Category Archives: Intelligent Warfare

Metaverse-enabled military training is on the rise for China’s People’s Liberation Army

中國人民解放軍元宇宙軍事訓練正在興起

現代英語:

The metaverse is an artificial online virtual world that is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It is parallel to the real world, reacts to the real world, and integrates a variety of high technologies. These are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural laws of human understanding and transformation of the world, providing a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operation behavior, state, and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. Researching the application of the metaverse in the field of foreign military training and analyzing the opportunities and challenges that the metaverse brings to the field of military training have important theoretical and practical value in solving the key problems that need to be solved in military training in the intelligent era, promoting scientific and technological training, and promoting the innovative development of military training models.

Background of cognitive metaverse empowering military training

The scientific and technological revolution has given rise to a new ecosystem for military training. Driven by the new scientific and technological revolution and the industrial revolution, cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things are accelerating their development. Technology giants are laying out the metaverse, and human real life is migrating to the virtual world more rapidly. The metaverse integrates a variety of emerging technologies, thus generating new Internet applications and new social forms that integrate the virtual and the real. Perception technology supports the integration of the virtual and the real in the metaverse, “AI+” technology supports the social nature of the metaverse, data transmission technology supports the real-time nature of the metaverse, electronic game technology supports the diversity of the metaverse, digital twin technology supports the sustainability of the metaverse, and blockchain technology supports the security of the metaverse. The future metaverse, where virtuality and reality are highly interconnected, is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It integrates all elements such as the Internet, virtual reality, immersive experience, blockchain, and digital twins to build a new basic ecology for intelligent military training.

The evolution of war dominates the transformation and upgrading of military training. With the advent of the intelligent era, the war form is accelerating its evolution towards informationization and intelligence. The informationized warfare system with “information acquisition and utilization as the core” will gradually transition to an intelligent warfare system with “intelligent simulation and expansion as the core”. The trend of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned weapons and equipment is more obvious, and intelligent warfare has surfaced. At the same time, combat elements represented by artificial intelligence such as “AI, cloud, network, group, and terminal” and their diversified combinations have formed a new battlefield ecology. The metaverse has built a new battlefield space where virtual and real are integrated and parallel and interactive. The traditional war winning mechanism is being profoundly changed. The development and change of intelligent warfare has compulsorily driven the transformation and reshaping of the military’s thinking and concepts, requiring the acceleration of the transformation and upgrading of military training, paying more attention to the impact of technological development and changes on war, and using the “new engine” of training and war to run out of the “acceleration” of preparation.

Foreign militaries explore breakthroughs in military training models. In order to seize the strategic commanding heights of military intelligence, the world’s military powers attach great importance to the innovation of military training models, and some countries have begun to try to apply the metaverse and related technologies in military training. For example, the United States has successively released the “National Security Strategy”, “National Defense Strategy” and “Department of Defense Transformation Plan”, focusing on building an “all-round army” and forming a “full spectrum advantage”. At the same time, it has formulated the “Training Transformation Strategic Plan” and “Training Transformation Implementation Plan”, and proposed the concept of comprehensive training environment (STE), the core of which is immersive and integrated virtual training, which intends to integrate real-time, virtual, constructive and game environments into a comprehensive training environment. Russia also attaches great importance to the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embedding. The United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, etc. are also actively developing various professional military training virtual environments. Intelligent training supported by technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality and augmented reality is gradually becoming the mainstream of military training research in powerful countries.

Clarify the advantages of metaverse-enabled military training

Sprouting new concepts of military training. Only by leading opponents in thought can we gain the upper hand in action. The emergence of disruptive technologies will inevitably rewrite the current military training rules and systems, and will also innovate the existing military training thinking concepts. On the one hand, the metaverse has set off a hurricane-like “brainstorm”, and the training thinking led by “intelligence” will organically connect training with actual combat, and upgrade to intelligent military training thinking. On the other hand, new technologies and new means represented by the metaverse empower military training, strengthen the concept of winning by science and technology and intelligent driving, and greatly improve the scientific and technological content of military training, in order to control the initiative in future wars. The future metaverse will create more impossible possibilities by constructing a virtual battlefield space, designing wars and evolving wars.

Innovate new theories of military training. War is the area that needs innovation the most. Military training must adapt to the development of intelligent warfare, and theoretical innovation and training practice must be driven by two wheels. Training transformation will not happen automatically. It requires not only a sharp and profound foresight to grasp the general trend, but also a scientific and powerful solid theory to drive forward. On the one hand, by keeping up with the development of the times and starting from new concepts and new cognitions, we can build a scientific theoretical system for metaverse-enabled military training. On the other hand, by following the laws of combat-training coupling, we can establish an intelligent military training theory innovation model with the characteristics of the times, so that the metaverse can empower and improve the efficiency of promoting the iterative development of military training transformation.

Transform the new model of military training. The combat style determines the training mode. Intelligent warfare changes the “rules of the game”. Military training for the next war must adapt to the requirements of future wars by changing the training mode. The first is to be able to build an intelligent blue army with “both form and spirit”. With the help of optimized AI technology, powerful computing support, and realistic performance simulation, the Metaverse follows the evolutionary process of “knowing the enemy, imitating the enemy, surpassing the enemy, and defeating the enemy” to create an intelligent blue army with platform support and data empowerment, and carry out “real” confrontation training and effect evaluation in the Metaverse space. The second is to be able to carry out new domain and new quality combat training. The metaverse expands the practical application path with new domains and new types of combat forces as the leading elements, highlights the research and development of training methods and tactics that are compatible with advanced combat concepts and winning mechanisms, and creates new types of training such as unmanned and seamless human-machine collaboration, becoming a new point of combat power growth. Third, it can cultivate new military talents. At present, the educational metaverse has led the intelligent transformation of education. In the future, the military metaverse will accelerate the realization of intelligent interaction between people and equipment, deep integration between people and systems, and adaptive evolution between people and the environment, and promote the integrated development of “commanders” and “fighters” to “scientists” and “technicians”.

Reshape the new ecology of military training. The multi-dimensional perception, virtual-real integration, free creativity, and open development of the metaverse will make the future metaverse a fully immersive, time-transcending, self-creating and developing space. First, create a digital twin “battlefield metaverse”. The “battlefield metaverse” will be a typical manifestation of the metaverse in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, stronger simulation computing capabilities, and more real-time and detailed interaction requirements. Secondly, create a full-dimensional three-dimensional metaverse training environment. The metaverse uses technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality to create an immersive and complex scene environment; using powerful data and network support, it builds a full-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and the Internet. Furthermore, build a metaverse verification platform for weapons and equipment. The platform will have functions such as new weapon equipment design demonstration, weapon equipment performance test, weapon equipment compatibility test, and weapon system combat effectiveness test. In the future, the metaverse will greatly shorten the timeline of weapons and equipment from “weak intelligence” to “strong intelligence” and then to “super intelligence”, and realize the intelligent multiplication effect of weapons and equipment.

Grasp the key points of metaverse empowered military training

Focus on top-level design. From the perspective of the development of things, the metaverse, as a new thing, has yet to be verified to mature. Intelligent military training is also a complex, arduous and long-term system engineering, which requires strengthening strategic planning and top-level layout. We should pay close attention to the development and technological trends of the metaverse, scientifically formulate the development plan of the “training metaverse”, and give full play to the outstanding advantages of the metaverse in allowing trainees to immerse themselves in experiential training under the realistic background of the integration of intelligence, informatization, and mechanization, so that the metaverse can not only be a display platform for virtual technology, but also a practical platform for improving the effectiveness of military training.

Strengthen technology research and development. From a technical perspective, the metaverse re-integrates the existing technologies in the information and intelligent technology group, puts forward an overall innovative concept, and provides a comprehensive application scenario, thereby giving birth to new vitality. To accelerate the development of the “training metaverse”, we must speed up the research on basic software and hardware technologies such as algorithm engines and network communications, strengthen the research and development capabilities of core technologies such as artificial intelligence, digital twins, blockchain, and the Internet of Things, and at the same time strengthen the overall technical design and development of the metaverse, such as immersion, sociality, openness, collaboration, and decentralization.

Create training types. From the perspective of time and space, the metaverse may construct an extremely large virtual war space, reproduce the war environment, present the war process, and virtualize the future of war. An intelligent military training operation system based on the metaverse should be constructed, the military training thinking concept should be updated in a timely manner, and innovations in military training models, management guarantees, and legal mechanisms should be deepened. Construct a dynamic and high-level combat-oriented military training environment based on the metaverse to fully support strategic, campaign and tactical training and war games. At the same time, in the process of “intelligent adaptation” of military training, realize the expansion of wisdom and intelligent evolution towards the unknown space of military training with “innovation, openness, multiple iterations, and new intelligent ecology”.

Pay attention to risk prevention and control. From the perspective of safety and controllability, the concept and technology of the metaverse bring innovative opportunities for intelligent military training, but what cannot be ignored is the potential risks associated with the technology itself. The Metaverse is a huge technology complex, and its system architecture, key technologies, and application environment are still in the development and implementation stage. The supporting protection system, safety technology, and management standards will bring security risks. In addition, the integrated application of multiple emerging technologies during the construction process, as well as the complexity and confidentiality of the application process, will be unknown factors that will be the key prevention and risk challenges of the Metaverse in military training.

繁體中文:

元宇宙是脫胎於、平行、獨立於現實世界的人造線上虛擬世界,與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。元宇宙運行符合人類認識世界、改造世界的自然規律,提供了理解和發現現實復雜系統運行行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式和探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段。研究元宇宙在外軍軍事訓練領域的運用,剖析元宇宙在軍事訓練領域帶來的機遇與挑戰,對破解智能化時代軍事訓練亟待解決的關鍵問題,推動科技強訓,促進軍事訓練模式創新發展,具有重要理論和實踐價值。

認知元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的背景

科技革命催生軍事訓練嶄新生態。在新科技革命和產業革命推動下,人工智慧、大數據、雲端計算、物聯網等前沿科技加速發展,科技巨頭紛紛佈局元宇宙,人類現實生活更快速向虛擬世界遷移。元宇宙整合多種新興技術,從而產生出虛實相融的互聯網新應用與社會新形態。感知技術支撐元宇宙的虛實相融性,「AI+」技術支撐元宇宙的社會性,數據傳輸技術支撐元宇宙的實時性,電子遊戲技術支撐元宇宙的多樣性,數字孿生技術支撐元宇宙的永續性,區塊鏈技術支撐元宇宙的安全性。虛擬與現實高度互通的未來元宇宙,脫胎於、平行於、獨立於現實世界,將互聯網、虛擬現實、沉浸式體驗、區塊鍊及數字孿生等全要素融合,為智能化軍事訓練構建起全新基礎生態。

戰爭演進主導軍事訓練轉型升級。智能化時代到來,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化演變,以「資訊獲取利用為內核」的資訊化戰爭體系,將逐漸過渡至以「智慧模擬與拓展為內核」的智能化戰爭體系,武器裝備遠程精確化、智慧化、隱身化、無人化趨勢更明顯,智慧化作戰浮現。同時,以「AI、雲、網、群、端」等人工智慧為代表的作戰要素及其多樣化組合,構成了新的戰場生態,元宇宙構建出虛實融生、平行互動的戰場新空間,傳統的戰爭制勝機理正被深刻改變。智慧化戰爭形態發展變化,強制性驅動軍隊思維理念的變革重塑,要求加快實現軍事訓練轉型升級,更加重視科技發展變化對戰爭的影響,以練戰「新引擎」跑出備戰「加速」。

外軍探索開啟軍事訓練模式突破。為搶佔軍事智慧化戰略制高點,世界軍事強國高度重視軍事訓練模式創新,有的國家開始嘗試應用元宇宙及相關技術運用在軍事訓練方面。如美國先後發布《國家安全戰略》《國家防務戰略》和《國防部轉型計劃》,圍繞打造“全能型軍隊”、形成“全頻譜優勢”,同步製定了《訓練轉型戰略計劃》和《訓練轉型實施計劃》,並提出了綜合訓練環境(STE)理念,其內核是沉浸式、集成虛擬訓練,擬將實時、虛擬、建設性和遊戲環境整合到綜合培訓環境中。俄羅斯也高度重視虛擬訓練系統開發,其先進武器裝備幾乎都配有相應虛擬訓練系統,並且正朝著通用化和嵌入化方向發展。英國、德國、韓國等也都積極發展各種專業軍事訓練虛擬環境。以人工智慧、虛擬現實與增強現實等技術為支撐的智慧化訓練,正逐漸成為強國軍隊訓練研究的主流。

明晰元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的優勢

萌發軍事訓練新理念。在思想上領先對手,才能在行動上贏得先機。顛覆性技術的出現必將改寫現行的軍事訓練規則制度,也必將革新現有的軍事訓練思維理念。一方面,元宇宙掀動颶風式的“頭腦風暴”,以“智”引領的練兵思維將訓練與實戰有機銜接起來,升級成智能化軍事訓練思維。另一方面,以元宇宙為代表的新技術新手段賦能軍事訓練,強化科技制勝、智慧驅動理念,大幅提升軍事訓練科技含量,以期掌控未來戰爭主動權。未來元宇宙透過構設虛擬戰場空間,設計戰爭並演化戰爭,將創造出更多不可能的可能性。

創新軍事訓練新論。戰爭是最需要創新的領域。軍事訓練要順應智慧化戰爭發展,理論創新與訓練實踐必須雙輪驅動。訓練轉型不會自動發生,既需要敏銳而深邃的前瞻性眼光把握大勢,更需要科學而強大的堅實理論驅動前行。一方面,緊跟時代發展,從新觀念新認知出發,可以建構元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的科學理論體系。另一方面,遵循戰訓耦合規律,可以建立具有時代特色的智慧化軍事訓練理論創新模式,讓元宇宙為推進軍事訓練轉型迭代發展賦能提效。

變革軍事訓練新模式。作戰樣式決定著訓練模式,智慧化戰爭改變著“遊戲規則”,預演下一場戰爭的軍事訓練必須通過變革訓練模式,來適應未來戰爭要求。一是能夠建造「形神兼備」的智慧藍軍。元宇宙藉由優化的AI技術、強大的算力支撐、逼真的效能仿真,依照「知敵、像敵、超敵、勝敵」的演化進程,打造以平台支撐、數據賦能等綜合整合的智能藍軍,並在元宇宙空間進行「真實」的對抗訓練和效果評估。二是能夠開展新域新質作戰研練。元宇宙拓展新域新質作戰力量為主導要素的實戰化運用路徑,突顯與先進作戰概念、制勝機理相適應的訓法戰法的研練,開創無人化、人機無縫協同等新樣式訓練,成為新的戰鬥力增長點。第三是能夠培養新型軍事人才。當前,教育元宇宙已經引領了教育智慧化變革。未來軍事元宇宙將加速實現人與裝備智慧互動、人與體系深度融合、人與環境適應進化,推動「指揮者」「戰鬥員」向「科學家」與「技術家」融合發展。

重塑軍事訓練新生態。元宇宙的多維感知性、虛實融合性、自由創造性、開放發展性等特點,使未來元宇宙將成為完全沉浸式的、超越時空的、自我創造發展的空間。首先,打造數字孿生的「戰場元宇宙」。 「戰場元宇宙」將是元宇宙在軍事領域的典型表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求。其次,創造全維立體的元宇宙訓練環境。元宇宙運用虛擬現實、增強現實以及混合現實等技術,創造沉浸複雜的場景環境;利用強大的數據、網絡支撐,搭建起陸、海、空、天、電、網等全維空間。再者,建造武器裝備的元宇宙驗證平台。該平台將具備新型武器裝備設計論證、武器裝備性能試驗、武器裝備相容性試驗、武器系統體係作戰效能檢驗等功能。未來元宇宙將大幅縮短武器裝備從「弱智」到「強智」再到「超智」的時間軸,以實現武器裝備的智慧倍增效應。

掌握元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的重點

著重頂層設計。從事物發展上看,元宇宙作為新生事物,發展成熟尚待驗證。智慧化軍事訓練又是一項複雜、艱巨且長期的系統工程,需要加強戰略籌劃與頂層佈局。應密切關注元宇宙發展動向與技術趨勢,科學制定「訓練元宇宙」的發展規劃,在智慧化、資訊化、機械化「三化」融合的現實背景下,充分發揮元宇宙能讓受訓者沉浸式體驗式訓練等突顯優勢,讓元宇宙不能只是虛擬技術的展示平台,而應成為提升軍事訓練效益的實踐平台。

加強技術研發。從技術意義上看,元宇宙把資訊化智能化技術群中已有的技術重新整合到了一起,提出了整體性創新性概念,給出了綜合性的應用場景,從而煥發出了新的生命力。加速「訓練元宇宙」的發展,要加速演算法引擎、網路通訊等基礎軟硬體技術研究,強化人工智慧、數字孿生、區塊鏈、物聯網等核心技術的研發能力,同時也要加強沉浸性、社交性、開放性、協作性、去中心化等元宇宙整體性技術設計與研發。

創設訓練種類。從時空視角來看,元宇宙可能構造出龐大無比的虛擬戰爭空間,重現戰爭環境,呈現戰爭進程,虛擬戰爭未來。應建構基於元宇宙的智慧化軍訓運行體系,及時更新軍事訓練思維理念,深化軍事訓練模式、管理保障、法規機制等創新。建構基於元宇宙的動態高階的實戰化軍事訓練環境,全面支持戰略、戰役和戰術訓練以及戰爭推演。同時,在軍事訓練「智適應」運作過程中,實現拓展生慧,向「創新開放、多元迭代、新智生態」的軍事訓練未知空間智能演進。

重視風險防控。從安全可控上看,元宇宙概念與技術為智慧化軍事訓練帶來創新機遇,但不容忽視的是技術本身伴生的潛在風險。元宇宙龐大的技術群,其體系架構、關鍵技術和應用環境等尚處於開發落地階段,配套防護體系、安全技術、管理標準等都會帶來安全風險,加上建設過程中多種新興技術的整合運用,運用過程中的複雜性與保密性,都將是軍事訓練元宇宙重點防範與風險挑戰的未知數。

來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:侯春牧 王勇 責任編輯:於雅倩 發布:2024-01-16

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/16280588.html

Chinese Military Analysis of Japan’s Space and Cyberspace Deterrence Strategy

中國對日本太空和網路空間威懾戰略的軍事分析

現代英語:

The development of new military forces is changing the style of warfare. After years of development, space (also known as outer space) and cyberspace (hereinafter referred to as cyberspace) forces have transformed from conceptual forces to real forces. How to use these two new forces has become a key research topic for major powers in the world. In March 2024, the Security Research Group of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation of Japan released a research report entitled “War 3.0: Fundamental Changes in War” (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”), which explored how to use space and cyberspace to achieve strategic deterrence from the perspective of maintaining Japan’s national security. It also proposed a typical scenario of cyberspace confrontation against the background of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, showing Japan’s thinking on the use of combat forces in emerging fields. The main contents are summarized as follows for readers.

