiers’ by capturing the right to control the system.”

Major military expert Wang Pufeng, who is another information warfare expert in the military, has a deep understanding of information warfare. In 2000, he distinguished information warfare from information warfare. According to his explanation, information warfare refers to a form of warfare, which contains information warfare, and information warfare refers to a kind of warfare activity. He believes that “information warfare includes all combat activities, including a series of intrusion activities and computer virus attacks on enemy information and information systems, such as information theft, tampering, deletion, deception, disruption, blocking, interference, and shackles. The network is not working properly.” He advocates that China’s information warfare theory should have its own characteristics while drawing on foreign advanced combat thinking.

“Mao Network People’s War”

China’s perception of information warfare is very traditional. Many military theorists believe that the information age has given new meaning to Mao Zedong’s people’s war thoughts. Therefore, he advocates relying on and mobilizing the masses of the people to conduct online wars. It is conceivable that no matter which of the same family, playing online with 1.3 billion people is daunting.

The most important feature of the Mao Zedong-style cyber war theory is that it breaks the boundary between the military and the people. The traditional dividing line between military and civilian facilities, military technology and civil technology has been blurred. The sharing of information technology in military and civilian use has created conditions for the widespread use of civilian technology for military purposes. For example, private electronic information equipment can be used for intelligence interception and transmission. Civil communication networks can be used for war mobilization; private computers can be used for network attack and defense. Second, the difference between military and non-military personnel is gradually disappearing. With the development of network technology and the expansion of application fields, a large number of network technology talents stand out. These network elites with special abilities will become gladiators in the future network people’s war. At the same time, information networks such as communications, transportation, and financial systems and international networking have provided the necessary conditions for China to carry out the people’s war.

Today, the idea of ​​the people’s war has been established as the fundamental guiding principle of China’s network information warfare. A Chinese military author wrote: “The strategic and tactical principles of flexible maneuvering are still the soul of network information warfare. The broad masses of the people actively participate in the war, especially the technical support and online warfare, which is the mass base and strength to win the victory of the network information war. Source.”

The power of the Internet People’s War is so terrible. Perhaps we can understand why the Chinese are willing to reduce the size of their armed forces. Imagine that once the war breaks out, China can launch a large number of people to participate in the war, information engineers and civilians will be organized through the home. When computers attack the US network information system, why should we maintain a large-scale combat force?

Information war drill

In the past few years, China has conducted several major information warfare military exercises to test the information warfare theory. The first “special warfare” (information warfare) drill was conducted in October 1997. A group army in a military region was attacked by a virus designed to smash its system. The group used military anti-virus software to defend it. The drill was called “invasion and anti-invasion drills.” Ground logistics, medical and air force units were also used during the exercise.

In October 1998, China held a high-tech comprehensive exercise jointly conducted by the three major military regions. For the first time in the joint defense operations exercise, the “military information highway” was used. The information network system in the command automation system consists of digital, dialing, command network and secret channel. The other parts of the command automation system are subsystems for command operations, audio and graphics processing, control, and data encryption.

In October 1999, the PLA conducted the first battle-level computer online confrontation exercise between two group armies. Reconnaissance and anti-reconnaissance, interference and anti-interference, blockade and anti-blockade, air strikes and anti-air strikes. In the software environment, six types of operations such as resource sharing, operational command, situation display, auxiliary evaluation, signal transmission and intelligence warfare were carried out. The computer evaluation system performs data and quality analysis on the performance of both sides of the exercise.

In July 2000, a military region also conducted an online confrontation drill. The three training tasks related to this exercise are: organizing and planning campaigns, seizing air and information rights, implementing breakthroughs and counter-breakthroughs. More than 100 terminals were connected to the walkthrough.

Militia detachment

China’s people’s war has a complete system. Its overall development direction is “the combination of a capable standing army and a strong reserve force.” This national defense system is conducive to giving full play to the overall effectiveness of the people’s war and the advantages of “network tactics.”

China’s 1.5 million reserve forces are very keen on playing the online people’s war. In some areas, the PLA has compiled reserve forces into small information warfare units. For example, in Yichang City, Hubei Province, the military division organized 20 municipal departments (electricity, finance, television, medical, etc.) technical personnel to set up a reserve information warfare. The department has a network battle camp, an electronic war camp, an intelligence psychological war camp and 35 technical teams. The Ministry also established the first reserve information warfare training base in China that can accommodate 500 people.

Yichang is not the only area where the reserve and militia are trained in information warfare. In December 1999, a reserve and militia meeting was held in Xiamen, Fujian. In the subsequent exercises, the militia detachment with high-tech equipment carried out electronic countermeasures, cyber attacks and protection, and radar reconnaissance performances. The goal of the imaginary attack is an island that is surrounded, so it is easy for outsiders to think of Taiwan. Xiamen is a special economic zone that brings together a large number of high-tech talents, so it has the superior conditions for implementing information warfare.

In an exercise held by the Jinan Military Region, the Xi’an People’s Armed Forces Information Warfare Division played the blue party responsible for the attack. They developed 10 information warfare measures, including information mines, information reconnaissance, alteration of network information, release of information bombs, and dumping. Web spam, distribution of network flyers, information spoofing, dissemination of false information, organization of information defense, establishment of cyber espionage stations. It can be seen from these network information warfare methods that their research on network information warfare has been quite specific and in-depth.

Chinese military experts also suggest that militia organizations at all levels should set up network technology professional detachments. In order to facilitate command and coordination, the militia network technology professional detachment should implement grouping and vertical management in the province or region. The reserve forces participate in the “network attack and defense” and “network technology guarantee” in the future war, and their actions must be implemented and unified by the military organization.

Medium

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army has developed its own set of information warfare education methods. The steps are: first, teach the basic knowledge of network information warfare; secondly, improve the information warfare knowledge level by telling the advanced military thoughts of foreign troops; then improve the information warfare use skills, especially Electronic technology, psychological warfare techniques, and information offensive and defensive techniques; finally, through exercises, knowledge is translated into practical operational capabilities. In China, it is mainly the responsibility of the PLA Academy to train high-tech talents in information warfare:

The People’s Liberation Army Communication Command College is located in Wuhan. In 1998, the Institute published two books, Information Command and Control Science and Information Warfare Technology. These two books are the most important textbooks for information warfare education in China. The college enjoys a high reputation for its excellent information warfare tutorials, which analyze information warfare requirements at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels.

The People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering University, located in Zhengzhou, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Information Engineering College, Electronic Technology College and Surveying and Mapping College. The school’s current main research areas are information security, modern communication technology and space technology, and exploration in some cutting-edge disciplines, such as remote sensing information technology, satellite navigation and positioning technology, geographic information database technology.

The PLA University of Science and Technology, located in Nanjing, was formed by the merger of the former People’s Liberation Army Communication Engineering College, the Engineering Corps Engineering College, the Air Force Meteorological College and the General Staff No. 63 Research Institute. The school specializes in training military personnel in information warfare, command automation and other new disciplines. Nearly 400 experts and professors are engaged in information warfare theory and technology research at the university.

The National Defense Science and Technology University of the People’s Liberation Army is located in Changsha. The school is directly affiliated to the Central Military Commission. Has developed the famous “Galaxy” series supercomputer. During the Kosovo War between April and June 1999, nearly 60 senior officers gathered here to study high-tech wars.

The Naval Engineering University of the People’s Liberation Army, located in Wuhan, is the only institution in the Navy that studies information warfare. The purpose of the school’s research information warfare is to apply information technology to naval equipment so that the Chinese navy can adapt to information warfare.

in conclusion

What conclusions can we draw from China’s information warfare research? What lessons can the US military get from it?

First, Chinese military theorists have found a cheap and effective method of information warfare that gives China a position equal to that of the West in terms of strategic military and international status, thus enabling China to play a more important strategic role in the Asian region.

Second, China’s emphasis on new information warfare forces is extraordinary. Therefore, it is possible to develop various forms of information warfare forces, such as: network forces (independent units), “network warriors” raid units, information protection units, information units, electronic police and joint network people’s war organizations. Interestingly, in terms of current capabilities, Western countries, not China, have the ability to put these ideas into practice.

Third, China’s information warfare theory reflects the combination of Western and Chinese thoughts, and the influence of the former is getting weaker. Due to some common sources of military command art (Marxist dialectical thinking), China’s information warfare is more similar to Russia. However, by its very nature, China’s information warfare theory is different from Russia and the West. China’s information warfare theory emphasizes control, computerized warfare, cyber warfare, knowledge warfare, and information rights.

Fourth, in the field of information warfare, China has crossed several stages of technological development, and using the technology of the Quartet has not only saved time but also saved money. However, China does not fully emulate foreign countries, but adopts a creative information warfare strategy. But no matter what, China is a different information warfare force that is worthy of attention.

For the US military, studying China’s information warfare theory is not just to provide the military with several opinions. “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” said that “knowing that he knows, has won every battle.” From the perspective of foreign information warfare theory to analyze the information warfare capabilities of the United States, we can discover the fatal flaws of the US information warfare system.

