Chinese Military Focuses On Information Networks as Emphasis to Winning the Cognitive War

中國軍隊以資訊網為打贏認知戰爭的重點

國語音譯:

In today’s era of integrated development of informatization and intelligence, information networks will play an irreplaceable and important role in cognitive warfare with their advantages of deep reach, wide audience, and strong interactivity. With the blessing of information networks, cognitive warfare will be even more powerful and at ease. A deep understanding of the mechanisms, basic forms, methods and means of information networks’ role in cognitive warfare will help to timely grasp the initiative in cognitive warfare and lay the foundation for victory.

The Mechanism and Law of Information Network Cognitive Warfare

The essence of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks is to provide massive amounts of information through core algorithms, create biased cognitive scenarios, and influence the thinking and cognition of people and intelligent machines. This process integrates the operating rules of information networks and the internal mechanisms of thinking and cognition, has strong predictability, and is the underlying architecture and key point that must be grasped in information network cognitive warfare.

Sticky effects based on path dependence. The highly developed information network in today’s society provides an inseparable platform for people to study, work, live, and entertain, as well as for military construction, operations, and military struggle preparations, forming an interconnected path dependence between them. With information as the core and the Internet as the medium, this platform connects different groups of people, societies, countries, including the military, through invisible stickiness. It not only opens up the entire world into a closely connected global village, but also objectively provides a basis for carrying out cognitive operations. , influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, and provide a bridge and link to win the cognitive war. In 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton delivered an “Internet Freedom” speech, advocating the “Internet Freedom” strategy in an attempt to use the channel formed by people’s high dependence on the Internet to influence the thinking and cognition of people in rival countries, especially the younger generation, and spread American values. .

Interactive influence based on information exchange. Education believes that interactive communication can effectively overcome the cognitive barriers formed by one-way information transmission, reach consensus, form empathy, and strengthen empathy through information exchange, emotional integration, and mutual promotion of needs. A big difference between information networks and traditional communication media is that they provide a carrier that can interact and communicate on a large scale, at a fast pace, and with high efficiency. In this carrier, the information-dominant party can repeatedly confirm the influence, adjust methods and strategies, and intervene in the thinking and cognition of the other party through the interactive mechanism provided by the carrier based on the other party’s ideological fluctuations, emotional changes, attitude feedback, etc. For a long time, the United States has maintained a “engagement + containment” strategy toward China. One of the important considerations is that this kind of contact can effectively overcome the communication barriers and information gaps formed by simple blockade and confrontation, enhance the interaction between the two governments and the people, and thus find opportunities to open gaps and influence our ideas and ideologies. Although this strategy occurs in the traditional field, it is inherently consistent with the interactive influence mechanism of information networks based on information exchange.

Induced influence based on preset scenarios. The concealment, virtuality and permeability of information networks enable their controllers to create highly deceptive, tempting and inflammatory information scenarios through technical and strategic means such as water army flooding, information filtering and “fishing in troubled waters”, so that the opponent is deeply trapped in it without knowing it, but develops towards the preset process and results. This directional manipulation of information networks can subtly and efficiently influence, infect and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition, so that they are unconsciously led by the rhythm, and achieve a much better combat effect than confrontation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US media spread false information such as the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq through the Internet and other platforms, accusing the Saddam regime of collusion with al-Qaeda, corruption, and unprovoked killing of the Iraqi people. At the same time, they tried every means to cover up the truth, filter out the anti-war voices of their own people, and strive to create an atmosphere that the Saddam regime is evil and hateful and the whole United States is united against the enemy.

The basic form of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks

The laws of war and the winning mechanism determine the basic shape of war. The regular mechanism of information network’s role in cognitive warfare inherently determines the external form of this kind of war. The most basic and representative ones include information confusion warfare, thinking misleading warfare and will-destroying warfare.

Information confusion war. It is to infuse the network with a large amount of complex information that combines reality and reality, and is both real and illusory, causing the enemy’s information network capacity to be overloaded, dysfunctional, and out of order, or causing specific audiences to become “deaf, blind, and insensible,” causing cognitive congestion and cognitive impairment. and impaired decision-making and judgment. This form of war is often used in the early stages of combat and on opaque battlefields. The party with information superiority can cause the enemy to fall into a state of confusion and panic, resulting in loss of perception, loss of thinking, and confusion. According to Bloomberg, the Space Force, the newly established sixth military branch of the United States, plans to purchase 48 jamming systems by 2027, aiming to interfere with satellite signals of major powers “in the event of conflict.” The military forces of many countries generally feel that the information they obtain now is not too little but too much. The huge amount of information coming from all directions has caused huge pressure on situational awareness and analysis and judgment.

War of misleading thinking. It is to form a tendentious information scene by instilling specific information containing the intention of the information network controller, misleading, deceiving and influencing the thinking and ideas of specific countries, armies and people, causing them to deviate from the correct development track and move in a direction that is beneficial to oneself and harmful to the enemy. The direction deviation is the highest state and common practice of cognitive attack. This kind of misdirection is premised on strong external pressure, based on specious strategies, and uses mixed information as a weapon. It targets the opponent’s thinking characteristics and weak links to implement clearly oriented deception, causing the opponent to lose its way in tension and panic. Unknowingly fell into the “trap”. In recent years, while implementing the strategy of great power competition, some countries have used online trolls to fabricate false information, create false information, and spread true rumors to stir up trouble around our country and instigate some countries that have had grievances with our country in history and friction in reality. The purpose of provoking quarrels and provoking troubles is to induce us to divert our attention, weaken the investment of resources and strength in the main strategic directions, deviate from the track of rejuvenation of a strong country, and seek to reap the benefits of the fishermen.

Will-destroying war. Futurist Alfred Toffler said that whoever controls the human mind controls the entire world. War is ultimately a confrontation between people. People’s psychological activities greatly affect their mental state, which in turn affects their will to fight. Will-destroying war is different from traditional warfare that indirectly affects people’s will through material destruction. It directly affects the psychological activities, mental state and thinking decisions of key figures, affecting military morale, fighting will and combat operations. With the development of science and technology and social progress, the intervention in people’s will has evolved from the traditional strategy-based intervention to the “technology + strategy” stage. More than ten years ago, scientists developed a “sound wave cluster” weapon that emits extremely narrow sound wave “sound columns” from hundreds of meters away through an electromagnetic network, interfering with the enemy’s judgment and even causing strong-willed soldiers to become insane. In recent years, studies have shown that artificial speech synthesis technology based on brain wave signals can extract signals from the brain and synthesize speech that humans can directly understand.

Information network plays a major role in cognitive warfare

“Technology + strategy” constitutes the basic means of modern cognitive warfare. As a product of the development of modern science and technology, the information network’s role in cognitive warfare is mainly reflected in “technology + strategy”. This provides a basic entry point for us to understand and grasp the methods and scientific paths of the role of information networks in cognitive warfare, so as to win the war.

Big data shaping. As the core component of information networks, data is not only the carrier of information, but also the “new oil” that drives the value of information networks, and is the basic ammunition for cognitive warfare. By constructing complex information scenarios for my own use through massive data, it can confuse the opponent’s thinking, mislead and deceive the opponent’s thinking, or destroy belief and will, which constitutes the basic logic of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks. In this logical architecture, data is undoubtedly the most basic resource and the core element. A few years ago, authoritative departments calculated that the world produces about 2.5 exabytes (EB) of data every day, of which only 20% is structured data that can be directly utilized, and the remaining 80% needs to be analyzed, screened, and screened. These geometrically growing data resources provide inexhaustible “data ammunition” for shaping data information scenarios and implementing cognitive warfare.

Intelligent push. In the information network era, intelligent push has become a convenient channel for people to absorb external information, gain thinking recognition, emotional resonance, and influence others’ thinking cognition. Using advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence to collect, organize, and analyze people’s thinking inertia and behavioral preference data, forming anthropomorphic customized perception push, can produce an “echo wall” of social cognitive convergence and an information cocoon that shackles people. At the same time, it is also conducive to empathizing with others, understanding the opponent’s thinking trends and possible actions, and taking targeted countermeasures. In life, we all have the experience of a large amount of similar information being pushed in after shopping online or searching for a certain type of information once or several times. This intelligent push method is applied to cognitive operations, which can easily enable the information leader to use information network data to make forward-looking analysis and judgment on the decisions and actions that the command and decision-making level of the combat target may make, and induce them to make the decision actions they want to see or make corresponding countermeasures in advance.

Emotionally imbued. Freud said that we are not pure intelligence, pure soul, but a collection of impulses. In the information network space, conceptual cognition that can be widely and rapidly spread is often not a calm, rational and objective thinking analysis, but mostly impulsive and irrational emotional mobilization. This is determined by the fast pace of information dissemination and news release “pre-emptively”. The cognitive need to respond quickly to this information, in turn, leads to “fast thinking” conditioned reflexes, impulsive, and emotional reactions, transforming seemingly isolated social cases into strongly oppressive, inciting psychological suggestions and Behavior-driven, explosive behavior prompts irrational decision-making. A diplomatic cable disclosed by WikiLeaks in June 2009 described an extravagant banquet for the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and described the regime as a “mafia” of corruption and tyranny, which deepened the resentment of the country’s citizens. Emotions thus became an important driver of the “Jasmine Revolution” that overthrew Ben Ali’s regime.

原始繁體中文:

在資訊化智慧化融合發展的當今時代,資訊網絡以其觸角深、受眾廣、互動性強等優勢,在認知戰中將發揮無可取代的重要作用。有了資訊網絡的加持,認知戰將如虎添翼、如魚得水。深刻掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的機制法則、基本形態、方法手段等,有助於及時掌控認知戰主動權,為贏得勝利奠定基礎。

資訊網路作用認知戰的機理規律

資訊網路作用認知戰的本質在於透過核心演算法,提供大量訊息,營造傾向性認知場景,影響人和智慧機器的思考認知。這個過程融合資訊網路運作規律和思考認知內在機理,具有很強的可預測性,是資訊網路認知戰必須掌握的底層架構和關鍵之點。

基於路徑依賴的粘性影響。當今社會高度發展的資訊網絡,提供了一個人們學習、工作、生活、娛樂,軍隊建設、作戰和軍事鬥爭準備須臾離不開的平台,在彼此之間形成一個互聯互通的路徑依賴。這個平台以資訊為核子、網路為媒,透過無形的黏性把不同人群、社會、國家包括軍隊連結在一起,既將整個世界打通成一個緊密聯繫的地球村,客觀上也為開展認知作戰、影響對手思維認知、制勝認知戰爭提供了橋樑和紐帶。 2009年美國國務卿希拉蕊曾發表「網路自由」演說,鼓吹「網路自由」策略,企圖利用人們對網路的高度依賴形成的作用通道,影響對手國民眾特別是青年世代的思維認知,傳播美式價值觀。

基於資訊交換的互動影響。教育學認為,互動交流能有效克服訊息單向傳遞所形成的認知屏障,在彼此訊息交換、情感融通、需求相促中達成共識、形成同理心、強化同理。資訊網路與傳統溝通溝通媒介的一個很大不同,在於提供了一個能大範圍、快節奏、高效率互動交流的載體。在這載體中,資訊強勢一方能透過載體提供的互動機制,依據另一方的思想波動、情緒變化、態度回饋等,反覆確認影響,調整方法策略,介入另一方的思考認知。長期以來,美國對華保持「接觸+遏制」策略,一個很重要的考慮就在於這種接觸能有效克服單純封鎖對抗形成的溝通壁壘和資訊鴻溝,增強兩國政府和民眾之間的互動,從而尋找機會打開缺口,影響我們的思想觀念和意識形態。這項策略雖然發生在傳統領域,但與資訊網路基於資訊交換的互動影響機理內在一致。

基於預設場景的誘導影響。資訊網路的隱密性、虛擬性、滲透性,使其掌控者能透過水軍灌水、資訊過濾、「渾水摸魚」等技術和謀略手段,營造極具欺騙性、誘惑性、煽動性的資訊場景,使對手深陷其中而不自知,反而朝著預設的過程和結果發展。這種對資訊網路的指向性操控,能潛移默化地高效影響、感染和塑造對手的思維認知,使之不知不覺被帶節奏,收到遠比對抗硬槓好得多的作戰效果。伊拉克戰爭前夕,美國媒體透過網路等平台大肆散佈伊拉克存在大規模殺傷性武器等虛假訊息,指責薩達姆政權與蓋達組織相互勾連、腐敗成風,還無端殘害伊拉克人民,同時又想方設法掩蓋事實真相,過濾本國人民的反戰聲音,極力營造薩達姆政權邪惡可恨、全美上下同仇敵愾的氛圍。

資訊網路作用認知戰的基本形態

戰爭規律和致勝機制決定戰爭的基本形態。資訊網路作用認知戰的規律機制內在規定這種戰爭的外在呈現形態。其中最基本、最具代表性的包括資訊迷茫、思維誤導戰和意志毀傷戰。

資訊迷茫戰。就是用海量虛實結合、亦真亦幻的複雜信息灌注網絡,使敵對方信息網絡容量過載、功能失常、運轉失序,或導致特定受眾對象“失聰失明失感”、認知能力擁堵、思維認知和決策判斷受阻。這戰爭形態常用於作戰初期和不透明戰場,擁有資訊優勢的一方能使敵對方陷入茫然不知所措的恐慌狀態,從而感知失靈、思維失據、自亂陣腳。彭博社稱,美國成立不久的第六大軍種——太空軍,計劃2027年前採購48套幹擾系統,旨在“與大國發生衝突情況下”,幹擾迷茫其衛星信號。不少國家軍隊普遍感到,現在獲取的資訊不是太少了而是太多了,來自四面八方的巨量資訊大量聚集,給態勢感知和分析判斷造成巨大壓力。

思維誤導戰。就是透過灌輸包含資訊網路掌控方意圖指向的特定訊息,形成傾向性訊息場景,誤導欺騙和影響特定國家、軍隊和人群思維理念,使之偏離正確發展軌道,朝著於己有利、於敵有損的方向偏移,是認知攻擊的最高境界和慣常做法。這種誤導以強大的外部壓力為前提,以似是而非的策略為基礎,以摻雜水分的信息為武器,針對對手思維特點和薄弱環節,實施導向鮮明的誘騙,使對手在緊張慌亂中迷失方向,不知不覺落入「圈套」。這些年來,一些國家在實施大國競爭戰略的同時,透過網路水軍虛構假情況、製造假資訊、散佈真謠言,在我國週邊煽風點火,鼓動一些在歷史上與我國有積怨、現實中有摩擦的國家尋覓滋事,目的就是要誘導我們轉移注意力,削弱在主要戰略方向上的資源力量投入,偏離強國復興的軌道,謀取漁翁之利。

意志毀傷戰。未來學家托夫勒說,誰控制了人的心理,誰就控制了整個世界。戰爭說到底是人與人的對抗,人的心理活動很大程度影響人的精神狀態,進而影響作戰意志。意志毀傷戰與傳統作戰透過物質摧毀間接影響人的意志不同,它透過直接影響關鍵人物的心理活動、精神狀態和思考決策,影響軍心士氣、戰鬥意志和作戰行動。隨著科技發展和社會進步,對人的意志的干預,已經由傳統以謀略為主演進到“技術+謀略”階段。早在十多年前就有科學家研製出“聲波集束”武器,通過電磁網絡從數百米外發射極為狹窄的聲波“音柱”,幹擾敵人判斷甚至使意志堅強的軍人精神錯亂。近年來有研究表明,基於腦電波訊號的人工語音合成技術可提取大腦中的訊號,合成人類能夠直接理解的語音。

資訊網路作用認知戰的主要手段

「技術+謀略」構成現代認知戰的基本手段。資訊網絡作為現代科技發展的產物,其對認知戰的作用手段也主要體現在「技術+謀略」上。這為我們認識和掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的方式方法、科學路徑,從而製勝戰爭提供了基本切入點。

大數據構塑。數據作為資訊網路的核心構件,不僅是資訊的載體,而且是資訊網路價值驅動的“新石油”,更是作用認知戰的基本彈藥。透過大量資料構塑為我所用的複雜資訊場景,或對對手進行思維認知迷茫,或給予思維誤導欺騙,或進行信念意志摧毀,構成資訊網路作用認知戰的基本邏輯。在這邏輯架構中,資料無疑是最基礎的資源、最核心的元素。遠在幾年前,權威部門就統計,全球每天生產約2.5艾字節(EB)的數據,其中僅20%是可以直接利用的結構化數據,其餘80%則需要進行分析、甄別、篩選。這些幾何級數成長湧現的資料資源,為構塑資料資訊場景、實施認知戰提供了取之不盡用之不竭的「資料彈藥」。