1

War 3.0 is coming

The report believes that during the Cold War, the boundaries between civilians, the state and the military were clear, and the economic dependence between the two sides was low. This was the era of War 1.0. After the Cold War, globalization accelerated, and in 2001, the era of the war on terror began. The main body of the confrontation became state and non-state actors, which was the era of War 2.0. Around 2010, the confrontation between major powers reappeared. Due to the high degree of economic globalization, “war” occurred more in dimensions other than military. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine shows that in modern warfare, other means are becoming as important as military means. At the same time, commercial companies are also more involved in the research and development and use of emerging military technologies, and the government’s control over military power has been weakened. Since then, a new concept can be used to describe modern warfare, namely War 3.0.

As long as war occurs in the context of globalization, the characteristics of War 3.0 will appear. In the era of War 3.0, the target of deterrence is mainly state actors, but the specific form of conflict may be similar to hybrid warfare or conventional warfare. When formulating deterrence strategies in the space and cyberspace domains, both types of conflict should be taken into account. It is necessary to recognize that emerging domain capabilities are multipliers of traditional capabilities. The significance of competing for control in emerging domains lies in enhancing one’s own physical forces such as land, sea, and air forces or weakening the physical forces of opponents.

The report points out that using emerging field forces to carry out attacks can cause no tangible physical damage, is conducive to conflict management, and is the best tool for gray zone operations. Japan currently faces two main problems. One is that the emerging field forces owned by law enforcement agencies are not in line with mission requirements. The other is that it needs to consider how to use emerging field forces to achieve effective conflict management.

2

Strategic Deterrence in Emerging Fields

The report uses traditional deterrence theory for analysis and concludes that space and cyberspace have five common characteristics: difficult situational awareness, high defense difficulty, low attack threshold, mixed actors, and lack of international codes of conduct. Easy to attack and difficult to defend are the common characteristics of these two fields, so it is difficult to achieve effective strategic deterrence. In this regard, action should be taken in four aspects: First, improve situational awareness capabilities so that when problems occur, the cause of the failure can be quickly determined, the attacker can be identified, and the damage effect can be evaluated when counterattacked. Second, improve resilience to ensure that the loss of some functions will not cause the entire system to become disabled. Third, strengthen offensive capabilities, which can be used to attack in a certain field, or to use means in other fields to conduct cross-domain attacks. Fourth, achieve arms control cooperation between countries and build trust, formulate codes of conduct, etc.

3

Strengthening deterrence in air and space

1. The connotation of air and space control continues to be enriched

The report believes that the air and space can control the entire battlefield. In order to compete for air and space dominance, various types of equipment are constantly updated, combat systems are becoming more and more complex, and the scope of operations is becoming wider and wider. In combat, both sides often focus on the “find, locate, track, decide, engage, and assess (Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess, F2T2EA)” full kill chain, and simultaneously confront in emerging fields such as space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space, which greatly expands the connotation of traditional dominance. In future high-end wars, the side with a higher level of space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space capabilities may have an overwhelming advantage in overall combat capabilities.

2. How to exert the deterrent function of space power

The report emphasizes that space systems play an important role in intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), communications, positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), missile warning, environmental monitoring, etc., and also provide increasingly important support for the use of nuclear and conventional forces. In order to form a strong space deterrence, first, we must possess and demonstrate the corresponding capabilities, mainly the resilience, defense, counter-retaliation and situational awareness capabilities of the space system. Second, we must show the enemy our determination to use retaliatory capabilities. Third, we must form a cross-domain deterrence to ensure the security of the entire space system. In addition, systems in other fields such as land, sea and air must be able to supplement some of the functions of the space system. In the face of enemy attacks on our satellites, we must retaliate not only from space, but also through land, sea, air and cyberspace.

As space systems play an increasingly important role in Japan’s national defense, we will further enhance our deterrence against hostile offensive actions. While improving the resilience of space assets, we will attach great importance to the effective use of commercial space services.

3. How to enhance the deterrent effect of Japan’s aerospace power

The report points out that Japan should attach importance to cross-domain coordination of sea, land, air and space forces, especially to strengthen cooperation with the United States. It is necessary to closely monitor the surrounding airspace, use aircraft to perform denial missions when the situation escalates, and take active defense measures to prevent missile attacks. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of Self-Defense Force bases and realize the mutual use of air bases between Japan and the United States. Japan is surrounded by the sea, and it is necessary to attach importance to developing the ability to use air means to strike maritime targets to ensure the security of the homeland.

Faced with the vast Indo-Pacific region, it is difficult for Japan to accurately grasp the regional situation by relying solely on its own aerospace power. It is necessary to share intelligence information through multilateral cooperation and build a Common Operational Picture (COP) in the Indo-Pacific region to accurately and comprehensively grasp the regional situation and have a deterrent effect on potential enemies. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation with countries other than the United States, especially Australia. Japan, the United States and Australia should establish joint ammunition and fuel depots in their respective countries. In the field of space, Japan will expand cooperation in hosting payloads. If it can cooperate with European countries, then future attacks on Japanese satellites can be regarded as attacks on multiple countries. It is becoming increasingly important to make full use of the power of allies and use their aerospace power to achieve deterrence goals.

4

Strengthening Deterrence in Cyberspace

1. Characteristics of Cyberspace Operations

The report believes that cyberspace has an increasing impact on the course of war, and cyberspace combat capabilities can even deter the occurrence of an entire conflict. Cyberspace security plays an important role in protecting various systems from cyber attacks, ensuring that confidential information is not leaked, and ensuring the normal operation of other systems such as critical infrastructure. It is also of great significance for cognitive domain protection.

There are two main characteristics of cyberspace at present. First, the boundary between military and civilian is blurred. The potential of military application of Internet is constantly emerging. In the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the artillery combat management system (GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA) used by Ukraine is to send data through drones and smartphones to determine the target location and launch attacks, which is very effective. Second, the security concept based on closed system is outdated. Even with physical isolation, it is impossible to completely prevent attacks. Cyberspace is easy to attack but difficult to defend, and the offense and defense are asymmetric. In addition, cyberspace operations can control the rhythm of conflict escalation in a low-intensity form, and can also be upgraded to a powerful weapon with high-intensity offensiveness after the official outbreak of military conflict.

2. Developing emerging technologies to enhance cyber warfare capabilities

The report points out that the development of emerging technologies will continue to change the rules of warfare, and the Japanese Ministry of Defense has begun to study the use of cloud computing to build a basic computing environment. It plans to build a diversified network environment, use Starlink satellites and 5G networks to provide Internet services, and consider enabling the new Internet communication protocol QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connection). The first quantum computer has been developed, and related research on anti-quantum cryptography has been carried out. At the same time, it also pays close attention to the specific ways of combining artificial intelligence with cyber warfare.

3. Ways to strengthen cyber deterrence

The report emphasizes that the development of artificial intelligence technology and the adjustment of the network component supply chain are two uncertain factors. Japan should focus on improving its cyber warfare capabilities from the following aspects: (1) vigorously promote intelligence information sharing; (2) build active defense systems; (3) introduce zero trust and risk management frameworks; (4) establish the ability to attack adversary networks; (5) accelerate legislation in the field of cybersecurity; (6) expand the scale of talent training and increase support for commercial enterprises. By carrying out the above work, Japan can achieve early detection and response to cyber attacks. Even if it encounters a cyber attack, it can be discovered, processed and recovered at an early stage to ensure the resilience of the system to continue to operate. In addition, when Japan is attacked, it should coordinate actions with the US military. In peacetime, joint training should be strengthened so that it can carry out joint operations with the Cyber ​​Mission Force (CMF) composed of relevant forces of the US Cyber ​​Command.

Responsible for directing, coordinating and conducting cyber operations

5

Conception of cyberspace combat scenarios

The report describes a basic scenario of cyber warfare between the Red and Blue sides, with the Taiwan Strait incident as the background, and puts forward the following important viewpoints: First, when the Blue side has an absolute advantage, the Blue side should focus on taking defensive actions to achieve deterrence. When the forces of the two sides tend to be balanced, the Blue side should actively take offensive actions to seize the initiative. Second, the Blue side can launch cyber attacks around the Red side’s observation, adjustment, decision-making, and action (OODA) links to weaken the Red side’s military capabilities, especially its maritime and landing combat capabilities, and carry out “anti-military cyber attack missions.” When necessary, strike the Red side’s social infrastructure to weaken its overall strength. At the same time, take cyber attacks to induce and divide public opinion, weaken the Red side’s willingness to take action, and carry out “anti-value cyber attack missions.” Third, in the anti-military cyber attack mission, the Blue side can attack the Red side’s aircraft, and can also take measures such as data pollution, deception cloud, and communication network interruption to attack the Red side’s command and control system. In the action of attacking the civilian network system, cyber attacks can be carried out on key entities of railway and ship operations in the Red coastal areas and key infrastructure such as the power grid in coastal metropolises that support social and economic systems. There are also options for attacking Red Team financial systems, media servers, and water and gas supply networks.

In order to deal with possible cyber attacks from the Red side in the event of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, Japan should do the following: First, adopt an active defense strategy, require commercial operators to share information with the government, and introduce artificial intelligence to improve cyber situational awareness and network resilience. Second, introduce a large-scale data forensics platform to identify the authenticity of massive image data and counter false information. Third, give priority to countermeasures against domestic cyber attacks, effectively defend the networks of defense, government departments, law enforcement agencies and private enterprises through various active cyber defense measures, and deal with cognitive domain actions against the Japanese public.

6

Conclusion

The report proposed the concept of War 3.0 and launched a series of discussions on achieving cyberspace and space deterrence. While suggesting strengthening its own relevant capacity building, it repeatedly emphasized the need to strengthen cooperation with the United States, especially with countries related to the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) and AUKUS. With Japan’s application to join AUKUS on April 25, 2024, the Asia-Pacific version of the “mini-NATO” alliance has taken shape, and regional peace and stability will be severely impacted.

Disclaimer: This article is reprinted from Military High-Tech Online, the original author is Shi Honglin. The content of the article is the original author’s personal opinion. This public account is translated/reprinted only for sharing and conveying different opinions. If you have any objections, please contact us!

Reprinted from Military High-Tech Online

Author: Shi Honglin

Introduction to the Institute

The International Institute of Technology and Economics (IITE) was established in November 1985. It is a non-profit research institution affiliated to the Development Research Center of the State Council. Its main functions are to study major policy, strategic and forward-looking issues in my country’s economic, scientific and technological social development, track and analyze the development trends of world science and technology and economy, and provide decision-making consulting services to the central government and relevant ministries. “Global Technology Map” is the official WeChat account of the International Institute of Technology and Economics, dedicated to delivering cutting-edge technology information and technological innovation insights to the public.

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新領域軍事力量的發展正在改變戰爭樣式,其中太空(也稱為外層空間)和網路空間(以下簡稱網空)力量經過多年的發展,已由概念力量轉變為現實力量。如何利用這兩種新質力量,已成為世界各主要強國重點研究的內容。 2024年3月日本笹川和平財團安全研究小組發布研究報告《戰爭3.0:戰爭的根本變化》(以下簡稱《報告》),從維護日本國家安全的角度出發,探討如何利用太空和網空實現戰略威懾等問題,並以台海突發事件為背景,提出了一個網空對抗的典型場景,展示了日本在運用新興領域作戰力量上的思考。現將其主要內容整理如下,以颯讀者。

01

戰爭3.0時代到來

《報告》認為,在冷戰時期,平民、國家和軍隊之間的界線很清晰,對峙雙方經濟依賴度較低,此時是戰爭1.0時代。冷戰後全球化加速發展,2001年進入反恐戰爭時代,對抗的主體變成國家與非國家行為體,此時是戰爭2.0時代。 2010年前後大國對抗再次出現,由於經濟全球化發展程度較高,「戰爭」較多發生在軍事以外的維度。俄烏衝突顯示在現代戰爭中,其他手段正變得與軍事手段同等重要。同時,商業公司也更參與新興軍事技術的研發和使用,政府對軍事力量的控製程度受到了削弱。自此可以用一個新的概念來描述現代戰爭,即戰爭3.0。

只要戰爭在全球化背景下發生,就會出現戰爭3.0所包含的特徵。進入戰爭3.0時代,威懾的目標主要是國家行為體,但具體衝突形式可能類似混合戰爭,也可能是常規戰爭。在製定太空和網空領域威懾戰略時,要同時考慮這兩類衝突形式。要體認到新興領域能力是傳統能力的倍增器,爭奪新興領域制權的意義,在於提升己方陸、海、空軍等實體力量或削弱對手的實體力量。

《報告》指出,運用新興領域力量實施攻擊,可以不造成有形的物理破壞,有利於管控衝突,是在灰色地帶行動的最佳工具。日本當前主要面臨兩個問題,一是執法機構擁有的新興領域力量和任務需求不相適應。二是需要考慮具體如何運用新興領域力量,以達到衝突的有效管控。

02

新興領域的戰略威懾

《報告》利用傳統威懾理論進行分析,得出太空和網空具有五個共同特徵:態勢感知難、防禦難度大、攻擊門檻低、行動主體混雜、缺乏國際行為準則。易攻難守是這兩個領域的共同特點,因此較難實現有效的戰略威懾。對此,應從四個方面採取行動:一是提高態勢感知能力,以便在出現問題後,能夠迅速確定故障原因,識別攻擊者,並在反擊時評估毀傷效果。二是提升復原力,確保喪失部分功能不會導致整個系統失能。三是強化進攻能力,可在某一領域進行攻擊,也可利用其他領域手段進行跨域攻擊。四是實現國家間軍備控制合作並建立信任,制定行為準則等。

03

加強空中和太空的威懾

(一)空天制權的內涵不斷豐富

《報告》認為,空中和太空可以瞰整個戰場,為爭奪空天制權,各類裝備不斷更新,作戰系統越來越複雜,作戰範圍也越來越寬廣。在作戰中,雙方往往會圍繞「發現、定位、追蹤、決策、交戰、評估(Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess,F2T2EA)」全殺傷鏈各環節,在太空、網空、電磁空間等新興領域同時進行對抗,大大拓展了傳統制權的內涵。在未來高端戰爭中,利用太空、網空和電磁空間能力水準較高的一方,可能會在整體作戰能力上擁有壓倒性的優勢。
(二)如何發揮太空力量的嚇阻功能

《報告》強調,太空系統在情報收集、監視和偵察(Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance,ISR),通信,定位、導航和授時(Positioning, Navigation and Timing, PNT),導彈預警,環境監測等方面發揮著重要作用,也為使用核武力量和常規力量提供越來越重要的支持。為了形成強大的太空威懾,一要擁有並展現對應能力,主要是太空系統的復原力、防禦力、反制報復能力以及態勢感知能力。二要向敵方展示使用報復能力的決心。三要形成跨域威懾以確保太空全系統安全。此外,陸海空等其他領域系統要能補充太空系統的部分功能,面對敵方對己方衛星的攻擊,不僅要從太空報復,還要透過陸海空和網空進行報復。

由於太空系統在日本國防中的作用越來越大,所以要進一步提升對敵對進攻行為的威懾。在提升太空資產復原力的同時,要高度重視商業太空服務的有效運用。

(三)如何增強日本空天肌力嚇阻效果

《報告》指出,日本應重視海陸空天力量的跨域協同,特別是加強與美國的合作。若要緊密監視週邊空域,在局勢升級時使用飛機執行拒止任務,採取主動防禦措施,防止遭遇飛彈攻擊。要加強自衛隊基地建設,實現日美兩國空軍基地的互相使用。日本四面環海,要重視發展使用空中手段打擊海上目標的能力,以確保本土安全。

面對廣袤的印太地區,日本僅靠自身的空天力量,難以準確掌握區域態勢,要透過多邊合作分享情報訊息,建構印太地區通用作戰態勢圖(Common Operational Picture, COP),以精準全面地掌握地區態勢,對潛在敵人產生嚇阻效果。要加強與美國以外的國家,特別是澳洲的合作。日本、美國和澳洲應在各自國家建立聯合彈藥和燃料庫。在太空領域,日本將拓展託管有效載荷合作,如能和歐洲國家合作,那麼未來攻擊日本衛星的行為,將可以被視為對多個國家的攻擊。要充分借助盟友力量,利用其空天力量達成威懾目的,這一點正變得越來越重要。