As the Chinese say, the losers of information warfare are not necessarily technically backward, and those who lack the ability to direct art and strategy are most likely to be losers. It is time for the United States to reflect on its own information warfare and to study information warfare strategies and tactics. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

在過去幾年裡,中國軍方與民間專家們掀起了研究信息戰的熱潮。閱讀他們的作品後不難發現,中國的信息戰理論研究具有幾個明顯的特徵:首先,中國正迫不及待地發展自己的信息戰理論,這與其對自身安全威脅的判斷有關;其次,中國的信息戰理論受其傳統軍事指揮藝術影響頗深。無論是古代的《孫子兵法》和《三十六計》,還是毛澤東的人民戰爭思想都在信息戰理論中打下了深深的烙印;第三,中國對信息戰的認知與分類,顯然不同於信息戰的開山鼻祖——美國,雖近似於俄國的信息戰理論,卻也只是形似而神不是。

圍魏救趙

信息時代的到來促使人們對戰爭的進行方式重新進行思索。中國意識到其常規武裝力量與超級大國相比實力懸殊,近期內無論是常規力量還是核武器,中國都無法對美國構成強大威懾。但是,雄心勃勃的東方巨龍認為:隨著信息時代的來臨,戰爭形態、軍隊結構、作戰方式和指揮手段都會有嶄新的變化,信息將取代人充斥於未來戰場。只要把戰略研究的著眼點放到信息戰這一戰爭形態上,把握時代發展潮流,就不難縮短距離,並進一步取得領先地位。

中國古代有部兵書叫《三十六計》,其中的一計“圍魏救趙”就指出,如果敵人正面力量過於強大,應當避實就虛,擊其薄弱之處。中國人古為今用,把這個計謀應用到當前國家間鬥爭——如果你不能發動直接攻擊(核打擊),那就打信息戰,向西方薄弱的金融、電力等

網絡系統下手。常規武裝力量雖然無法與美國抗衡,然而,中國的信息戰部隊在理論上卻實實在在威脅到美國的政治及經濟安全,美國人無法承受紐約股票交易所和納斯達克股票交易所在瞬間崩潰。信息戰的全球可及性、光速傳播性是核戰爭所不具有的特性,中國人要的就是以信息戰的速度、準確性和持續性擊敗對手。

信息戰力量可彌補常規武裝力量的不足。各種戰場信息網絡的建立,不僅可以提高對傳統戰爭的管理水平,增強部隊的整體戰鬥力,還可以在一定程度上彌補常規力量的不足。在中國人眼中,信息戰好似如虎添翼,是常規武裝部隊的力量倍增器。

信息戰智囊

1996年,中國最早提出信息戰的專家沈偉光給信息戰下的定義是:“交戰雙方通過控制信息與情報資源來爭奪戰場主動權的戰爭。”與美國“保護友方信息系統,攻擊敵方信息系統”的定義相比,沈偉光更強調“控制”敵人。

1998年,中國軍方信息戰權威王保存少將對信息戰進行了分類:按時間分為平時、危機時、戰時;按性質分為進攻、防禦;按層次分為國家、戰略、戰區、戰術;按規模分為戰場、戰區、局部戰爭。信息戰表現的特徵包括指揮與控制戰、情報戰、電子戰、心理戰、空間控制戰、黑客戰、虛擬戰、經濟戰等方面的較量。信息戰原則上採取切斷、蒙蔽、透明、快速和提高生存力等措施。王將軍對信息戰的認識與西方較為接近,都把重點放在先進技術的對抗上。

1999年,中國專家對信息戰展開了大討論。沈偉光此時把信息戰的範圍擴大,他認為“信息戰,廣義地指對壘的軍事(也包括政治、經濟、科技及社會一切領域)集團搶占信息空間和爭奪信息資源的戰爭,狹義地指戰爭中交戰雙方在信息領域的對抗。它是現代戰爭的本質特徵之一。信息戰的本質在於通過奪取制信息權達到’不戰而屈人之兵’。”

軍方另一位信息戰專家王普豐少將對信息戰有很深入的理解,2000年,他把信息戰和信息戰爭區別開。根據他的解釋,信息戰爭指的是一種戰爭形態,它包含了信息戰,而信息戰指的是一種作戰活動。他認為“信息戰包括所有作戰活動,其中有對敵信息及信息系統實施信息竊取、篡改、刪除、欺騙、擾亂、阻塞、干擾、癱瘓等一系列的入侵活動和計算機病毒攻擊,最終使敵計算機網絡無法正常工作。”他主張中國的信息戰理論在藉鑒國外先進作戰思想的同時,應具有中國自己的特色。

“毛式網絡人民戰爭”

中國對信息戰的認知非常具有傳統特色。許多軍事理論家認為信息時代賦予了毛澤東人民戰爭思想新的內涵,因此,主張依靠和發動廣大人民群眾進行網上戰爭。可以想像,無論是哪個同家,與13億人打網絡戰都是令人生畏的。

毛澤東式網絡人民戰爭理論的最重要特徵是它打破了軍與民的界限。模糊了軍用設施與民用設施、軍用技術與民用技術的傳統分界線。信息技術在軍用和民用上的共享,為廣泛利用民間技術達成軍事目的創造了條件。例如,可以利用民間的電子信息設備進行情報截獲和傳輸可以利用民間的通信網絡進行戰爭動員;可以利用民間的計算機進行網絡進攻和防禦等。其次,軍事人員與非軍事人員的區別也在逐漸消失。隨著網絡技術的發展和應用領域的擴大,大批的網絡技術人才脫穎而出。這些具備特殊能力的網絡精英將成為未來網絡人民戰爭中的角斗士。與此同時,通信、交通、金融系統等信息網絡與國際聯網,為中國開展人民戰爭提供了必要條件。

如今,人民戰爭思想已經被確立為中國網絡信息戰的根本指導原則。一個中國軍方作者寫道:“靈活機動的戰略戰術原則,仍然是網絡信息戰的靈魂。廣大人民群眾積極參戰,特別是技術支援和網上參戰,則是奪取網絡信息戰勝利的群眾基礎和力量源泉。”

網絡人民戰爭的威力是如此可怕,或許,我們可以明白為何中國人願意削減其武裝部隊規模了——設想一旦戰爭爆發,中國可以發動大量民眾參戰,信息工程師和平民將被組織起來,通過家中的電腦攻擊美國的網絡信息系統,那又何必要維持規模龐大的作戰部隊呢?

信息戰演練

過去幾年裡,中國舉行過數次重大信息戰軍事演習對信息戰理論進行檢驗。首次“特種戰”(信息戰)演練於1997年10月進行。某軍區的一個集團軍遭到旨在癱瘓其係統的病毒攻擊,該集團軍用殺毒軟件進行了防衛。該演練被稱為“入侵與反入侵演練”。演習時還動用了地面後勤、醫療和空軍部隊。

1998年10月,中國舉行了一場由三大軍區聯合進行的高科技綜合演練。聯合防禦作戰演練中首次使用了“軍事信息高速公路”。指揮自動化系統中的信息網絡系統由數字、撥號、指揮網和保密信道組成。指揮自動化系統的其他部分是指揮作戰、音頻和圖形處理、控制和數據加密等子系統。

1999年10月,解放軍首次進行了兩個集團軍之間的戰役級計算機網上對抗演習。演練了偵察與反偵察、干擾與反干擾、封鎖與反封鎖、空襲與反空襲等科目。在軟件環境下進行了資源共享、作戰指揮、態勢顯示、輔助評估、信號傳輸和情報戰等6類作業。計算機評估系統對演習雙方的表現進行數據與質量分析。

2000年7月,某軍區也進行了網上對抗演練。與此次演練有關的3項訓練任務是:組織和計劃戰役、奪取制空權和製信息權、實施突破和反突破。有100多台終端聯網參與了演練。

民兵分隊

中國的人民戰爭有一套完備的體制,其總體發展方向是“精幹的常備軍與強大的後備力量相結合”,這種國防體制有利於發揮人民戰爭的整體效能和“網海戰術”優勢。

中國150萬預備役部隊十分熱衷於打網絡人民戰爭。在一些地區,解放軍已經把預備役部隊編成小型信息戰部隊。例如,在湖北省宜昌市,軍分區組織了20個市政部門(電力、財政、電視、醫療等)的技術人員成立了預備役信息戰團。該部擁有網絡戰營、電子戰營、情報心理戰營及35個技術分隊。該部還建立了中國第一個能容納500人的預備役信息戰訓練基地。

宜昌並不是組織預備役和民兵進行信息戰訓練的唯一地區。 1999年12月在福建廈門召開了預備役和民兵會議。在隨後進行的演習中,擁有高技術裝備的民兵分隊進行了電子對抗、網絡攻擊和防護、雷達偵察表演。山於假想攻擊的目標是一座被包圍的島嶼,因此很容易讓外人聯想到是針對台灣。廈門是經濟特區,匯集了大量高科技人才,因此有實施信息戰的優越條件。

在一次由濟南軍區舉行的演習中,西安人武部信息戰分隊扮演負責攻擊的藍方,他們制定了10種信息戰措施,其中有安放信息地雷、信息偵察、改動網絡資料、釋放信息炸彈、傾倒網絡垃圾、分發網絡傳單、信息欺騙、散佈虛假信息、組織信息防禦、建立網絡間諜站。從這些網絡信息戰法可以看出,他們對網絡信息戰的研究已相當具體、深入。

中國的軍事專家還建議,各級民兵組織都應成立網絡技術專業分隊,為便於指揮協調,民兵網絡技術專業分隊應以省或者地區為單位實行條條編組,垂直管理。後備力量參與未來戰爭中的“網絡攻防”和“網絡技術保障”,其行動要由軍隊組織實施和統一協調。

培養基地

中國人民解放軍發展出自己的一套信息戰教育方法,其步驟是:首先傳授網絡信息戰基礎知識;其次通過講述外軍的先進軍事思想提高信息戰知識水平;然後提高信息戰使用技能,特別是電子技術、心理戰技術和信息攻防技術;最後,通過演習把知識轉化為實際操作能力。在中國,主要由解放軍院校擔負培養信息戰高技術人才的責任:

解放軍通信指揮學院,位於武漢。 1998年,該院出版了兩部書籍,分別是《信息作戰指揮控制學》和《信息作戰技術學》,這兩部書籍是中國信息戰教育最重要的教材。該學院以其優良的信息戰教程設置而享有很高的聲譽,這些教程分析了戰略、戰役、戰術層次的信息作戰要求。

解放軍信息工程大學,位於鄭州,由原解放軍信息工程學院、電子技術學院和測繪學院合併而成。該校目前主要研究領域是信息安全,現代通信技術和空間技術,並且在一些尖端學科領域進行探索,如遙感信息技術、衛星導航與定位技術、地理信息數據庫技術。

解放軍理工大學,位於南京,由原解放軍通信工程學院、工程兵工程學院、空軍氣象學院和總參第63研究所合併而成。該校專門負責訓練信息戰、指揮自動化和其它新學科的軍事人才。有近400名專家教授在該大學從事信息戰理論與技術研究。

解放軍國防科技大學,位於長沙,該校直接隸屬於中央軍委。曾開發了著名的“銀河”系列超級計算機。 1999年4月到6月科索沃戰爭期間,近60名高級軍官匯集在此研究高科技戰爭。

解放軍海軍工程大學,位於武漢,是海軍唯一研究信息戰的院校。該校研究信息戰的目的是把信息技術應用到海軍裝備,使中國海軍能適應信息化戰爭。

結論

我們從中國的信息戰研究中能得到什麼結論呢?美國軍隊又能從中得到什麼啟示呢?

首先,中國的軍事理論家找到了一廉價而有效的信息戰方法,它使中國在戰略軍事和國際地位上取得與西方相等的位置,從而使中國在亞人地區發揮更重要的戰略角色。

其次,中國對新型信息戰部隊的重視非同尋常。因此可能會發展形式各樣的信息戰部隊,例如:網絡部隊(獨立兵種)、“網絡勇士”突襲分隊、信息保護部隊、信息兵團,電子警察和聯合網絡人民戰爭機構。有意思的是,就現階段的能力而言,西方國家,而不是中國,更具有把這些設想付諸實施的能力。

第三,中國的信息戰理論反映了西方和中國思想的結合,而且前者的影響力越來越弱。由於軍事指揮藝術的一些共同淵源(馬克思主義辯證思想),中國的信息戰思想更類似於俄國。但是,就其本質而言,中國的信息戰理論與俄國和西方都不同。中國的信息戰理論強調控制、電腦化戰爭、網絡戰、知識戰和製信息權。

第四,在信息戰領域,中國跨越了若干技術發展階段,利用四方的技術,不僅節省了時間而且還節省了金錢。不過,中國沒有完全仿效外國,而是採用創造性的信息戰策略。但不管怎麼樣,中國都是值得關注的一支不同於其他國家的信息戰力量。

對美軍而言,研究中國的信息戰理論絕非僅僅為了給軍方提供幾條意見。 《孫子兵法》稱“知彼知已,百戰百勝”。從外國信息戰理論的角度來分析美國的信息戰能力,才能發現美國信息戰系統的致命缺陷。

正如中國人所言,信息戰的失敗者不一定是技術落後方,那些缺乏指揮藝術和戰略能力的人才最可能是失敗者。美國到了該反省自己的信息戰思想,並研究信息戰戰略和戰術的時候了。

Original Referring url:

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! // 中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

China’s Cyberspace National Security Strategy: Actively Defending Network Sovereignty! //

中國的網絡空間國家安全戰略:積極捍衛網絡主權!

According to CCTV news client reports, today (27th) morning, the National Internet Information Office released the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy “, which is the first time China released a strategy on cyberspace security. The “Strategy” clarifies China’s major positions and propositions on the development and security of cyberspace, clarifies the strategic guidelines and main tasks, and is a programmatic document guiding national cybersecurity work.

“Strategy” pointed out that information networks such as the Internet have become a new channel for information dissemination, a new space for production and life, a new engine for economic development, a new carrier for cultural prosperity, a new platform for social governance, a new bond for exchanges and cooperation, and a national sovereignty. New territory. With the in-depth development of information technology, the network security situation is becoming more and more serious. The use of network interference in other countries’ internal affairs and large-scale network monitoring and stealing activities seriously endangers national political security and user information security. The critical information infrastructure has been attacked and destroyed, and major security incidents have occurred. Harmful to national economic security and public interests, network rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information eroding cultural security and youth physical and mental health, cyber terror and illegal crimes directly threaten people’s lives and property security, social order, around cyberspace The international competition for resource control, rulemaking, and strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce, and the cyberspace arms race challenges world peace. Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

The “Strategy” requires that the overall national security concept should be taken as a guide to implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events. Actively defend and effectively respond to promote the peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, and orderly cyberspace, safeguard national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and realize the strategic goal of building a network power.

The Strategy emphasizes that a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to respect and uphold cyberspace sovereignty, peacefully utilize cyberspace, manage cyberspace according to law, coordinate network security and development, strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote global Internet governance system reform, and jointly maintain cyberspace. Peace and security. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

The Strategy clarifies that the strategic task of national cyberspace security work in the current and future period is to firmly defend cyberspace sovereignty, resolutely safeguard national security, protect key information infrastructure, strengthen network culture construction, combat cyber terrorism and crimes, and improve the network. Governance system, solid foundation of network security, improvement of cyberspace protection capability, and strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace.

The full text of the National Cyberspace Security Strategy

On December 27th, approved by the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, the National Internet Information Office released the National Cyberspace Security Strategy, the full text of which is as follows.

The widespread use of information technology and the development of cyberspace have greatly promoted economic and social prosperity and progress, but also brought new security risks and challenges. Cyberspace security (hereinafter referred to as cybersecurity) is related to the common interests of mankind, to world peace and development, and to national security. Safeguarding China’s cybersecurity is an important measure to coordinate and promote the comprehensive construction of a well-off society, comprehensively deepen reforms, comprehensively ruling the country according to law, and comprehensively and strictly manage the party’s strategic layout. It is to achieve the goal of “two hundred years” and realize the great Chinese rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. An important guarantee. In order to implement the “Four Principles” of Chairman Xi Jinping’s promotion of the global Internet governance system reform and the “five-point proposal” for building a community of cyberspace destiny, clarify China’s important position on cyberspace development and security, guide China’s cybersecurity work, and maintain The state develops this strategy in the interests of sovereignty, security, and development of cyberspace.

I. Opportunities and challenges

(1) Major opportunities

With the rapid development of the information revolution, the cyberspace composed of the Internet, communication networks, computer systems, automation control systems, digital devices and their applications, services and data is transforming people’s production and life styles and profoundly affecting the history of human society. Development process.

New channels for information dissemination. The development of network technology has broken through the limitations of time and space, expanded the scope of communication, and innovated the means of communication, which triggered a fundamental change in the pattern of communication. The Internet has become a new channel for people to obtain information, learn and communicate, and become a new carrier of human knowledge transmission.

A new space for production and life. In today’s world, the depth of the network is integrated into people’s learning, life, and work. Online education, entrepreneurship, medical care, shopping, and finance are becoming more and more popular. More and more people exchange ideas, achieve careers, and realize their dreams through the Internet.

The new engine of economic development. The Internet has increasingly become the leading force for innovation-driven development. Information technology has been widely used in various industries of the national economy, promoting the upgrading and upgrading of traditional industries, and has spawned new technologies, new formats, new industries, and new models, and promoted the adjustment of economic structure and the transformation of economic development mode. It has injected new impetus into economic and social development.

A new carrier of cultural prosperity. The network promotes cultural exchanges and knowledge popularization, releases the vitality of cultural development, promotes cultural innovation and creation, enriches people’s spiritual and cultural life, and has become a new means of disseminating culture and providing new means of public cultural services. Network culture has become an important part of cultural construction.

A new platform for social governance. The role of the network in promoting the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity has become increasingly prominent. The application of e-government has become more in-depth, and government information has been publicly shared. It has promoted the scientific, democratic, and rule-based government decision-making, and has smoothed the channels for citizens to participate in social governance. An important way to protect citizens’ right to know, participate, express, and supervise.

A new link for exchanges and cooperation. The interweaving of informationization and globalization has promoted the global flow of information, capital, technology, talents and other factors, and has enhanced the exchange and integration of different civilizations. The Internet has turned the world into a global village, and the international community has increasingly become a community of destiny among you and me.

The new territory of national sovereignty. Cyberspace has become a new field of human activity that is as important as land, sea, sky and space. The expansion of national sovereignty extends to cyberspace, and cyberspace sovereignty has become an important part of national sovereignty. Respecting cyberspace sovereignty, maintaining cybersecurity, seeking common governance, and achieving win-win results are becoming the consensus of the international community.

(2) Severe challenges

The cyber security situation is becoming increasingly severe. The country’s political, economic, cultural, social, and national defense security and citizens’ legitimate rights and interests in cyberspace are facing serious risks and challenges.

Network penetration harms political security. Political stability is the basic prerequisite for national development and people’s happiness. The use of the network to interfere in his internal affairs, attack the political system of other countries, incite social unrest, subvert the political power of other countries, and large-scale network monitoring, network theft and other activities seriously endanger the political security of the country and the security of user information.

Cyber ​​attacks threaten economic security. Network and information systems have become the backbone of critical infrastructure and the entire economic society. Attacks and destruction and major security incidents will lead to rampant infrastructure such as energy, transportation, communications, and finance, causing disastrous consequences and seriously jeopardizing national economic security. And the public interest.