智能化推送。資訊網路時代,智慧化推播成為人們攝取外在訊息,獲得思維認同、情感共鳴、影響他人思維認知的便捷管道。運用人工智慧等先進技術收集、整理、分析人的思維慣性、行為偏好數據,形成擬人化客製化感知推送,能夠產生社會認知趨同的「回音壁」和桎梏人的信息繭房,同時也有利於推己及人、了解對手的思維趨向和可能行動,有針對性地採取應對措施。生活中,我們都有一次或幾次網上購物、搜索某類信息後,大量類同信息推送進來的經歷,這種智能化推送手段應用到認知作戰中,很容易使信息主導方通過信息網絡數據,對作戰對象指揮決策層可能作出的決策、採取的行動等予以前瞻分析研判,誘導其作出希望看到的決策行動或預先作出相應的應對措施。

情緒浸染。佛洛伊德說,我們不是純粹的智慧、純粹的靈魂,而是衝動的集合。在資訊網路空間,能夠得到廣泛且快速傳播的觀念認知,往往不是冷靜理性客觀的思考分析,多是衝動非理性的情緒情緒動員。這是由資訊傳播、新聞發布「先發制人」的快節奏決定的。對這些資訊做出快速反應的認知需求,反過來又導致「快速思維」條件反射性、衝動性、情緒化反應,將看似孤立的社會個案轉化為具有強烈壓迫性、煽動性的心理暗示和行為驅動,暴發性催生非理性決策行動。 2009年6月維基解密披露的一份外交電文中,描繪了突尼斯本·阿里政權家族宴會的奢靡場景,並煞有介事地將該政權形容為腐敗暴政的“黑手黨”,這加深了該國國民怨恨情緒,因而成為引燃推翻本·阿里政權的「茉莉花革命」重要推手。

中國國防部資源:

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/18/content_303888.htm

Chinese Cognitive Warfare: Penetrating Quasi-cognitive Domains and Affects on Rules of Multi-domain Operations

中國認知戰:準認知域的滲透及對多域作戰規則的影響

繁體中文國語:

From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of land, sea, air, and space; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all of which are related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain on the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion and other levels of both the enemy and ourselves, which will be rapid, sudden, and unexpected. It profoundly affects the overall situation of the war, and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, mind, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemies destroyed, the temporary gains and losses of one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their indicator significance in evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be considered from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions caused by them. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategic situation, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first of all because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of the captives to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations all convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact is also significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for operations such as fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations, etc., different levels of imagination and creative thinking, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee during the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming active kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. To realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain impact in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to impact multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

原始中國軍事繁體普通話:

從冷兵器時代“弓馬騎射、刀兵相接”式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到信息化智能化時代涵蓋物理、信息、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有一定基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機理。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的制高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵

現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、制海、制空、制天權;在信息域阻斷敵人、聯通自己,爭奪制網、制信息權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策干擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

籌劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的復雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互聯通、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的“蝴蝶風暴”。籌劃實施物理域信息域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精准控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的總體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層面去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體聯動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。信息化智能化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的“不可算”“不可控”快速向相當程度上的“可算”“可控”發展。大數據、智能算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確制導炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為通過作戰行動點穴式精准打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精准畫像、智能分發、社交媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬現實等智能化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智能技術的交叉融合發展,使籌劃實施“X+認知攻防”、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷高效。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰籌劃和實施路徑的創新性設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考量對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立信道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考量對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我信息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報信息搜集的重點,要重點考量掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特征、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞“對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度”等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、采用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃和細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的信息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求實現效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網絡攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想象能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮員公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報數據、信道帶寬、取證信息、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、實時、體系、精准調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層次的理念革命,需要加強各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體聯動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度和協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、信息域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮員能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮員需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和信息制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水平。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突出錘煉指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的升華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究和戰法創新,以理論積淀打牢思想根基。

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Chinese Military Analysis of the Basics of Cognitive Domain Operations Warfare

中國軍事對認知域作戰基礎的分析

中國軍網 國防部網

現代英語音譯:

As a new form of combat, cognitive domain operations have become another new area of ​​confrontation after physical confrontation, firepower confrontation, and information confrontation. Different from operations in the physical domain and information domain, the operational goals of cognitive domain operations are thinking, concepts, etc., which have inherent requirements that are obviously different from other forms of operations.

Taking value offense and defense as the central task. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards that people use to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive factors and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of value is a prerequisite for winning the cognitive war. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often take advantage of their cyberspace advantages to use technical means and cultural penetration to forcibly export values. The interaction between virtual space and real space gradually erodes values, and the combination of co-optation and corrosion distorts values ​​to realize the thinking and understanding of personnel from hostile countries. Penetration and erosion of value orientation, etc. To seize the initiative in cognitive warfare, we must thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuits, get close to the opponent’s cultural language, and identify the opponent’s political beliefs and interest demands, so that the effectiveness of cognitive operations can directly reach the opponent’s belief base and soul anchorage. At the same time, we must scientifically interpret and disseminate the connotation and essence of our own excellent values, and use our excellent values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization to guide its transformation.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and understanding of the form of war, especially the central issues, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with “war of attrition” which focuses on annihilating the enemy’s main force and “maneuver warfare” which focuses on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain operations use the human brain as the main combat space and focus on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight. , using human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as a breakthrough point, and relying mainly on soft killing methods to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increasing internal strife and doubts in decision-making, thereby achieving “unprecedented” “Fight and win” purpose. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded its combat field to the sixth level, the “human domain” to compete for brain control and weaponize brain science to control the target’s beliefs, ways of thinking, spiritual will, and stance. , behavioral tendencies and other cognitive factors to launch offensive and defensive actions. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive scientific research results, the United States is trying to achieve the goal of psychological control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize intellectual power. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intellectual power will become a new type of battlefield control power that is growing rapidly and has greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligent superiority is the dominant factor for victory, intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force, and seizing “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights of war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have the intellectual characteristics of some people, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. Targeting the cognitive loop, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, forcing the enemy to use wrong information, delaying cognitive speed, inducing cognitive patterns, and blocking cognitive output can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making and undermine the morale of his military. Morale, to achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if cognitive advantages are lost, even if there are information advantages and energy advantages, the overall combat effectiveness will be significantly reduced due to human-machine coordination imbalance and autonomous decision-making failure.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important approach. Cognitive domain operations are essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation mainly manifests itself in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win public competition in the cognitive field. The war of public opinion focuses on changing ideas and competing for people’s hearts, and pays more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of continuously developing social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade restrictions of opponents and reach directly into the target group. In recent years, around the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech and other fields, the status of public opinion offense and defense has become increasingly prominent, attracting widespread attention. Public opinion wars can portray a positive image of one’s own side, while demonizing target countries and others to gain international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, manipulated by “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, weaved absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field. , which has brought severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perception and recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat objects. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it can use tendentious information to build efficient flexible cognitive scenarios and make tendentious intervention, thereby unknowingly affecting and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the integration of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. Externally, it can realize mind control, that is, brain control, and internally, it can achieve enhanced autonomy, that is, brain strengthening. It can realize direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in multi-modal emotion recognition, activation, protection and other related technical means based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional correlations are established to identify Human emotions and intentions provide new means for carrying out cognitive control warfare. Therefore, new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a way to combine suprathreshold infusion and subliminal penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.

繁體中文:

中國軍網 國防部網

認知域作戰作為一種新的作戰形式,目前已成為繼體力對抗、火力對抗、資訊對抗後,又一個嶄新的對抗領域。區別於物理域、資訊域等作戰,認知域作戰的作戰目標為思維、理念等,有明顯區別於其他作戰形式的內在需求。

以價值攻防為中心任務。一般認為,價值觀念是人用來區分好壞、分辨是非及重要性的原則與標準,是諸認知要素中最具穩定性的內容,是人的動機與行為模式的主宰。因此,搶佔價值制高點是贏得認知戰的先決條件。外軍歷來重視價值傳播,經常藉助其網路空間優勢,採取技術手段與文化滲透強行輸出價值觀、虛擬空間與現實空間互動漸進侵蝕價值觀、拉攏與腐蝕結合扭曲價值觀,實現對敵對國家人員思維認知、價值取向等的滲透侵蝕。搶佔認知戰主導權,必須研透對手價值追求,貼近對手文化語系,判明對手的政治信念、利益訴求,使認知作戰效能直抵對手信念根基、靈魂錨地。同時要科學闡釋和傳播己方優秀價值觀念的內涵與精髓,以優秀價值觀念與人類優秀文明成果引導其轉變。

以大腦認知為主要戰場。對戰爭形態特別重心問題的理解與認識,是戰法設計的重要內容。與以殲敵主力為重心的「消耗戰」、以破敵體系為重心的「機動戰」相比,認知域作戰以人腦為主要作戰空間,以打擊、削弱、瓦解敵戰爭意志為重心,以恐懼、焦慮、猜疑等人類心理弱點為突破口,重點依托軟殺傷手段,在敵方內部製造不安全、不確定、不信任的氛圍,加大其內鬥內耗和決策疑慮,從而實現「不戰而勝」目的。近年來,隨著新興技術的發展,北約將作戰領域拓展到第六層次即「人類領域」爭奪制腦權,讓腦科學武器化,對目標對象的信念信念、思考方式、精神意志、立場態度、行為傾向等認知要素展開攻防行動。據報道,借助腦與認知科學研究成果,美國正企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵方的心理控制目標。

以奪控智權為關鍵目標。隨著軍事智慧化的快速推進,智權將成為一種快速成長、對作戰全局有更大戰略影響力的新型戰場控制權。在智慧化戰爭中,智慧優勢是製勝的主導要素,智慧化武器系統成為主要作戰力量,奪取「制智權」將成為戰爭制權新的製高點。智慧化武器系統依賴先進的人工智慧系統,將具有部分人的智力特徵,這使得智權爭奪範圍將擴展到部分武器裝備。以認知迴路為目標,依托認知裝備限敵獲取有效資訊、迫敵使用錯誤訊息、延遲認知速度、誘導認知模式、阻斷認知輸出,能夠打亂敵指揮決策、瓦解其軍心士氣,達到「攻心為上」的效果。智慧化戰爭中,如果失去了認知優勢,即使具有資訊優勢和能量優勢,也會因為人機協同失調、自主決策失靈,而導致整體作戰效能的大幅降低。

以輿論攻防為重要途徑。認知域作戰本質上講是爭取人心、贏得人心的鬥爭。認知對抗中的輿論攻防,主要表現為控制、操縱、利用各種輿論工具,壓制對手、贏得大眾的認知領域較量。輿論戰重在改變觀念、爭奪人心,更重視精神和意志的征服。借助不斷發展的社群網路、融媒體技術,輿論戰得以衝破對手封鎖限制,直抵目標群體內部。近年來,圍繞著意識形態、網路空間、高新科技等領域,輿論攻防的地位愈發凸顯,引發普遍關注。輿論戰可以刻畫己方正面形象,同時妖魔化目標國等,爭取國際道義優勢和人民支持。從「顏色革命」到局部衝突,西方國家在「美式話術」操弄下,編造荒謬的劇本,編織荒誕的敘事、荒謬的結論,全時全場壓迫式緊逼,在認知領域大肆侵略,為諸多國家政治安全帶來了嚴峻挑戰。

以新質技術為有力手段。認知科學是新興研究門類,是探究人腦或心智工作機制的前沿性尖端學科,正朝著計算智能、感知智能、認知智能方向發展。人工智慧技術,在感知辨識、機器學習等方面具有獨特優勢,對作戰對象的思維認知具有天然穿透性和深刻影響力。人工智慧用於認知戰,可透過無孔不入且高度自動化的精準推送,運用傾向性訊息,建構起高效的柔性認知場景,作出傾向性幹預,進而不知不覺影響和塑造對手的思維認知。腦機介面技術,實現了認知維度的人機結合,對外可以實現意念控制即腦控,對內實現自主性增強即強腦,可實現用意識和思維直接操控複雜武器系統。目前基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動、防護等相關技術手段已有重大突破,透過採集人的表情、動作、語意和語調、腦電、各項生理指標等,建立情緒關聯,以識別人的情緒和意圖,為開展認知控制戰提供了新手段。因此,新質認知技術手段與傳統認知技術手段形成閾上灌輸與閾下滲透相結合的途徑,將進一步增強認知影響的隱藏性和有效性。

中國軍網國防部網參考: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/08/content_328888.htm

People’s Republic of China’s Ten Major Military Principles and Dialectical Opposition Intent for Adversaries

中華人民共和國十大軍事原則與辯證對敵意圖

現代英語音譯:

July 28, 2022 08:14 Source: People’s Liberation Army Daily

People’s Liberation Army Daily – China Military Network

Editor’s note

The Ten Military Principles are our Party’s scientific summary of the practical experience of the People’s Army in combat during the revolutionary war years. They are a concentrated reflection of Comrade Mao Zedong’s profound military thought and the commanding art of using troops like a god. They embody the basic principles and tactics of the People’s War strategy and tactics. The methodological principle of seeking truth from facts is full of materialism and dialectics, and has vitality that spans time and space. It is the historical responsibility of our generation of soldiers to continue to inherit the winning magic weapon of the people’s army. Of course, all military principles are moving forward. Today, when intelligent warfare has gradually become a new form of warfare, this article focuses on the ten major military principles, summarizes and sorts out the dialectical implications and enlightenment of the times in nine aspects, and provides readers with reference.

Strategic contempt and tactical attention

Operational judgment is the prerequisite for planning operations. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that we must despise the enemy strategically and attach great importance to the enemy tactically. Strategic contempt and tactical attention are a complete idea. The first is to strategically despise the enemy, dare to fight against them, and dare to win. At the same time, we must pay attention to the enemy tactically, adopt a cautious attitude, and pay attention to the art of struggle. If you cannot see the weak side of the enemy and cannot despise the enemy strategically, then paying attention to the enemy tactically may become a fear of the enemy; if you ignore the strong side of the enemy and ignore the enemy tactically, despising the enemy strategically will become underestimating the enemy. Recognizing the dual nature of struggle and preventing one tendency from overshadowing the other is the key to defeating the enemy. The victory in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea was a victory in which our army despised the enemy strategically and paid attention to the enemy tactically. It was a victory in which our army had the courage to fight and was good at fighting.

In today’s era, a century of changes and a century’s epidemic are superimposed on each other, and the strategic game between countries has become more intense. We must always remain clear-headed and determined, defy all dangers and difficulties, organically combine strategic contempt for the enemy with tactical attention to the enemy, and deal with the enemy. Be fully prepared for all possible situations, be neither afraid of nor underestimate the enemy, dare to fight and be good at winning.

Careful preparation and cautious initial battle

Combat preparation is the basis for winning the battle. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we should never fight an unprepared battle or a battle that we are not sure of; he called for caution in the first battle, believing that the victory or defeat in the first battle would have a great impact on the overall situation of the war, and it would be especially important for the army at a disadvantage or in a defensive position. Long-term war practice tells us that the more complex and difficult the situation, the more detailed the preparation for combat is to analyze the strength and situation of friends and foes, and to put ourselves in their shoes and analyze what the opponent will think and do. In particular, we should strive to be prepared for every battle, anticipate the most difficult and dangerous possible situations, and strive to be sure of victory under the contrasting conditions between the enemy and ourselves. The Battle of Yijiangshan Island was our army’s first three-service joint operation. The planning of the battle lasted for several years, and the preparation for the battle lasted for more than 2 months. It is an example of careful preparation and cautious initial battle.

In today’s era, China, which is at a critical stage of development from big to strong, faces complex and diverse challenges. This requires us to strengthen the concept of combat readiness, improve the ability to win, be prepared for war at any time, and truly carry out construction, development, and preparation for war in accordance with the standards of war. We must anticipate the most difficult and complex situations and treat such situations as The starting point for all combat preparations is to make sufficient and detailed preparations and formulate a comprehensive plan for integrated implementation, so as to achieve the goal of winning if we do not fight and win if we fight.

Destroy enemies and capture places

The purpose of combat is the core of implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that the main goal be to annihilate the enemy’s effective forces and not to defend or capture cities and places. He vividly pointed out that for a person, it is better to cut off one of his ten fingers than to hurt him; for the enemy, it is better to annihilate one of his divisions than to defeat his ten divisions. When the enemy is large and we are small, the enemy is strong and we are weak, it is generally impossible to achieve the two goals of annihilating the enemy and seizing the place at the same time. Only after annihilating the enemy’s effective strength can the place be finally defended or captured. Therefore, annihilating the enemy is a means to seize territory, and seizing territory is the result of annihilating the enemy. Therefore, annihilating the enemy should be the first priority, and consolidating the territory second. During the Yan’an Defense War, the Party Central Committee resolutely withdrew from Yan’an, and while annihilating the effective strength of the Kuomintang army on a large scale, it realized the strategic concept of “save people and lose land, and save both people and land”.

In today’s era, system breaking and precise victory are becoming key words in modern combat theory. We must change the traditional operational thinking of annihilating the enemy and seizing territory, and regard the pursuit of deterrence effects and depriving the enemy of combat power as important operational options. We must step up efforts to forge capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield, so as to destroy the enemy’s key support elements and deprive them of their combat power. The objective material basis for its continued operations and the operational purpose of disintegrating its will to carry out war.