04

加強網空的威懾

(一)網空作戰的特點

《報告》認為,網空對戰爭進程的影響越來越大,而網空作戰能力甚至可以嚇阻整個衝突的發生。網空安全對於保護自身各類系統免受網路攻擊、確保機密資訊不會外洩、確保關鍵基礎設施等其他系統正常運作發揮重要作用,對於認知域防護也有著十分重大的意義。

目前網空主要有兩個特點,一是軍民界線模糊。網路的軍事應用潛力不斷顯現,在俄烏衝突中,烏克蘭使用的砲兵作戰管理系統(GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA),就是透過無人機和智慧型手機,發送資料確定目標位置並發動攻擊,且非常有效。二是基於封閉系統的安全觀念已經過時。即便是進行物理隔離,也不可能完全防止被攻擊,網空易攻難守,攻防呈現不對稱特徵。此外,網空作戰既可以低強度形式控制衝突升級的節奏,也可以在正式爆發軍事衝突後,升級為具有高強度攻擊性的強大武器。
(二)發展新興科技提升網路戰能力

《報告》指出,新興技術的發展將持續改變作戰規則,日本防衛省已開始研究使用雲端運算建構基本運算環境。計畫建置多樣化網路環境,使用「星鏈」衛星和5G網路提供網路服務,考慮啟用新的網路通訊協定QUIC(Quick UDP Internet Connection)。已研發首台量子計算機,並進行反量子密碼的相關研究。同時,也高度關注人工智慧與網路戰結合的具體方式。

(三)強化網空威懾的辦法

《報告》強調,人工智慧技術的發展和網路部件供應鏈的調整是兩個不確定的影響因素。日本應著重從以下幾點提升網路戰能力:(1)大力促進情報資訊共享;(2)建構主動防禦系統;(3)引入零信任和風險管理框架;(4)建立攻擊對手網路的能力; (5)加速網路安全領域立法;(6)擴大人才培育規模,增加對商業企業的支持。透過進行以上工作,日本可以實現提前發現和應對網路攻擊。即使遭遇網路攻擊,也可在早期階段發現、處理和恢復,確保系統繼續運作的彈性。此外,當日本受到攻擊時,要與美軍協調行動。平時要加強聯合訓練,以便能夠與由美國網路司令部相關部隊組成網路任務部隊(The Cyber​​ Mission Force, CMF)實施聯合行動。
負責指導、協調和執行網路行動

05

對網空作戰場景的構想

《報告》以台海突發事件為背景,描述了一個紅藍雙方網路戰的基本場景,提出了以下幾個重要觀點:一是當藍方擁有絕對優勢時,藍方應側重於採取防禦行動實現威懾。當雙方力量趨於平衡時,藍方則應積極採取攻擊行動以爭取主動權。二是藍方可以圍繞紅方觀察、調整、決策、行動(Observe Orient Decide Act, OODA)的各環節展開網絡攻擊,削弱紅方軍事能力,特別是海上作戰和登陸作戰能力,開展「反軍事網絡攻擊任務」。在必要時候打擊紅方社會基礎設施,削弱其整體實力。同時,採取網路攻擊誘導和分裂公眾輿論,削弱紅方採取行動的意願,進行「反價值網路攻擊任務」。第三是在反軍事網路攻擊任務中,藍方可以攻擊紅方飛機,還可以採取資料污染、欺騙雲以及通訊網路中斷等措施,攻擊紅方指控系統。在攻擊民用網路系統的行動中,可以對紅方沿海地區鐵路和船舶運營的關鍵實體以及支持社會和經濟系統的沿海大城市電網等關鍵基礎設施進行網路攻擊。還可以選擇攻擊紅方金融系統、媒體伺服器以及供水和天然氣供應網路。

為因應台海突發事件發生時紅方可能的網路攻擊,日本應做好以下幾點:一是採取主動防禦策略,要求商業業者要與政府分享訊息,引入人工智慧以提高網空態勢感知和網路彈性。二是引進大規模資料取證平台以辨識海量影像資料的真實性,反制假資訊。第三是優先採取針對本國網路攻擊的反制措施,透過各種積極網路防禦措施有效保衛防衛、政府部門、執法機構和私人企業的網絡,並處理針對日本公眾的認知域行動。
06

結語

該報告提出了戰爭3.0的概念,圍繞實現網空和太空威懾展開了一系列論述,在建議加強自身相關能力建設的同時,多次強調要加強與美國,特別是四方安全對話(Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, QUAD)和奧庫斯(AUKUS)相關國家的合作。隨著2024年4月25日日本申請加入“奧庫斯”,亞太版的“小北約”聯盟已現雛形,地區和平穩定將受到嚴重衝擊。

免責聲明:本文轉自軍事高科技在線,原作者史宏林。文章內容係原作者個人觀點,本公眾號編譯/轉載僅為分享、傳達不同觀點,如有任何異議,歡迎聯絡我們!

轉自丨軍事高科技在線

作者丨史宏林

研究所簡介

國際技術經濟研究所(IITE)成立於1985年11月,是隸屬於國務院發展研究中心的非營利研究機構,主要功能是研究我國經濟、科技社會發展中的重大政策性、策略性、前瞻性問題,追蹤分析世界科技、經濟發展態勢,為中央和相關部會提供決策諮詢服務。 「全球技術地圖」為國際技術經濟研究所官方微信帳號,致力於向大眾傳遞尖端技術資訊與科技創新洞見。

地址:北京市海淀區小南莊20號樓A座

中文原文來源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/J5UO0ID90514R8DE.html

Chinese Military Considers Metaverse the New Frontier for Future Cognitive Warfare

中國軍方認為元宇宙是未來認知戰的新領域

現代英語翻譯:

●The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but also reacts to the real world.

●Parallel with the real world, reaction to the real world, and integration of multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse.

●The metaverse provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society.

● Strengthening the follow-up research on the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare and highlighting the exploration of the mechanism of the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare will help enrich and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but reacts to the real world. When virtual technologies such as digital, Internet, augmented reality and modern communications, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other technologies develop to a certain stage, the metaverse will emerge. Being parallel to the real world, reacting to the real world, and integrating multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural law of human understanding and transformation of the world. It directly acts on human thinking and cognition but is not bound by the essential attributes of thinking and cognition, which determines that it carries the operating laws of the real world, provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behavior, state and laws of complex systems in reality, and a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. At the same time, it is itself a complex cognitive body, so it has immeasurable cognitive warfare application value.

The basic mechanism of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

The difference between the metaverse and other technologies is that it builds a complete digital world. Its operation is not supported by a single or a few technologies, but by a complex high-tech complex. This complex is built by humans, is a product of cognition, and continues to develop and evolve with the development of human cognitive practice. Its cognitive application has a unique regular mechanism.

System enhancement mechanism. The digital world constructed by the metaverse is itself a highly developed cognitive world. In this special cognitive world, technology not only exists as an additional role such as support and guarantee, but also directly participates in the shaping of cognition itself as a basic element of cognition. In other words, the technology that constitutes the metaverse itself has a distinct cognitive background, which not only supports the operation of cognition but also realizes the self-construction, revolution and transcendence of cognition; it not only provides a series of necessary technical services, but also creates a holographic technical soil for human cognition to operate independently and fight independently. The effect of the metaverse on cognition is not one-dimensional, but full-dimensional; not single-line, but full-system; not independent, but immersive; not fragmentary, but continuous; not cyclical, but full-life process. How far the thinking cognition develops, how far the metaverse develops, and thus it can shape people’s thinking cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly. Therefore, humans have used high technology to create “Avatar”, a complex system combining man and machine, and have also created a life form on “Pandora” that can think independently, recognize itself, and think and act on its own. This life form, which was created by humans and is independent of humans, has achieved self-improvement and development in the new universe.

The mechanism of mutual construction of technology and knowledge. Unlike the one-way effect of individual technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks on thinking and cognition, the metaverse provides a space for mutual construction of technology and cognition, and influence and counter-influence. In this space, we can simulate, demonstrate, simulate, and verify the process and results of this two-way mutual construction and promotion, so as to understand cognition more accurately and efficiently, improve cognitive warfare methods, and directly engage in real cognitive confrontation. The metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenes, where cognitive warfare can be promoted efficiently, enhanced at a fast pace, and presented in a panoramic manner. It is reported that the US military uses virtual technology to verify the performance of new weapons and equipment, test the effectiveness of the use of new tactics, and conduct combat simulation training, relying on the deployment of forces, combat terrain, human characteristics, and other scenes similar to actual combat constructed in virtual spaces such as the metaverse. At the same time, more and more countries and armies are conducting direct cognitive attacks and defenses with their opponents through virtual spaces, confusing their minds, misleading their directions, and eroding their will.

Active reflection mechanism. As a virtual existence parallel to the real world, the metaverse is not a simple digital copy of the three-dimensional space, but has its own operating rules and can actively act on the real world. This active action is the focus of the cognitive application of the metaverse. The metaverse space game reflects the characteristics of cognitive warfare. The war results deduced in the metaverse through virtual simulation may directly affect the real world, extending to the conscious cognitive competition game through sensory touch, thereby winning the dominant position in cognitive warfare. In the cognitive perspective, the metaverse is both a new cognitive space and the main battlefield of cognition, as well as an extended domain of cognition and a new cognitive component. At present, the military of many countries uses sandbox operations, war games and even computer simulations to formulate and test strategies and tactics, revise the application of tactics, improve training methods, and improve weapons and equipment. This is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to reality. With the continuous development and integration of the metaverse technology group, cognitive confrontation will inevitably shift more and faster from the real world to a hybrid world combining virtuality and reality.

The basic characteristics of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Existence determines consciousness, and technology drives creation. The metaverse has many characteristics, such as parallelism with the real world, initiative in the real world, and comprehensiveness that integrates multiple technologies. These prominent characteristics determine the different characteristics and laws of its effects on thinking and cognition.

Cross-domain construction. The formation, development and evolution of cognition are rarely determined by a single factor, but are often the result of the combined effect of multiple factors. The metaverse originates from the real world and is presented in the virtual space. It has the characteristics of multi-domain interconnection that runs through the real and virtual worlds. As the saying goes, “a lot of gossip can melt gold, and accumulated criticism can destroy bones.” This cross-domain characteristic that spans different fields and opens up related spaces can best influence and shape people’s thinking and cognition from different angles. The most typical case is that game developers are increasingly focusing on using virtual stories based on historical facts and real feelings to attract and infect people. The United States has used this cross-domain shaped surreal “real” experience to spread values. At present, the most representative “metaverse” themed science fiction work is “Ready Player One” directed by Spielberg. The play focuses on depicting the era background of the birth of the “metaverse” and the huge contrast between the real status and virtual status of the protagonist. Through the plot and special effects shots, it delicately portrays the real sense of human participation, thereby spreading the American ideology, especially the values ​​of gaining wealth, status, love and friendship through “bloodless” struggle in the virtual world.

Integrated influence. The important fulcrums of cognitive warfare are strategy and technology. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the proportion of technology in cognitive warfare is increasing and its role is becoming more and more prominent. It can be said that cognitive warfare without scientific and technological support is cognitive warfare without power, and cognitive warfare with advanced technology is more likely to win. As a complex system integrating multiple cutting-edge technologies, the metaverse has a natural advantage in the use of cognitive warfare. Many people, including adults, are deeply trapped in the virtual world and indulge in online games. It is very important that the virtual space gives game operators a super-time and space experience and a sense of achievement. If martial arts novels are fairy tales for adults, then the metaverse, which can “do whatever you want”, creates a super fairy tale world, which has an immeasurable impact on people’s thinking, cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotional will, and behavior patterns.

Compromising influence. A big difference between the metaverse and other technical means is that it constructs a virtual world that originates from the real world but reacts to the real world. In this complex domain space, people’s thinking and cognition go back and forth between the real world and the virtual space, verify each other, repeatedly confirm, and constantly correct, thereby generating new thinking and cognition, and exerting a dynamic influence on both worlds. This two-way interactive compromising influence, on the one hand, is conducive to the formation and development of correct thinking and cognition, making the cognition of the real world more imaginative with the wings of the virtual world’s thoughts, and at the same time, it also makes the cognition of the virtual space find the material support of the real world and become more scientific. On the other hand, if it is not operated properly, it is likely to cause great safety hazards and ethical problems. In recent years, the U.S. military has relied on artificial intelligence and virtual technology to remotely control drones to attack opponents, which is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to the real world. This attack is far away from the tragic scene of face-to-face fighting, which greatly dilutes the drone operator’s awe of life and lowers the threshold for remotely controlling the opponent. At the same time, due to the imperfect reconnaissance and identification technology, incidents of accidental shooting, injury, and killing of civilians, friendly forces, and even their own troops often occur.

The basic style of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Metaverse cognitive warfare is based on reality and leads future development. It involves both the virtual and real worlds, penetrates multiple fields, covers multiple technologies, and has a variety of combat styles. There is great uncertainty, but it is not without rules. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are three basic styles.

Platform confrontation. In terms of its relationship with human thinking and cognition, the metaverse itself is a complex cognitive actor, a derivative of human thinking and cognition, and an important component and platform of cognitive warfare. When hostile countries and armies regard the metaverse as an important position for cognitive warfare, cognitive offensive and defensive operations between different camps within the metaverse exist in reality. On this platform, all technologies, resources and forces of the metaverse are integrated and operated with thinking and cognition as the center. Metaverse operations are prominently manifested as cognitive offensive and defensive operations aimed at disrupting, delaying, blocking, destroying and eliminating the existence and operation of the opponent’s metaverse. In this field, whoever has higher-end strategic planning, more flexible tactical application, more advanced technical force and more solid material support will be able to gain the initiative in metaverse cognitive warfare.

System attack. The metaverse is a cognitive system composed of a series of cutting-edge technologies, and systemicity is its inherent attribute and vitality guarantee. Advanced technologies such as digital foundation, efficient communication, blockchain identity authentication, holographic AR imaging, artificial intelligence, and high-performance Internet constitute a unified body with tight structure, functional coupling, and complete system. The components are indispensable for the formation and development of thinking cognition and offensive and defensive confrontation. It is difficult to imagine that the metaverse still has the possibility of existence without the support of advanced technology groups such as high-level digitization, high-quality communication, and high-speed computing. Using superior forces to force or use asymmetric tactics to attack and block the key nodes and technological operation chains of the opponent’s metaverse system, hinder its operation, suppress its functions, and destroy its existence is an important style and efficient path of metaverse cognitive warfare.

Divert the flow. An important value and significance of the existence and development of the metaverse lies in serving and supporting the related activities of the real world. Under normal circumstances, the metaverse can demonstrate, display, review and predict the related activities of the real world in a digital form. Once the communication between the virtual and real worlds is disturbed or the self-operation of the metaverse is disordered, it is easy to cause the situation reflected to be untrue, the information analyzed to be distorted, the conclusions derived to be invalid, and the suggestions provided to be wrong, causing the related activities of the real world to deviate. It is based on this that we can concentrate our efforts on inducing attacks on the internal operation of the opponent’s metaverse or the communication technology devices of the two worlds, and use extremely confusing and deceptive information and scenes to divert the flow, confuse their cognition, interfere with their judgment, and mislead their decision-making. Therefore, we should strengthen the tracking research on the cognitive warfare of the role of the metaverse, highlight the exploration of the cognitive warfare mechanism of the role of the metaverse, and strengthen and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute of the Academy of Military Sciences)

現代國語:

●元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。

●與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。

●元宇宙提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式,以及探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段。

●加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,將有助於豐富促進認知戰理論建構。

元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。當數位、網路、擴增實境等虛擬技術和現代通訊、區塊鏈、人工智慧等技術發展到一定階段,元宇宙就橫空出世。與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。元宇宙運作符合人類認識世界、改造世界的自然規律,其直接作用於人的思維認知但又不拘泥於思維認知的本質屬性,決定其本身承載了現實世界的運作規律,提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式和探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段,同時它本身就是一個複雜的認知體,因而具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本機制

元宇宙相對於其他技術的差異在於構築了一個完整的數位世界,支撐其運作的不是單一或幾個技術,而是一個複雜的高科技複合體。這個複合體是人構築的,是認知的產物並隨人類認知實踐的發展不斷發展演變,其認知運用具有獨特的規律機制。

體系增強機理。元宇宙構築的數位世界本身就是一個高度發展的認知世界,在這個特殊的認知世界裡,科技不僅以支撐和保障等附加角色存在,也直接作為認知的基本元素參與認知本身的塑造。也就是說構成元宇宙的技術本身俱有鮮明的認知底色,既支撐了認知的運作又實現了認知的自我建構、革命與超越;既提供了一系列必要的技術服務,又打造了一個人類認知自我運作、獨立作戰的全息技術土壤。元宇宙對認知的作用不是單向度的,而是全維度的;不是單線的,而是全系統的;不是獨立式的,而是沉浸型的;不是片段的,而是持續型的;不是周期階段型的,而是全壽命流程的。思維認知發展有多遠,元宇宙發展就有多遠,因而能夠更全面更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知。於是,人類既用高科技打造了「阿凡達」這個人機結合的複雜系統,同時也打造了一個在「潘朵拉星球」上能夠自主思維、自我認知、自行思想與行動的生命體,這個產生於人又獨立於人的生命體在新的宇宙空間中實現了自我完善與發展。