Harmful information on the Internet erodes cultural security. Various ideological and cultural networks on the Internet are in conflict and confrontation, and excellent traditional culture and mainstream values ​​are facing impact. Internet rumors, decadent culture and obscenity, violence, superstition and other harmful information that violates the core values ​​of socialism erodes the physical and mental health of young people, ruin the social atmosphere, mislead value orientation and endanger cultural security. Online morality is out of order, lack of integrity is frequent, and the degree of network civilization needs to be improved.

Cyber ​​terror and illegal crimes undermine social security. Terrorism, separatism, extremism and other forces use the Internet to incite, plan, organize and implement violent terrorist activities, directly threatening people’s lives and property, and social order. Computer viruses, Trojans, etc. spread in the cyberspace. Internet fraud, hacker attacks, intellectual property infringement, and misuse of personal information are abundant. Some organizations deliberately steal user information, transaction data, location information, and corporate trade secrets, seriously damaging the country. , corporate and personal interests, affecting social harmony and stability.

The international competition in cyberspace is on the rise. The international competition for competing for and controlling cyberspace strategic resources, seizing the rule-making power and strategic commanding heights, and seeking strategic initiative is becoming increasingly fierce. Individual countries have strengthened their network deterrence strategies and intensified the cyberspace arms race, and world peace has been challenged by new challenges.

Cyberspace opportunities and challenges coexist, and opportunities outweigh challenges. We must adhere to active use, scientific development, management according to law, ensure security, resolutely safeguard network security, maximize the utilization potential of cyberspace, better benefit more than 1.3 billion Chinese people, benefit all mankind, and firmly safeguard world peace.

Second, the goal

Guided by the overall national security concept, we will implement the development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing, enhance risk awareness and crisis awareness, coordinate the two major domestic and international situations, and coordinate the development of two major events, actively defending and responding effectively. Promote cyberspace peace, security, openness, cooperation, orderly, safeguard national sovereignty, security, development interests, and achieve the strategic goal of building a network power.

Peace: Information technology abuse has been effectively curbed, and activities such as the cyberspace arms race that threaten international peace have been effectively controlled, and cyberspace conflicts have been effectively prevented.

Security: The network security risks are effectively controlled, the national network security assurance system is sound and complete, the core technical equipment is safe and controllable, and the network and information systems are stable and reliable. Network security talents meet the needs, and the society’s cyber security awareness, basic protection skills and confidence in using the network have increased significantly.

Openness: Information technology standards, policies and markets are open and transparent, product circulation and information dissemination are smoother, and the digital divide is increasingly bridging. Regardless of size, strength, or wealth, countries around the world, especially developing countries, can share development opportunities, share development results, and participate fairly in cyberspace governance.

Cooperation: All countries in the world have closer cooperation in the fields of technology exchange, combating cyber terrorism and cybercrime. The multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system is sound and perfect, and the cyberspace destiny community with cooperation and win-win as the core has gradually formed.

Orderly: The public’s right to know, participation, expression, and supervision in the cyberspace is fully protected, and the privacy of cyberspace is effectively protected and human rights are fully respected. The domestic and international legal systems and standards of cyberspace have been gradually established. The cyberspace has been effectively governed according to law. The network environment is honest, civilized and healthy. The free flow of information and the maintenance of national security and public interests are organically unified.

Third, the principle

A safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world. China is willing to work with other countries to strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, actively promote the transformation of the global Internet governance system, and jointly safeguard cyberspace peace and security.

(1) Respect for maintaining cyberspace sovereignty

The cyberspace sovereignty is inviolable and respects the right of countries to choose their own development path, network management model, Internet public policy and equal participation in international cyberspace governance. The network affairs within the sovereignty of each country are the responsibility of the people of each country. The countries have the right to formulate laws and regulations concerning cyberspace according to their national conditions and draw on international experience, and take necessary measures to manage their own information systems and network activities on their own territory. The domestic information systems and information resources are protected from intrusion, interference, attacks and destruction, guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of citizens in cyberspace; prevent, prevent and punish harmful information that endangers national security and interests from spreading in the domestic network and maintain the cyberspace order. No country engages in cyber hegemony, does not engage in double standards, does not use the network to interfere in its internal affairs, and does not engage in, condone or support network activities that endanger the national security of other countries.

(2) Peaceful use of cyberspace

The peaceful use of cyberspace is in the common interest of mankind. All countries should abide by the UN Charter’s principle of not using or threatening to use force, prevent information technology from being used for the purpose of maintaining international security and stability, and jointly resist the cyberspace arms race and prevent cyberspace conflicts. Adhere to mutual respect, treat each other as equals, seek common ground while reserving differences, embrace mutual trust, respect each other’s security interests and major concerns in cyberspace, and promote the building of a harmonious network world. Oppose the use of national security as an excuse to use technological superiority to control other countries’ networks and information systems, collect and steal data from other countries, and not to seek their own absolute security at the expense of other countries’ security.

(3) Governing cyberspace according to law

We will comprehensively promote the rule of law in cyberspace, adhere to the rule of law, establish networks according to law, and go online according to law, so that the Internet can operate healthily on the rule of law. Establish a good network order according to law, protect the cyberspace information in a legal and orderly free flow, protect personal privacy, and protect intellectual property rights. Any organization or individual who enjoys freedom and exercise rights in cyberspace must abide by the law, respect the rights of others, and be responsible for their words and deeds on the Internet.

(4) Coordinating network security and development

Without cybersecurity, there is no national security. Without informationization, there will be no modernization. Network security and informationization are two wings of the two wings and the drive. Correctly handle the relationship between development and security, adhere to safety and development, and promote safety through development. Security is a prerequisite for development, and any development at the expense of security is difficult to sustain. Development is the foundation of security, and development is the biggest insecurity. Without information development, network security is not guaranteed, and existing security may even be lost.

Fourth, strategic tasks

China’s number of Internet users and network scale is the highest in the world. Maintaining China’s network security is not only its own needs, but also of great significance for maintaining global network security and even world peace. China is committed to safeguarding the sovereignty, security, and development interests of the country’s cyberspace, promoting the Internet for the benefit of mankind, and promoting the peaceful use and common governance of cyberspace.

(1) Firmly defending cyberspace sovereignty

In accordance with the Constitution and laws and regulations, we will manage the network activities within the scope of our sovereignty, protect the security of our information facilities and information resources, and adopt all measures including economy, administration, science and technology, law, diplomacy, and military, and unswervingly safeguard China’s cyberspace sovereignty. Resolutely oppose all acts of subverting our state’s political power and undermining our national sovereignty through the Internet.

(2) Resolutely safeguard national security

Prevent, stop and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship; prevent, deter and punish the use of the Internet for theft, disclosure of state secrets and other acts that endanger national security; Prevent, stop and punish foreign forces in the use of the network for infiltration, destruction, subversion and separatist activities.

(iii) Protection of critical information infrastructure

National key information infrastructure refers to information facilities that are related to national security, national economy and people’s livelihood. Once data leakage, destruction or loss of function may seriously endanger national security and public interest, including but not limited to providing services such as public communication and radio and television transmission. Information networks, important information systems in the fields of energy, finance, transportation, education, scientific research, water conservancy, industrial manufacturing, medical and health care, social security, public utilities, and state agencies, and important Internet application systems. Take all necessary steps to protect critical information infrastructure and its critical data from attack. Adhere to the combination of technology and management, focus on protection, prevention, detection, early warning, response, disposal, etc., establish and implement key information infrastructure protection systems, and increase investment in management, technology, talents, and capital. Comprehensively implement policies to effectively strengthen the security protection of key information infrastructure.

The protection of key information infrastructure is the common responsibility of the government, enterprises and the whole society. The competent authorities, operating units and organizations must take necessary measures to ensure the security of key information infrastructures in accordance with the requirements of laws, regulations and system standards, and gradually realize the first evaluation and use. Strengthen risk assessment of key information infrastructure. Strengthen the security protection of party and government organs and websites in key areas, and build and operate the website of grassroots party and government organs in an intensive mode. Establish an orderly sharing mechanism for cyber security information of government, industry and enterprises, and give full play to the important role of enterprises in protecting key information infrastructure.

Adhere to opening up and maintain network security in an open environment. Establish and implement a network security review system, strengthen supply chain security management, conduct security reviews on important information technology products and services purchased by party and government organs and key industries, improve the security and controllability of products and services, and prevent product service providers. And other organizations use the advantages of information technology to implement unfair competition or harm the interests of users.

(4) Strengthening the construction of network culture

Strengthen the construction of online ideological and cultural positions, vigorously cultivate and practice the core values ​​of socialism, implement network content construction projects, develop a positive and upward network culture, spread positive energy, unite powerful spiritual strength, and create a good network atmosphere. Encourage the development of new business, create new products, create a network culture brand that reflects the spirit of the times, and continuously improve the scale of the network culture industry. Implement the China Excellent Culture Online Communication Project and actively promote the digitalization, network production and dissemination of excellent traditional culture and contemporary cultural products. Give full play to the advantages of the Internet communication platform, promote the exchange of excellent cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries, let the people of all countries understand the excellent Chinese culture, let the Chinese people understand the excellent culture of each country, jointly promote the prosperity and development of the network culture, enrich people’s spiritual world, and promote the progress of human civilization.

Strengthen the network ethics and network civilization construction, give play to the role of moral education, and use the excellent results of human civilization to nourish cyberspace and repair the network ecology. Building a civilized and honest network environment, advocating civilized network and civilized Internet access, and forming a safe, civilized and orderly information dissemination order. Resolutely crack down on illegal and harmful information such as rumors, obscenity, violence, superstition, and cults in the cyberspace. Improve the network civilization of young people, strengthen the protection of minors online, and create a good network environment for the healthy growth of young people through the joint efforts of the government, social organizations, communities, schools, and families.