Pay attention to the overall situation and grasp the key points

Combat guidance is the criterion for controlling combat. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that the overall situation and the local part of a war are the unity of opposites. The key to combat guidance is to unify focusing on the overall situation and grasping the key points, “seizing the strategic key point to deploy the campaign, and seizing the operational key point to deploy the battle.” Only in this way can the war situation be effectively promoted in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. In particular, a weak army must follow the objective laws of the development of things, start from the local area, and continue to accumulate the quantity of local victories to cause a qualitative leap and achieve overall changes. In the long-term revolutionary war, our army was good at firmly grasping strategic pivots to promote the development of the war situation, and firmly grasping the main contradictions to promote the transformation of contradictions. Only then did our army turn from passive to active, and from disadvantage to advantage. In the Liaoshen Campaign, our army made comprehensive considerations and decided to “attack Jinzhou first”, which effectively promoted the battle process and won the victory.

In today’s era, wars are becoming more and more hybrid, security threats are complex, diverse and multi-dimensional, and they are characterized by multi-domain linkage. Changes in war practice require us to consider the overall situation and the overall situation in operational guidance, focus on the actual situation on the battlefield, coordinate the struggle in the main strategic direction and other strategic directions, coordinate the military struggle in the traditional security field and the new security field, and coordinate the political, The economic, diplomatic, military, cultural, public opinion and other fronts realize the mutual superposition and accumulation of combat effects, forming an overall emergence of anti-hybrid warfare capabilities and ensuring the strategic goal of complete victory.

Fight weak enemies first and strong enemies later

The focus of operations is the key to implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we must first attack dispersed and isolated enemies, and then attack concentrated and powerful enemies. In the practice of long-term revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. We must first annihilate the enemies that are isolated, dispersed, weakly defended, and garrisoned in small and medium-sized cities. Then, the enemies that are concentrated, strong, well-garrisoned, and garrisoned in large cities will become weaker. , which creates conditions for the next attack and annihilation. If we attack the strong enemy first, not only will it be difficult to deal with the strong enemy quickly, but the weak enemy will also easily become a strong enemy, which will make us passive. Of course, sometimes when you are really sure, you can also wait for an opportunity to attack a strong enemy first to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. In the Battle of Menglianggu, Su Yu made the first attack and completely annihilated the reorganized 74th Division, the “first of the five main forces” of the Kuomintang army. This defeated the Kuomintang army’s key attack on the Shandong Liberated Areas and reversed the strategic situation on the East China battlefield.

In today’s era, war is a confrontation between systems. The fundamental goal of defeating the system is to attack the enemy’s center of gravity and key points. Combat operations must be carried out closely around the enemy’s center of gravity, and the selected targets must be the “keys”, “vital points” and “joints” in the enemy’s entire war system. These enemy targets may be “strong enemies” or “weak enemies” in the traditional sense. However, once they are identified as centers of gravity, all efforts should be concentrated on destroying these centers of gravity in order to paralyze the enemy’s entire combat system and quickly complete the operation. Purpose.

Concentrate and disperse forces

Combat posture is the posture in which troops are deployed. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that operations must focus on eliminating the enemy’s effective strength and concentrate superior forces to annihilate the enemy one by one. The essence of concentrating superior forces is to use forces intensively to obtain local advantages and initiative against the enemy based on the overall needs of the operation and to ensure a decisive victory in the decisive battle. In traditional wars, the concentration of troops is mainly reflected in the concentration of personnel and weapons, relying on quantitative advantages to make up for qualitative deficiencies. In battles, our army’s consistent thinking is to concentrate its absolutely superior forces, adopt roundabout encirclement tactics, and annihilate enemies one by one. The opposite of concentrated force is decentralization or military egalitarianism. Military egalitarianism may result in having neither an overall strength advantage nor a local strength advantage, making it impossible to control the enemy and to be controlled by the enemy. During the Red Army’s fifth counter-campaign against “encirclement and suppression”, the “six-way division of troops” and “all-front resistance” were manifestations of military egalitarianism.

In today’s era, information power, mobility, strike power, etc. have all increased unprecedentedly. Concentrating superior forces requires concentrating and using one’s own advantages in more diverse fields, and more adopting the approach of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but combined strength”. Dynamically combine the various combat forces distributed on the multi-dimensional battlefield, rely on the quality accumulation, efficiency integration, and real-time optimization of multiple combat elements to suddenly change the contrast with the opponent’s combat power, forming a hammer effect to defeat the enemy.

Weapons and equipment and fighting spirit

Combat elements are the components of combat strength. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that weapons and equipment are important factors in the victory or defeat of a war, but they are not the decisive factor. The decisive factor is people, not things. He asked the troops to carry forward the style of fighting bravely, not afraid of sacrifice, not afraid of fatigue and continuous fighting. Obviously, war is not only a confrontation of hard power such as weapons and equipment between the opposing parties, but also a competition of soft power such as will and quality. As an important component of combat effectiveness, fighting spirit plays a key role in the outcome of war. Material causes and effects are but the hilt of the knife; spiritual causes and effects are the sharp edge. Why in history has our army been able to defeat powerful enemies one after another and create miracles one after another even if it does not have an advantage in weapons and equipment? One of the most fundamental reasons is that we have the courage to “show swords when facing the enemy, be brave and tenacious” and have the fighting spirit of “not being afraid of hardship and not being afraid of death.”

In today’s era, war forms and combat styles are evolving at an accelerated pace, science and technology have become the core combat effectiveness, and weapons and equipment are becoming more and more important to winning wars. The contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to military construction and combat effectiveness development must be continuously increased. At the same time, we must forge the spiritual edge to defeat the enemy while inheriting the glorious tradition and fine style, and combine advanced science and technology with tenacious will, so that the majority of commanders and soldiers have a high degree of revolutionary consciousness and spirit of self-sacrifice, and master advanced Weapons, equipment and complex military technology form a powerful combat force to achieve victory in every attack and victory.

You hit yours and I hit mine

Combat methods are the carrier of strategy and tactics. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that people should give full play to their conscious initiative and seize the initiative in war. Starting from the overall situation of the revolutionary war, he successively proposed a series of flexible strategies and tactics, such as “Fight if you can win, leave if you can’t”, “You fight yours, I’ll fight mine”, “Mobile warfare, positional warfare, guerrilla warfare”. Cooperate with each other” and so on. This set of strategies and tactics that seek advantages and avoid disadvantages and are flexible and mobile reveals the laws and methods of war guidance for defeating enemies with superior equipment with inferior equipment, and raises flexible strategies and tactics to a new level. During the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, in response to the U.S. military’s strong land and sea support and strong land firepower and mobility, our military emphasized small-scale annihilation wars, which enriched the implementation of annihilation wars. It relied on tunnels to carry out small-scale counterattacks and found a new way to fight positional warfare. .

In today’s era, wars will be carried out in multiple domains simultaneously, and combat operations such as networked and electronic operations, air and space attacks, and unmanned operations are prominent. Proactive, flexible and changeable strategies and tactics are still a weapon to gain the initiative and defeat the enemy. It is necessary to follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, step up the forging of new quality and new domain combat capability means, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive warfare”, “cross-domain warfare” and “intelligent warfare” and other tactics to temper dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. Wait for the way of fighting, do not follow the enemy’s routines, focus on the enemy’s weaknesses, use our army’s strengths and strengths to control the battle, and win the victory.

Continuous combat and rest supplement

Combat support is the cornerstone of sustaining operations. Comrade Mao Zedong always believed that the deepest roots of the power of war exist among the people, and that soldiers and people are the foundation of victory. During the long-term revolutionary war, our army’s manpower and material resources supplementation mainly emphasized obtaining them from the enemy and relying on the support of the base areas. At the same time, we used the gaps between campaigns to reorganize and train the troops, improve military and political quality, and enhance the combat effectiveness of the troops. These are all necessary conditions for carrying out another battle. However, in order to prevent the enemy from taking a breather and to inflict continuous blows to the enemy, sometimes even without supplementary rest and recuperation, it is necessary to develop a style of not being afraid of sacrifice or fatigue and achieve continuous operations. Just after the Liaoshen Campaign, the Northeast Field Army changed its plan to use three months to half a year to rest and reorganize its troops. It took a shortcut and quickly sent troops into the pass to participate in the Pingjin Campaign, which changed the battlefield situation in North China in one fell swoop.

In today’s era, in a sense, fighting a war is fighting for security. With the profound changes in the international military competition landscape, national interests and military missions continue to expand, and the time and space span of combat support has expanded dramatically. In particular, the intensity, difficulty, and With the unprecedented increase in speed, we must continue to deepen national defense mobilization, build an integrated national strategic system and capabilities, and form strong war capabilities and war potential that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory.

現代繁體中文:

2022年07月28日08:14    來源:解放軍報

原標題:十大軍事原則的辯証意蘊及時代啟示 – 解放軍報 – 中國軍網

編者按

十大軍事原則是革命戰爭年代我們黨對人民軍隊作戰實踐經驗的科學總結,是毛澤東同志博大精深的軍事思想、用兵如神的指揮藝術的集中反映,它所體現的人民戰爭戰略戰術的基本原理和實事求是的方法論原則,充滿了唯物論、洋溢著辯証法,具有跨越時空的生命力。賡續傳承好人民軍隊的制勝法寶,是我們這代軍人的歷史責任。當然,一切軍事原則都是向前發展的,在智能化戰爭逐漸成為新戰爭形態的今天,本文聚焦十大軍事原則,總結梳理了9個方面辯証意蘊及時代啟示,供讀者參考借鑒。

戰略藐視與戰術重視

作戰判斷是籌劃作戰的前提。毛澤東同志指出,要在戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人。戰略藐視與戰術重視是一個完整的思想。首先是要戰略上藐視敵人,敢於同它們斗爭,敢於奪取勝利。同時,在戰術上重視敵人,要採取謹慎態度,講究斗爭藝術。如果看不到敵人脆弱的一面,不能在戰略上藐視敵人,那麼在戰術上重視就可能成了畏敵如虎﹔如果忽視敵人強大的一面,離開戰術上重視敵人,戰略上藐視便成了輕敵。認清斗爭的兩重性,防止一種傾向掩蓋另一種傾向,是克敵制勝的關鍵。抗美援朝戰爭勝利就是我軍戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人的勝利,就是敢於斗爭和善於斗爭的勝利。

當今時代,百年變局與世紀疫情相互疊加,國家間戰略博弈更加激烈,我們要時刻保持清醒和堅定,不畏一切險阻,不怕一切困難,把戰略上藐視敵人同戰術上重視敵人有機結合起來,對各種可能發生的情況做好充分的准備,既不畏敵、亦不輕敵,敢於斗爭、善於勝利。

周密備戰與慎重初戰

作戰准備是贏得作戰的基礎。毛澤東同志強調,不打無准備之仗,不打無把握之仗﹔要求慎重初戰,認為初戰的勝敗對戰爭的全局影響極大,尤其對劣勢或處於防御地位的軍隊更加重要。長期的戰爭實踐告訴我們,越是復雜困難的形勢下,作戰准備越是要細致地分析敵我友的力量、敵我友的情況,並換位思考分析對手會怎麼想、怎麼做。特別是每戰都應力求有准備,必須預計到最困難最危險的各種可能情況,力求在敵我條件對比下有勝利的把握。一江山島戰役,是我軍首次三軍聯合作戰,戰役籌劃長達幾年,戰役准備長達2個多月,是周密備戰與慎重初戰的范例。

當今時代,處在由大向強發展關鍵階段的中國,面臨的挑戰復雜多樣。這要求我們必須強化戰備觀念,提高打贏本領,做好隨時打仗的准備,真正按照打仗的標准搞建設、謀發展、抓備戰﹔必須預計到最困難最復雜的情況,並把這種情況當作一切作戰准備的出發點,做充分細致准備,制訂一體實施的周密計劃,實現不打則已、打則必勝。

殲滅敵人與奪取地方

作戰目的是實施作戰的中心。毛澤東同志要求,以殲滅敵人有生力量為主要目標,不以保守或奪取城市和地方為主要目標。他形象指出,對於人,傷其十指不如斷其一指﹔對於敵,擊潰其十個師不如殲滅其一個師。在敵大我小、敵強我弱條件下,殲滅敵人和奪取地方這兩個目標,一般不可能同時達到。隻有在殲滅敵人有生力量之后,才能最后保守或奪取地方。因此,殲滅敵人是奪取地方的手段,奪取地方是殲滅敵人的結果,所以要殲敵為主、略地次之。延安保衛戰,黨中央毅然撤出延安,在大規模殲滅國民黨軍有生力量的同時實現了“存人失地,人地皆存”的戰略構想。

當今時代,體系破擊、精打制勝等正成為現代作戰理論的關鍵詞。我們必須轉變傳統殲敵奪地的作戰思維,把追求震懾效應、剝奪敵方戰力作為作戰重要選項,加緊鍛造奪控綜合制權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,達成摧毀敵方作戰關鍵支持要素、剝奪其持續作戰的客觀物質基礎、瓦解其遂行戰爭意志的作戰目的。

關照全局與抓住重點

作戰指導是駕馭作戰的准繩。毛澤東同志指出,戰爭的全局與局部是對立的統一物。作戰指導的關鍵就是把著眼全局與抓住樞紐統一起來,“抓住戰略樞紐去部署戰役,抓住戰役樞紐去部署戰斗”,如此方能切實推動戰局向著有利於己的方向發展。特別是弱小之軍必須遵循事物發展的客觀規律,從局部入手,不斷通過局部勝利的量的積累,以引起質的飛躍,達到全局的變化。在長期的革命戰爭中,我軍善於緊緊抓住戰略樞紐推動戰局發展,緊緊抓住主要矛盾推動矛盾轉化,才使我軍由被動轉為主動、劣勢轉為優勢。遼沈戰役,我軍通盤考量決定“首打錦州”,有力地推動了戰役進程並贏得了勝利。

當今時代,戰爭越來越呈現出混合化態勢,安全威脅復雜多樣多維,並呈現多域聯動的特點。戰爭實踐變化要求我們,作戰指導要通盤考慮、全局考量,從戰場實際出發抓樞紐,統籌好主要戰略方向和其他戰略方向斗爭,統籌好傳統安全領域與新型安全領域的軍事斗爭,統籌好政治、經濟、外交、軍事、文化、輿論等各條戰線,實現作戰效果相互疊加、累積,形成反混合戰爭能力的整體涌現,確保實現全勝的戰略目標。

先打弱敵與后打強敵

作戰重心是實施作戰的要害。毛澤東同志強調,要先打分散和孤立之敵,后打集中和強大之敵。在長期革命戰爭實踐中,我軍在數量、規模和裝備上常常處於劣勢,首先殲滅孤立分散、守備薄弱和據守中小城市之敵,則集中強大、守備堅固和據守大城市之敵即變弱了,這就為下一步攻殲創造了條件。若先打強敵,則不僅強敵難以迅速解決,弱敵也易變成強敵,反而使我方陷入被動。當然,有時在確有把握的情況下,也可伺機先打強敵,以迅速削弱敵方戰略優勢。孟良崮戰役,粟裕首打且全殲國民黨軍“五大主力之首”的整編第74師,挫敗了國民黨軍對山東解放區的重點進攻,扭轉了華東戰場戰略態勢。

當今時代,戰爭是體系與體系的對抗,體系破擊的根本是要打敵重心、要害。作戰行動必須緊緊圍繞打敵重心展開,所選目標必須是敵整個戰爭系統中的“關鍵”“要害”與“關節”。這些敵之目標在傳統意義上可能是“強敵”,也可能是“弱敵”,然而一旦被確定為打擊重心,就應集中全力摧毀這些重心,以毀癱敵整個作戰體系,快速達成作戰目的。

集中兵力與分散兵力

作戰布勢是兵力部署的態勢。毛澤東同志要求,作戰必須著眼於消滅敵人有生力量,集中優勢兵力各個殲滅敵人。集中優勢兵力的實質是根據作戰全局的需要,集中使用兵力以獲得對敵之局部優勢和主動,確保決戰決勝。傳統戰爭中,集中兵力主要體現為人員、武器的規模集中,依靠數量上的優勢來彌補質量上的不足。在戰役戰斗上,集中絕對優勢兵力,採取迂回包圍戰術,各個殲滅敵人,是我軍作戰的一貫思想。與集中兵力對立的是分散兵力亦或軍事平均主義。軍事平均主義可能導致既沒有全局力量優勢,更沒有局部力量優勢,不能制敵反被敵所制。紅軍第五次反“圍剿”時“六路分兵”“全線抵御”就是軍事平均主義的表現。