技知互構機理。與人工智慧、資訊網路等單一技術對思考認知的單向作用不同,元宇宙提供了一個技術與認知作用與反作用、影響與反影響的互構空間。在這個空間裡,我們能夠模擬、展示、模擬、驗證這種雙向互構共促的過程與結果,進而更加精準高效地認識認知、改進認知戰方式,同時也可以直接進行真刀真槍的認知對抗。元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進、快節奏增強、全景式呈現。據悉,美軍將虛擬技術運用於新武器裝備性能驗證、新戰法運用效果檢驗及作戰模擬訓練等,依託的就是在元宇宙等虛擬空間中構建的兵力佈置、作戰地形、人文特徵等近似實戰的場景。同時,也有越來越多的國家和軍隊透過虛擬空間與對手進行直接的認知攻防,迷茫其心智,誤導其方向,銷蝕其意志。

能動反射機理。元宇宙作為與現實世界平行的虛擬存在,不是簡單地將三維空間數位化複製,而有著自身運行規則並能動作用於現實世界,這種能動作用即是元宇宙認知運用的著力點。元宇宙空間博弈體現認知戰特點,透過虛擬模擬在元宇宙中推演出的戰爭結果,可能直接作用於現實世界,透過感官觸覺延伸到意識認知的爭奪博弈,從而贏得認知戰主導權。在認知視域下,元宇宙既是認知的新空間也是認知的主戰場,既是認知的延伸域也是認知的新構件。目前,不少國家軍隊透過沙盤作業、兵棋推演甚至電腦模擬模擬來發展和檢驗戰略戰術、修訂戰法運用、完善訓練方法、改進武器裝備,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實的典型案例。隨著元宇宙技術群不斷發展融合,認知對抗必將更多、更快由現實世界向虛實結合的混合世界發展轉進。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本特徵

存在決定意識,技術驅動創造。元宇宙具有與現實世界的平行性、對現實世界的能動性、融多種技術於一體的綜合性等諸多特徵。這些突出特徵,決定其作用於思考認知的不同特徵規律。

跨領域構塑。認知的形成發展演變很少由單一因素決定,往往是多種因素綜合作用的結果。元宇宙源自現實世界、呈現於虛擬空間,具有貫穿現實與虛擬的多域連結特徵。所謂“眾口鑠金,積毀銷骨”,這種跨越不同領域、打通關聯空間的跨域特質,最能從不同角度影響和塑造人的思維認知。最典型的案例就是遊戲開發商越來越注重用建立在歷史事實和現實感受基礎上的虛擬故事吸引人感染人。美國已將這種跨領域塑造的超現實「真實」體驗用於價值觀的傳播。目前最具代表性的「元宇宙」主題科幻作品是史匹柏導演的《頭號玩家》,該劇聚焦於描繪「元宇宙」誕生的時代背景及主角的現實地位與虛擬地位之間的巨大反差,透過故事情節和特效鏡頭細膩地刻畫人類的真實參與感,從而傳播在虛擬世界裡透過「不流血」的鬥爭也能獲得財富、地位、愛情和友誼的美式意識形態特別是價值觀。

融合式影響。認知戰運作依託的重要支點是謀略和技術,隨著科技的發展和社會的進步,技術之於認知戰構成所佔比重越來越大、作用越來越突出。可以說,缺乏科技支撐的認知戰是缺乏力量的認知戰,有先進科技加持的認知戰獲勝的可能性更大。元宇宙作為融多種前沿科技於一體的複雜系統,在認知戰運用上具有天然優勢。不少人包括成年人深陷虛擬世界、沉湎網路遊戲,很重要的是虛擬空間賦予遊戲操盤手的超時空體驗和成就快感。如果說武俠小說是成人的童話,那麼可以「隨心所欲」縱橫馳騁的元宇宙,則打造了一個超級童話世界,其對人的思維認知、價值追求、道德觀念、情感意志、行為模式等的影響不可限量。

折衝性浸染。元宇宙與其他技術手段的一個很大不同,在於其建構的是一個源自現實世界但又反作用於現實世界母體的虛擬世界。在這個複雜領域空間中,人的思維認知在現實世界與虛擬空間之間往來折衝、相互印證、反覆確認、不斷修正進而產生新的思考認知,並對兩個世界都產生施動性影響。這種雙向互動的折衝性浸染,一方面有利於正確思維認知的形成與發展,使現實世界的認知插上虛擬世界思想放飛的翅膀而更富想像力,同時也使虛擬空間的認知找到現實世界的物質支撐而更科學。另一方面如果操作不當,很可能產生極大的安全隱患和倫理問題。這些年美軍依賴人工智慧和虛擬技術遙控的無人機攻擊對手,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實世界的典型案例。這種攻擊因遠離面對面搏殺的慘烈現場,極大淡化了無人機操作員對生命的敬畏,降低了其遙控攻擊對手的門檻。同時,由於偵察辨識技術不完善,誤擊誤傷誤殺平民、友軍甚至自己軍隊的事時有發生。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本樣式

元宇宙作用認知戰基於現實基礎、引領未來發展,涉及虛實兩界、貫通多個領域、涵蓋多種技術,作戰樣式多種多樣,有很大的不確定性,但並非無規律可循。綜合分析,基本樣式有以下三種。

平台對抗。元宇宙就其與人的思維認知的關係而言,本身就是一個複雜的認知行為體,是人類思維認知的衍生品,也是認知戰的重要構件和平台。當敵對國家和軍隊都將元宇宙視為認知戰的重要陣地時,元宇宙內部不同陣營間的認知攻防作戰就會現​​實存在。在這個平台上,元宇宙的一切技術、資源和力量都以思維認知為中心來整合運作。元宇宙作戰突顯為以擾亂、遲滯、阻擋、摧毀、消滅對手元宇宙存在和運作為目的的認知攻防作戰。在這個領域中,誰的戰略運籌更高端、戰術運用更靈活、技術力量更先進、物質支撐更堅實,誰就能取得元宇宙認知戰主動權。

體系破襲。元宇宙是由一系列前沿技術所構成的認知系統,而體系性則是其固有屬性和活力保證。數位基礎、高效通訊、區塊鏈身分認證、全像AR成像、人工智慧、高效能互聯網等先進科技,構成結構緊密、功能耦合、體系完整的統一體,其中構件對思維認知的形成發展與攻防對抗缺一不可。很難想像缺乏高階階數位化、高品質通聯、高速度計算等先進技術群的支撐,元宇宙還有存在的可能性。運用優勢力量高壓強製或以非對稱戰法攻擊和阻斷對手元宇宙體系的關鍵節點和科技運行鏈條,阻遏其運作、壓制其功能、摧毀其存在,是元宇宙認知戰的重要樣式和高效路徑。

曲嚮導流。元宇宙存在發展的一個重要價值和意義在於服務支持現實世界關聯活動。正常情況下,元宇宙能夠以數位形式全景展示、展示、複盤和預測現實世界的相關活動。一旦虛實兩個世界的通聯受擾受阻或元宇宙內部自運行失序,很容易導致其反映的情況失實、分析的信息失真、推導的結論失效、提供的建議失策,使現實世界的關聯活動跑偏走向。正是基於此,可集中力量對對手元宇宙內部運作或兩個世界的通聯技術裝置進行誘導攻擊,用極具迷惑性欺騙性的信息和場景曲嚮導流,迷茫其認知,幹擾其判斷,誤導其決策。因此,應加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,強化促進認知戰理論建構。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍事政治工作研究院)

中國軍事資源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-03/03/content_310888.htm

Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍隊把攻防當作認知域作戰作戰的重要著力點

現代英語翻譯:

Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.

現代國語:

價值攻防是從戰略層面進行認知域作戰的重要方式,通常價值攻防是透過幹預人的思維、信念、價值觀等,以達成瓦解敵方共識,摧毀敵方意志,進而掌控戰場綜合控制權的目的。精確掌握價值攻防的特性、機制、手段,對奪取未來認知域作戰優勢至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的特點

價值攻防是指透過引發個體或群體的深層邏輯思辨、價值判斷改變,完成其對相對穩定的認知結果的干預和影響,以期重構人的意志、思維、心理、情感等認知能力。價值攻防主要有以下幾個特點:

軟性對抗。傳統戰爭主要依賴暴力手段來削弱瓦解敵方的軍事能力,通常具有較強的戰爭強度。認知域作戰將不再侷限於攻城略地等硬性對抗,而更著重於圍繞價值陣地展開滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制,透過爭奪認知域對抗的主導權,進一步激發物理域和資訊域的作戰效能,從而奪取戰場主動,甚至達到不戰而屈人之兵的效果。在實踐中,價值攻防往往著眼於一個國家、民族的文化傳統、價值觀念和社會心理展開,最終達到對敵方意志摧毀、認知操縱、精神控制的目的。

全維度釋放。現代戰爭日益呈現總體性、多域性、全時性特徵。認知域作戰旨在透過幹預人的意識進而影響戰場效果,而意識的相對穩定決定了人的世界觀、信仰等價值觀念一般情況下往往較為穩固,因此價值攻防需要長期的、不間斷的、全息全維度地進行。從時間上看,價值攻防模糊了平戰邊界,常態在戰、隨時在戰,持續積累、逐步釋放作戰效能;從空間上看,價值攻防模糊了作戰前後方界限,在有形空間與無形空間全方位展開;從領域上看,價值攻防模糊了軍事與非軍事的界限,不僅發生在軍事領域,也存在於政治、經濟、外交、文化等領域,呈現出全局覆蓋的特徵。

科技賦能。認知域作戰是一項技術密集的複雜系統工程。人工智慧、腦科學、量子運算等新興技術手段全流程滲透,正在引發認知域作戰的迭代升級與深刻變革。智慧化工具從根本上增強了認知域作戰人員操縱對手思想和乾預對手思維的能力,人機混合作為作戰力量新手段新樣式將改變未來戰爭主體,自主對抗、雲腦制勝或成為主流攻防模式。近年來,北約推出的認知電子戰設備,旨在透過資訊攻防來改變對手價值認知及行為。科技發展也引發了認知革命,資訊的快速傳播進一步加速了大眾價值認知差異,認知孤島加劇了不同主體之間的價值鴻溝,智能化帶來的社會結構變遷則深刻改變著政治文化格局。從這點出發,在未來認知域作戰中,牽住科技創新的“牛鼻子”,掌握關鍵核心技術,對於奪取戰場主動至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的機理

價值攻防是認知域作戰的高階對抗,作用對象指向的是人的深層認知。意識是社會存在在大腦中的反映,對社會存在的調節、對大眾意識的引導和人腦作用的改變,都能強化或扭轉人的意識。要在攻防對抗中製勝對手,就要遵循思考認知規律,掌握價值攻防制勝機理。

衝擊價值「保護帶」。佔領價值制高點是開展價值攻防的邏輯起點。社會意識往往由相對穩定的核心價值觀念和外圍的輔助性理論所構成,經濟、政治、宗教、文化等各種理論都能被建構調適以用來保護核心價值觀念免受外來衝擊,因此也承受著其他價值觀的衝擊挑戰。在外軍看來,價值攻防就是要透過文化滲透、宗教衝突、戰略傳播等手段,配合物理域和資訊域的行動,不斷衝擊對手意識形態的「保護帶」領域。這往往需要抓住影響對手認知的價值觀念、政治態度、宗教信仰等,透過擾亂其社會群體心理,誘發價值困惑,動搖作戰意志,摧毀文化認同,甚至改變瓦解其原有的認知體系,從而灌輸或植入新的、於己有利的價值觀念,以實現作戰目的。

點燃衝突“引爆點”。認知域作戰涉及歷史文化、政治制度、民族情感、宗教信仰等多個範疇,戰爭主體也從單純軍事人員拓展到一般民眾。透過炒作話題爭端、公共事件,激發一般民眾的認知衝突,將成為認知領域作戰的重要手段。在近幾場局部衝突中,交戰各方透過有目的性的敘事點燃國家民族情緒,引發政治危機進而影響戰局已屢見不鮮。未來戰爭,一些國家利用熱點敏感事件引爆輿論,依托網路技術對一般民眾進行聚攏吸附、煽動動員、精準操控和誘導塑造,從而推動一般性衝突上升為信仰之爭、制度之爭、價值之爭將成為常態。

控制認知「斷裂面」。認知空間作為觀念層面的存在,由全部作戰個體的主觀認知空間疊加而成,是分化的、差異性的乃至衝突性的價值集合體。然而,意識形態具有「縫合」功能,透過認知塑造、話語建構,可以把斷裂的認知有效地「縫合」起來,把分散的價值凝聚起來,形成相對穩固的認知體系。二戰後法國對戰敗創傷曾進行過有效的認知“縫合”,其運用一整套獨立敘事邏輯,闡述戰爭如何為法國提供了“新的機會”,極大地凝聚了法國人民對政府的政治認同。在認知域作戰中開展價值陣地爭奪,應注重敵方內部的認知斷裂面,尋找敵我之間的認知連接點進行認知“縫合”,最大限度地團結各方力量,孤立瓦解敵人。

價值攻防作用認知域的主要手段

價值攻防使認知對抗從輿論、心理等層面拓展到思維空間,從軍事領域拓展到整體全局,從而實現了對敵方深層的政治認同的打擊。當前世界軍事強國都在加強戰略預置,瞄準目標主體、戰法手段的深刻變化,變革作戰思維,積極掌控認知域作戰的主動權。

以深層摧毀為目標。認知域作戰直接作用於人的大腦認知,相較於物理域作戰,更容易實現深層的戰略意圖。特別是人的語言層級、思維層級和文化層級的「高階認知」一旦被突破,有助於從戰略上扭轉戰場態勢,實現戰爭的政治目的。基於此,認知域作戰往往始於未戰,透過幹預對手內政外交,動搖其意識形態和價值觀基礎等;戰時則注重影響敵方戰爭決策、戰役指揮、戰鬥實施的價值判斷,打擊或削弱作戰人員的決策能力和抵抗意誌等。敵對各方都試圖做到“維繫自己的世界,同時增加對手的破壞性壓力”,以通過爭奪認知優勢實現決策優勢,進而取得行動優勢的目標。

以普通個體為中心。未來認知域作戰的主體將不再局限於軍事人員,廣義上講,可以進行資訊交流傳播的個體都可能成為參戰力量。相較於社會領域的精英,一般民眾更容易接受和傳播多元價值,其認知空間被操縱的機率更大。目前,網路媒體正成為社會領域資訊交流傳播的主要管道,透過有針對性的訊息引導、訊息傳遞,進而達到認知塑造的目的。外軍實踐證明,借助對一般個體的認知塑造,可以造成從下到上的遞進滲透和認知幹擾,使一般民眾與社會決策層之間的意識觀念產生背離,在關鍵行動中無法達成有效共識。

以持久作戰為形式。與物理域軍事鬥爭直接打擊摧毀「硬」目標不同,認知域作戰的潛在目標為人的認知,價值攻防指向的是改變作戰對象的觀念、信念、意志、情感等,往往需要潛移默化、步步為營。有效的認知進攻一般在作戰準備階段就發起,並貫穿戰爭始末,透過收集對手的認知態勢、決策習慣、思考模式等情況,有針對性地進行營造態勢、改變氛圍等行動。因此,認知域作戰更需要加強整體設計,尤其要注重協調多方力量,在輿論場營造、外交等多個陣地多點強化預置準備,進而形成整體作戰合力。

中國軍事資源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/HDOT8JIM0511DV4H888.html

China’s “War of Annihilation” from the Perspective of Modern Warfare

現代戰爭視角下的中國“殲滅戰”

現代英語:

“Based on the evolution of war, grasp the “cautious first battle””

  Written in front

  In the history of our army, fighting a war of annihilation is one of the most distinctive and important guiding ideas for operations. As early as the Agrarian Revolutionary War, based on the war purpose of “preserving ourselves and destroying the enemy”, our army clearly proposed that the basic policy in operations was to fight a war of annihilation. Since then, in different historical periods, according to different environments, situations and tasks, our army has maintained a high degree of flexibility and maneuverability in combat guidance, and has resolutely implemented the principle of fighting a war of annihilation, continuously enriched and developed combat theories, and wrote classic examples of the weak defeating the strong in the history of world wars.

  With the advent of the information age, the form of warfare, battlefield environment, military technology, and warfare mechanisms have undergone major changes. How the traditional theory of annihilation warfare can adapt to the changes of the times, give full play to our strengths, attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and innovate and develop is a question of the times that our generation of soldiers must answer well.

  Depriving the enemy of its combat power is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In the long-term practice of revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. In order to dampen the enemy’s spirit, seize the initiative and defeat the enemy, while emphasizing the cautiousness of the first battle, we pay great attention to planning and fighting a war of annihilation to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. Therefore, “it is better to cut off one finger than to injure ten fingers”, completely depriving the enemy of its combat capability, avoiding a war of attrition or a war of defeat, has also become a key indicator for measuring the success or failure of a war of annihilation and the comprehensive effectiveness of combat. Combat under traditional conditions is often the physical superposition of troops and weapons in the same time and space, emphasizing hard killing as the main method, and the strength of combat effectiveness is mainly manifested through parameters such as mobility, firepower, and protection. Correspondingly, quickly and effectively eliminating the enemy’s living forces has become the most effective means of winning hearts and minds and disintegrating the enemy.

  Entering the information age, information power has driven the displacement of combat effectiveness measurement standards in an exponential manner. While becoming the dominant factor in the informationized battlefield, it has strongly promoted the organic integration of combat power with early warning detection, reconnaissance intelligence, command and control, and rear-end support. The warring parties are showing a trend of full-system and full-factor confrontation. The informationized battlefield no longer simply emphasizes the spatial and temporal concentration of troops and weapons to suppress and attack the enemy, but focuses on relying on the network information system to seize information space and compete for information advantages, so that the enemy “cannot see clearly, cannot connect, and cannot hit accurately”, thereby completely depriving the enemy of its combat effectiveness. In the Kosovo War, after suffering 78 days of continuous air strikes by NATO, although the Yugoslav army did not suffer major losses in its manpower, it was always in a passive position because the material basis of the war and the reconnaissance and early warning, command and control, air defense and anti-missile systems were destroyed and paralyzed by the enemy, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty.