(5) Combating cyber terror and illegal crimes

Strengthen the network’s anti-terrorism, anti-espionage and anti-stealing capabilities, and crack down on cyber terror and cyber espionage activities.

Adhere to comprehensive governance, source control, and legal prevention, and severely crack down on illegal activities such as online fraud, cyber theft, drug trafficking, infringement of citizens’ personal information, dissemination of obscene pornography, hacking, and infringement of intellectual property rights.

(6) Improve the network governance system

Adhere to the rule of law, open and transparent management of the network, and earnestly do the law, the law must be enforced, the law enforcement must be strict, and the law must be investigated. We will improve the network security laws and regulations, formulate laws and regulations such as the Cyber ​​Security Law and the Minor Network Protection Regulations, clarify the responsibilities and obligations of all aspects of society, and clarify the requirements for network security management. Accelerate the revision and interpretation of existing laws to make them applicable to cyberspace. Improve the network security related system, establish a network trust system, and improve the scientific and standardized level of network security management.

Accelerate the construction of a network governance system that combines legal norms, administrative supervision, industry self-discipline, technical support, public supervision, and social education, promotes network social organization management innovation, and improves basic management, content management, industry management, and network crime prevention and combat. Work linkage mechanism. Strengthen the protection of cyberspace communication secrets, freedom of speech, trade secrets, and the legitimate rights and interests of property rights and property rights.

Encourage social organizations to participate in network governance, develop online public welfare undertakings, and strengthen the construction of new types of network social organizations. Encourage netizens to report cyber violations and bad information.

(7) Consolidating the foundation of network security

Adhere to innovation-driven development, actively create a policy environment conducive to technological innovation, pool resources and strength, take enterprises as the main body, combine production, study and research, coordinate research, point-to-face, and overall advancement, and make breakthroughs in core technologies as soon as possible. Pay attention to software security and accelerate the promotion and application of security and trusted products. Develop network infrastructure and enrich cyberspace information content. Implement the “Internet +” initiative and vigorously develop the network economy. Implement national big data strategy, establish a big data security management system, and support next-generation information technology innovation and application such as big data and cloud computing. Optimize the market environment, encourage network security enterprises to become bigger and stronger, and consolidate the industrial foundation for safeguarding national network security.

Establish and improve the national network security technology support system. Strengthen the basic theory of network security and research on major issues. Strengthen network security standardization and certification and accreditation, and make greater use of standards to standardize cyberspace behavior. Do basic work such as level protection, risk assessment, and vulnerability discovery, and improve the network security monitoring and early warning and network security major incident emergency response mechanism.

Implement network security talent project, strengthen the construction of network security disciplines, build a first-class network security college and innovation park, and form an ecological environment conducive to talent cultivation and innovation and entrepreneurship. We will do a good job in the network security publicity week and vigorously carry out publicity and education on the national network security. Promote cybersecurity education into teaching materials, enter the school, enter the classroom, improve the network media literacy, enhance the cyber security awareness and protection skills of the whole society, and improve the identification and resilience of the majority of netizens on illegal criminal activities such as network illegal information and online fraud.

(8) Improving the ability of cyberspace protection

Cyberspace is a new frontier of national sovereignty. We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security.

(9) Strengthening international cooperation in cyberspace

On the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, we will strengthen international cyberspace dialogue and cooperation and promote the transformation of the Internet global governance system. We will deepen dialogue and exchanges and information communication with bilateral and multilateral networks in various countries, effectively control differences, actively participate in network security cooperation between global and regional organizations, and promote the internationalization of basic resource management such as Internet addresses and root name servers.

Support the United Nations to play a leading role in promoting the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, cyberspace international counter-terrorism conventions, sound judicial assistance mechanisms against cybercrime, deepening policy and law, technological innovation, standards and norms, emergency response, and critical information infrastructure International cooperation in areas such as protection.

Strengthen support for Internet technology diffusion and infrastructure construction in developing and underdeveloped regions, and strive to bridge the digital divide. Promote the construction of the “Belt and Road”, improve the level of international communication and interconnection, and smooth the information silk road. Establish a global Internet sharing and governance platform, such as the World Internet Conference, to jointly promote the healthy development of the Internet. Through active and effective international cooperation, we will establish a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet governance system to jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative and orderly network space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

據央視新聞客戶端報導,今天(27日)上午,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布了《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,這是我國首次發布關於網絡空間安全的戰略。 《戰略》闡明了中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場和主張,明確了戰略方針和主要任務,是指導國家網絡安全工作的綱領性文件。

《戰略》指出,互聯網等信息網絡已經成為信息傳播的新渠道、生產生活的新空間、經濟發展的新引擎、文化繁榮的新載體、社會治理的新平台、交流合作的新紐帶、國家主權的新疆域。隨著信息技術深入發展,網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,利用網絡干涉他國內政以及大規模網絡監控、竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全,關鍵信息基礎設施遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益,網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等有害信息侵蝕文化安全和青少年身心健康,網絡恐怖和違法犯罪大量存在直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序,圍繞網絡空間資源控制權、規則制定權、戰略主動權的國際競爭日趨激烈,網絡空間軍備競賽挑戰世界和平。網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

《戰略》要求,要以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

《戰略》強調,一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,堅持尊重維護網絡空間主權、和平利用網絡空間、依法治理網絡空間、統籌網絡安全與發展,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

《戰略》明確,當前和今後一個時期國家網絡空間安全工作的戰略任務是堅定捍衛網絡空間主權、堅決維護國家安全、保護關鍵信息基礎設施、加強網絡文化建設、打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪、完善網絡治理體系、夯實網絡安全基礎、提升網絡空間防護能力、強化網絡空間國際合作等9個方面。

資料圖

《國家網絡空間安全戰略》全文

12月27日,經中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組批准,國家互聯網信息辦公室發布《國家網絡空間安全戰略》,全文如下。

信息技術廣泛應用和網絡空間興起發展,極大促進了經濟社會繁榮進步,同時也帶來了新的安全風險和挑戰。網絡空間安全(以下稱網絡安全)事關人類共同利益,事關世界和平與發展,事關各國國家安全。維護我國網絡安全是協調推進全面建成小康社會、全面深化改革、全面依法治國、全面從嚴治黨戰略佈局的重要舉措,是實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標、實現中華民族偉大復興中國夢的重要保障。為貫徹落實習近平主席關於推進全球互聯網治理體系變革的“四項原則”和構建網絡空間命運共同體的“五點主張”,闡明中國關於網絡空間發展和安全的重大立場,指導中國網絡安全工作,維護國家在網絡空間的主權、安全、發展利益,制定本戰略。

一、機遇和挑戰

(一)重大機遇

伴隨信息革命的飛速發展,互聯網、通信網、計算機系統、自動化控制系統、數字設備及其承載的應用、服務和數據等組成的網絡空間,正在全面改變人們的生產生活方式,深刻影響人類社會歷史發展進程。

信息傳播的新渠道。網絡技術的發展,突破了時空限制,拓展了傳播範圍,創新了傳播手段,引發了傳播格局的根本性變革。網絡已成為人們獲取信息、學習交流的新渠道,成為人類知識傳播的新載體。

生產生活的新空間。當今世界,網絡深度融入人們的學習、生活、工作等方方面面,網絡教育、創業、醫療、購物、金融等日益普及,越來越多的人通過網絡交流思想、成就事業、實現夢想。

經濟發展的新引擎。互聯網日益成為創新驅動發展的先導力量,信息技術在國民經濟各行業廣泛應用,推動傳統產業改造升級,催生了新技術、新業態、新產業、新模式,促進了經濟結構調整和經濟發展方式轉變,為經濟社會發展注入了新的動力。

文化繁榮的新載體。網絡促進了文化交流和知識普及,釋放了文化發展活力,推動了文化創新創造,豐富了人們精神文化生活,已經成為傳播文化的新途徑、提供公共文化服務的新手段。網絡文化已成為文化建設的重要組成部分。

社會治理的新平台。網絡在推進國家治理體系和治理能力現代化方面的作用日益凸顯,電子政務應用走向深入,政府信息公開共享,推動了政府決策科學化、民主化、法治化,暢通了公民​​參與社會治理的渠道,成為保障公民知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權的重要途徑。

交流合作的新紐帶。信息化與全球化交織發展,促進了信息、資金、技術、人才等要素的全球流動,增進了不同文明交流融合。網絡讓世界變成了地球村,國際社會越來越成為你中有我、我中有你的命運共同體。

國家主權的新疆域。網絡空間已經成為與陸地、海洋、天空、太空同等重要的人類活動新領域,國家主權拓展延伸到網絡空間,網絡空間主權成為國家主權的重要組成部分。尊重網絡空間主權,維護網絡安全,謀求共治,實現共贏,正在成為國際社會共識。

(二)嚴峻挑戰

網絡安全形勢日益嚴峻,國家政治、經濟、文化、社會、國防安全及公民在網絡空間的合法權益面臨嚴峻風險與挑戰。

網絡滲透危害政治安全。政治穩定是國家發展、人民幸福的基本前提。利用網絡干涉他國內政、攻擊他國政治制度、煽動社會動亂、顛覆他國政權,以及大規模網絡監控、網絡竊密等活動嚴重危害國家政治安全和用戶信息安全。

網絡攻擊威脅經濟安全。網絡和信息系統已經成為關鍵基礎設施乃至整個經濟社會的神經中樞,遭受攻擊破壞、發生重大安全事件,將導致能源、交通、通信、金融等基礎設施癱瘓,造成災難性後果,嚴重危害國家經濟安全和公共利益。