當今時代,信息力、機動力、打擊力等都空前增強,集中優勢兵力要求在更加多元領域中集中和運用己方優勢,更多採取“貌散而神聚,形散而力合”的方式,將分布在多維戰場的諸作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,依靠多種戰斗要素的質量累聚、效能融合、即時聚優,突然改變與對方戰斗力量的對比,形成重錘效應,克敵制勝。

武器裝備與戰斗精神

作戰要素是作戰實力的構成。毛澤東同志指出,武器裝備是戰爭勝負的重要因素,但不是決定性因素,決定性因素是人而不是物。他要求部隊要發揚勇敢戰斗、不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞和連續作戰的作風。顯然,打仗既是敵對雙方武器裝備等硬實力的對抗,也是意志品質等軟實力的比拼。戰斗精神作為戰斗力的重要組成部分,對戰爭勝負起著關鍵性作用。物質的原因和結果不過是刀柄,精神的原因和結果才是鋒利的刀刃。為什麼我軍歷史上即使在武器裝備上不佔優勢,卻總能戰勝一個又一個強敵,創造一個又一個奇跡?其中一個最根本的原因,就是我們具有“逢敵亮劍、英勇頑強”的血性膽氣,具有“一不怕苦、二不怕死”的戰斗精神。

當今時代,戰爭形態和作戰樣式加速演變,科技成為核心戰斗力,武器裝備對打贏戰爭越來越重要,必須不斷提高科技創新對軍隊建設和戰斗力發展的貢獻率。與此同時,我們要在傳承光榮傳統和優良作風中鍛造克敵制勝的精神利刃,把先進科技與頑強意志很好地結合起來,使廣大指戰員既具備高度的革命覺悟和自我犧牲精神,又掌握先進的武器裝備和復雜的軍事技術,從而形成強大的戰斗力量,實現攻必克、戰必勝。

你打你的與我打我的

作戰方法是戰略戰術的承載。毛澤東同志強調,要發揮人的自覺能動性,掌握戰爭的主動權。從革命戰爭全局出發,他先后提出過一系列靈活機動的戰略戰術,比如“打得贏就打,打不贏就走”“你打你的,我打我的”“運動戰、陣地戰、游擊戰相互配合”等等。這一整套趨利避害、靈活機動的戰略戰術,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。抗美援朝戰爭中,針對美軍有海空支援以及陸上火力、機動力強的特點,我軍強調打小殲滅戰,豐富了殲滅戰的實現形式﹔依托坑道實施小規模反擊,找到了打陣地戰的新辦法。

當今時代,戰爭將在多域同時展開,網電作戰、空天襲擊、無人作戰等作戰行動地位凸顯,積極主動靈活多變的戰略戰術仍然是贏得主動、克敵制勝的利器。要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,加緊鍛造新質新域的作戰能力手段,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰”“智能戰”等戰法,錘煉降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在“以能擊不能”中掌控作戰制權,進而贏得勝利。

持續作戰與休整補充

作戰保障是維持作戰的基石。毛澤東同志始終認為,戰爭偉力之最深厚的根源存在於民眾之中,兵民是勝利之本。長期革命戰爭中,我軍人力物力的補充主要強調取之於敵和依靠根據地的支持,同時利用戰役間隙整頓訓練部隊,提高軍政素質,增強部隊戰斗力,這些都是實行再戰的必要條件。但是,為了不讓敵人喘息,給敵連續打擊,有時即使在未得到補充休整的情況下,亦須發揚不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞的作風,實現連續作戰。遼沈戰役剛結束,東北野戰軍改變利用三個月至半年時間休整部隊的計劃,取捷徑迅即揮師入關參加平津戰役,一舉改變了華北戰場態勢。

當今時代,從某種意義上講,打仗就是打保障。隨著國際軍事競爭格局深刻變化,國家利益和軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,作戰保障時空跨度急劇擴大,特別是戰爭作戰進程快、毀傷能力強、力量控制精、技術含量高,保障的強度、難度和速度空前增加,必須不斷深化國防動員,構建一體化國家戰略體系和能力,形成既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力。

中國共產黨原文參考:http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/0728/c443712-32487888.html

Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict

中國軍隊在自信認知對抗衝突中取得成功

現代英語音譯:

Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.

現代國語軍語:

適應情勢發展革新制勝理念

軍事實踐一再證明,戰爭的勝負不單單是兵力兵器的對抗,更是思維方式、作戰理念的較量。要在認知領域佔據優勢主動地位,當前特別關鍵的是確立與資訊時代相適應的新型指導理念。

集能聚優。集能聚優是對傳統集中優勢兵力的創新發展,不僅是打贏具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的重要遵循,也是奪佔認知對抗綜合優勢的關鍵一招。近幾年,資訊網路、叢集控制等技術日益成熟,不斷推動作戰朝向廣域分佈、即時聚優方向轉變。與之相適應,認知域下更要強調在具有決定意義的節點樞紐,綜合施策、跨域集能、奪控優勢,實現快速控局、速決制勝。

數據主導。數據作為一種新型戰爭資源,已成為現代戰爭指揮決策的依據、系統運作的血液。充分發揮資料資源優勢,佔據認知域作戰主動,是搶佔戰略制高點的重要一環。要進一步強化數據意識、數據思維,努力提升數據決策、數據引導的素養,真正讓數據成為認知致勝的「助推劑」。

智能協同。人工智慧技術的不斷發展,基於網路資訊體系的自主感知、決策、評估等能力的不斷增強,正推動著人機動態分享資訊、智慧規劃分配任務、密切協同精準出擊日趨成熟。認知域下,智慧協同將成為重要抓手,資訊互融、人機協作、優算決策、即時互助將成為贏得戰場先機、佔據主動、謀求勝勢的必要手段。

遵循內在規律緊扣價值攻防

認知域作戰並非獨立存在,而是透過物理域行動、資訊域流轉進入感知空間,在認知攻防中影響對手價值判斷、改變對手認知體系,進而引發對手認知「雪崩」效應,置對手於「兵敗如山倒」境地。基於此目的,必須深入研究分析對手的政治、經濟、軍事、文化等要素,發掘影響對手作戰認知的核心價值,進而綜合採取謀略、技術等手段,深度影響塑造對手思維認知、價值判斷。

必須看到,認知域作戰效能的釋放往往具有較強的持久性,只有在深謀遠慮、長期佈局的基礎上,透過採取一系列不間斷、常態化柔性手段,在對手內部漸進式構築共同價值觀,才能形成影響,進而實現認知域作戰功效。在資訊時代,西方已開發國家往往藉由網路傳播技術潛移默化地影響、塑造對手的思維認知、價值體系,進而動搖對手思想文化根基,建構認知域作戰輿論基礎。近年來世界各地發生的多起“顏色革命”,背後很大程度上正是西方國家長期滲透操縱輿論、認知域作戰效能逐漸釋放顯現的結果。

毋庸置疑,發生在認知域的對抗最終還是作用於人的大腦,影響人的情緒、動機、判斷和行動,甚至控制人的思考。正因如此,有人認為,作為認知的引擎,「大腦」有可能成為未來戰爭的主目標、主戰場。值得關注的是,現代認知域作戰的一個顯著特徵,就是科技的應用趨頻、作用突顯。尤其是隨著資訊科技、人工智慧等深度介入,認知域作戰將更重視科技綜合實力的比拼。從這個角度說,只有在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、佔據主動,才能贏得認知優勢。

著眼最大效能堅持軟硬結合

認知空間具有強烈的伸縮性,但就本質而言仍是人類活動及社會關係的映射,與現實世界緊密關聯、相互作用。缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的強力支撐,認知域作戰終將難以產生真正效果。從這個角度看,認知域作戰不是孤立的行動,只有釐清認知域作戰軟力量與物理域硬實力綜合運用的內在規律,將認知攻防融入聯合作戰鏈條,實現不同領域作戰力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能發揮認知域作戰最大效能。

在資訊時代,認知對抗的重心絕非單純追求徹底消滅敵人,而是更強調透過精準的時間、精準的資訊和精準的行動,精確釋放作戰能量,進而剝奪或降低敵方決策能力等。一方面要注重充分借助非對稱手段,透過陸、海、空、天等有形作戰域的高效快捷行動,破壞敵情報、指揮、通信、打擊、保障鏈路,擊垮敵戰爭潛力基礎,牢牢把握戰場主動權。另一方面要強調未雨綢繆、事先佈置虛擬空間對抗,始終關注精神意志對抗,積極尋求形成強大心理壓迫、瓦解對手抵抗意志的方法途徑。為了實現兩者效果疊加,應高度關注物理域的信火打擊與認知域的綜合毀癱聯動配合,密切跟踪基於網絡信息體系,精確打擊敵方決策、行動以及精神、信念的效果,積極主動摸索以攻心奪志為根本目的的戰法打法。

瞄準體系運行癱瘓戰鬥意志

無論時代如何發展,科技如何進步,人始終是戰爭勝負的決定性因素和支撐作戰體系運作的核心力量。在這當中,戰鬥意志可謂是支撐作戰的精神核心。認知域作戰正是要廣泛採取各種措施,尤其是藉助情報戰、心理戰、輿論戰、網路戰等殺傷手段,對敵方戰鬥意志這一精神內核進行打擊、削弱和剝奪,使其在心理、意誌上屈服,最終導致其作戰體係自行瓦解。

資訊時代的認知域作戰,具有大範圍、全領域的特點,剝奪敵方戰鬥意志強調在多個領域、多個維度、多個時段施加干涉、影響、控制,透過整體合力達成對敵認知優勢,實現己方作戰企圖。如精準掌握對手認知基礎、思考模式、文化習慣等,針對性採取營造態勢、改變氛圍、刺激心理、滲透侵蝕等行動,以瓦解對手認知體系整體性統一性,強力削弱對手決心意志。再如廣泛採取各種認知手段,積極借助物理域資訊域攻勢行動,強力摧毀對手關鍵節點,幹擾對手認知判斷,遲滯對手有效反應,以摧毀剝奪其兵心士氣。也可以根據對手傳統文化、理性邏輯以及性格短板等,採取針對性策略,有步驟、成系統地進行軍事、經濟、文化、外交、民心各方面各層級行動,在改變原有認知中形成有效控制,以消解軟化其戰鬥意志。隨著技術的深度發展,未來以控腦武器為代表的認知裝備可能具備直接幹擾或控制敵方大腦認知的能力,不僅能造成其意識混亂,甚至會誘發其做出違背戰爭常理的行動。

注重主動適應優化戰鬥設計

儘管認知域作戰在現代戰爭中的地位作用日益突顯,但不能就此認為認知域作戰無所不能,甚至取代傳統作戰行動。認知域作戰綜合效能的發揮,是一項複雜的系統工程。為了佔據認知主動、適應資訊化戰爭,必須從戰略全局出發,在實踐中努力優化作戰設計。

謀技融合。在認知域作戰中,謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容。儘管技術因素在現代認知域作戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。可以說,認知域作戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相互促進、緊密融合的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的加入而更加豐富,科技因謀略的運用而更加強勁。要掌握認知主動權、打好認知主動仗,不只要善用謀略,也要強化技術應用,將施謀與用技有機結合,努力強化認知攻防綜合效能。

攻防結合。認知域作戰是進攻與防禦的對立統一體,是在認知空間展開影響與反影響、滲透與逆滲透、破壞與反破壞、控制與反控制的認知攻防活動。要認清強弱優劣,抓住對手認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,以癱瘓其心理防線,全面佔據認知主動。同時,要把準攻防轉換節點,加強全域認知防護。要固守己方認知,旗幟鮮明宣揚己方價值理念、戰爭立場,統一意志、凝聚兵心、激發士氣。加強重要認知領域的防護隱密措施,降低己方政治、經濟、社會、資訊等敏感領域的可感知性,強化相關保密防護手段,實際築牢認知防護安全屏障。

中國軍事原文來源:

中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-01/10/content_331888.htm

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy

中國軍隊與智慧戰爭戰略制勝機制的確定

現代英語音譯:

Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.

國語音譯:

2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。

对抗方式从“体系对抗”向“算法博弈”转变,算法优势主导战争优势

算法是求解问题的策略机制。实际上,“算法”是一系列解决问题的清晰指令,是按照一定规则解决某一类问题的明确步骤。未来战争掌握算法优势的一方,能快速准确预测战场态势,创新最优作战方法,实现“未战而先胜”的战争目的。

算法是主导智能化战争的关键。第一,算法优势主导认知优势。大数据通过高性能、高效率的算法进行处理后,将海量数据快速转换为有用的情报。因此,占有算法优势的一方,能驱散因数据得不到及时处理而产生的“战场迷雾”,使得认知更为深刻。第二,算法优势主导速度优势。量子算法相比于经典算法,实现了指数级的加速效果,再加上量子计算机从2003年的1位量子比特,到2015年1000位量子比特,计算效率比经典计算机快了一亿倍,使人工智能实现了质的飞跃。第三,算法优势主导决策优势。算法以其高速、精确的计算,代替人的“冥思苦想”和反复探索,从而加速知识迭代。掌握超强算法能够针对敌情变化快速提出灵活多样的作战方案与应对之策,不断打乱敌既定企图和部署。

算法是战争效能跃升的核心。一是战争效率更高。在算法的支撑下,人工智能的反应速度是人类的成百上千倍。2016年,美国研发的“阿尔法”智能软件,反应速度比人类快250倍,在模拟空战中操控三代机击败了有人驾驶的四代机。二是战争耐力更强。人工智能不受生理机能限制,可连续执行重复性、机械性任务。2016年9月,一架F-16战机在训练中达到8倍重力过载,导致飞行员失去知觉,然而,在飞机撞击地面前,机载“自动防撞系统”自动将飞机拉起,避免了悲剧发生。三是战争结局更好。在海量数据和超算能力支持下,人工智能的判断和预测结果更加准确。美军寻找和捕杀本·拉登行动,有人和无人装备的组合运用就是一个成功的战例。

作战要素从“信息主导”向“机器主战”转变,机器主战重塑作战流程

未来智能科技将渗透到战争全要素全过程。物联网、智联网与脑联网成为战争的基础,物理域、信息域、认知域、社会域四域深度融合,使战场全息透明,战争控制有人,战场交锋无人。智能化武器装备将重塑“从传感器到射手”的作战流程。

慧眼“侦”。“侦”,即智能化情报侦察。能将陆、海、空、天、电等多维传感器,进行虚拟化协同组网、自组织动态调度、多源情报自动挖掘、订单式按需使用,最大程度上拨开信息不足或信息冗余带来的“战争迷雾”,开启透视智能化战争的“慧眼”。

回路“控”。“控”,即智能化指挥控制。围绕决策优势这一核心,运用“人在回路”的人机协同技术,按照机器的自主权限,采取“人在回路中”“人在回路上”“人在回路外”三种决策与控制方式,以高敌一筹的决策质量和行动速度形成全面优势。

智能“打”。“打”,即智能化攻防作战。依托体系结构和算法优势,实时调集全域多维、有人无人作战平台,快速耦合作战力量,按需构建作战体系,聚焦目标,自主实施“分布式”“蜂群式”协同作战,交战完毕迅速解耦待战,做到兵无常势、聚散随机。2015年底,俄罗斯投入6台履带式无人战车、4台轮式无人战车和1架无人机,支援叙利亚政府军强攻伊斯兰极端势力据点,取得了世界上第一场以无人战车为主的攻坚战胜利。战斗中约70名极端势力武装分子被击毙,而叙利亚政府军只有4人受伤。

决策方式从“人脑决策”向“智能决策”转变,智能决策优化作战行动

随着智能辅助决策技术和“云端大脑”“数字参谋”“虚拟仓储”的出现,战争决策由单纯的人脑决策发展为人机混合决策、云脑智能决策和神经网络决策。

人机混合决策。人与机器的合理分工与交互协同是探索解决问题的最优方案。人脑的优势在于创造性、灵活性、主动性;机器的优势在于速度快、精度高、抗疲劳。高层决策等艺术性强的工作由人脑来处理,大数据计算由机器完成。人机交互是让机器能“听”懂人类语言、“看”懂人类动作与表情、“理解”人的情绪和意图,把计算过程和结果用人容易理解的方式呈现出来。

云脑智能决策。未来智能化战争,将有一个“大脑”的隐喻中心,分布式的作战单元将通过云大脑链接。这个云大脑既是物理信息、生理信息和心理信息中心,也是军事指控中心。云脑决策以智能“网、云、端”体系为依托。“网”,是集智能化战场感知、决策和武器控制系统于一体的智能型作战基础网络。“云”,依“网”而建,以智能型资源服务层为主体,既是融合各类作战资源的“资源池”,也是为作战行动提供智能化服务的“智能云”。由于多中心的耦合,即使遭受信息轰炸也能快速组网和决策。“端”,是指作战资源端,作战流程上的分立智能和联网智能,既能自主决策,又能为战争体系提供分布式智能资源,使新的战争体系涌现出群体智能。