  In today’s era, destroying the enemy’s key war support elements, depriving it of the objective material basis for continuous combat, and undermining its will to wage war are not only important options for annihilation warfare to pursue deterrence effects and deprive the enemy of its combat effectiveness, but also a necessary way for annihilation warfare to achieve combat intentions and defeat the opponent.

  Attacking the key points and breaking the system is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  For a long time, pulling teeth out of a tiger’s mouth and striking the enemy’s vital points have been important indicators for testing the courage and command art of commanders and fighters, and are also effective means to defeat the enemy and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. During the Hujia Wopeng Battle of the Liaoshen Campaign during the War of Liberation, the 3rd Column of the Northeast Field Army first destroyed the Liao Yaoxiang Corps Command through bold penetration, infiltration, and division, and quickly trapped the enemy in a state of collapse and defeat. But at the same time, we should also see that due to the constraints of military technology level and the effectiveness of weapons and equipment, in traditional operations, there are often many practical difficulties in accurately striking core targets such as enemy command organizations and key defense positions, and there is a lack of effective means to “go straight to Huanglong”. It can be said that traditional annihilation warfare is still more about annihilating the opponent’s living forces. This also makes it an important factor in designing the combat process and considering the success or failure of operations in traditional operations to measure and compare the number and scale of troops and weapons of both sides.

  In the information age, on the one hand, the environmental situation and war thinking have undergone profound changes. The necessity and possibility of expanding the size of the army in exchange for improved combat effectiveness and then winning the war by annihilating a large number of enemy heavy troops are becoming less and less; on the other hand, new weapons and equipment such as precision guidance and unmanned intelligence, with the support of powerful information networks and aerospace reconnaissance capabilities, can implement “decapitation operations” and “targeted elimination” more quickly and accurately, and quickly achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. The combat mode of seizing the key nodes and parts of the enemy’s combat system, carrying out precise strikes and structural destruction, paralyzing the enemy’s combat system while reducing collateral damage and achieving combat objectives is becoming more and more respected. As a result, command centers, communication hubs, radar positions, network nodes, etc. have become sensitive parts that the warring parties focus on protecting and the key points of attacking. In the Iraq War, the US military launched a comprehensive structural paralysis operation against the Iraqi army. By implementing “decapitation operations” against Iraqi military and political leaders and “targeted elimination” of the Iraqi army’s communication command and air defense systems, the Iraqi army was placed in a completely passive position throughout the process, and the war process was accelerated.

  In today’s era, with the rapid development of information technology and war practice, “system destruction” is becoming a keyword in modern combat theory, and is gradually promoting the overall transformation of combat modes. It has not only become a new way and means to win wars, but also an important way to win modern annihilation wars.

  Controlling operational control is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In previous war practices, the combat environment faced by our army was relatively simple, and the battlefield was mainly carried out on land. Although our army is often at a disadvantage compared to the opponent’s weapons and equipment, it can often defeat the strong with the weak and defeat the enemy by exploring its own advantages, exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses, and actively looking for opportunities. In the second battle of the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, the volunteer army adopted the combat strategy of internal operations, luring the enemy deep into the enemy, and defeating them one by one. They made full use of the darkness of night and terrain to secretly engage the enemy, dared to cut off the enemy’s retreat, interspersed attacks, and divided and surrounded the enemy, giving the enemy an annihilating blow, and finally won the battle and reversed the entire situation in one fell swoop. This shows that for a party that is temporarily unable to seize comprehensive control of the battlefield in combat, as long as it is good at exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses and cleverly reducing the enemy’s sharp attack momentum, it can still seek the initiative to win in difficult and difficult situations and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, wars are fought on vast battlefields, both visible and invisible. In addition to the traditional battlefields of land, sea and air, they are also further extended to deep sea, space, electromagnetic, network, intelligence, biology and other space fields, presenting a complex situation. The armies of the world’s powerful countries have taken the seizure of comprehensive control and the initiative in war as important indicators and necessary ways to build their army and defeat their opponents. Dimensionality reduction strikes have become a must-have in battlefield confrontations. In recent years, the US military’s foreign aggression has relied on the battlefield comprehensive control dominated by the advantages of air and space control and information control. However, we must also see that no matter how powerful the opponent is, there will be fatal weaknesses. Even if it is difficult for the party with relatively backward weapons and equipment to fully seize the battlefield comprehensive control, it can still “attack the incapable with the capable” in the local battlefield, seek local combat initiative, and thus win the local annihilation war, and use the local initiative to drive the overall initiative, and use asymmetric single control to help seize local comprehensive control and achieve final victory.

  In today’s era, we must accelerate the construction of all aspects of the military and step up the forging of capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield. We must also follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive war”, “cross-domain war”, “intelligent war” and other tactics, use dimensionality reduction strikes, asymmetric strikes and other tactics, turn disadvantages into advantages, turn passivity into initiative, control combat control by “attacking the incapable with the able”, and win the war of annihilation.

  Accurately releasing energy is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  Traditional warfare is restricted by factors such as command and communication, mobility, firepower speed, and weather conditions. The use of forces is often limited to a certain combat area. There is little change in combat command and troop actions, and offensive and defensive actions are relatively clear. In the past, annihilation warfare was more often achieved through echelon (group) deployment, continuous attack (resistance), layer-by-layer capture (defense), combined with interspersed detours, segmentation and encirclement, and cutting off the enemy’s flanks. For this reason, “concentrating superior forces and annihilating the enemy one by one” often becomes the fundamental principle and important way to plan annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, the combat force structure has undergone major changes. With the emergence of space combat, intelligent combat, stealth combat forces, as well as a large number of new weaponry and equipment such as hypersonic aircraft and kinetic weapons, the military’s information power, mobility, and strike power have unprecedentedly increased, and the effectiveness of unmanned intelligent combat has become increasingly prominent. Although quantity and scale are still important criteria for measuring the combat effectiveness of an army, “newer, faster, more accurate, and smarter” has begun to become an important indicator for measuring an army’s ability to adapt to modern warfare. Correspondingly, scientifically and rationally organizing combat forces and focusing on the best to release combat effectiveness have become important links in winning modern annihilation wars.

  Structural strength determines combat effectiveness, and advanced and applicable structural formation is an important prerequisite for multi-functional and powerful combat effectiveness. In the information age, only by jointly using new and old combat forces, realizing the organic integration of new quality capabilities and traditional capabilities, and then building a new force formation that integrates multiple capabilities, can we promote the overall optimization of the combat system and the aggregation of advantages, and accurately control the combat rhythm, combat time and space, combat operations and combat process. In the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Azerbaijan adopted a flexible formation mode for manned and unmanned combat forces, using low-cost An-2 drones to lure the Armenian air defense system to open fire, and followed up with Habib-2 anti-radar drones and TB-2 reconnaissance and strike drones to destroy more than a dozen air defense systems on the Armenian side in one fell swoop, and then calmly defeated the Armenian ground armored forces.

  In today’s era, as the status and role of combat operations such as network and electronic warfare, air and space attacks, and unmanned combat become more prominent, more attention should be paid to scientific design and rational organization of troops and weapons, so as to achieve the effect of clenching fingers into a fist through the accumulation of quality and integration of efficiency, and fight a war of annihilation that is quick to strike and quick to retreat, and wins with precision.

現代國語(繁體):

《立足戰爭演變把握「慎重初戰」》

寫在前面

在我軍戰史上,打殲滅戰是最鮮明、最重要的作戰指導思想之一。早在土地革命戰爭時期,基於「保存自己,消滅敵人」這場戰爭目的,我軍明確提出作戰中基本的方針是打殲滅戰。此後在不同歷史時期,根據環境、情勢和任務的不同,我軍在作戰指導上既保持了高度的靈活機動,又堅決貫徹打殲滅戰的原則,不斷對作戰理論予以豐富發展,在世界戰爭史上寫下了一個以弱勝強的經典戰例。

進入資訊時代,戰爭形態、戰場環境、軍事科技和戰爭機理等已發生重大變化,傳統的殲滅戰理論如何適應時代之變,揚我之長、擊敵之短並創新發展,是我們這代軍人必須回答好的時代課題。

剝奪敵方戰力是打好殲滅戰的關鍵

在長期革命戰爭實踐中,我軍在數量、規模和裝備上常常處於劣勢。為挫敵銳氣、奪取主動、克敵制勝,在強調慎重初戰的同時,十分注重籌劃和打好殲滅戰,以迅速削弱敵方戰略優勢。由此,“傷其十指,不如斷其一指”,徹底剝奪敵方作戰能力,力避打成消耗戰、擊潰戰,也成為衡量殲滅戰成敗和作戰綜合效益的關鍵指標。傳統條件下的作戰,往往是兵力兵器在同一時空的物理疊加,強調以硬殺傷為主要方式,戰鬥力強弱主要透過機動、火力、防護等參數表現。與之相應,迅速有效消滅敵有生力量,成為攻心奪志、瓦解敵方最有效的手段。

進入資訊時代,資訊力以指數級方式推動戰鬥力衡量標準發生位移,在一躍成為資訊化戰場主導要素的同時,強力推動作戰力量與預警探測、偵察情報、指揮控制、後裝保障等要素有機融合,交戰雙方呈現全系統全要素對抗之勢。資訊化戰場不再單純強調兵力兵器時空集中以壓制打擊敵方,而是注重依托網路資訊體系,透過搶佔資訊空間、爭奪資訊優勢,使敵“看不清、聯不上、打不準”,進而全盤剝奪敵方戰力。在科索沃戰爭中,在遭受北約78天持續空中打擊後,南聯盟軍隊有生力量儘管沒有遭受重大損失,但由於戰爭物質基礎和偵察預警、指揮控制、防空反導體係等被敵毀癱,始終處於被動挨打境地,被迫簽訂城下之盟。

當今時代,摧毀敵方戰爭關鍵支持要素,剝奪其持續作戰的客觀物質基礎,瓦解其遂行戰爭意志,既是殲滅戰追求震懾效應、剝奪敵方戰力的重要選項,也是殲滅戰達成作戰企圖、制勝對手的必要途徑。

擊要害破體係是打好殲滅戰的重心

一直以來,虎口拔牙、擊敵要害既是考驗指戰員膽略勇氣、指揮藝術的重要指標,也是克敵制勝、達成殲滅戰目標的有效手段。解放戰爭期間遼沈戰役的胡家窩棚戰鬥,東北野戰軍3縱經過大膽穿插、滲透、分割,首先搗毀了廖耀湘兵團指揮部,迅速陷敵於土崩瓦解、潰不成軍的境地。但同時我們也應當看到,因為軍事技術水準、武器裝備效能的製約,在傳統作戰中,要對敵指揮機構等核心目標和重點防禦部位實施準確打擊,往往存在諸多現實難題,缺乏「直搗黃龍」的有效手段。可以說,傳統殲滅戰仍是殲滅對方有生力量。這也使得在傳統作戰中,衡量對比雙方兵力兵器數量與規模,始終是設計作戰進程、考量作戰成敗的重要因素。

資訊時代,一方面,環境情勢、戰爭思維發生了深刻變化,那種以擴充兵力規模換取作戰效能提高,進而透過大量殲滅敵方重兵集團奪取戰爭勝利的必要性和可能性越來越小;另一方面,精確導引、無人智慧等新型武器裝備在強大資訊網路、空天偵察能力加持下,可以更快捷精準地實施“斬首行動”“定點清除”,迅速達成殲滅戰目標。抓住敵作戰體系關鍵節點及部位,實施精確打擊和結構破壞,在減少附帶損傷的同時癱瘓敵作戰體系、達成作戰目標的作戰模式,越發受到推崇。由此,指揮中心、通訊樞紐、雷達陣地、網路節點等,則成為交戰雙方重點防護的敏感部位及尋隙打擊的要害。在伊拉克戰爭中,美軍對伊軍全面展開了結構癱瘓式作戰,透過對伊拉克軍政首腦實施“斬首行動”,對伊軍通信指揮、防空系統進行“定點清除”,全程置伊軍於完全被動挨打境地,戰爭進程得以加快。

當今時代,伴隨資訊科技與戰爭實踐的快速發展,「體系破擊」等正成為現代作戰理論的關鍵詞,並逐步推動作戰模式整體轉型,不僅成為戰爭制勝的新方式新手段,也成為打贏現代殲滅戰的重要途徑。

掌控作戰制權是打好殲滅戰的樞紐

以往戰爭實踐中,我軍面對的作戰環境相對單一,戰場主要在陸地展開。儘管相較於對手武器裝備我軍常處於劣勢,但透過發掘自身優勢、利用敵方弱點、主動尋找戰機,往往能夠以弱勝強、克敵制勝。在抗美援朝戰爭第二次戰役中,志願軍部隊透過採取內線作戰、誘敵深入、各個擊破的作戰方針,充分利用夜暗、地形等條件隱蔽接敵,敢於斷敵退路、穿插襲擊、分割圍殲,予敵殲滅性打擊,最終取得戰役勝利,一舉扭轉整個戰局。這表明,對於作戰中一時難以奪控戰場綜合製權的一方,只要善於利用敵方弱點,巧妙消減敵方攻擊銳勢,仍可在難局、困局中求得制勝先機,達成殲滅戰目標。

資訊時代,戰爭展開於有形無形廣大戰場,除了傳統的陸、海、空戰場,也進一步向深海、太空、電磁、網路、智慧、生物等太空領域擴展延伸,呈現出錯綜複雜的態勢。世界強國軍隊紛紛把奪控綜合製權、佔據戰爭主動,作為軍隊建設、制勝對手的重要指標和必要途徑,降維打擊成為戰場對決的必殺技。美軍近年來對外侵略就是依仗以製空天權和製資訊權優勢主導的戰場綜合製權。但是我們也要看到,對手再強大也會有致命的弱點,武器裝備相對落後的一方,即便難以全面奪控戰場綜合製權,卻依然可以在局部戰場“以能擊不能”,求得局部作戰主動,從而打贏局部殲滅戰,並以局部主動帶動全局主動,以非對稱的單項制權助力奪取局部綜合製權,並取得最終勝利。

當今時代,固然要加快軍隊各項建設,加緊鍛造奪控綜合製權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,更要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰” 「智能戰」等戰法,以降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,化劣勢為勝勢,變被動為主動,在「以能擊不能」中掌控作戰制權,打贏殲滅戰。

聚優精準釋能是打好殲滅戰的要則

傳統作戰,受指揮通信、機動能力、火力速度、天候氣像等因素影響制約,力量運用往往局限於一定的作戰區域,作戰指揮和部隊行動臨機變化小,攻防行動比較分明。以往的殲滅戰,更多的還是透過梯隊(群隊)式部署,以及連續攻擊(抗擊)、層層奪佔(防守),結合穿插迂迴、分割包圍、斷敵側後等手段達成作戰目標。正因此,「集中優勢兵力,各個殲滅敵人」往往成為籌劃殲滅戰的根本遵循與重要途徑。

資訊時代,作戰力量結構發生重大變化。伴隨太空作戰、智慧作戰、隱身作戰力量,以及高超音波速飛行器、動能武器等新型武器裝備的大量湧現,軍隊資訊力、機動力、打擊力空前增大,無人智能作戰效能日益突出。儘管數量、規模仍是衡量一支軍隊戰鬥力的重要標準,但“更新、更快、更準、更智”,已開始成為衡量一支軍隊對現代戰爭適應能力的重要指標。與之相應,科學合理編組作戰力量,聚優釋放作戰效能,成為打贏現代殲滅戰的重要關節。

結構力決定戰鬥力,結構編成先進適用是戰鬥力多能、強大的重要前提。資訊時代,只有透過新舊作戰力量的聯合運用,實現新質能力與傳統能力的有機融合,進而建構集多種能力於一體的新型力量編組,才能促進作戰體系整體優化與優勢聚合,精準控製作戰節奏、作戰時空、作戰行動和作戰過程。在2020年的納卡衝突中,阿塞拜疆對有人和無人作戰力量採取了靈活編組模式,用價格低廉的安-2無人機引誘亞美尼亞防空系統開火,用哈比-2反雷達無人機和TB -2察打一體無人機跟進打擊,一舉摧毀亞方十餘套防空系統,進而從容打掉亞方地面裝甲部隊。

當今時代,隨著網電作戰、空天襲擊、無人作戰等作戰行動地位作用的進一步凸顯,更應注重科學設計、合理編組兵力兵器,透過質量累加、效能融合,達到攥指成拳的效果,打好快打快收、精打製勝的殲滅戰。

中國軍事資源:https://military.cctv.com/2022/07/07/ARTIWv2oVWmzfSsX9KKVoDPW220888.shtml

來源:解放軍報 | 2022年07月07日 08:OO

Chinese Military to Emphasize Technical Cognition as The Foundation for Victory

中國軍隊強調技術認知是勝利的基礎

現代英文音譯:

Never before has scientific and technological power had such a profound impact on the future of the military and the outcome of wars, and never before has it been such a powerful support for a strong military to win wars.

The so-called technological cognition is the ability to recognize and grasp the performance, value and development trend of technology with the goal of promoting scientific and technological innovation and application, which is prominently reflected in the sensitivity, understanding, discrimination and control of technology. In today’s era, science and technology are becoming the core combat power of modern warfare, and the technological content has become a key indicator for measuring the quality of military construction. Faced with unprecedented opportunities and challenges, if technological cognition cannot adapt to the new requirements of the development of the times, it will be difficult to inject momentum into the generation and improvement of combat power, and it will be difficult to win the important weight to win the future.