網絡有害信息侵蝕文化安全。網絡上各種思想文化相互激盪、交鋒,優秀傳統文化和主流價值觀面臨衝擊。網絡謠言、頹廢文化和淫穢、暴力、迷信等違背社會主義核心價值觀的有害信息侵蝕青少年身心健康,敗壞社會風氣,誤導價值取向,危害文化安全。網上道德失範、誠信缺失現象頻發,網絡文明程度亟待提高。

網絡恐怖和違法犯罪破壞社會安全。恐怖主義、分裂主義、極端主義等勢力利用網絡煽動、策劃、組織和實施暴力恐怖活動,直接威脅人民生命財產安全、社會秩序。計算機病毒、木馬等在網絡空間傳播蔓延,網絡欺詐、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權、濫用個人信息等不法行為大量存在,一些組織肆意竊取用戶信息、交易數據、位置信息以及企業商業秘密,嚴重損害國家、企業和個人利益,影響社會和諧穩定。

網絡空間的國際競爭方興未艾。國際上爭奪和控製網絡空間戰略資源、搶占規則制定權和戰略制高點、謀求戰略主動權的競爭日趨激烈。個別國家強化網絡威懾戰略,加劇網絡空間軍備競賽,世界和平受到新的挑戰。

網絡空間機遇和挑戰並存,機遇大於挑戰。必須堅持積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全,堅決維護網絡安全,最大限度利用網絡空間發展潛力,更好惠及13億多中國人民,造福全人類,堅定維護世界和平。

二、目標

以總體國家安全觀為指導,貫徹落實創新、協調、綠色、開放、共享的發展理念,增強風險意識和危機意識,統籌國內國際兩個大局,統籌發展安全兩件大事,積極防禦、有效應對,推進網絡空間和平、安全、開放、合作、有序,維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,實現建設網絡強國的戰略目標。

和平:信息技術濫用得到有效遏制,網絡空間軍備競賽等威脅國際和平的活動得到有效控制,網絡空間衝突得到有效防範。

安全:網絡安全風險得到有效控制,國家網絡安全保障體系健全完善,核心技術裝備安全可控,網絡和信息系統運行穩定可靠。網絡安全人才滿足需求,全社會的網絡安全意識、基本防護技能和利用網絡的信心大幅提升。

開放:信息技術標準、政策和市場開放、透明,產品流通和信息傳播更加順暢,數字鴻溝日益彌合。不分大小、強弱、貧富,世界各國特別是發展中國家都能分享發展機遇、共享發展成果、公平參與網絡空間治理。

合作:世界各國在技術交流、打擊網絡恐怖和網絡犯罪等領域的合作更加密切,多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系健全完善,以合作共贏為核心的網絡空間命運共同體逐步形成。

有序:公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權、監督權等合法權益得到充分保障,網絡空間個人隱私獲得有效保護,人權受到充分尊重。網絡空間的國內和國際法律體系、標準規範逐步建立,網絡空間實現依法有效治理,網絡環境誠信、文明、健康,信息自由流動與維護國家安全、公共利益實現有機統一。

三、原則

一個安全穩定繁榮的網絡空間,對各國乃至世界都具有重大意義。中國願與各國一道,加強溝通、擴大共識、深化合作,積極推進全球互聯網治理體系變革,共同維護網絡空間和平安全。

(一)尊重維護網絡空間主權

網絡空間主權不容侵犯,尊重各國自主選擇發展道路、網絡管理模式、互聯網公共政策和平等參與國際網絡空間治理的權利。各國主權範圍內的網絡事務由各國人民自己做主,各國有權根據本國國情,借鑒國際經驗,制定有關網絡空間的法律法規,依法採取必要措施,管理本國信息系統及本國疆域上的網絡活動;保護本國信息系統和信息資源免受侵入、干擾、攻擊和破壞,保障公民在網絡空間的合法權益;防範、阻止和懲治危害國家安全和利益的有害信息在本國網絡傳播,維護網絡空間秩序。任何國家都不搞網絡霸權、不搞雙重標準,不利用網絡干涉他國內政,不從事、縱容或支持危害他國國家安全的網絡活動。

(二)和平利用網絡空間

和平利用網絡空間符合人類的共同利益。各國應遵守《聯合國憲章》關於不得使用或威脅使用武力的原則,防止信息技術被用於與維護國際安全與穩定相悖的目的,共同抵製網絡空間軍備競賽、防範網絡空間衝突。堅持相互尊重、平等相待,求同存異、包容互信,尊重彼此在網絡空間的安全利益和重大關切,推動構建和諧網絡世界。反對以國家安全為藉口,利用技術優勢控制他國網絡和信息系統、收集和竊取他國數據,更不能以犧牲別國安全謀求自身所謂絕對安全。

(三)依法治理網絡空間

全面推進網絡空間法治化,堅持依法治網、依法辦網、依法上網,讓互聯網在法治軌道上健康運行。依法構建良好網絡秩序,保護網絡空間信息依法有序自由流動,保護個人隱私,保護知識產權。任何組織和個人在網絡空間享有自由、行使權利的同時,須遵守法律,尊重他人權利,對自己在網絡上的言行負責。

(四)統籌網絡安全與發展

沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化。網絡安全和信息化是一體之兩翼、驅動之雙輪。正確處理髮展和安全的關係,堅持以安全保發展,以發展促安全。安全是發展的前提,任何以犧牲安全為代價的發展都難以持續。發展是安全的基礎,不發展是最大的不安全。沒有信息化發展,網絡安全也沒有保障,已有的安全甚至會喪失。

四、戰略任務

中國的網民數量和網絡規模世界第一,維護好中國網絡安全,不僅是自身需要,對於維護全球網絡安全乃至世界和平都具有重大意義。中國致力於維護國家網絡空間主權、安全、發展利益,推動互聯網造福人類,推動網絡空間和平利用和共同治理。

(一)堅定捍衛網絡空間主權

根據憲法和法律法規管理我國主權範圍內的網絡活動,保護我國信息設施和信息資源安全,採取包括經濟、行政、科技、法律、外交、軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權。堅決反對通過網絡顛覆我國國家政權、破壞我國國家主權的一切行為。

(二)堅決維護國家安全

防範、制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國、分裂國家、煽動叛亂、顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治利用網絡進行竊取、洩露國家秘密等危害國家安全的行為;防範、制止和依法懲治境外勢力利用網絡進行滲透、破壞、顛覆、分裂活動。

(三)保護關鍵信息基礎設施

國家關鍵信息基礎設施是指關係國家安全、國計民生,一旦數據洩露、遭到破壞或者喪失功能可能嚴重危害國家安全、公共利益的信息設施,包括但不限於提供公共通信、廣播電視傳輸等服務的基礎信息網絡,能源、金融、交通、教育、科研、水利、工業製造、醫療衛生、社會保障、公用事業等領域和國家機關的重要信息系統,重要互聯網應用系統等。採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞。堅持技術和管理並重、保護和震懾並舉,著眼識別、防護、檢測、預警、響應、處置等環節,建立實施關鍵信息基礎設施保護製度,從管理、技術、人才、資金等方面加大投入,依法綜合施策,切實加強關鍵信息基礎設施安全防護。

關鍵信息基礎設施保護是政府、企業和全社會的共同責任,主管、運營單位和組織要按照法律法規、制度標準的要求,採取必要措施保障關鍵信息基礎設施安全,逐步實現先評估後使用。加強關鍵信息基礎設施風險評估。加強黨政機關以及重點領域網站的安全防護,基層黨政機關網站要按集約化模式建設運行和管理。建立政府、行業與企業的網絡安全信息有序共享機制,充分發揮企業在保護關鍵信息基礎設施中的重要作用。

堅持對外開放,立足開放環境下維護網絡安全。建立實施網絡安全審查制度,加強供應鏈安全管理,對黨政機關、重點行業採購使用的重要信息技術產品和服務開展安全審查,提高產品和服務的安全性和可控性,防止產品服務提供者和其他組織利用信息技術優勢實施不正當競爭或損害用戶利益。

(四)加強網絡文化建設

加強網上思想文化陣地建設,大力培育和踐行社會主義核心價值觀,實施網絡內容建設工程,發展積極向上的網絡文化,傳播正能量,凝聚強大精神力量,營造良好網絡氛圍。鼓勵拓展新業務、創作新產品,打造體現時代精神的網絡文化品牌,不斷提高網絡文化產業規模水平。實施中華優秀文化網上傳播工程,積極推動優秀傳統文化和當代文化精品的數字化、網絡化製作和傳播。發揮互聯網傳播平台優勢,推動中外優秀文化交流互鑑,讓各國人民了解中華優秀文化,讓中國人民了解各國優秀文化,共同推動網絡文化繁榮發展,豐富人們精神世界,促進人類文明進步。

加強網絡倫理、網絡文明建設,發揮道德教化引導作用,用人類文明優秀成果滋養網絡空間、修復網絡生態。建設文明誠信的網絡環境,倡導文明辦網、文明上網,形成安全、文明、有序的信息傳播秩序。堅決打擊謠言、淫穢、暴力、迷信、邪教等違法有害信息在網絡空間傳播蔓延。提高青少年網絡文明素養,加強對未成年人上網保護,通過政府、社會組織、社區、學校、家庭等方面的共同努力,為青少年健康成長創造良好的網絡環境。