神经网络决策。2018年7月,俄罗斯研制的人工神经网络全自动软件,能做到发现即摧毁。美军研发的智能化决策工具,意在缩短决策周期,提高决策效率。神经网络的应用曾局限于战术级计算,难以对战略级宏观复杂态势做出定性分析和决策。“阿尔法狗”通过模拟人脑神经网络工作机制在围棋领域取得突破。未来深度神经网络的超强自我进化和战略决策能力,将实现“人在回路外”的作战循环。

作战样式从“断链破体”向“极限作战”转变,极限作战颠覆传统作战手段

极限作战突破了传统战争的界限,颠覆了传统的作战样式,使战争效能剧增,出现了真正意义上的全天候、全时空、全方位、全领域的智能化战争。

突破人类生理和思维极限。一是作战空间和领域极度拓展。未来智能化作战是立体、全维、全领域作战,战争空间将从传统的空间领域,向极地、深海、太空等极限拓展,特别是向认知域、信息域渗透并贯穿其他领域,作战领域更加模糊。二是作战进程极度加快。无人自主作战大幅压缩“观察—判断—决策—行动”周期,从信息化战争的“瞬时摧毁”发展为智能化战争的“即时摧毁”。智能化战争的胜利,是通过预警时间提前、决策时间缩短,作战行动向前延伸,达到先手布局、先发制人的效果。三是作战行动极度灵活。智能化战争中,人工智能能够提出极为丰富的作战方案,加之无人作战平台,能够在不同功能角色之间快速切换,作战行动更为大胆冒险,战术战法更为出乎意料。即使作战要素中的某一个丧失功能,“去中心化”的功能也会确保群体功能不受影响。

颠覆传统作战样式。一是侵入式独狼作战。即单套无人系统独立作战。二是有人无人协同体系破击战。即基于智能无人系统,通过有无人装备混合作战,快速达成作战目的。三是无人系统编队独立作战。多套无人系统构成作战单元,可执行多目标攻击等复杂任务。四是母舰蜂群集群作战。以母舰为运输载体和指挥中心,形成有人无人混合集群作战样式。

具备“核威力”的作战效能。智能化战争把智能机器人的特性和潜能发挥到极致,导致作战效能接近极限。一是目标小、难发现。比如微型化隐身机器人,雷达和声呐很难发现。美国在“蜻蜓”中嵌入“光极”芯片的混合无人机,更小更轻更隐秘,续航时间高达几个月。二是对抗难,代价高。比如甲虫大小的微型无人机只要扫描到人脸景象,经数据分析和确定即可直接撞向目标头部,携带的弹药足以穿透大脑。三是造价低、破坏大。未来运用智能化武器极限作战具有核武器的威力,特别是极大体量的智能化武器装备,极低成本的机器人自动生产,极度灵活的机器人集群作战,可能会超越核武器爆炸威力的极大化。

中國政府原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0115/c1011-3053888.html

Social Cognition: Important Starting Point for Chinese Military Cognitive Domain Operations

社會認知:中國軍事認知領域作戰的重要起點

現代英語音譯:

Social cognition refers to how individuals understand and think about others, and form inferences about others or things based on social information in the environment. Social cognition is the basis of individual behavior and an important starting point for cognitive domain operations. As a member of society, people are naturally affected by social cognition. Analyzing the social path to the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for strengthening the construction of cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda

Cognitive attack and defense is not achieved overnight and needs to be carried out continuously over a long period of time. Operations in the cognitive domain often begin before the war. They comprehensively use political, economic, diplomatic and other means to affect various social fields of the target country. They actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda and form mainstream social opinions that are beneficial to one’s own side. They play a comprehensive role in wartime. The wonders of checks and balances.

Focus on overall mobilization. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. Implementing cognitive domain operations requires effective public opinion preparation in the early stage, and on this basis, a unified and self-interested social cognitive situation can be formed. Psychologist Lasswell once said: “There is no doubt that the government’s guidance of public opinion is an inevitable development trend of large-scale modern war.” Before launching a war, we must aim to win the advantage of public opinion and carry out cognitive planning in advance. Strive for the broadest domestic and international support. The focus of cognitive domain operations that precede war is to create a mainstream social opinion through news and public opinion, and conduct comprehensive social mobilization to prepare for, launch, and win the war, so as to effectively guide the public to support the government. decision-making and seeking political support from the international community.

Strengthen strategic layout. Cognitive domain operations during war preparations should focus on advance strategic planning and public opinion shaping. According to the needs of the country and the government, we should actively publicize our country’s advantages and justice, and deeply expose and criticize the enemy’s sinister intentions and weak nature, so as to This will form a mainstream social opinion that victory is inevitable in a righteous war and those who dare to fight and win will create a good cognitive situation in order to deter opponents and win support. Through effective public opinion building, we can declare our determination and will to win, demonstrate adequate war preparations and strong military capabilities, influence, intervene and shape the cognitive psychology of the target, effectively stimulate our own confidence and morale, and dispel the enemy’s motivation. The will to resist, maximize the strategic initiative and popular support, firmly grasp the leadership of the war and the right to speak morally, so that the hostile party can realize the unbearable consequences, and then achieve the purpose of early deterrence and flexible control of the situation.

Pay close attention to legal disputes. War has always emphasized the importance of division and success. Mastering the power to define and interpret war in cognitive narratives, forming a consistent mainstream social opinion, condensing the value identity of the country or nation, and mobilizing a wide range of forces and resources are important goals for early cognitive domain operations. Providing a good narrative representation of justice and creating a social understanding that the master is famous, that justice is in our hands, and that the law is in our hands is a “sharp sword” that is unsheathed before the war, and a “heavy weapon” that is launched before the war. To this end, cognitive domain operations need to proactively create topics, try to characterize the war, justify the action, and do a good job in the narrative of “legitimate defense”, the definition of “forced legality”, and the interpretation of “last resort”, so as to defend the right to justice in war. become the mainstream opinion of society.

Using social media platforms to intervene in social cognition

The emergence of mobile, intelligent, and social information dissemination patterns has made network cognitive attack and defense an important means of cognitive domain operations. It has effectively expanded the accessibility and arrival rate of cognitive domain operations. Judging from the cognitive attack and defense in recent local wars, multi-level, multi-theme, and universal social media cognitive attack and defense can quickly mobilize public opinion and influence the direction of the war. It can not only form public opinion hot spots according to battlefield needs, It can trigger cognitive radical changes and can bypass the enemy’s public opinion blockade to implement cognitive penetration.

Dominate the direction of cognition with the help of information flow. Compared with traditional media, social media platforms are more interactive and have wider coverage. The decentralized “difference narrative” and the fragmented “personal narrative” of netizens are more likely to influence public opinion and interfere with social perception to a large extent. Know and judge. The display of the power of identity in the network society has a very important impact on changing the direction of public opinion, which also makes information flow an important variable in cognitive domain operations. In modern cognitive domain operations, the characteristics of “information weaponization” and “public opinion weaponization” are more prominent. Through data manipulation, current limiting, blocking and deletion, robot forwarding, etc., the information flow of social media can be effectively controlled and the formation of information can be formed in a short time. Public opinion hot spots and social consensus focus promote the formation of an “information waterfall” in which the public is swayed by mainstream public opinion, thereby solidifying their cognition.

Cognitive influence through public figures. To a certain extent, the more developed information dissemination is, the more attention is a scarce resource, and the more information that arouses the audience’s awareness needs to be carefully crafted and explored. In cognitive domain operations, how to attract the attention of the target audience with specific information has become the first step. The initiators of cognitive domain operations can put carefully packaged information on social media platforms through the voices of public figures such as Internet celebrities and top influencers, so as to attract the attention of target audiences and increase the visibility and reach of self-interested information. Rate. Information disseminated by public figures can suddenly emerge from the complex public opinion field, become a reference for people’s thinking, and become the mainstream opinion in inter-group interactions and circle-group interactions, thereby expanding the volume of one’s own propaganda, condemning and suppressing the other party’s propaganda, and guiding Shape the public to form qualitative cognition.

Use emerging technologies to empower cognitive offense and defense. Technology has changed the style of combat and greatly expanded the means of cognitive confrontation. For example, the emergence of emerging technologies such as algorithm push, intelligent voice, deep forgery, false reality, and augmented reality has enriched the selection of strategies and tools for cognitive domain operations to fully penetrate into society. In future cognitive domain operations, it will be possible to use intelligent monitoring systems to enhance cognitive situational awareness, use big data technology to accurately draw the cognitive picture of key groups, and use algorithm technology to continuously influence the cognitive thinking of target objects. The use of artificial intelligence technology to carry out saturated and precise cognitive attacks on specific audiences, the use of deep forgery technology to interfere with the enemy’s decision-making cognition, and the use of brain-computer interface, neuroscience and other technologies to directly affect military personnel will become a dominant force in influencing social cognition and It is an important means to determine the direction of public opinion and facilitate the achievement of combat objectives more directly and efficiently.

Keeping up with the progress of military operations affects social cognition

War practice shows that military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition. In modern warfare, military operations and cognitive attack and defense go hand in hand and work together. The two influence and support each other. The powerful shaping of the battlefield situation can greatly change social cognition, and the smooth deployment of military operations can promote radical changes in social cognition. , making it develop in the preset direction.

Collaborate with military deterrence operations to undermine public sentiment. Creating a favorable situation through military deterrence operations is an important part of war preparation and an effective means to improve the effectiveness of war. In cognitive domain operations, we must adhere to the synchronization of cognitive offensive and defensive operations with military operations to understand tasks, judge situations, synchronize research and planning, decision-making and deployment, and synchronize plans, arrangements, organization and implementation. We can skillfully use the deterrent effect of military operations to amplify the effects of cognitive attacks. To achieve the purpose of disintegrating the morale of the target audience. In the future, cognitive domain operations should be based on the simultaneous launch of military deterrence operations, fully release the information of military deterrence operations, and demonstrate one’s comprehensive strength, war potential, equipment performance, military and civilian will, etc. to the enemy through multiple means, thereby forming a positive influence on the enemy’s society and people Powerful deterrence and containment effect.

Combine the favorable battlefield situation to divide the camp. Changes in the battlefield situation often cause shocks in public opinion, which then spread and penetrate into society, creating a strong cognitive impact. Therefore, when implementing cognitive domain operations, we must have the courage to break through the stereotypes, design the goals and tasks of cognitive attacks in advance, combine the favorable situation on the battlefield, and use the powerful deterrent effect of military operations to stimulate cognitive changes in the target audience. If the war situation goes smoothly, we can further publicize and amplify the effectiveness of military operations, use public opinion to build momentum, create an atmosphere of intimidation that threatens to overwhelm the enemy, and force the enemy’s people to shake their confidence and give up their support.

Integrating military combat effectiveness softens the will. Use military operations to exert pressure and promote radical changes in social cognition. We must be good at seizing the effects of military operations to make a fuss about it, skillfully transform military victory into cognitive strength, and continuously strengthen the deterrent effect on cognitive attacks on target objects. . In the process of implementing cognitive domain operations, it is necessary to seamlessly embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction” and fully integrate military combat effectiveness to strengthen “soft kill” effects such as cognitive deterrence, cognitive interference, and cognitive destruction, and promote The psychological cognition of the people in the enemy’s society undergoes radical changes, which strengthens their fear of war and anti-war sentiments. They are then induced by the extended effect of combat effectiveness in a timely manner, prompting a series of adverse chain reactions within their society to soften their will to resist and their confidence in combat.

繁體中文:

社會認知,是指個體如何理解與思考他人,並根據環境中的社會訊息形成對他人或事物的推論。 社會認知是個體行為的基礎,也是認知域作戰的重要抓手。 人作為社會中的一員,天然受到社會認知的影響。 分析認知域作戰致效的社會路徑,對於強化認知域作戰建設、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。

透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知

認知攻防並非一蹴而就,需要長期不間斷地進行。 認知域作戰,往往先於戰爭開始,綜合運用政治、經濟、外交等手段作用於對象國各個社會領域,透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知,形成利於己方的社會主流意見,在戰時發揮綜合 制衡之奇效。

聚焦總體動員。 戰爭未啟,認知先行。 實施認知域作戰,需要前期進行有效的輿論鋪墊,並在此基礎上形成統一的、利己的社會認知態勢。 心理學家拉斯韋爾曾說:「毫無疑問,政府對輿論的引導是大規模現代戰爭不可避免的發展趨勢。」在戰爭發起前,要瞄準贏得輿論優勢,提前開展認知佈設, 爭取最廣泛的國內國際支持。 先於戰爭發起的認知域作戰,其重心很大程度上是透過新聞輿論來營造一種社會主流意見,為準備戰爭、發動戰爭、贏得戰爭進行全面的社會動員,以有效引導公眾支持政府的 決策、爭取國際社會的政治支持。

強化戰略布勢。 戰爭準備期間的認知域作戰,要以先期戰略布勢、輿論塑勢為重點,根據國家和政府需要,積極宣傳本國的優勢所在、正義所在,深入揭批敵人的險惡用心、虛弱本質,以 此來形成義戰必勝、敢戰敢勝的社會主流意見,為震懾對手、爭取支持塑造良好的認知態勢。 透過有效的輿論造勢,宣示己方贏得勝利的決心和意志,展現充分的戰爭準備和強大的軍事能力,對目標對象的認知心理進行影響、幹預和塑造,有效激發己方信心和士氣,消解敵人的 抵抗意志,最大限度地爭取戰略主動和民心支持,牢牢掌握戰爭主導權、道義話語權,使敵對方認識預感到難以承受的後果,進而達成先期懾止、靈活控局的目的。

緊盯法理爭奪。 戰爭歷來強調師出有名。 在認知敘事中掌握戰爭的定義權、解釋權,形成一致的社會主流意見,凝聚起國家或民族的價值認同,調動廣泛的力量和資源,是先期認知域作戰的一個重要目標。 搞好正義敘事表述,營造師出有名、正義在我、法理在手的社會認知,是先於戰爭出鞘的“利劍”,早於戰爭發起的“重器”。 為此,認知域作戰需要主動創設議題,設法為戰爭定性、為行動正名,做好「正當防衛」的敘事、「被迫合法」的界定、「最後手段」的闡釋,使捍衛戰爭正義權 成為社會主流意見。

借助社群媒體平台介入社會認知

行動化、智慧化、社會化資訊傳播模式的出現,使得網路認知攻防成為認知域作戰的重要手段,它有力地拓展了認知域作戰的可及性與到達率。 從近幾場局部戰爭中的認知攻防來看,多層次、多主題、全民化的社群媒體認知攻防,能夠快速撬動社會輿論、影響戰局走向,既可根據戰場需要形成輿論爆點促 動認知激變,又可繞過敵方輿論封鎖實施認知滲透。

借助資訊流量主導認知走向。 相較於傳統媒體,社群媒體平台的互動性更強、覆蓋範圍更廣,去中心化的「差異敘事」、網民碎片化的「個人敘事」更容易影響輿論,在很大程度上乾擾著社會認 知判斷。 網路社會中認同力量的展現,對於改變輿論走向有十分重要的影響,這也使得資訊流量成為認知域作戰中的重要變數。 現代認知域作戰,「資訊武器化」「輿論武器化」的特徵更突顯,透過資料操縱、限流封刪、機器人轉發等方式,可以有效控制社群媒體的資訊流量,能夠在短時間內形成 輿論熱點、聚焦社會共識,推動形成“資訊瀑布”,使社會民眾在其中被主流社會輿論所左右,進而使其認知形成固化。

透過公眾人物施加認知影響。 從某種程度上來說,訊息傳播越發達,注意力就越是一種稀缺資源,喚起受眾認知的訊息就越需要精心製作和發掘。 在認知域作戰中,如何使特定資訊能吸引目標受眾注意,成為首要步驟。 認知域作戰的發起方可透過網路大V、頭部網紅等公眾人物發聲的辦法,將精心包裝的訊息投放到社群媒體平台,以吸引目標受眾注意,提升利己訊息的能見度與到達 率。 經公眾人物傳播的訊息可以從紛雜的輿論場中驟然顯現出來,成為人們思考的參照物,並在群際互動、圈群互動中成為主流意見,進而擴大己方宣傳聲量、聲討壓制對方宣傳,引導 塑造民眾形成定性認知。

運用新興技術賦能認知攻防。 科技改變作戰樣式,也大大拓展了認知對抗的手段。 例如,演算法推送、智慧語音、深度偽造、虛假現實、擴增實境等新興技術的出現,就豐富了認知域作戰向社會層面全面滲透的策略手段和工具選擇。 在未來認知域作戰中,利用智慧監測系統增強認知態勢感知能力、利用大數據技術精準繪製關鍵人群認知圖景、利用演算法技術持續影響目標對象認知思維將成為可能。 利用人工智慧技術對特定受眾進行飽和式精準認知攻擊,利用深度偽造技術幹擾敵方決策認知,利用腦機介面、神經科學等技術直接作用於軍事人員等,將成為影響社會認知、主導 輿論走向的重要手段,便於更直接有效率地達成作戰目的。