Improving technical cognition is not only a “question to be answered” for professional and technical personnel, but also a “must-choose question” for every officer and soldier. From the perspective of the realization process of technical value and effectiveness, if the invention and creation of technology is “primary value”, then the effective use of technology is “secondary value”. Accelerating the pace of scientific and technological innovation depends on the broadening of the knowledge horizons of professional and technical personnel, keeping a close eye on the forefront of science and technology, and constantly making new breakthroughs in the research and development of forward-looking, strategic, and disruptive technologies. With more new inventions and creations in the field of military science and technology, we can increase our contribution to the construction of the army and the growth of combat effectiveness, and actively seize the commanding heights of military technology competition. The transformation and application of scientific and technological achievements depends on the officers and soldiers, especially the leading cadres at all levels, to speed up the updating of knowledge and improve their scientific and technological literacy, so as to enhance and tap the application value of technology with scientific cognition and thorough understanding of science and technology, ensure that scientific and technological achievements are transformed into real combat effectiveness, and improve the ability to prepare for war at a higher starting point and level. Obviously, from scientific and technological innovation to scientific and technological application, it is a “value-added” process that is closely connected, mutually promoted, and focused. It is a process of seeking to win through science and technology and releasing the combat effectiveness of technology to a greater extent. Technical cognition is the internal support that runs through it and demonstrates people’s active role and creative talent. We must take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task. We must have political and military minds as well as scientific and technological minds. Scientific and technological literacy and scientific and technological thinking are based on and built on technological cognition. The higher the technological cognition, the stronger the innovation and creativity in the use of science and technology, and the greater the effect of promoting the growth of combat effectiveness.

Improving technical cognition is not only the key to mastering modern weapons and equipment, but also the move to accelerate the innovation of military theory and combat theory. With the rapid development of military technology, especially emerging technologies such as information, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned, the high-tech content of weapons and equipment is getting higher and higher, the replacement cycle is getting shorter and shorter, and the correlation and coupling between various types of weapons and equipment are getting stronger and stronger, and the system application characteristics are becoming more and more prominent. From a realistic perspective, insufficient technical cognition is a prominent shortcoming that restricts the mastery and use of weapons and equipment, and there is even a phenomenon that troops cannot “play” without the accompanying support of manufacturer technical personnel in exercises. Facing the new development trend of weapons and equipment, from mastering skills to exploring potential, from enhancing the effectiveness of systematic application to improving the ability of actual combat application, it is inseparable from improving technical cognition, thereby realizing the organic combination of people and weapons and equipment and obtaining a new “growth pole” in combat capability. It should also be noted that modern technology is penetrating into the military field with unprecedented strength, depth and breadth. The new military technology form accelerates the reconstruction of military theory and military system form, bringing about the deep interaction and deep integration of military technology and military theory, making technical cognition the “catalyst” of new combat theory. Practice has shown that without a thorough understanding of aviation technology, there will be no air combat theories such as air superiority; without a thorough understanding of information technology, there will be no information combat theories such as information superiority; without a thorough understanding of space technology, there will be no space combat theories such as “high frontier”. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as data-driven, human-machine collaboration, cross-border integration, and autonomous control, it will be impossible to create new theories and tactics such as intelligent combat and unmanned combat. Only with a technological cognitive advantage can we truly transform the military technology advantage into a theoretical leadership advantage and even a battlefield victory advantage.

Improving technology awareness is not only a way to distinguish the authenticity of technology and guard against technology fraud, but also a need to keenly perceive the development trend of military science and technology. It is worth being highly vigilant that Western media often promote and hype some so-called new technologies and new concepts, playing specious tricks. If you lack the ability to discern, cannot distinguish the true from the false, and believe everything you hear, you will inevitably fall into the technology trap set by others and become passive. Back then, the Soviet Union was led by the nose by the “Star Wars Plan” of the United States, and was confused by the Americans’ hype and deliberate fraud, which ultimately affected the entire military combat capability construction and the lesson was extremely painful. In the face of new opportunities and challenges brought about by the new round of scientific and technological revolution, we must maintain a high degree of technical acumen and insight, recognize the dominant direction and characteristics of the times in the development of military science and technology, and accurately grasp the trend of weapons and equipment developing in the direction of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned. The continuous emergence of disruptive technologies is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat power. Trend: new breakthroughs in high-tech will accelerate the development of new combat forces. Those military technologies that “change the rules of the game” will accelerate the evolution of war forms and combat methods. The integration of military technology and civilian technology is becoming deeper and deeper. We will strive to plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, and follow the trend, and make greater efforts to promote the development of the military through science and technology. Only by deepening the research on war and combat issues from the perspective of technological change, recognizing and grasping the characteristics, laws and winning mechanisms of informationized warfare from the influence of scientific and technological factors, and seeking breakthroughs in the innovation of combat theories and tactics by tapping into the effectiveness of technology, can we promote the precise and effective implementation of the strategy of developing the military through science and technology, lay a solid foundation and increase confidence for our military to remain invincible in future wars.

國語 中文:

●科技力量從未像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊未來和戰爭勝負,從未像今天這樣成為強軍勝戰的強力支撐。

所謂技術認知力,是以推動科技創新和運用為指向,對技術的性能功效、價值作用及發展趨勢的認識和把握能力,突出體現為對技術的敏銳度、理解力、甄別力、駕馭力。在當今時代,科技正成為現代戰爭的核心戰鬥力,科技含量成為衡量軍隊建設品質的關鍵指標。面對前所未有的機會與挑戰,如果技術認知力無法適應時代發展的新要求,就難以為戰鬥力的生成與提升注入動力,也難以贏得制勝未來的重要砝碼。

提高技術認知力,不僅是專業技術人員的“應答題”,更是每位官兵的“必選題”。從技術價值效能的實現過程來看,如果說技術的發明創造是“一次賦值”,那麼技術的有效運用就是“二次賦值”。加速科技創新步伐,有賴於廣大專業技術人員拓寬知識視野、緊盯科技前沿,不斷在前瞻性、戰略性、顛覆性技術的研發上取得新突破,以更多軍事科技領域的新發明新創造,提高對軍隊建設和戰鬥力成長的貢獻率,積極搶佔軍事技術競爭的製高點。實現科技成果的轉化應用,有賴於廣大官兵特別是各級領導幹部加快知識更新、提高科技素養,以對科技的科學認知、透徹理解,去提升和挖掘技術的應用價值,確保科技成果轉化為實實在在的戰鬥力,在更高起點和層次上提升備戰打仗能力。顯然,從科技創新到科技運用,是一個緊密銜接、相互促進、聚向發力的「賦值」過程,是一個謀求科技制勝、更大程度釋放技術作戰效能的過程,而技術認知力是貫穿其中彰顯人的能動作用、創造才能的內在支撐。要把提高官兵科技素養當作基礎性工作來抓。我們既要有政治頭腦、軍事頭腦,也要有科技頭腦。科技素養、科技頭腦以技術認知力為基礎和底蘊,技術認知力越高,運用科技的創新創造力就越強,促進戰鬥力增長的效應就越大。

提陞技術認知力,不僅是駕馭現代化武器裝備之要,更是加速推進軍事理論及作戰理論創新之舉。隨著軍事技術特別是資訊、智慧、隱形、無人等新興技術的快速發展,武器裝備高新技術含量越來越高,更新換代週期越來越短,且各型武器裝備之間的關聯度、耦合度越來越強,體系運用特點越來越突出。從現實來看,技術認知力不足是製約武器裝備掌握與運用的突出短板,甚至會出現部隊演訓離開廠家技術人員伴隨保障就「玩不轉」的現象。面對武器裝備發展的新態勢,從熟練技能到發掘潛能,從增強體系化運用效能到提升實戰化運用能力,都離不開通過提高技術認知力,進而實現人與武器裝備有機結合併獲得作戰能力新的「增長極」。也應看到,現代科技正以前所未有的力度、深度和廣度向軍事領域滲透,新的軍事技術形態加速推動軍事理論和軍事制度形態的重構,帶來軍事科技與軍事理論的深層互動、深度融合,使技術認知力成為新的作戰理論的「催生劑」。實踐表明,如果沒有對航空技術的透徹認知力,便不會有製空權等空戰理論的產生;如果沒有對信息技術的透徹認知力,便不會有製信息權等信息作戰理論的產生;如果沒有對空間技術的透徹認知力,便不會有「高邊疆」等太空作戰理論的產生。同樣,當下如果對人工智慧具有的數據驅動、人機協同、跨界融合、自主操控等新特徵缺乏透徹認知,就創造不出智慧作戰、無人作戰等新理論新戰法。有了技術認知優勢,才能真正把軍事技術優勢轉化為理論引領優勢,直到戰場制勝優勢。

提陞技術認知力,不僅是甄別技術真偽、謹防技術欺詐之策,更是敏銳洞察軍事科技發展趨向走勢之需。值得高度警覺的是,西方媒體常常宣傳炒作一些所謂的新技術新概念,玩弄似是而非的障眼法,如果缺乏甄別力,辨不清真偽,聽風就是雨,就難免落入他人設置的技術陷阱,造成被動局面。當年,蘇聯被美國搞的「星球大戰計畫」牽著鼻子走,被美國人的大肆渲染、故意欺詐弄得暈頭轉向,最後影響了整個軍事作戰能力建設,教訓極為慘痛。面對新一輪科技革命帶來的新機遇、新挑戰,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和洞察力,認清軍事科技發展的主導方向和時代特徵,準確把握武器裝備向遠程精確化、智能化、隱身化、無人化方向發展的趨勢,不斷湧現的顛覆性技術正深刻改變戰鬥力生成模式的趨勢,高新技術的新突破將加快推進新型作戰力量發展的趨勢,那些「改變遊戲規則」的軍事技術將加速戰爭形態和作戰方式嬗變的趨勢,軍用技術和民用技術的融合度越來越深的趨勢,努力做到因勢而謀、應勢而動、順勢而為,下更大氣力推動科技興軍。惟有善於從技術變革視角去深化戰爭和作戰問題研究,從科技因素影響去認識和把握資訊化戰爭的特點規律、制勝機理,從挖掘技術效能去尋求作戰理論和戰法創新的突破,才能推動科技興軍精準落地、有效落實,為我軍在未來戰爭中立於不敗之地夯實基礎、增添底氣。

中國軍事資料來源: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4845888.html

Chinese Government Mandate for Military Cognitive Confrontation : Focus on Cognitive Domain Penetration Emphasizing Multi-domain Operations

中國政府對軍事認知對抗的要求:著重認知域滲透,強調多域作戰

現代英語翻譯:

Introduction

From the battlefield of “bows, horses, and swords” in the cold weapon era to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the industrial era, and then to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the information and intelligent era, one of the core logics of the evolution of war forms is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of combat effectiveness has become a war-winning mechanism with certain basic and decisive characteristics. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that infiltrates and affects multi-domain operations, as well as a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage victory.

The cognitive domain advantage supports the doubling of multi-domain combat effectiveness. In modern warfare, destroying the enemy and preserving oneself in the physical domain, fighting for the right to control land, sea, air, and space; blocking the enemy and connecting oneself in the information domain, fighting for the right to control the network and information, are all deeply related to the advantages and active position of the cognitive domain. In the game of system-to-system confrontation, once the opponent is suppressed and the initiative is taken in the cognitive domain, decision-making interference can be formed on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, so that the actions in the physical domain and information domain can obtain asymmetric benefits of “four ounces to move a thousand pounds”, thereby improving the input-output ratio of operations, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to global victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints of military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

The planning and implementation of multi-domain combat operations should pay attention to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex, and the elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, the impact is transmitted in multiple directions, and the risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain at the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion, social confidence, and international public opinion levels of both sides, thereby quickly, suddenly, and unexpectedly affecting the overall situation of the war, and even causing a “butterfly storm” that changes the internal and foreign affairs of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. In planning and implementing physical domain and information domain operations, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, heart, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemy annihilation, the temporary gains and losses of a city or a place, etc., are increasingly losing their significance as indicators for evaluating the direction of the war. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be evaluated and considered from the perspectives of the changes in international and domestic public cognition and the psychological impact on specific objects.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger multi-domain integration are becoming increasingly mature. The leapfrog development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has made the cognitive domain game confrontation rapidly develop from absolute “uncalculated” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculated” and “controllable”. The decision-making support of technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and the command and coordination of multi-dimensional forces, strengthens the consistency and coordination of forces, means and actions in politics, economy, diplomacy, culture and military, and brings the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains and controlling multiple domains with a focus on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs also provides realistic and feasible tactical options for precise strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as precise profiling, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, and the cross-integration and development of neuroscience, cognitive science and intelligent technology have made it convenient and efficient to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and realize integrated joint operations.

Cognitive domain penetration affects the winning path of multi-domain aggregation

Cognitive domain penetration affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly optimized in the cognitive domain, so as to continuously inject the emergence effect that is beneficial to oneself into the overall situation of the war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain convergence and victory are achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Deepen the understanding of multi-domain tasks with cognitive domain combat needs. Focusing on the overall national strategy, clarify the cognitive domain combat needs, and calculate and determine the combat tasks of each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidance targets of firepower strikes, the first targets and the last targets, the open targets and the hidden targets, the heavy targets and the light targets, etc., and focus on the effectiveness of destroying the morale of the combat opponent. Establish the goals, timing, and intensity of channel control, and focus on the deprivation of the combat opponent’s social mobilization capabilities, international communication capabilities, etc., and the support effectiveness for our information release and external propaganda. Establish the focus of intelligence information collection, and focus on the ability to grasp the combat opponent’s cognitive domain combat power, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense targets in fine granularity, and dynamically grasp the international and domestic public opinion and social trends.

Guide multi-domain action design with cognitive domain combat tasks. Focusing on the questions of “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat phases and different combat scenarios are subdivided, and based on this, the overall planning and detailed design of what actions to organize in each domain, what opportunities to seize, what forces to invest, what tactics to adopt, and how various actions are connected and crossed are carried out. The reason why the “Four-sided Chu Song” was able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the clever idea of ​​the captives singing Chu songs at night. In fact, different action timings, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different tactics selections, and even different action names convey very different information, and the intensity of cognitive impact generated is also significantly different. It requires careful consideration and scientific research and judgment to strive to maximize efficiency and optimize the effect. When loading cognitive attack and defense actions for fire strikes, network attack and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations and other actions, different imagination and creative thinking levels, different technical understanding, application and innovation, and the final effect achieved is even more different.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat actions. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normal operations require coordinated support from forces and firepower, such as precision strikes, seizing key areas, and demonstrating momentum. In special cases, coordinated support from strategic forces, such as the display of cutting-edge weapons and equipment and the organization of major exercises and drills, is also required. Throughout the entire operation, specific personnel and specific combat units, such as commanders speaking publicly and media embedded reports, are also required to coordinate support. Intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment are also indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources throughout the entire process, in real time, systematically, and accurately, so that military warfare, psychological warfare, and intellectual warfare can leverage each other’s strengths and support each other, forming a chess game and playing a combination of punches.

Focus on deepening the understanding of the concept of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multiple domains

Establishing the status of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multi-domain operations and promoting integrated linkage victory is a deep-level conceptual revolution, which requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. The cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations have put forward higher requirements for cross-departmental and cross-institutional collaboration and cooperation, and it is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command chain that supports the cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain combat responsibilities of each element of the joint combat command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in combat determination, task planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, we will establish and improve work systems and cooperation mechanisms at all levels such as strategy, campaign, and tactics, strengthen the mutual leverage and coordination of cognitive domain operations and physical domain and information domain operations, and give full consideration to the effective coordination of military forces and local relevant functional departments and professional forces, so that the comprehensive advantages can be transformed into the ability advantages of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain empowerment.

Improve the ability and quality of commanders. Foreign militaries believe that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “rapidly transforming active kinetic operations into more subtle cultural warfare” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” for this. In order to achieve cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage in war practice, it is necessary to first strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, strengthen the consciousness and initiative of forming cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain task planning and action design, and strengthen the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive offense and defense with force and firepower operations and information control and seizure as means and carriers. It is necessary to take multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration as an important content of strategic and campaign exercises and training, highlight the training of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to keep close to the actual requirements of winning political and military battles.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage operations are the sublimation and optimization of joint combat concepts and mechanisms, and especially require the support and guarantee of joint cultural construction that is adapted to them. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking patterns, break some traditional concept barriers, and focus on cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and linkage operations as the forefront of joint cultural construction to update concepts. On the other hand, we must strengthen the construction of a theoretical system for cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations, conduct in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

(Author’s unit: Political College of National Defense University)

現代國語大五:

引言

從冷兵器時代「弓馬騎射、刀兵相接」式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到資訊化智能化時代涵蓋物理、資訊、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有某種基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機制。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的製高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合製權的關鍵

在現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合製權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、製海、制空、制天權;在資訊域阻斷敵人、連結自己,爭奪制網、制資訊權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策幹擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

規劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的複雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互連結、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的「蝴蝶風暴」。規劃實施物理域資訊域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精準控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的整體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層次去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體連動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。資訊化智慧化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的「不可算」「不可控」快速地向相當程度上的「可算」「可控」發展。大數據、智慧演算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼於認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確導引炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為透過作戰行動點穴式精準打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精準畫像、智慧分發、社群媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬實境等智慧化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智慧科技的交叉融合發展,使規劃實施「X+認知攻防」、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷有效率。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰規劃和實施路徑的創新設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考慮對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立頻道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考慮對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我訊息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報資訊蒐集的重點,要重點考慮掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特徵、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞著「對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度」等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、採用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃與細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的訊息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網路攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想像能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮官公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報資料、頻道頻寬、取證資訊、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、即時、體系、精準調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層的理念革命,需要強化各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體連動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度與協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、資訊域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮官能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮官需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和資訊制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水準。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突顯錘鍊指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新與完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的昇華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究與戰法創新,以理論累積打牢思想根基。

(作者單位:國防大學政治學院)

2023-01-19 14:35 解放軍報 濮端華 李習文 肖飛

中國政府原文來源:

Chinese Military Perspectives on Supporting Cognitive Confrontation

中國軍隊對支持認知對抗的看法

現代英語音譯:

Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive attack and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its role. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of combat in the cognitive domain, the spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there were no Allies, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the strategy of “Building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses” in the “Operation Overlord Plan”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military operations in the physical domain, and then the specific military operations in the physical domain realize the materialization of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, no matter how brilliant it is, if there is no implementation by the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our army’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of concatenating warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, and did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness. 