(五)打擊網絡恐怖和違法犯罪

加強網絡反恐、反間諜、反竊密能力建設,嚴厲打擊網絡恐怖和網絡間諜活動。

堅持綜合治理、源頭控制、依法防範,嚴厲打擊網絡詐騙、網絡盜竊、販槍販毒、侵害公民個人信息、傳播淫穢色情、黑客攻擊、侵犯知識產權等違法犯罪行為。

(六)完善網絡治理體系

堅持依法、公開、透明管網治網,切實做到有法可依、有法必依、執法必嚴、違法必究。健全網絡安全法律法規體系,制定出台網絡安全法、未成年人網絡保護條例等法律法規,明確社會各方面的責任和義務,明確網絡安全管理要求。加快對現行法律的修訂和解釋,使之適用於網絡空間。完善網絡安全相關製度,建立網絡信任體系,提高網絡安全管理的科學化規範化水平。

加快構建法律規範、行政監管、行業自律、技術保障、公眾監督、社會教育相結合的網絡治理體系,推進網絡社會組織管理創新,健全基礎管理、內容管理、行業管理以及網絡違法犯罪防範和打擊等工作聯動機制。加強網絡空間通信秘密、言論自由、商業秘密,以及名譽權、財產權等合法權益的保護。

鼓勵社會組織等參與網絡治理,發展網絡公益事業,加強新型網絡社會組織建設。鼓勵網民舉報網絡違法行為和不良信息。

(七)夯實網絡安全基礎

堅持創新驅動發展,積極創造有利於技術創新的政策環境,統籌資源和力量,以企業為主體,產學研用相結合,協同攻關、以點帶面、整體推進,盡快在核心技術上取得突破。重視軟件安全,加快安全可信產品推廣應用。發展網絡基礎設施,豐富網絡空間信息內容。實施“互聯網+”行動,大力發展網絡經濟。實施國家大數據戰略,建立大數據安全管理制度,支持大數據、雲計算等新一代信息技術創新和應用。優化市場環境,鼓勵網絡安全企業做大做強,為保障國家網絡安全夯實產業基礎。

建立完善國家網絡安全技術支撐體系。加強網絡安全基礎理論和重大問題研究。加強網絡安全標準化和認證認可工作,更多地利用標準規範網絡空間行為。做好等級保護、風險評估、漏洞發現等基礎性工作,完善網絡安全監測預警和網絡安全重大事件應急處置機制。

實施網絡安全人才工程,加強網絡安全學科專業建設,打造一流網絡安全學院和創新園區,形成有利於人才培養和創新創業的生態環境。辦好網絡安全宣傳周活動,大力開展全民網絡安全宣傳教育。推動網絡安全教育進教材、進學校、進課堂,提高網絡媒介素養,增強全社會網絡安全意識和防護技能,提高廣大網民對網絡違法有害信息、網絡欺詐等違法犯罪活動的辨識和抵禦能力。

(八)提升網絡空間防護能力

網絡空間是國家主權的新疆域。建設與我國國際地位相稱、與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防御手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。

(九)強化網絡空間國際合作

在相互尊重、相互信任的基礎上,加強國際網絡空間對話合作,推動互聯網全球治理體系變革。深化同各國的雙邊、多邊網絡安全對話交流和信息溝通,有效管控分歧,積極參與全球和區域組織網絡安全合作,推動互聯網地址、根域名服務器等基礎資源管理國際化。

支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則、網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律、技術創新、標準規範、應急響應、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

加強對發展中國家和落後地區互聯網技術普及和基礎設施建設的支持援助,努力彌合數字鴻溝。推動“一帶一路”建設,提高國際通信互聯互通水平,暢通信息絲綢之路。搭建世界互聯網大會等全球互聯網共享共治平台,共同推動互聯網健康發展。通過積極有效的國際合作,建立多邊、民主、透明的國際互聯網治理體系,共同構建和平、安全、開放、合作、有序的網絡空間。

Original Referring URL: https://military.china.com/important/

 

Chinese Military Analysis of US Navy Cyber Warfare Efforts // 中國對美國海軍網絡戰爭的軍事分析

Chinese Military Analysis of US Navy Cyber Warfare Efforts //

中國對美國海軍網絡戰爭的軍事分析

2011/02/15

US Navy’s 10th Fleet. As the naval task force, the US Fleet cyber command is the Navy’s second-level command, which is part of the Naval Combat Command. Its main task is to guide the cyber operations in defense, and to support the combat troops to carry out deterrence, repel violations, and guarantee. Freedom of movement. Our mission is similar to that of other military cyberspace commanders. It is responsible for carrying out combat operations in the fields of network, password, signal intelligence, information warfare, cyberspace, electronic warfare, and space to support sea and land. Combat power. Naval operations require the integration of traditional combat capabilities, the expansion of new capabilities, and the development of capabilities across networks, signal intelligence systems, and electronic warfare systems to achieve the full development of our cyberspace combat capabilities. Similarly, we are also responsible for organizing and commanding the Navy’s global cryptographic operations, integrating information operations and space operations.

History

The Tenth Fleet was established during the Second World War and developed anti-submarine warfare capabilities primarily in the Atlantic. At that time, we were faced with a hostile threat that greatly exceeded the combat capability of World War I, and its ability to change the situation was very strong. The Tenth Fleet without any warships defeated the German submarines through intelligence fusion, innovative tactics, technology, and processes. Today, the rebuilt Tenth Fleet still adheres to these operational concepts. Together with information warfare experts, intelligence specialists, password and electronic warfare experts, and traditional military experts, we command operations to ensure the flexibility of operations and respond to changing hostile threats. The focus of the fleet cyber command is to enable the navy to quickly respond to cyber threats and maintain information superiority. This framework of action requires us to complete the task of cyber operations defense.

To win in modern warfare, we must have the ability to move freely in the full spectrum electromagnetic space, and its defense range has expanded from ordinary electromagnetic interference to advanced network intrusion and malicious attacks. The function of the fleet cyber command is to analyze this threat, innovate tactics, techniques, and processes to protect the network and ensure freedom of movement.

Naval operations are dynamic, and the naval network also has time and space complexity. The Navy must not only be deployed in various oceans, but also support ground operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and other places. We currently have more than 10,000 naval officers and men involved in these ground operations.

The Fleet Cyber ​​Command is a global command with the ability to maintain network strength and conduct cyber operations worldwide, and to ensure that the operational capabilities of the cyber operations are commanded in a full spectrum electromagnetic space. Since the Commander of the Tenth Fleet is a combat-level commander, our command is also based on the structure of a typical naval mission force. This power structure can assign subordinate missions to regional missions to support specific password requirements. This task force has been designed to take into account the changing intelligence, skills and responsibilities, has the ability to respond quickly to the fleet’s operational missions, and has facilitated local communication and collaboration with the US Cyber ​​Command and the Division. We have been working to develop a robust organizational structure that provides rapid and direct support for a variety of operations.

The Cyber ​​Warfare Command (CTF1010) is responsible for naval cyber operations, and its subordinate units include the Atlantic and Pacific Regional Naval Computer and Telecommunications Ground Master Station (NCTAMS), which provides network guidance, maintenance, and shoreline relay. The Navy Cyber ​​Defense Operations Command (CTF 1020) is responsible for network defense. The unit is responsible for monitoring cyber threats and monitoring network response.

Norfolk’s Naval Information Operations Command (CTF 1030) specializes in naval information operations, with its task force located in San Diego and Whidbey Island. Texas Naval Information Operations Command (CTF 1040), Georgia Naval Information Operations Command (CTF 1050), Maryland Naval Information Operations Command (CTF 1060), Colorado Naval Information Operations Command (CTF 1080 And its subordinate headquarters around the world to coordinate the fleet and theater operations. The password action is the responsibility of the CTF 1000 power structure.

The Hutland Naval Information Operations Center (CTF 1090) is based on our research and development brigade and its main mission is to provide battlefield preparation techniques for supporting fleet and joint operations missions.

The successful completion of the mission must be based on efficient recruitment and training of personnel who must have a keen technical insight and the ability to apply personal skills to fleet defensive operations. I have checked almost all of the combatant commands, and I can assure the committee that the Navy has a group of outstanding combatants who are ready to conduct cyberspace operations. Due to the dynamic nature of the cyberspace space, we must continue to advance the development of combat forces. We have taken the initiative to set up new expert officers including cyber engineers and warrants. The construction of the National Naval Academy cyber curriculum will also provide new opportunities for student education, and these students will become the backbone of the naval cyber operations command.

Task

As the fleet cyber command is maturing, we are also trying to learn to use the technology of the brother service. As the support command of the National Cyber ​​Command, we also contacted personnel from other service departments to establish a defense system to improve resilience and enhance the robustness and adaptability of global cyber defense. If a service department discovers, analyzes, or destroys a threat, the information is quickly distributed to other services, minimizing the damage and achieving a joint response.

In fact, we have already started to act. Since the establishment in January, we have been involved in supporting the National Pacific Command and Pacific Fleet exercises with the National Cyber ​​Command. We enhance shared situational awareness and collaborative surveillance security capabilities by examining cyber operations. We also work with industry, academia, and the Federal Fund Research and Development Center to learn to leverage their knowledge and capabilities. The business sector is driving the development of the cyberspace sector, and we must get their capabilities and financial support.

Inter-domain coordination and interaction are extremely important. Safeguarding system security or network defense work must be coordinated with preventing our system from unintentionally interfering with work. From navigation systems to network access, from the EA-18G Growler electronic warfare aircraft to the shipboard SLQ-32 jammers, the Tenth Fleet quickly integrates with other numbering fleets and regional naval department commanders to meet their mission requirements. The collaboration between the fleet staff is one of the key factors behind the achievements of the Tenth Fleet and one of the reasons for our initial success.

The ability of the staff and commanders at Ft. Meade has improved every month. At present, there are 130 staff officers and commanders in our department, which will increase to about 200 in recent years. This growth rate guarantees that the command will not only increase the number of technical experts, but also increase the number of people with operational experience who can get rid of the numerous challenges related to cyber security.