跟上軍事行動進程影響社會認知

戰爭實踐表明,軍事行動對認知塑造有關鍵支撐作用。 現代戰爭中,軍事行動與認知攻防如影隨形、協同發力,兩者相互影響、互為支撐,戰場態勢的有力塑造能夠大大改變社會認知,軍事行動的順利展開能夠促進社會認知激變 ,使之朝著預設方向發展。

配合軍事威懾行動瓦解民心。 透過軍事威懾行動營造有利態勢是戰爭準備的重要內容,也是提高戰爭效益的有效手段。 認知域作戰中,堅持認知攻防行動與軍事行動同步理解任務、判斷情況,同步研究規劃、決策部署,同步計畫安排、組織實施,可以巧妙地運用軍事行動的威懾效應放大認知攻擊效果, 達到瓦解目標對象民心士氣的目的。 未來認知域作戰,應基於軍事威懾行動同步展開,充分釋放軍事威懾行動的訊息,多手段向敵方展示己方的綜合實力、戰爭潛力、裝備性能及軍民意誌等,從而對敵對方社會民眾形成 強力震懾和牽制效應。

結合有利戰場態勢分化陣營。 戰場態勢變化往往會使輿論產生震盪,進而向社會面擴散滲透,產生強大的認知衝擊力。 因而,在實施認知域作戰時,要勇於突破思維定式,超前設計認知攻擊的目標和任務,結合戰場有利態勢,借助軍事行動的強力震懾作用,促動目標受眾產生認知激變。 如戰局進展順利,則可進一步宣傳放大軍事作戰效能,利用輿論示形造勢,營造山雨欲來、泰山壓頂的威迫氣氛,迫使敵對方民眾動搖信心、放棄支持。

融合軍作戰效能軟化意志。 利用軍事行動施壓,促進社會認知激變,要善於抓住軍事作戰效果做文章,巧妙地將軍事上的勝勢轉化為認知上的強勢,不斷強化對目標對象認知攻擊的震懾力 。 在實施認知域作戰過程中,要將認知域作戰無縫嵌入「硬摧毀」中,全面融合軍事作戰效能強化認知震懾、認知幹擾、認知破擊等「軟殺傷」效果, 促使 敵對方社會民眾心理認知產生激變,強化其畏戰怯戰反戰情緒,再適時利用作戰效能的延伸效應加以誘導,促使其社會內部產生系列不良連鎖反應,以軟化其抵抗意志和作戰信心。

中國軍事原文來源: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/22/content_324888.htm

Developing People’s War Strategies and Tactics in the Chinese Military

發展中國軍隊的人民戰爭戰略戰術

現代英語音譯:

Introduction

In his report to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President Xi clearly pointed out the need to develop strategies and tactics of people’s war. Looking back at the glorious journey of the people’s army to strengthen the army and win, one red line running through it is to always insist on proposing and implementing a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics under the leadership of the party. To win future wars, we must pay close attention to changes in technology, warfare, and opponents, continue to inherit the fine traditions of our army, develop people’s war strategies and tactics, and let the magic weapon for defeating the enemy show its power on the modern battlefield.

People’s war strategies and tactics have always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is not only a profound insight into the inherent laws of our army’s victory over the enemy, but also a lofty plan for a strong country and army. It has important strategic value for achieving the 100-year goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army. .

People’s war strategies and tactics are a concentrated expression of the Marxist art of war guidance. Marxism believes that the people are the creators of history and the decisive force in promoting historical progress. The strategies and tactics of people’s war start from this basic viewpoint and fundamental position, and profoundly explain the basic principles of people’s war such as soldiers and the people being the foundation of victory, the decisive factor of victory or defeat in war is that people are not things, and that the broad masses of the people must be organized, mobilized and armed. principle. Our army was born in the flames of war. Facing extremely cruel objective conditions, the Chinese Communists, represented by Comrade Mao Zedong, insisted on combining the basic principles of Marxist people’s war with the reality of China’s revolutionary war, and created an army characterized by flexibility and maneuverability. The essence of the strategy and tactics of people’s war is “you fight yours and I fight mine”, which aims to use strengths to attack weaknesses and seize and master the initiative in war. This embodies the Marxist art of war guidance and shines with the light of truth that is scientific, people-oriented, practical and open to development.

People’s war strategies and tactics are the winning code for the Party’s leadership in all military struggle practices. Since the founding of the People’s Army, our Party has created a complete set of strategies and tactics for people’s war based on the cruel reality that the enemy is strong and we are weak, and the enemy is large and we are small. From the “Sixteen-Character Formula” during the Red Army period, to the “Protracted War” during the Anti-Japanese War, from the “Ten Military Principles” during the Liberation War, to the “piecemeal candy” during the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, to the founding of New China Continuous adjustments to post-military strategic guidelines. The people’s army learns war from war, explores laws from practice, and adheres to and develops this winning code with the times. In the war years, it has created war miracles one after another in which the minority defeated the large and the weak defeated the strong. In peacetime, it resolutely defends National sovereignty, security and territorial integrity have written a glorious chapter in the world’s military history of continuous innovation in the art of war guidance.

Actively developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an intrinsic requirement for building a world-class army in an all-round way. “Every important country must wait for victory.” To measure whether an army is a world-class army, it ultimately depends on its military strength. The strategies and tactics of people’s war are not only the way for our army to win, but also the way to develop and grow. To accelerate the building of a world-class military and build a strong strategic deterrence system, we must adhere to and develop this unique advantage, strengthen research on opponents and enemy situations, proactively understand the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the winning mechanism, advance with the times and innovate people’s war strategies and tactics, and firmly Flexibly carry out military struggles, give full play to the strategic function of military power in shaping security situations, containing crises and conflicts, and winning local wars, and effectively complete the missions and tasks assigned by the party and the people in the new era.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an inevitable choice for our army to win future wars. The form of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, but the essence of war has not changed, and the fundamental law that the deepest source of the power of war lies among the people has not changed. The wars we face in the future are mainly wars to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. They are in line with the fundamental interests of all the Chinese people. They are just actions that conform to the trend of the times. They will continue to receive the support of the overwhelming majority of the people and the people of the world. . Adhering to and developing people’s war strategies and tactics will surely become an important way and inevitable choice for our army to win future wars and check and balance powerful enemies.

Scientifically grasp the connotation of the times in the development of people’s war strategies and tactics

The strategies and tactics of people’s war are living theories and practices, not rigid dogma. They must actively adapt to the development requirements of the times and inject new connotations of the times in order to maintain strong vitality.

We must persist in just war, establish the broadest united front, and fight political and military wars well. Paying attention to guiding the war from a political perspective and consolidating the political foundation for victory are the basic experience of the party in winning the war and the core essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. In today’s era, the relationship between military and politics is closer, the relevance and integrity at the strategic level are increasing day by day, and the influence and constraints of political factors on war are becoming increasingly prominent. To develop the strategies and tactics of people’s war, we must always adhere to the role of the Party Central Committee in overseeing the overall situation and coordinating all parties, mobilizing, uniting, and organizing the broadest number of people to participate in and support the war; strengthen political and organizational functions, and strengthen the entire party, entire army, and people in the country to respond to the war , ideological preparation, organizational preparation, and will preparation to win the war; strengthen political diplomacy and international public opinion and legal struggle, form the broadest united front to support a just war, firmly occupy the moral commanding heights, give full play to the comprehensive effectiveness of political offensives and armed strikes, and coordinate Fight political and military battles well.

Adhere to active defense, highlight enthusiasm, and pay attention to offensive operations. Active defense is a product of people’s war, and its implementation is a fundamental requirement for the strategies and tactics of people’s war. In the future, as the war process accelerates, the strategic goal may be achieved in one battle or battle, which is often the first and decisive battle. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must adhere to the organic integration of defense, counterattack and offense, put more emphasis on internal and external counterattacks at the strategic level, comprehensively use elite combat forces at the beginning of the war, implement a combination of internal and external lines, resolute and fierce strategic counterattacks, and form a high-pressure counterattack situation and pressure, to defeat the feared enemy to the maximum extent, and achieve the strategic goal of using offense to assist defense, attacking later, arriving first, defeating the enemy quickly, containing it as soon as possible, and winning the war.

Adhere to asymmetrical checks and balances, you fight yours, I fight mine, use what you can to fight what you can’t. This is the soul and essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. It is a high-level summary and vivid description of the laws of war and the laws of war guidance. It reveals the laws and methods of war guidance that use inferior equipment to defeat the enemy with superior equipment. It combines flexible and maneuverable strategies with Tactics have been taken to a whole new level. Compared with the past, the modern warfare combat system is huge, with many nodes, and there are many “vital gates” that are vulnerable to attack, which provides an opportunity to implement “attacking what cannot be done with what is possible”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must follow the winning mechanisms of modern wars, fully understand the inherent weaknesses of informatized and intelligent warfare, conduct in-depth research on the opponents’ weaknesses and Achilles’ heel, innovate core operational concepts, and step up efforts to forge new domains and new combat capabilities and means. We should practice tactics such as dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. We should not follow the enemy’s routines but focus on the enemy’s weaknesses. We should give full play to our military’s advantages and long-range attacks and create new winning advantages in “hitting with what we can but not with power”.

Persist in accumulating small victories into big victories, and be good at concentrating strength to fight annihilation wars. Our army has been at an overall disadvantage for a long time in the revolutionary war. Locally, using the strong against the weak and accumulating small victories into big victories is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Compared with the past, modern war operations are often carried out in multi-dimensional and multi-domain environments, providing a broader space for the implementation of “accumulating small victories into big victories”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must strengthen the concept of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but unified force”, dynamically integrate many combat forces distributed on multi-dimensional battlefields, and implement local rapid concentration through efficiency integration and real-time optimization. It can carry out attacks, wide-area guerrilla raids, and carry out annihilating strikes and destructive attacks on the enemy’s key points. This not only has a hammer effect, but also can continuously consume the enemy, causing the opponent to gradually lose the initiative on the battlefield.

We must insist that soldiers and civilians are the foundation of victory, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities. When the army wins battles, the people are its backer. At the beginning of the founding of the army, our party regarded the revolutionary war as a struggle of the masses, emphasized that only by mobilizing and relying on the masses can we carry out war, and created a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics, which is the winning code for the people’s army to remain invincible. Confrontation under conditions of informationization and intelligence is more clearly manifested as a systemic confrontation based on the overall strength of the country. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must continuously consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities, make full efforts in multiple dimensions such as politics, military, economy, culture, and diplomacy, and build powerful war capabilities that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory. and war potential, trapping the enemy in the vast sea of ​​people’s war.

Vigorously promote the development and innovation of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era

In the new era, the connotation of the people’s war strategy and tactics has undergone great changes. It is necessary to strengthen the party’s centralized and unified leadership, strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose, strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation, and strengthen simulation training and testing, so as to gather the forward force of innovation and development.

Strengthen the Party’s centralized and unified leadership and gather the majestic strategic and tactical power of the People’s War. The party’s leadership is the greatest advantage of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and an important guarantee for the implementation and implementation of the people’s war strategies and tactics. We must uphold the leadership of the party and mobilize and organize the people as a whole. Actively explore people’s war strategies and tactics in financial warfare, cyber warfare, cognitive domain warfare and other fields. Timely organize the masses to carry out intelligence warfare, harassment warfare, ambush warfare, etc. to flexibly contain and consume the enemy.

Strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose and consolidate the foundation for the development of the people’s war strategy and tactics. The secret of victory in People’s War is that it sincerely seeks the interests of the masses and wins the trust and support of the broad masses of the people. Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose of our army and is also the strategic foundation for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era. The People’s Army must stand firmly on the people’s side, always adhere to the supremacy of the people, rely closely on the people, continue to benefit the people, be firmly rooted in the people, and always maintain the nature, purpose, and true qualities of the People’s Army.

Strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation and enhance the momentum for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. As high technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology enter the military field, the scientific and technological content of war has undergone a qualitative leap. People’s war strategies and tactics supported by information-based intelligent technology must be innovatively developed and continuously promoted. The integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence will innovate and create the “key” of “hitting the incompetent with what can be used”, making “wisdom and victory” the main feature of the people’s war strategy and tactics in the new era, forming a new era of people’s war that is leading and unique in the era. War strategy and tactics.

Strengthen simulation training and testing to improve the quality and effectiveness of the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. In the information age, virtual reality technology can be used to create virtual scenes with a strong sense of three-dimensionality and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and mission background. Officers and soldiers can “experience” the war in virtual reality several times before the war begins, strengthening their understanding of the war. The understanding of real battlefields such as equipment performance, enemy and friend situations, and war rhythm provides a platform for testing whether strategies and tactics are correct. In developing people’s war strategies and tactics, special attention should be paid to the use of simulations, exercises and other war pre-practice methods, qualitative and quantitative analysis should be conducted, and further improvements should be made in practice.

繁體中文:

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術

■李銀祥 宋文超

引言

習主席在黨的二十大報告中明確指出,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術。回望人民軍隊強軍制勝的光輝歷程,貫穿其中的一條紅線,就是始終堅持在黨的領導下,提出和實施一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術。打贏未來戰爭,必須緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,趙續傳承好我軍優良傳統,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,讓克敵制勝的法寶顯威現代戰場。

人民戰爭戰略戰術始終是我軍克敵制勝的重要法寶

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,既是對我軍克敵制勝內在規律的深刻洞察,也是對強國強軍的高遠謀劃,對於如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標,加快把人民軍隊建成世界一流軍隊具有重要的戰略價值。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術的集中體現。馬克思主義認為,人民是歷史的創造者,是推動歷史進步的決定性力量。人民戰爭戰略戰術從這個基本觀點和根本立場出發,深刻闡釋了兵民是勝利之本,戰爭勝負的決定因素是人不是物,以及必須組織、動員和武裝廣大人民群眾等人民戰爭的基本原理。我軍在戰火中誕生,面對異常殘酷的客觀條件,以毛澤東同志為代表的中國共產黨人,堅持把馬克思主義人民戰爭基本原理與中國革命戰爭實際相結合,創造了以靈活機動為顯著特點的人民戰爭的戰略戰術,其精髓是“你打你的、我打我的”,旨在力求揚長擊短,奪取和掌握戰爭主動權。這集中體現了馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術,閃爍著科學性、人民性、實踐性和發展開放性的真理光芒。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是黨領導全部軍事鬥爭實踐的勝利密碼。我們黨締造人民軍隊以來,立基於敵強我弱,敵大我小的殘酷現實,創立了一整套人民戰爭的戰略戰術。從紅軍時期的“十六字訣”,到抗日戰爭時期的“持久戰”,從解放戰爭時期的“十大軍事原則”,到抗美援朝戰爭時期的“零敲牛皮糖”,再到新中國成立後軍事戰略方針的不斷調整。人民軍隊從戰爭中學習戰爭,從實踐中探索規律,與時俱進地堅持和發展這個制勝密碼,戰爭年代創造了一個又一個以少勝多、以弱勝強的戰爭奇蹟,和平時期堅決捍衛國家主權、安全和領土完整,在世界軍事史上書寫了戰爭指導藝術不斷創新的光輝篇章。

積極發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是全面建成世界一流軍隊的內在要求。 「凡國之重也,必待兵之勝也。」衡量一支軍隊是不是世界一流軍隊,最終要看其軍事實力。人民戰爭戰略戰術既是我軍的致勝之道,也是發展壯大之道。加速建成世界一流軍隊、建構強大的戰略威懾體系,必須堅持發展這一特有優勢,加強對手研究、敵情研究,前瞻認識現代戰爭特徵規律與致勝機理,與時俱進創新人民戰爭戰略戰術,堅定靈活進行軍事鬥爭,充分發揮軍事力量塑造安全態勢,遏止危機衝突,贏得局部戰爭的戰略功能,實際完成好黨和人民賦予的新時代使命任務。

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是我軍打贏未來戰爭的必然選擇。戰爭形態加速演變,但戰爭的本質沒有變,戰爭偉力之最深厚根源存在於民眾之中這一根本規律沒有改變。我們未來面對的戰爭,主要是捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰爭,符合全體中國人民的根本利益,是順應時代潮流的正義之舉,必將繼續得到最廣大人民群眾和世界人民的支持。堅持並發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必將成為我軍打贏未來戰爭、制衡強敵的重要途徑和必然選擇。

科學掌握人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的時代內涵

人民戰爭戰略戰術,是活的理論和實踐,不是死板的教條,必須主動順應時代發展要求,注入新的時代內涵,才能保持強大旺盛的生命力。

堅持正義戰爭,建立最廣泛的統一戰線,打好政治軍事仗。注重從政治高度指導戰爭,夯實制勝的政治基礎,是黨奪取戰爭勝利的基本經驗,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術的核心要義。在當今時代,軍事和政治的聯繫更加緊密,在戰略層面的相關性和整體性日益增強,政治因素對戰爭的影響和限制日益突出。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必須始終堅持黨中央統攬全局、協調各方的作用,動員、團結、組織最廣大人民參與、支持戰爭;增強政治功能和組織功能,強化全黨全軍全國人民應對戰爭、打贏戰爭的思想準備、組織準備、意志準備;加強政治外交和國際輿論法理鬥爭,形成支持正義戰爭的最廣泛統一戰線,牢牢佔領道義制高點,發揮政治攻勢和武裝打擊的綜合效能,統籌打好政治軍事仗。