原版國語:

引言

現代戰爭,依物質形態特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域、認知域,三個域相互影響共同構成軍事對抗的領域和土壤。認知域作戰雖然發生在認知領域,但其作戰依托常常橫跨各領域。戰爭實踐表明,在物理域硬打擊增效強化下,認知形成往往能加速實現,認知實現也能更好地契合作戰需要。

認知攻防離不開物理支撐

當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界,相互連結在一起的不同物體的集合體,極大地增強了獨立個體獨自行動所具有的功能。認知域作戰從來都不是認知載體間進行的孤立作戰,隻有將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈條,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合起來,與整個作戰體系緊緊融為一體,才能充分發揮作戰效能。

認知源起的基點。存在決定意識。思維認知不是天外飛仙,而是現實世界真實或曲折的反映。離開物質世界這個根基,思維認知就失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的依據、決策行動的準心,很難讓人信得過、認得準、靠得住。即使最具迷幻色彩的科幻戰爭,也有真實作戰對象、具體作戰目的、相應作戰路徑的參考。於是,情報偵察分析成為指揮統兵用謀必不可少的重要環節,「沒有調查就沒有發言權」被視為決策決斷必須奉行的金科玉律,戰場模擬推演成為作戰行動成功的重要步驟。歷史上,大凡有作為的將帥作戰指揮、經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,無不建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析基礎之上,離開了現實世界這個硬核支撐,「人類一思索,上帝就發笑」。

認知效應的依賴。認知域作戰的一個黃金法則是,認知層面的軟力量必須以物理層面的硬打擊為依托,才能確保並強化其作用發揮。強大軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上不斷獲勝是製勝認知戰的硬核支撐。如果美國沒有超強綜合國力和優勢科技的高壓緊逼,其「星球大戰計畫」未必真能奏效。認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體的軍事行動配合支撐,斷不會產生疑敵、惑敵、懾敵、勝敵的良好效果。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知域作戰主動仗,不僅須加強認知本體力量建設,提高直接運用謀略和技術手段加強自我防護、幹預和影響對手思維認知的能力,而且應積極向物理域借力,借助物理域軍事行動的傳導效應來增強思維認知。

認知實現的抓手。馬克思主義認為,理論一經掌握群眾,也會變成物質力量。認知域作戰視域下,認知這一上層建築層面的精神創造,同樣不會自動變成物質的力量,隻有依附於一定的物質載體和實踐抓手,才可能實現精神到物質、意識到存在的關鍵一躍。正如第二次世界大戰中如果沒有德軍繞過馬其諾防線突破阿登森林向法國腹地突襲,就不可能彰顯“曼施坦因計劃”這一認知成果的預見性﹔同樣,如果沒有盟軍聲東擊西在諾曼底的成功登陸,同樣也突顯不出「霸王行動計畫」之「明修棧道,暗度陳倉」謀略的巧妙。思維認知經人傳導到物理域的具體軍事行動,再由物理域的具體軍事行動來實現認知成果的物化轉化,構成認知攻防與物理域軍事打擊雙向互動的基本面。

物理打擊支撐認知攻防的基本方式

物理域軍事打擊對認知攻防支撐的方式方法,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般規律。基本方式可分為增強型支撐、印証型支撐、實現型支撐。

增強型支撐。物理域的軍事打擊對思維認知形成發展的強化。思維認知固然有賴於認知載體本身素質,但若離開物理域軍事行動的支撐也難以促成。物理域軍事行動之於認知域最基礎的作用在於為思維認知形成發展提供堅實支撐,思維認知也只有在實實在的物理行動基礎上才能行穩致遠。譬如,朝鮮戰爭初期,當朝鮮人民軍勢如破竹時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島的戰爭態勢、地理天氣特點,特別是美韓軍隊當時的種種舉動等,準確預判了美軍登陸的時間地點。同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇微也是根據志願軍後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,作出「禮拜攻勢」的判斷,以「磁性戰術」與我纏鬥。這些都是物理域作戰對思維認知形成發展的增強。

印証型支撐。物理域軍事打擊對預設思維、預先認知、預有判斷的印証。認知攻防絕不單單發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。戰爭作為“死生之地、存亡之道”,其認知決策如果不能在實踐層面得到多向印証就貿然行事,是對戰爭最大的不負責任。革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層總是在全局戰略把控下,賦予一線指揮員在總體戰略方向原則下酌情相機而動的權力,就是對戰略思維認知的正向印証。第二次世界大戰中,盟軍綜合運用以假亂真的「假事實」誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍關於盟軍在歐洲大陸登陸地點的錯誤認知,最終在諾曼底以最小的代價成功登陸,是為反向印証。

實現型支撐。為思維認知、判斷決策的實現提供直接的實體支撐。思維認知要轉化為改變世界的實際成效,作用於對手的思維認知不是終點只是新的起點,接下來還要經過「熟練的手」和「勇敢的心」作用於物理世界,換而言之,就是為思維認知的價值實現提供直接的實體行動支撐。這正如諸葛亮的錦囊妙計再高明,如果沒有「五虎上將」等蜀漢將士的貫徹執行也隻能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 「OODA」環前三部分運行得再高效,如果缺少了「A」這一執行環節,就是「死環」。同樣,我軍的指揮決策成果也有賴廣大官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性地執行,執行的品質效益直接決定指揮決策的落實成效。就此而言,執行層面的物理行動就具有極為重要的現實意義。

切實加強認知攻防與物理打擊的互動

思維認知必須有賴於物理行動的支撐,這是不以人的意志為轉移的客觀規律。加強思維認知與物理打擊的交流互動,使我們的思維決策更具針對性、客觀性、操作性,從而更好地由認知優勢轉化為行動優勢、制勝優勢,是一項極為重要的工作。

更積極主動夯實認知基礎。思維認知正確與否,根本取決於其與客觀實際的契合度、對作戰對手的適用性。只有建立在充分調查研究、實事求是和比較優勢基礎上的思維認知,才是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的思維認知。那種將思維認知或將帥的天才智慧與靈感頓悟絕對化、神聖化、虛無化的做法,是唯心的、片面的、有害的。這就要求我們必須努力將思維認知建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析基礎之上,切實把敵情、我情、他情搞清楚弄明白,真正做到知彼知己、應知盡知,因地制宜、相機而動。同時,還須將讀無字書與有字書結合起來,將間接的理論與不斷發展變化的鮮活實踐統一起來,辯証認知以往經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為自己認知的助力而不是桎梏、輔助而不是主導。

更加積極主動強化認知理性。經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認知從實踐中來,又在實踐反饋中得以強化。認知實踐經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料,要形成科學的認知還需要進一步在意識與物質、思維與存在的反復折沖印証中不斷去偽存真,才能提高認知理性。那種只從局部情況、破碎訊息和個別時段就認為一勞永逸獲得真知的做法,是錯誤甚至致命的。在中國古代赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從鐵索連船可平衡船體晃動的常識中就得出將戰船連體的認知,並未從連片戰船的實戰效果或後果中進行再認知再創造,就輕易用鐵索連船、自縛手腳,最終落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗下場。時移事易,現代戰場敵情更是瞬息萬變,從來就沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成果,隻有從物質到認知再到物質的印証中剝離雜質、抽取精華進行再認知,才能回歸理性。

更積極主動物化認知成果。認知成果只是孕育於認知載體的思維意識結果,如果不進行及時有效的物化轉化,就如同著錦衣而夜行、藏重寶於深山,難以彰顯自身價值。思維認知基於物理行動生發,最終還要依託物理域的具體行動,才能物化轉化為改變主客觀世界的實際成效。這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策與計畫方案的可操作性,為其更順暢地物化轉化打開方便之門。同時,還要著力提升決策部署執行者的執行能力,使之能正確理解領會決策意圖,結合具體實際創造性採用適情對路的方法,最大限度地將認知成果與作戰決策方案貫徹執行到底,當好認知成果與作戰效果聯想轉化的「擺渡人」「過河橋」。

中國軍事原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/1207/c1011-32582888.html

Chinese Military Targeting Future Wars and Fighting the Five Cognitive Battles

中國軍隊瞄準未來戰爭打好五場認知戰

現代英語翻譯:

Source: Liberation Army News Author: Yang Longxi Editor-in-charge: Wang Feng 2022-10-08 10:11:25

In recent years, local wars and armed conflicts are mostly “mixed” confrontations that unfold in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, and economic means, implementing system clamps in the comprehensive decision-making dimension, creating various chaos in the international communication dimension, and carrying out targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shaping the battlefield situation, and seeking to seize strategic initiative. In future wars, we must fight political-military battles and military-political battles, and we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, offense and defense, and improve our ability to fight the “five battles”.

Cognitive warfare is the first step to shape the situation and take the initiative. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of the war situation, the status and role of cognitive warfare are becoming more and more prominent. Aiming to win the future war, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance, and through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the target’s physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive elements should be influenced, intervened and manipulated, and military operations should be covered by cognitive offense and defense, so as to accurately and efficiently dominate the cognitive space. We must fully realize the importance of taking the initiative, flexibly and independently master the right to define and interpret “narrative”, emphasize taking the initiative in the dimension of cognitive narrative struggle, create a favorable situation with legal principles in hand and morality on our side, and occupy the moral high ground.

Cognitive warfare is about attacking the heart, and we should fight a precise war in layers. “A good warrior will attack others but not others.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will be extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent, and unmanned, invisible, and silent. We should focus on cognitive gaps to improve our reach, use big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, psychological model evaluation and other methods to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects, and achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. We should focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, aim at the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual support points that maintain the unity of the powerful enemy alliance to effectively strike, and use their cognitive differences and conflicts of interest to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategy, we should fight a war of deterrence and control with full domain penetration. In future wars, the strategic competition and strategic confrontation between the warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should focus on the decision-making links and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we should pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike means to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we should pay more attention to the “soft kill” effect of cognitive shaping, cognitive inducement, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, so as to form a strong shock through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, and expand new-quality combat forces to the cognitive dimension, thereby forming an asymmetric balance of power.

Information is king in cognitive warfare, and we must expand the field to fight a good support war. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and we should accelerate system integration to gain data advantages. First, we should accelerate the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive combat theory bases, databases, talent pools, case bases, and tactics bases, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive combat capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, we should accelerate the creation of a converged media communication matrix, improve and perfect our own platform system, and step up the deployment of network platforms, focusing on system integration and collaborative linkage, breaking through the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and realizing cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive effectiveness. Thirdly, we should accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making psychological offense and defense, explore and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to provide “clairvoyance” and “clairaudience” for winning future wars.

The key to cognitive warfare is coordination, and we should make efforts in multiple dimensions to fight the overall battle. Future wars will be joint operations carried out in the fields of land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic, etc. We should adhere to system thinking, strengthen coordination awareness, and improve the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations with other military actions. For example, we can integrate human intelligence, geographic intelligence, and open source intelligence, quickly collect and process massive data, remove the false and retain the true, and accurately and efficiently seize cognitive space, so as to achieve complementary advantages and full coverage to form cognitive advantages. By networking the dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish a highly connected, collectively acting, and overall attacking full-domain joint force to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence”. By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, and using cognitive manipulation to amplify the effects of political disintegration, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and coordinating military operations to exert pressure on the target in all dimensions, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)

繁體中文:

來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍溪 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-10-08 10:11:25
近年來的局部戰爭和武裝沖突,大多是在多維度多領域展開的「混合」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段,在綜合決策維度實施體系鉗制,在國際傳播維度製造各種混亂,在戰略重心維度進行標靶打擊,積極塑造戰場態勢,謀求奪取戰略主動。未來戰爭要打好政治軍仗、軍事政治仗,應深刻掌握認知域作戰攻防特點規律,提升打好「五仗」的能力。

認知作戰先入為主,塑勢控局打好主動仗。戰爭未啟、認知先行。隨著戰爭形態的不斷發展演進,認知域作戰的地位角色不斷突顯。瞄準打贏未來戰爭,應提前開展認知佈設,透過謀略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知要素進行影響、幹預和操控,以認知攻防掩護軍事行動,精準有效率地主導認知空間。充分認識先聲奪人的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義權和解釋權,在認知敘事鬥爭維度上強調先發製人贏得主動,塑造法理在手、道義向我的有利態勢,佔領道義制高點。

認知作戰攻心為上,分層施策打好精確仗。 「善戰者,致人而不致於人。」未來戰爭,作戰空間向深海、深空、深網等領域延伸,戰場時空呈現極遠、極微、極智與無人、無形、無聲等特點。應緊盯認知缺口提升到達力,運用大數據模擬、人工智慧匹配、心理模型評估等方法,分析掌控認知主體的關鍵訊息,實現認知主體資訊的有效滲透和先期懾止。緊扣認知盲點增強穿透力,瞄準維繫強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差別和利益矛盾,層層發力實現分化瓦解。

認知作戰策略為本,全域滲透打好懾控仗。未來戰爭,交戰雙方的戰略競爭與策略對抗異常激烈,應緊盯決策環節綜合發力,增大對手決策困境,形成自身決策優勢。一方面,要更關注敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等要害節點,運用先進打擊手段對這些節點實施物理摧毀。另一方面,要更關注認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入和認知控制的「軟殺傷」效果,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬摧毀」中,既透過高新武器精確打擊形成強大震懾,又將新質作戰力量拓展至認知維度,從而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓寬領域打好支撐仗。未來戰爭離不開強大資訊的支撐,應加速體系融合奪取數據優勢。首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰法庫建設,動態收集更新敵認知攻防作戰能力建設現狀,為認知攻防作戰提供全方位支撐。其次,加速打造融媒體傳播矩陣,健全完善自有平台體系,抓緊推進網絡平台投棋布子,注重體系融合、協作聯動,盡快打通信息互聯互通“壁壘”,實現認知融通共享、綜合致效。再次,加速推進資訊與認知域作戰耦合聯動,大力發展神經網絡系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨域與異類認知訊息,健全認知手段資訊融合體系,為打贏未來戰爭提供「千裡眼」「順風耳」。

認知作戰協同為要,多維發力打好整體仗。未來戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、網絡、電磁等領域實施的聯合作戰,應堅持體系思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性協調性。例如,可以融合人力情報、地理情報和開源情報等,快速採集處理海量數據,去偽存真、精準高效地搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補、全局覆蓋形成認知優勢。透過將分散多域部隊進行聯網,建立一支高度聯通、集體行動、整體打擊的全領域聯合力量,實現「一體化威懾」效果。透過整合國家資源、加強戰略傳播,運用認知造勢放大政治瓦解、經濟制裁、外交攻勢等效果,配合軍事行動全維施壓目標對象,力求不戰而屈人之兵。

(作者單位:航太工程大學)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4922788.html?big=fan

Chinese Military to Comprehensively Improve Scientific and Technological Cognition of Strategic Capabilities in Emerging Fields of Warfare

中國軍隊全面提升新興戰爭領域戰略能力科技認知

現代音譯英語:

War is a confrontation of material forces, but it is also a test of ideological cognition. To implement President Xi’s new requirements for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields, we must grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological cognition, focus on the new situation of accelerating the new round of scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution and military revolution, focus on strengthening the army and winning wars, and strengthen the research and exploration of strategic, cutting-edge and disruptive technologies in emerging fields. With a deep understanding of the nature and laws of science and technology, we can master the realization of high-quality development of military construction, win the initiative in military competition and future wars, transform scientific and technological cognition into a real ability to design and win wars, and accelerate and win new advantages in strategic areas that must be fought.

(one)

Only by understanding the times can we understand war. In the era when scientific and technological revolutions and military revolutions are integrated and intertwined, and science and technology have become the core combat power of modern warfare, improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields will help us understand and grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare, better control information-based and intelligent warfare, achieve overtaking in new fields and new tracks, win military competitive advantages with scientific and technological advantages, and win future high-tech wars.

Leading military reforms to seize the commanding heights. The wise hear what is silent, and the wise see what is not yet formed. Only by keenly perceiving the development trends of emerging technologies and expanding the cognitive boundaries of strategic frontier technologies can we see what is not yet born, recognize what is not yet developed, take the initiative, and lead the elements of the military field to achieve revolutionary transformation and development. In today’s era, emerging technologies represented by artificial intelligence are emerging in a “well-like” manner, leading and promoting the rapid development of military intelligence at an unprecedented speed, triggering chain breakthroughs in the military field, and leveraging fundamental changes in the war pattern. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race of time and speed. Faced with the strong momentum of military science and technology development in emerging fields, we must strive to seize the initiative and gain advantages. We must accurately grasp the general trend of science and technology of the times, dare to stand at the forefront of human warfare and scientific and technological development, grasp the basic laws of scientific and technological development and evolution in the long river of history and the global perspective, and accurately identify new goals, new fields, and new heights for the development of military science and technology. We must find breakthroughs in the development of military science and technology in a timely manner, bravely advance into the “no man’s land” of military science and technology innovation, seize the strategic commanding heights of military technology competition, and lead the military revolution to achieve new breakthroughs and leaps with new thinking concepts.