These challenges include: developing and maintaining the concept of viewing the network as a battle space; providing support across the services to maintain our freedom of movement in the cyberspace; developing cyber operations into a functional area and creating a series of detailed concepts .

As our capabilities continue to grow, we will have better support for fleet and joint exercise capabilities, and through their necessary feedback to improve our combat capabilities in hostile or cyberspace environments. This feedback is very important, and it enables us to assess and improve our capabilities to support freedom of action in the face of stronger threats. These threats will not only affect the Navy or the Department of Defense system, but also civilian users, and they may be sources of non-traditional threats. There is no doubt that the people of non-state entities are also looking for the means and capabilities that affect our networks, so as a country, we must be prepared to deal with these asymmetric challenges and threats.

The US Fleet Cyber ​​Command is also the authoritative operational arm of the Navy in electronic warfare and electromagnetic spectrum operations. By working with other services, we are working hard to develop a comprehensive joint electromagnetic spectrum operational plan. All radio frequency users have proven that it is not enough to defend against dynamic targeted network attacks. We must also have a network protection network in full-dimensional space. ability.

Every day, my staff are working hard to go beyond the traditional field and apply their expertise to the cyberspace field. I am very proud of it. This is the environment we create to nurture and use future domain experts. The Ministry of Defence is not comparable to the industry in terms of monetary subsidies, but we are able to provide our staff with a wider range of education and training opportunities and help them gain leadership experience that is not available elsewhere.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

美國艦隊賽博司令部和美國海軍第十艦隊司令。作為海軍特遣司令部的美國艦隊賽博司令部,是海軍二級司令部,隸屬於海軍作戰司令部,主要任務是指導防禦中的賽博作戰,支援作戰部隊實施威懾、擊退侵犯、保證行動自由。我部任務與其他軍種賽博特遣司令部類似,擔負有在網絡、密碼、信號情報、信息作戰、賽博空間、電子戰以及太空等領域實施作戰行動的獨特任務,以支援海上、陸上作戰力量。海軍作戰需要通過融合傳統作戰能力,拓展新型能力,發展跨越網絡、信號情報系統和電子戰系統的能力,從而實現我部在賽博空間作戰能力方面的全面發展。同樣,我們也擔負有組織指揮海軍全球範圍的密碼作戰,集成信息作戰和太空作戰的任務。

歷史

第十艦隊成立於二戰期間,主要在大西洋發展實施反潛戰能力。那時,我們面臨的是作戰能力大大超越一戰時期的敵對威脅,其改變戰局能力十分強大。沒有任何軍艦的第十艦隊,通過情報融合,創新戰術、技術、流程戰勝了德軍潛艇。如今,重建的第十艦隊仍恪守這些作戰理念。我們與信息戰專家,情報專家,密碼和電子戰專家,以及傳統軍事專家一起,指揮作戰行動,確保作戰行動的靈活性,應對日益變化的敵對威脅。艦隊賽博司令部作戰重點是使海軍具備快速應對網絡威脅能力,保持信息優勢。這一行動框架要求我們要完成網絡作戰防禦的任務。

在現代戰爭中取勝,我們必須要具備在全譜電磁空間內的自由行動能力,其防禦範圍已從普通的電磁干擾擴展到高級的網絡入侵和惡意攻擊。艦隊賽博司令部職能就是分析這種威脅,創新戰術、技術、流程,來防護網絡並保證自由行動能力。

結構

海軍作戰具有動態性,海軍網絡也具有時空複雜性。海軍不僅要配置在各大洋,還要在阿富汗、伊拉克等其它地方支援地面作戰,我們目前有超過1萬名海軍官兵參與這些地面作戰。

艦隊賽博司令部是一個全球性的司令部,具備在世界範圍內保持網絡優勢、實施網絡作戰的能力,並確保在全譜電磁空間指揮賽博作戰行動能力的發揮。由於第十艦隊指揮官是作戰級指揮官,我們司令部也是基於典型海軍任務力量結構而建立的。此力量結構能夠給下級特遣大隊分派地域性任務,為特定密碼需求提供支援。這種特遣部隊編成考慮了多變的情報通報,技術和職責,具備了保障艦隊作戰任務的快速反應能力,並且推動了與美國賽博司令部和軍種賽博部門在局部的交流協作。我們一直在致力於發展一種健壯的組織結構,能夠對各種作戰​​行動提供迅速直接的支援。

網絡戰司令部(CTF1010)負責海軍網絡作戰,其下屬單位包括大西洋和太平洋地區性海軍計算機與遠程通信地面主站(NCTAMS),該主站能夠提供網絡引導、維護和岸艦中繼。海軍賽博防禦作戰司令部(CTF 1020)負責網絡防禦,該單位主要負責監測網絡威脅和監控網絡響應。

諾福克的海軍信息作戰司令部(CTF 1030)專門負責海軍信息作戰,其特遣大隊位於聖地亞哥和惠德貝島。德克薩斯的海軍信息作戰司令部(CTF 1040),喬治亞州的海軍信息作戰司令部(CTF 1050),馬里蘭的海軍信息作戰司令部(CTF 1060),科羅拉多的海軍信息作戰司令部(CTF 1080 )及其覆蓋全球的下屬司令部來負責協同艦隊和戰區作戰。密碼行動由CTF 1000力量結構負責。

休特蘭海軍信息作戰中心(CTF 1090)在我們的研究與開發大隊基礎上建立,其主要任務是為支援艦隊和聯合作戰任務提供戰場準備技術。

外部和內部組織結構圖見下方。

任務的圓滿完成必須要以人員的高效徵募和培訓為基礎,這些人員必須具備敏銳的技術洞察力和將個人技能應用於艦隊網絡防禦行動的能力。我檢查過幾乎所有的作戰司令部,我能夠向委員會保證,海軍擁有一批傑出的作戰人員,他們已經做好準備遂行賽博空間作戰行動。由於賽博空間領域的動態性,我們必須持續推進作戰力量的發展,我們主動設置新的專家官員包括賽博工程師和準尉。國家海軍學院賽博課程的建設也將為學員教育提供新的機遇,這些學員將成為海軍賽博作戰指揮的骨幹力量。

任務

隨著艦隊賽博司令部日趨成熟,我們也在試圖學習利用兄弟軍種的相關技術。作為國家賽博司令部的支援司令部,我們還聯繫了其它軍種部門的人員共同建立深度防禦體系,提高應變能力,增強全球賽博防禦的健壯性和適應性。如果某軍種部門發現、分析、摧毀了某種威脅,該信息將會迅速被分發到其它軍種,使侵入破壞程度最小化並實現聯合響應。

實際上我們已經開始行動了,從一月份成立開始,我們就與國家賽博司令部軍種部門一起,一直在參與支援國家太平洋司令部和太平洋艦隊演習。我們通過考察網絡作戰行動,來增強共享態勢感知能力和協同監督安全能力。我們還與工業界、學術界和聯邦基金研究發展中心開展合作,學習利用他們的知識和能力。商業部門推動著賽博領域的發展,我們必須獲得他們的能力和資金支持。

跨領域間的協調與相互作用是極其重要的。保障系統安全或者網絡防禦工作必須要同阻止我方系統無意干擾工作協調開展。從導航系統到網絡訪問,從EA-18G咆哮者電子戰飛機到艦載SLQ-32干擾機,第十艦隊都迅速集成其它編號艦隊及地區海軍部門指揮官,並滿足其任務需求。艦隊參謀間的協作是第十艦隊成就背後的關鍵因素之一,也是我們取得初始成功的原因之一。

在Ft. Meade的參謀和指揮人員的能力素質每個月都有提高。目前我部指揮參謀人員有130名,在近幾年將會增加到200名左右。這個增長速率保證司令部不僅要增加技術專家型人員,還要增加哪些富有作戰經驗的人員,他們能夠從賽博安全相關的大量挑戰中擺脫出來。

這些挑戰包括:發展與保持將網絡視為一個作戰空間的觀念;跨軍種提供支援,保持我方在賽博空間的行動自由;將賽博作戰發展成一個職能領域,並創建一系列詳實的概念。

隨著我們作戰能力的持續發展,我們將具備更好的支援艦隊和聯合演習能力,並通過他們必要的反饋來提高我們在敵對或對抗賽博環境中的作戰能力。這種反饋是非常重要的,它能夠促使我們評估和改進自身能力,從而支持在面對更強大威脅時的行動自由。這些威脅將來不僅僅會影響海軍或者國防部的系統,也會威脅到平民用戶,並且它們可能是一些非傳統威脅來源。毫無疑問,非國家實體的人員也在尋找影響我們網絡的手段和能力,那麼作為一個國家,我們必須做好準備應對這些非對稱的挑戰與威脅。

美國艦隊賽博司令部也是海軍在電子戰和電磁頻譜作戰方面的權威作戰部門。通過與其它軍種協力合作,我們正在努力製定全面的聯合電磁頻譜作戰計劃,所有的無線電頻率用戶都證明,能夠防禦動態定向的網絡攻擊是不夠的,我們還必須具備在全維空間防護網絡行動的能力。

每天,我部人員都在努力超越傳統領域,並將他們的專業知識應用到賽博領域,我為此深感驕傲。這就是我們為培育和使用將來的領域專家所營造的環境。在金錢補助方面國防部是無法同業界進行比較的,但我們能夠為所屬人員提供更為廣泛的教育和培訓機會,並幫助他們獲得其它地方無法取得的領導經驗。

Original referring 2011 url:  http://www.china.com.cn/military/txt/2011-02