堅持積極防禦,突顯積極性,重視攻勢作戰。積極防禦是人民戰爭的產物,實行積極防禦是人民戰爭戰略戰術的根本要求。未來戰爭進程加快,可能一場戰役或戰鬥就能達成戰略目的,往往是首戰即決戰。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要堅持將防禦、反攻和進攻有機結合,更加強調戰略層次的內外線反擊,在戰爭伊始就綜合運用精銳作戰力量,實施內外線結合、堅決凌厲的戰略反擊,形成高壓反擊態勢與壓力,盡量打痛打怕敵人,達到以攻助防、後發先至,速戰制敵、盡快遏制、打贏戰爭的戰略目的。

堅持非對稱制衡,你打你的,我打我的,以能擊不能。這是人民戰爭戰略戰術的靈魂和精髓,是對戰爭規律和戰爭指導規律的高度概括和生動描述,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰體系龐大、節點眾多,存在許多易受攻擊的“命門”,為實施“以能擊不能”提供了契機。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,充分認清資訊化智能化戰爭本身的固有弱點,深入研究對手的軟肋和死穴,創新核心作戰概念,加緊鍛造新域新質作戰能力手段,錘鍊降維打擊、非對稱打擊等戰法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在「以能擊不能」中創造新的致勝優勢。

堅持積小勝為大勝,善於集中力量打殲滅戰。我軍在革命戰爭中長期處於全局的劣勢地位,局部上以強對弱、積小勝為大勝,是戰勝強敵的關鍵一招。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰往往在多維多域中展開,為實施「積小勝為大勝」提供了更加廣闊空間。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要強化「貌散而神聚,形散而力合」的概念,將分佈在多維戰場的諸多作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,透過效能融合、即時聚優,實施局部快速聚能攻擊、廣域遊擊襲擾,對敵分佈的要點實施殲滅性打擊、破壞性襲擊,這既有重錘效應,又能不斷消耗敵人,使對手逐步喪失戰場主動權。

堅持兵民是勝利之本,鞏固提高一體化國家戰略體系和能力。軍隊打勝仗,人民是靠山。建軍開始,我們黨就把革命戰爭視為群眾的鬥爭,強調只有動員和依靠群眾才能進行戰爭,並創造了一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術,這是人民軍隊立於不敗之地的製勝密碼。在資訊化智能化條件下的對抗,更鮮明地表現為以國家整體實力為基礎的體系對抗。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要不斷鞏固提升一體化國家戰略體系與能力,在政治、軍事、經濟、文化、外交等多維度全面發力,建構起既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力,陷敵於人民戰爭的汪洋大海。

大力推動新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的發展創新

新時代,人民戰爭戰略戰術的內涵發生了很大變化,必須加強黨的集中統一領導,加強實踐根本宗旨,加強科技創新驅動,加強模擬演訓檢驗,才能匯聚起創新發展的前行力量。

加強黨的集中統一領導,匯聚人民戰爭戰略戰術磅礴偉力。黨的領導是中國特色社會主義制度的最大優勢,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術得以體現和實施的重要保證。必須堅持黨的領導,把人民整體動員起來、組織起來。積極探索金融戰、網路戰、認知域作戰等領域的人民戰爭戰略戰術。適時組織人民群眾進行情報戰、襲擾戰、伏擊戰等,靈活牽制、消耗敵人。

加強實踐根本宗旨,夯實人民戰爭戰略戰術發展根基。人民戰爭的致勝奧秘,就在於它真心實意地為群眾謀利益,贏得了廣大人民群眾的信賴和支持。全心全意為人民服務是我軍的根本宗旨,也是新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的戰略根基。人民軍隊必須站穩人民立場,始終堅持人民至上,緊緊依靠人民,不斷造福人民,牢牢植根人民,永葆人民軍隊性質、宗旨、本色。

加強科技創新驅動,增強人民戰爭戰略戰術發展動力。隨著人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等高新技術進入軍事領域,戰爭的科技含量已發生質的飛躍,必須創新發展以資訊化智慧化技術為支撐的人民戰爭戰略戰術,持續推進機械化資訊化智慧融合發展,創新創造“以能擊不能”的“密鑰”,讓“智勝”成為新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的主要特徵,形成具有時代性引領性獨特性的新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術。

加強模擬演訓檢驗,提升人民戰爭戰略戰術發展質效。資訊時代,利用虛擬實境技術可基於實際的戰場環境,以及任務背景創造具有較強立體感和真實感的虛擬場景,官兵在戰爭開始前就可以在虛擬實境中數次「親歷」戰爭,加強對裝備性能、敵我情況、戰爭節奏等真實戰場的了解,這就給戰略戰術正確與否提供了檢驗平台。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,應特別重視運用模擬、演習等戰爭預實踐手段,對其進行定性與定量分析,並在實踐中進一步加以完善。

解放軍原文參考:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4926056.html

Chinese Military Winning Weapon of Cognitive Operations is Intelligent Algorithms

中國軍隊認知作戰制勝武器是智慧演算法

現代英文音譯:

In the era of intelligence, intelligent algorithms, as the underlying logic and implementation means for information generation, distribution, dissemination, and reception, determine the form and presentation of information. In future wars, the expansion of the application boundaries of intelligent algorithms and the development of application scenarios will promote the update and iteration of cognitive domain combat tactics. Clarifying the mechanism and implementation path of intelligent algorithms and cognitive confrontation is of great significance for innovating cognitive domain combat tactics with the help of intelligent algorithms. .

The mechanism of how intelligent algorithms influence cognitive confrontation

Intelligent algorithms can formulate optimal information recommendation strategies through comprehensive analysis and calculation of users’ personal identity, psychological characteristics, behavioral habits, interests and preferences, etc., and then use specific information to affect target cognition, and ultimately affect their real-life behavior.

Draw a portrait of your target users. The essence of user portraits is to label users to form a specific identity. Tags are similar to “pixels” in digital portraits. The more comprehensive the data is obtained, the more precise the tag description will be, and the more realistic the reflection of user behavior characteristics will be. Foreign militaries believe that in cognitive domain operations, technical means such as web crawlers and log mining are widely used to obtain basic information data, financial data, communication data, etc. of target objects. On this basis, using intelligent algorithms to deeply mine these data can systematically analyze the interests, hobbies, behavioral habits, and interpersonal relationships of the target object, and then determine its value orientation. Afterwards, by constructing multi-dimensional label vectors, clustering similar individuals, and analyzing group characteristics with similar characteristics, a group target portrait can be formed, which can be used as the basis and starting point for cognitive shaping.

Achieve personalized information customization. Adopting “divide and conquer” for different individuals and groups is the advantage of intelligent algorithms, and it is also the proper meaning of cognitive shaping. Relying on social media platforms and search engines to carry out personalized push for specific objects can greatly improve the acceptance of the target objects and avoid idling and internal consumption of information during the dissemination process. In this process, the “information cocoon” effect will further narrow the target object’s perception range, leaving it in a relatively closed information environment for a long time, thus actively accepting one-sided information. At the same time, homogeneous information will further strengthen the shaping effect. Under the combined effect of convergence psychology and group pressure, the target object may gradually lose basic logic and value judgment capabilities, thus subtly forming the cognition carefully set by the initiator. .

Demonstrate specific real-life behaviors. Cognition is the premise of behavior, and behavior reacts on cognition. Intelligent algorithms can constrain and induce real-life behavior by directional shaping of the stance and value tendencies of specific objects on political, military operations, social and other issues. The foreign military believes that by disseminating special ideas to the public, it can lead to social disorder and loss of control. For key individuals, through strategies such as controlling the brain, attacking the heart, and seizing the will, they will make mistakes in their judgment of the country’s strategic direction, doubt the war decision-making, and be negative and pessimistic about the direction of the war, thus producing the effect of “conquering the enemy without fighting.” Practice has proven that target cognitive orientation reshaping highlights specific real-life behaviors, and dynamic changes in real-life behaviors trigger real-time adjustments to user portraits, which in turn drives the adjustment and update of recommendation strategies, forming a complete closed feedback loop.

Intelligent algorithms influence the implementation path of cognitive confrontation

Intelligent algorithms have the characteristics of encapsulation and transplantation, data sharing, fast calculation, autonomous learning, etc., and there is a natural fit between them and cognitive confrontation.

Promote the coupling of confrontational forms of peace and war. The dissemination of information across time boundaries leads to conflicts in cognitive space at all times, and the time scale may vary from seconds to decades. In peacetime, the most important characteristics of cognitive confrontation tactics are concealment and long-term nature, while in wartime they are suppressive and urgent. Intelligent algorithms can further promote the coupling of peace and war in the form of cognitive confrontation through information sharing, situation updating and strategy inheritance. Based on peacetime information and wartime intelligence, comprehensive analysis and judgment of the enemy’s situation, our situation, and the battlefield environment can be automatically calculated to draw conclusions on the strengths, weaknesses, key points, and difficulties of the confrontation; based on mathematical modeling and machine learning, combined with Cognitive confrontation results and real-time battlefield situation in peacetime, and after comprehensive evaluation, optimal tactics and plans can be proposed.

Promote the combination of explicit and implicit means of confrontation. Cognitive domain operations are filled with massive and complex information in various formats and with varying strengths and weaknesses, which not only brings challenges to one’s own identification and processing, but also provides convenient conditions for confusing the opponent. Only through cognitive fusion can a comprehensive, timely and accurate judgment of the situation be formed, and then the advantages of global perception be transformed into decision-making and action advantages. Comprehensive multi-channel information for intelligent analysis and comparison, comprehensive research and judgment, can identify erroneous information, filter useless information, screen false information, and provide information support for commanders’ decision-making. For example, explicit means can be used for cognitive deterrence and will disintegration, implicit means can be used for cognitive deception and cognitive induction, and explicit and implicit means can be used for cognitive confusion.

Promote global integration of confrontation space. The cognitive confrontation space not only covers the physical domain space including land, sea, air, space, etc., but also covers the information domain space and cognitive domain space such as electromagnetic and network. Cognitive confrontation is a global fusion confrontation. Battlefield data is generated extremely quickly and in huge volumes, which places extremely high requirements on computing speed and capabilities. Relying on traditional manual calculations and computer-aided calculations can no longer meet the needs of battlefield space fusion. Semi-automatic or even automated fusion calculations must be achieved with the help of the high efficiency, strong computing power and high accuracy of intelligent algorithms. Relying on intelligent algorithms, vertical integration from cognitive perception to cognitive analysis to cognitive decision-making can be achieved; horizontally, multi-dimensional situation, power, decision-making, and scheduling across the physical domain, information domain, and cognitive domain can be achieved. Domain fusion.

(Author’s unit: National University of Defense Technology)

原始國語(繁體):

在智慧化時代,智慧演算法作為資訊生成、分發、傳播、接收的底層邏輯和實現手段,決定了資訊的產生形式和呈現方式。未來戰爭,智慧演算法應用邊界拓展與應用場景開發推動認知域作戰戰法更新迭代,釐清智慧演算法與認知對抗的作用機制與實現路徑,對於藉助智慧演算法創新認知域作戰戰法具有重要意義。

智慧演算法影響認知對抗的作用機制

智慧演算法透過對使用者個人身分、心理特徵、行為習慣、興趣偏好等進行綜合分析計算,能夠制定出最優資訊推薦策略,進而以特定資訊作用於目標認知,最終影響其現實行為。

繪就目標使用者畫像。使用者畫像的本質是將使用者進行標籤化處理,以此形成特定身分。標籤類似數位畫像中的“像素”,資料獲取越全面,標籤刻畫越精細,對使用者行為特徵的反映就越真實。外軍認為,認知域作戰中,廣泛借助網路爬蟲、日誌挖掘等技術手段,可以取得目標對象的基本資訊資料、金融資料、通訊資料等。在此基礎上,利用智慧演算法對這些資料進行深度挖掘,可以系統分析出目標物的興趣與愛好、行為習慣、人際關係,進而確定其價值取向。之後,透過建構多維度標籤向量,再對相似個體進行聚類處理,分析具有相似特徵的群體特徵,可形成群體目標畫像,並以此作為認知塑造的基礎與起點。

實現資訊個性客製。針對不同個體、不同群體採取「分而治之」是智慧演算法的優長所在,也是認知塑造的應有之義。依托社群媒體平台和搜尋引擎,針對特定物件進行個人化推送,可以大幅提高目標物件的接受程度,避免訊息在傳播過程中的空轉和內耗。在此過程中,「資訊繭房」效應將會進一步狹窄目標物件的感知範圍,使其長期處於相對封閉的資訊環境中,從而主動接受片面資訊。同時,同質化的訊息會進一步強化塑造效果,目標對像在趨同心理和群體壓力的共同作用下,可逐步喪失基本邏輯和價值判斷能力,從而潛移默化中形成發起方為其精細設定的認知。

彰顯特定現實行為。認知是行為的前提,而行為又反作用於認知。智慧演算法透過對特定對象政治、軍事行動和社會等議題的立場和價值傾向進行定向塑造,可以實現對現實行為的約束和誘導。外軍認為,透過對社會大眾傳播特殊理念,導致社會失序失控。而對於關鍵個人,透過採取控腦攻心奪誌等策略,使其對於國家戰略方向研判錯誤,對於戰爭決策感到懷疑,對於戰爭走向消極悲觀,從而產生「不戰而屈人之兵」的效果。實務證明,目標認知定向重塑彰顯現實特定行為,現實行為動態改變引發使用者畫像即時調整,進而帶動推薦策略調整更新,形成了完整的閉合回饋迴路。

智慧演算法影響認知對抗的實現路徑

智慧演算法具有封裝移植、資料共享、快速運算、自主學習等特徵,與認知對抗之間存在天然的契合性。

促進對抗形式平戰耦合。跨越時間界限的訊息傳播導致認知空間的衝突無時不在,時間尺度可能從數秒到數十年不等。在平時,認知對抗戰法最主要的特徵是隱蔽性和長期性,戰時則表現為壓制性和急迫性。智慧演算法透過資訊共享、態勢更新和策略繼承,可進一步促進認知對抗形式的平戰耦合。基於平時資訊與戰時情報,對敵情、我情、戰場環境進行全方位分析研判,可以自動計算得出對抗強點、弱點、重點、難點等方面的結論;基於數學建模和機器學習,結合平時認知對抗成果和戰場即時態勢,經過綜合評估,可以提出最優戰法和方案。

促進對抗手段顯隱結合。認知域作戰,海量、繁雜的資訊充斥其中,樣式多樣、優劣不齊,為己方辨識處理帶來挑戰的同時,也為迷惑對手提供了便利條件。只有透過認知融合才能形成對態勢的全面、及時、準確的判斷,進而將全域感知優勢轉化為決策優勢與行動優勢。綜合多通路資訊進行智慧分析比較、綜合研判,能辨識錯誤訊息、過濾無用資訊、甄別不實訊息,為指揮決策提供資訊支撐。如可採取顯性手段進行認知威懾與意志瓦解,採取隱性手段進行認知欺騙及認知誘導,並採取顯隱結合方式進行認知迷惑等。

促進對抗空間全局融合。認知對抗空間不僅涵蓋了包含陸、海、空、天等物理域空間,也涵蓋電磁、網路等資訊域空間和認知域空間。認知對抗是全局融合對抗,戰場數據生成速度極快、體量巨大,對於計算的速度和能力提出了極高要求。依靠傳統的人工運算、電腦輔助運算的模式已無法滿足戰場空間融合的需求,必須藉助智慧演算法的高效率、強算力和高準確性實現半自動化乃至自動化的融合計算。依托智慧演算法,縱向上可以實現從認知感知到認知分析,再到認知決策的全程融合;橫向上可以實現物理域、資訊域和認知域多維度態勢、力量、決策、調度的跨域融合。

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-03/21/content_33888.htm?&tsrltndkrnt

Chinese Military Will Win the Initiative Globally Building Cognitive Domain Combat Arms Science

中國軍隊將贏得全球認知領域作戰武器科學建構倡議

現代英語音譯:

Cognitive domain operations, as an ancient but emerging military practice, continue to develop in the wave of the world’s new military revolution. Constructing our military’s cognitive domain combat science is of positive significance to building a world-class military.

Statement of the Problem

Cognitive domain warfare has existed since ancient times and has almost run through thousands of years of human war history. It’s just that there was no such thing as cognitive domain warfare at that time. Instead, it was called “mind attack” and “mental warfare” by military strategists. In the 20th century, with the development of science and technology, cognitive domain operations have unique advantages, showing the characteristics of “fighting at all times and without declaring war”. Cognitive domain operations have become the ultimate domain of great power games and military confrontations, and are the highest level of modern war control.

The development of military science has its own inherent laws. The construction of our military’s cognitive domain combat science is a process that follows the development laws of military science. First of all, cognitive domain operations have strong characteristics of the times. With the development of science and technology, especially the application of science and technology such as biology, medicine, artificial intelligence, and information communication in the field of warfare, the ways to control people’s will, thinking, psychology, emotions and other cognitive systems have become more diverse and flexible. Secondly, cognitive domain operations have become the main battlefield of modern warfare. Recent local wars, especially the Russia-Ukraine conflict, have shown a new style of cognitive domain operations – cognitive domain operations have entered the war stage as an independent domain and have Established a certain theoretical and material basis.

The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to build the People’s Army into a world-class army by the middle of this century. To build a world-class military, it is necessary to enrich the basic connotation of “first-class” and enhance the value standard of “first-class”, and cognitive factors are indispensable elements. By constructing cognitive domain operations science, it is conducive to accelerating the overall reshaping of the military organizational form under the guidance of cognitive domain operations theory; it is conducive to correctly understanding the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, and accelerating the development, utilization and implementation of cognitive domain operations means. The pace of improvement is conducive to actively taking effective measures and innovating techniques, tactics and styles of cognitive domain operations.

connotation and denotation

The advanced combat theory is an important indicator of the strength of an army’s combat effectiveness. To build our military’s cognitive domain combat science, we insist on putting ourselves first and innovating independently. On the one hand, we are based on our country’s reality, inherit and carry forward the profound wisdom of Chinese military science and our military’s unique political advantages, and at the same time, actively absorb the essence of foreign military culture.

Conceptual definition of cognitive domain warfare research. The fresh content and new characteristics of cognitive domain operations determine the new nature of cognitive domain operations science. As the core support of cognitive domain warfare, it is first necessary to clarify some key concepts of cognitive domain warfare research. One is about “cognition”. Cognition refers to the process by which the human brain or people use cognitive tools to receive, encode, store, exchange, retrieve, extract and use information. It is the subjective construction of information by cognitive subjects. This process can be broken down into four parts: perception, memory, control and reaction. The corresponding cognitive system can also be divided into four systems: perception, memory, control and reaction. The second is about the “cognitive domain”. With the introduction of the concept of “cognition” into the military field, modern warfare has formed three major combat dimensions: the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The cognitive domain has become the next two warring parties after land, sea, air, space, electricity, and network. Another space for competition. Usually manifested in the quality and ability of combat personnel, the cohesion of the troops, combat experience and training level, battlefield situation awareness, and social public opinion. The third is about “cognitive domain operations.” Compared with operations in the physical domain and information domain, the space involved in cognitive domain operations is wider. Its essence is to capture people’s will, belief, and psychology through actions in the physical domain, use of the information domain, and offense and defense in the cognitive domain. , thinking and other dominance, it is a complex collection of traditional public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, political warfare, economic warfare, cultural warfare and other means, in order to achieve the strategic goal of “complete victory” of defeating the enemy without fighting. .

The main content of cognitive domain combat science research. Cognitive domain warfare is a theory that studies the development laws of war spirit. It is an applied science that uses the results of cognitive science to study cognitive offensive and defensive operations in war. It takes all cognitive domain combat phenomena at all times and at home and abroad as the research object, and mainly studies the following contents: First, the historical theory of cognitive domain combat. In wars in history, the glorious idea and rich practice of “attacking the heart first, attacking the city first” has long been established. Disrupting enemy forces is included in the three major principles of our military’s political work. Capturing generals and transforming prisoners has become a unique front in the armed struggle led by the party, writing a glorious chapter in the history of the people’s army. This precious historical heritage should be further explored and passed on from today’s height. The second is the basic theory of cognitive domain operations. It is the cornerstone for the establishment, survival and development of a discipline, and plays a leading and foundational role in the research of this discipline. Only by pursuing in-depth and thorough research, clarifying basic issues, and smoothing out various relationships can we establish a systematic, solid, and effective basic theoretical system, and then provide strong guidance for the practice of cognitive domain operations. The third is the cognitive domain combat application theory. This is the core of cognitive domain operations research and an important theoretical basis for guiding the military’s cognitive domain operations practice. Its research must be practical, innovative, and lively. Only by closely integrating theoretical research with the combat education and training practice in the cognitive domain of the troops and the actual future combat can we form a scientific, forward-looking, operational and practical system. The cognitive domain combat application theoretical system can better serve the practice of military struggle.

The disciplinary basis of cognitive domain warfare research. To build a discipline system for cognitive domain warfare, it is not enough to merely establish its status as an independent discipline and find its position in the discipline of military science. In order to have a complete and in-depth understanding of cognitive domain warfare and to better carry out theoretical research, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between cognitive domain warfare and related disciplines. The first is cognitive domain combat science and military science. Cognitive domain operations revolve around the goals and tasks of military operations, closely coordinate with the process of military operations, and are objectively governed by the laws revealed by military theory. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully study the inner connection between cognitive domain warfare and military theory, and strive to find the theoretical resonance behind practice. The second is cognitive domain combat science and supporting disciplines. Cognitive domain combat science is a highly professional military practice activity. According to my country’s discipline classification model and standards, the results of journalism, communication, psychology, law and other disciplines are the most basic theoretical sources for the construction and actual combat application of cognitive domain combat forces. Together they form the professional field of cognitive domain combat science. Provide direct theoretical support. The third is cognitive domain combat science and related disciplines. The theoretical categories involved in human mental and psychological activities all have a direct impact or indirect relationship with cognitive domain operations. The theoretical understanding of political science, sociology, culture and other related disciplines is extensive, and the role of cognitive domain operations is will be bigger, this requires us to study the relevant disciplines of cognitive domain warfare and actively expand the theoretical thinking of cognitive domain warfare.

How to build

A new round of world military revolution has pushed cognitive domain operations onto the “fast track” of rapid development. Looking at the recent local wars, especially the Russia-Ukraine conflict, all have been branded as cognitive domain operations, and their status and role have become increasingly prominent. At the same time, the preliminary research results achieved by domestic and foreign scholars have laid a good foundation for the construction of cognitive domain combat science. It can be said that the time is basically ripe for theoretical abstraction on the basis of practice to build our military’s cognitive domain combat science.

The construction of any theoretical system must follow certain logical rules. According to the conditions for constructing the cognitive domain combat science discipline system, the following rules should be followed: First, unify the concept. In the cognitive domain combat theoretical system framework, complex and confusing concepts should not be used to ensure that judgments and conclusions are based on accurate concepts. According to the way our military’s operational regulations deal with relevant concepts, the unified concept of “cognitive domain operations” should be selected as the relative concept for building the discipline system of cognitive domain operations. The second is to clarify the logical starting point. The basic thinking point for studying the theory of cognitive domain operations is to “seize control of cognitive space.” “Seizing control of cognitive space” has a high degree of abstraction and level in the theoretical system of cognitive domain operations, and making it clear will facilitate the formation, development and application of cognitive domain operations science. The third is to find the correct subject positioning. What position cognitive domain warfare science should occupy in the military science discipline system is an important issue that must be solved when studying cognitive domain warfare science and military science. Objectively speaking, if cognitive domain warfare has entered the discipline system structure of military science, it can be positioned by directly adding it or by linking it to relevant disciplines.

Constructing cognitive domain combat science is a relatively complex system project with a long way to go. We can focus on leadership institutions, team building, academic achievements, etc. to provide reliable guarantee for the construction of cognitive domain combat science disciplines. The first is to establish a leadership organization. Under the direct leadership of the commanding authority, an authoritative organization for the research and formulation of the cognitive domain warfare discipline system with the participation of the commanding authority, experts in various fields, and military leaders will be established to be responsible for the research, demonstration, and overall planning of the cognitive domain warfare discipline system. The second is to strengthen team building. The key and core of building a discipline is the construction of academic teams. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of professional teams for cognitive domain warfare research and provide talent support for the construction and improvement of cognitive domain warfare disciplines. Through training and academic exchanges, we will improve the research quality and capabilities of existing researchers and introduce leaders in this discipline who have profound academic attainments, rigorous scholarship, and innovative academic ideas. The third is to launch academic results. Give full play to the enthusiasm and creativity of existing cognitive domain warfare researchers, increase research efforts, and continue to publish high-quality cognitive domain warfare theoretical research and application research works, teaching materials and academic papers, laying a solid foundation for building the cognitive domain warfare discipline. Solid academic foundation.

現代繁體中文:

問題的提出

認知域作戰古已有之,幾乎貫穿人類數千年戰爭史。只不過那時沒有認知域作戰的說法,而是被兵家稱之為「攻心術」「心戰」。到了20世紀,隨著科學技術發展,認知域作戰具備獨特優勢,呈現出「無時不戰、不宣而戰」的特質。認知域作戰已成為大國博弈、軍事對抗的終極之域,是現代戰爭制權的最高層次。

軍事科學發展有其內在的規律,建構我軍認知域作戰學是遵循軍事科學發展法則的過程。首先,認知域作戰具有強烈的時代特徵。隨著科學技術發展特別是生物、醫學、人工智慧以及資訊傳播等科學技術在戰爭領域的應用,控制人類的意志、思考、心理、情緒等認知系統的方式更為多元且靈活。其次,認知域作戰已成為現代戰爭主戰場,近幾場局部戰爭特別是俄烏衝突,展現認知域作戰的新樣式──認知域作戰作為獨立一域登上戰爭舞台,已經具備了一定的理論和物質基礎。

黨的十九大報告提出,到本世紀中葉將人民軍隊全面建成世界一流軍隊。要建成世界一流軍隊,就需要豐富「一流」的基本內涵,提升「一流」的價值標準,而認知要素則是不可或缺的要件。透過建構認知域作戰學,有利於在認知域作戰理論指導下,加速軍隊組織形態整體重塑;有利於正確理解認知域作戰特徵和規律,加速認知域作戰手段的開發、利用和完善的步伐;有利於積極採取行之有效的措施,創新認知域作戰的技法、戰法和樣式。

內涵與外延

作戰理論先進是否,是一支軍隊戰鬥力強弱的重要標誌。建構我軍認知域作戰學,堅持以我為主、自主創新,一方面立足我國實際,繼承和弘揚中國兵學的深邃智慧和我軍特有的政治優勢,同時,積極吸收外國軍事文化的精髓。

認知域作戰學研究的概念界定。認知域作戰的新鮮內容與新質特色,決定了認知域作戰學的新學性質。作為認知域作戰學的核心支撐,首先需要釐清認知域作戰研究的一些關鍵概念。一是關於「認知」。認知是指人腦或人利用認知工具對資訊的接收、編碼、儲存、交換、檢索、提取和使用的過程,是認知主體對資訊的主觀建構。這個過程可分解為四個部分:知覺、記憶、控制和反應,對應的認知系統也可分為知覺、記憶、控制和反應四個系統。二是關於「認知域」。隨著「認知」概念被引入軍事領域,現代戰爭已經形成了物理域、資訊域、認知域三大作戰維度,認知域成為交戰雙方繼陸、海、空、天、電、網之後的又一較量空間。通常表現為作戰人員的素質和能力,部隊的凝聚力、作戰經驗和訓練水平、戰場態勢感知程度以及社會輿論等。三是關於「認知域作戰」。與物理域、資訊域作戰相比,認知域作戰所涉及的空間更為廣闊,其實質是透過物理域的行動、資訊域的運用、認知域的攻防,奪取人的意志、信念、心理、思維等主導權,是傳統輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰及政治戰、經濟戰、文化戰等多種手段的複合集合體,欲達到不戰而屈人之兵的「全勝」戰略目標。

認知域作戰學研究的主要內容。認知域作戰學是研究戰爭精神發展規律的學說,是運用認知科學成果,研究戰爭進行認知攻防行動的應用性科學。它以古今中外一切認知域作戰現象為研究對象,主要研究以下內容:一是認知域作戰歷史理論。歷史上的戰爭,很早就有了「攻心為上,攻城為下」的光輝思想及豐富實踐。瓦解敵軍列入我軍政治工作三大原則,攻心奪將、改造俘虜成為黨領導武裝鬥爭的一條獨特戰線,書寫了人民軍隊輝煌戰史篇章。對於這份寶貴的歷史遺產,應站在今天的高度,進一步加以發掘和傳承。二是認知域作戰基礎理論。它是一門學科得以確立、生存和發展的基石,在本學科研究中起著先導和奠基作用。其研究只有求深、求透,把基本問題搞清楚,把各種關係理順暢,才能建立起系統、紮實、有效的基礎理論體系,進而為認知域作戰實踐提供有力指導。第三是認知域作戰應用理論。這是認知域作戰研究的核心,也是指導部隊認知域作戰實踐的重要理論基礎。其研究必須要求實、求新、求活,只有把理論研究與部隊認知域作戰教育訓練實踐和未來作戰實際緊密結合起來,才能形成集科學性、前瞻性、操作性和實用性為一體的認知域作戰應用理論體系,從而更好地為軍事鬥爭實踐服務。

認知域作戰學研究的學科基礎。建構認知域作戰學的學科體系,僅僅確立其獨立學科地位,找到其在軍事學科中的定位,還遠遠不夠。要完整、深入地認識認知域作戰學,同時也是為了更好地進行理論研究,必須弄清楚認知域作戰學與相關學科的關係。一是認知域作戰學與軍事學。認知域作戰圍繞著軍事行動的目標任務展開,緊密配合軍事行動過程進行,客觀地受軍事學理論所揭示的規律支配。因此,這需要認真研究認知域作戰學與軍事學理論的內在聯繫,並努力尋找實踐背後的理論共鳴點。二是認知域作戰學與支撐學科。認知域作戰學是專業性很強的軍事實踐活動。依照我國學科門類劃分模式與標準,新聞學、傳播、心理學、法學等多個學科成果是認知域作戰力量建設與實戰運用最基礎的理論來源,共同為認知域作戰學學科專業領域提供直接理論支撐。三是認知域作戰學與相關學科。人的精神心理活動所涉及的理論範疇都與認知域作戰有直接影響或間接的關係,對政治學、社會學、文化學等相關學科理論了解涉獵廣泛,認知域作戰行動發揮的作用就會越大,這需要我們對認知域作戰學相關學科加以研究,主動擴展認知域作戰的理論思維。

如何建構

新一輪世界軍事革命,將認知域作戰推向了迅速發展的「快車道」。綜觀近幾場局部戰爭特別是俄烏衝突,無不打上認知域作戰的烙印,其地位作用愈發凸顯。同時,國內外學者已取得的初步研究成果為建構認知域作戰學奠定了良好基礎。可以說,在實務的基礎上進行理論抽象,進而建構我軍認知域作戰學的時機基本上成熟。

任何一個理論體系的構建,都要遵循一定的邏輯法則。根據建構認知域作戰學學科體系的條件,主要應遵循以下法則:一是統一概念。在認知域作戰理論體系架構結構中,不應使用龐雜的、容易造成混亂的概念,以確保判斷和結論建立在準確的概念上。根據我軍作戰法規對相關概念的處理方法,應選定統一的「認知域作戰」概念作為建構認知域作戰學學科體系的相對概念。二是明確邏輯起點。研究認知域作戰理論的思考基點,就是「奪取認知空間制權」。 「奪取認知空間制權」在認知域作戰理論體系中具有較高的抽象性與層次性,予以明確便於認知域作戰學的形成、發展與應用。三是找準學科定位。認知域作戰學在軍事學科體系中應處在什麼位置,是研究認知域作戰學和軍事學必須解決的重要議題。客觀地看,認知域作戰學進入軍事學科體系結構,可以採取直接增列辦法或掛靠相關學科辦法來定位。

建構認知域作戰學是一個較為複雜的系統工程,任重道遠。可以從領導機構、團隊建立、學術成果等方面著力,為建構認知域作戰學學科提供可靠保障。一是成立領導機構。在統率機關的直接領導下,成立由統率機關、各方面專家和部隊領導參與的認知域作戰學科體系研究和製定的權威機構,負責對認知域作戰學科體系的研究論證和統籌。二是加強隊伍建設。建構學科的關鍵和核心是學術團隊的建構。要加強認知域作戰研究專業隊伍建設,為建構和完善認知域作戰學學科提供人才支援。透過訓練和學術交流,提升現有研究人員的研究素質和能力,推出學術造詣深、治學嚴謹、具有創新學術思想的本學科領導者。三是推出學術成果。充分發揮現有認知域作戰研究人員的積極性和創造性,加強研究力度,持續推出高品質的認知域作戰理論研究和應用研究著作、教材及學術論文,為建構認知域作戰學學科打下堅實的學術基礎。

中文原文科學參考:https://www.1921.org.cn/fxzl/2022/12/17/detailed_2022121733402.html