Lead the military competition and win the initiative. The level of cognition ultimately determines the pattern of military competition. At present, the frontier positions and strength competition of world military competition have extended to emerging fields, and the acquisition of technological advantages has become a strategic measure to seek military advantages. In the fierce competition of technological subversion and counter-subversion, assault and counter-assault, offset and counter-offset, scientific and technological cognition has become a key variable that determines the victory or defeat of military games. If there is a generation gap in scientific and technological cognition, there is a risk of being surpassed by the opponent’s new technological combat power. If there is a technological gap in shaping new-quality combat power, it will be difficult to “change the rules of competition” and form a military competitive advantage. Recent local wars and armed conflicts in the world have shown that whoever has a leading strategic capability and technological cognition in emerging fields and uses technology to empower combat power can control the battlefield situation and thereby achieve a fundamental change in the winner and loser. In the increasingly fierce world military game, in order to seize the initiative in the development of military science and technology in emerging fields and occupy a favorable position of high-level control, it is necessary to enhance the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, keep a close eye on changes in science and technology, changes in war, and changes in opponents, plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, follow the trend, make advance arrangements, and plan ahead to ensure the formation of unique advantages in some important fields and win the initiative in military games.

Leading a strong army to win the war and win the future war. Practice determines cognition, which is the source and motivation, purpose and destination of cognition. The scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is aimed at promoting scientific and technological innovation and application. The fundamental focus is to create a new quality combat power growth pole. The main purpose is to seize the commanding heights of strategic competition, seize the initiative in war, and ultimately win the future war. At present, the development of emerging fields is showing an all-round and multi-domain in-depth advancement trend, and the frequency of dynamic iteration and update of science and technology is accelerating. In order to forge a new quality combat capability with a new killing mechanism and improve the scientific and technological content of national defense and military modernization, we must deeply grasp the key areas of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, grasp the new characteristics of cross-integration development of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, focus on creating a new quality combat capability growth pole, vigorously promote independent innovation and original innovation, eliminate backward technologies that are not adapted to the changes in the war situation, adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence, improve the innovation and application of military science and technology, comprehensively enhance the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and win the battle to achieve the goal of building the army for a hundred years as scheduled.

Two

Improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a very complex process of subjective and objective rational thinking. To accurately grasp the essential attributes and characteristic laws of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, and to know both the facts and the reasons, we should focus on improving the three abilities of scientific and technological foresight, discrimination, and understanding in the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and form a scientific cognitive ability system that supports, cooperates with, and influences each other, providing strong support for comprehensively improving the strategic capabilities of emerging fields.

Aiming at future wars, we should enhance our scientific and technological foresight. Emerging fields are one of the main battlefields of future wars. Once some technologies achieve breakthroughs, the impact will be subversive, and may even fundamentally change the form and mode of war, and fundamentally change the traditional offensive and defensive pattern of war. Science and technology have never had such a profound impact on military construction and the outcome of wars as they do today. If we have a narrow scientific and technological cognition and lack strategic foresight and prediction of cutting-edge technologies in emerging fields, we may not understand our opponents, understand wars, and even more so win future wars. During the Gulf War, Iraq’s mechanized steel torrent lost to the US military’s precision-guided weapons. One of the important reasons for this was the gap between the two countries in strategic capabilities and scientific and technological cognition in emerging fields. In order to let our thoughts reach tomorrow’s battlefield, we must improve our scientific and technological awareness, closely follow the development direction of the world’s advanced military science and technology, promptly grasp the latest developments in cutting-edge science and technology, scientifically predict the development trend of science and technology, make full use of technologies such as data mining, comprehensively judge the revolutionary impact of high-tech development on war, take the lead in laying out emerging combat fields, develop a series of high-tech weapons and equipment, accelerate the scientific and technological empowerment of combat effectiveness, and provide a solid material foundation for winning future wars.

Keep a close eye on how to defeat powerful enemies and improve scientific and technological identification. War is a life-and-death confrontation between the enemy and us, and emerging fields are the top priority for the struggle between the two sides. Improving the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is the fundamental strategy to prevent technological raids and avoid technological traps. In order to seize the initiative in war, powerful enemies have always not only used their unique high-tech weapons and equipment to raid their opponents, putting them in a disadvantageous situation of passive attack, but also a more dangerous trick is to carefully set up technical traps and implement strategic deception. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fell into the strategic deception trap of the US “Star Wars Plan”, which accelerated the decline of national strength. To persist in winning against powerful enemies, we must improve the scientific and technological discernment of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, closely follow the technological frontiers of powerful enemies, formulate breakthrough strategies for building strategic capabilities in emerging fields, and maintain a high degree of technical sensitivity and discernment of some so-called new technologies and new concepts promoted by powerful enemies. We must be good at distinguishing the authenticity of technology, weighing the pros and cons of development and the extent of its impact, and persist in developing strategic resources in emerging fields based on national conditions and military conditions, so that the innovative achievements of military science and technology in emerging fields can better empower the decision-making chain, command chain and combat power generation chain.

Mastering the winning strategy improves the understanding of science and technology. The key to building a strong army and winning wars is to master the winning strategy. In the context of the deep coupling of modern science and technology with the military, understanding and mastering science and technology has become a necessary ability to understand, design and win wars. From the perspective of human military history, it is precisely because of the thorough understanding of the principles of aviation technology and space technology that Douhet’s “air supremacy” theory, Graham’s “high frontier” theory and other war theories have been produced. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of new technologies such as human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control of artificial intelligence, it will be impossible to master the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and explore new theories and tactics of intelligent warfare. Technology determines tactics. To win future wars, we must focus on thinking about wars from a scientific and technological perspective, understand the impact of emerging technological developments on wars, learn from the latest achievements in military science and technology innovation of the world’s superpowers, study and explore the internal mechanisms of high-tech in emerging fields supporting modern warfare, explore how to use scientific and technological concepts and thinking to accurately grasp the laws of winning wars, how to use advanced scientific and technological means to strengthen the construction of new-quality combat capabilities, how to design wars based on scientific and technological principles, and how to transform scientific and technological advantages into capability advantages, and use the “key” of scientific and technological thinking to open the “door” to victory.

(three)

Comprehensively improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a long-term, systematic strategic project. We must deeply understand and implement the important instructions of Chairman Xi, take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task, and improve the scientific and technological cognition of officers and soldiers with a high sense of mission, scientific thinking concepts, and effective methods and approaches, so as to lay a solid foundation for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields and realizing high-quality development of our army.

Accelerate the transformation of ideas and concepts. The wise change with the times, and the knowledgeable act according to circumstances. While the emerging military technology is transforming the objective world, it is also profoundly changing people’s subjective world, forming a subversive impact on the traditional war-winning mechanism and way of thinking. The internal requirement is to transform ideas and concepts and enhance scientific and technological cognition. Engels pointed out: “When the wave of technological revolution is surging around… we need newer and braver minds.” Whoever is conservative, conservative, and self-contained will miss precious opportunities, fall into strategic passivity, and even miss an entire era. We must emancipate our minds and update our concepts, actively adapt to the development trend of world military changes today, be sensitive to the innovation of military thinking brought about by the technological revolution, have the courage to change the mindset of mechanized warfare, break the shackles of conservative thinking, firmly establish a new mindset of information-based and intelligent warfare, establish a new concept of strengthening the military and winning victory through science and technology, focus on understanding the new face of war, discovering new characteristics of war, and revealing new laws of war from a scientific and technological perspective, and strive to raise the level of war cognition to a new height.

Cultivate the foundation of scientific and technological literacy. Scientific and technological literacy is the ability to scientifically understand and describe the objective world and the ability to think scientifically. The depth of the foundation of scientific and technological literacy fundamentally determines the level of scientific and technological cognition. If you don’t understand science and technology or your scientific and technological literacy is not high, you will be like looking at flowers in the fog or the moon in the water when it comes to modern warfare, let alone being able to fight and win. To improve the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields and understand the winning mechanism of modern high-tech warfare, the key is to work hard to improve the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers, coordinate the use of advantageous military and civilian scientific and technological resources, vigorously spread the scientific spirit, popularize scientific knowledge, strengthen the study of modern science and technology, especially military science and technology knowledge, and conduct in-depth research on cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology. We must have a deep understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as deep learning, cross-border integration, human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control. We must understand and master the latest scientific and technological achievements, build a multi-dimensional knowledge system with information and intelligent technology as the main body, improve the level of thinking, expand the knowledge structure, and vigorously promote the transformation of the “variable” of scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields into the “energy” of building a strong army and winning wars.

Improve capabilities through practice. A knife needs to be sharpened and a person needs to be trained. To enhance the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, it is necessary not only to nourish the theory to promote the transformation of ideas and concepts, but also to follow the basic law of human cognitive movement of “practice, cognition, re-practice, and re-cognition”, make good use of the actual combat “grindstone” to sharpen the wisdom, and promote the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields to a higher level. We must have the courage to improve quality and capabilities in the practice of strengthening the military with science and technology and strengthening training with science and technology, adhere to learning while doing and learning while doing, focus on our main responsibilities and main business, delve into cutting-edge science and technology based on our posts and combat positions, and improve our scientific and technological acumen, insight, and response speed; enhance our technical understanding of new equipment, new skills, and new tactics, cultivate scientific thinking, master scientific methods, improve our scientific and technological cognition, and cultivate the ideological awareness of strengthening the construction of strategic capabilities in emerging fields from a scientific and technological perspective; keep a close eye on powerful enemies and future battlefields to cultivate a stronger “technological mind”, be familiar with our opponents’ scientific and technological achievements, capabilities, and means, accurately grasp the “hard core” and “soft ribs” of our opponents’ scientific and technological development, adhere to the asymmetric thinking to tailor-make struggle strategies and tactics, and provide strong guarantees for winning this future high-end war and hybrid war.

(Author’s unit: Military Science Academy, Institute of Political Work)

現代國語:

戰爭是物質力量的對抗,更是思想認知力的較量。貫徹落實習主席全面提升新興領域戰略能力的新要求,必須抓住科技認知力這個“牛鼻子”,著眼新一輪科技革命、產業革命和軍事革命加速推進的新態勢,聚焦強軍勝戰加強新興領域戰略性、前沿性、顛覆性技術的研究探索,以對科學技術本質和規律的深刻理解,掌握實現軍隊建設高質量發展,贏得軍事競爭和未來戰爭的主動權,把科技認知力轉化為實實在在的設計戰爭、打贏戰爭能力,在戰略必爭領域跑出加速度、贏得新優勢。

(一)

理解時代才能理解戰爭。在科技革命與軍事革命融合交叉,科技已成為現代戰爭核心戰鬥力的時代背景下,提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,有助於理解和把握現代戰爭的特點規律,更好地駕馭資訊化智能化戰爭,在新領域新賽道實現彎道超車,以科技優勢贏得軍事競爭優勢、贏得未來高科技戰爭。

引領軍事變革搶佔制高點。聰者聽於無聲,明者見於未形。敏銳洞察新興領域科技發展趨勢走向,拓展戰略前沿技術領域認知邊界,才能做到見之於未萌、識之於未發,下好先手棋、打好主動仗,引領軍事領域要素實現革命性轉型發展。在當今時代,以人工智慧為代表的新興科技「井噴式」湧現,引領和推動軍事智慧以前所未有的速度突飛猛進,正在引發軍事領域鍊式突破,撬動戰爭格局發生根本性轉變。科技創新歷來是時間與速度的賽跑,面對新興領域軍事科技發展的強勁勢頭,我們要致力於搶佔先機、贏得優勢,必須準確把握時代科技大勢,勇於站在人類戰爭和科技發展最前沿,在歷史長河和全球視野中把握科技發展演變的基本規律,切實找準軍事科技發展的新目標、新領域、新高地,及時找到軍事科技發展的突破口,勇於向軍事科技創新「無人區」進軍,搶佔軍事技術競爭的戰略制高點,以全新的思維理念引領軍事革命實現新突破新跨越。

引領軍事競爭贏得主動權。認知層次高低最終決定軍事競爭格局。當前,世界軍事競爭前線陣地和實力比拼已經延伸到新興領域,把奪取科技優勢作為謀求軍事優勢的戰略舉措。在技​​術上顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷的激烈較量中,科技認知力已成為決定軍事博弈勝負的關鍵變數。如果科技認知力出現代差,就面臨被對手新技術作戰力量超越的風險。在塑造新質戰鬥力上出現技術鴻溝,就很難「改變競技規則」形成軍事競爭優勢。世界近幾場局部戰爭和武裝沖突表明,誰具有領先對手的新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,用科技為戰鬥力賦能,誰就能掌控戰場態勢,並以此實現勝負手的根本轉換。在日益激烈的世界軍事博弈中,奪取新興領域軍事科技發展主動權,佔據高位瞰的有利位勢,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,因勢而謀,應勢而動,順勢而為,超前佈局、超前謀劃,確保在一些重要領域形成獨特優勢,贏得軍事博弈主動權。

引領強軍勝戰制勝未來戰爭。實踐決定認識,是認識的泉源和動力、目的和歸宿。新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,以推動科技創新和科技運用為實踐指向,根本著眼點是打造新質戰鬥力增長極,主要目的是搶佔戰略競爭制高點,奪取戰爭主動權,最終打贏未來戰爭。當前,新興領域發展呈現全方位多領域縱深推進態勢,科技動態迭代更新頻率加快,鍛造全新殺傷機理的新質戰鬥力,提高國防和軍隊現代化建設的科技含量,必須深刻把握新興領域科技創新發展的關鍵領域,掌握新興領域科技創新發展交叉融合發展新特徵,以打造新質戰鬥力增長極為重點,大力推進自主創新、原始創新,淘汰不適應戰爭形態變化的落後技術,堅持機械化信息化智能化融合發展,提升軍事科技創新力應用力,全面提升新興領域戰略能力,打贏如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標攻堅戰。

(二)

提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,是十分複雜的主觀見之於客觀的理性思維過程。科學準確掌握新興領域科技創新發展的本質屬性與特點規律,做到知其然又知其所以然,應重點提升新興領域戰略能力的科技預知力、鑑別力、理解力三種能力素質,形成相互支撐、相互配合、相互影響的科學認知能力體系,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力提供強大支撐。

瞄準未來戰爭提昇科技預知力。新興領域是未來戰爭的主戰場之一,有些技術一旦取得突破,影響將是顛覆性的,甚至可能從根本上改變戰爭形態和作戰方式,從根本上改變傳統的戰爭攻防格局。科技從來沒有像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊建設和戰爭勝負,如果科技認知力狹隘,對新興領域前沿技術缺乏戰略性預見和預判,就可能看不懂對手、看不懂戰爭,更談不上打贏得未來戰爭。海灣戰爭期間,伊拉克機械化鋼鐵洪流輸給美軍精確制導武器,究其緣由重要的一條是由兩者在新興領域戰略能力科技認知力存在差距造成的。讓思想直達明天的戰場,必須提高科技認知力,緊密跟踪世界先進軍事科技發展方向,及時掌握前沿科技最新動態,科學預測科技發展趨勢,充分運用數據挖掘等技術,綜合研判高科技發展給戰爭帶來的革命性影響,搶先佈局新興作戰領域,研發系列高新技術武器裝備,加速戰鬥力科技賦能,為制勝未來戰爭提供堅實的物質基礎。

緊盯制勝​​強敵提高科技鑑別力。戰爭是敵我雙方的生死對抗,新興領域更是作戰雙方角力的重中之重。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是防止技術突襲和避免技術陷阱的根本之策。為奪取戰爭主動權,強敵向來不僅以獨有的高新技術武器裝備突襲對手,使其陷入被動挨打的不利處境,更危險的招數在於精心設置技術陷阱,實施戰略欺詐。冷戰美蘇爭霸時期,蘇聯就落入美國「星際大戰計畫」的戰略欺騙陷阱,加速了國力衰退。堅持扭住強敵謀打贏,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技鑑別力,要密切跟踪強敵對手科技前沿動態,制定新興領域戰略能力建設突破策略,對強敵宣傳炒作的一些所謂新技術新概念,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和辨識力,要善於甄別技術真偽、權衡發展利弊及其影響程度,堅持從國情軍情出發開發新興領域戰略資源,使新興領域軍事科技創新成果更好地賦能決策鏈、指揮鍊和戰鬥力生成鏈。

掌握制勝之道提昇科技理解力。強軍勝戰關鍵要掌握制勝之道,在現代科技與軍事深度耦合的背景下,認識並掌握科技成為理解戰爭、設計戰爭、打贏戰爭的必備能力。從人類軍事史來看,正是由於對航空技術、太空技術等原理的透徹認知,杜黑的「制空權」理論、葛拉漢的「高邊疆」理論等戰爭理論才得以產生。同樣,當前如果對人工智慧所具有的人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新技術缺乏透徹認知,就無法掌握智能化戰爭制勝機理、探索智能作戰新戰法。技術決定戰術。打贏未來戰爭必須著重從科技角度思考戰爭,理解新興領域科技發展對戰爭帶來的影響,並藉鑑吸收世界強國軍事科技創新最新成果,研究探索新興領域高新科技支撐現代戰爭的內在機理,探討如何以科技理念和思維把準戰爭制勝規律、如何運用先進科技手段加強新質戰鬥力建設、如何依據科技原理設計戰爭、如何將科技優勢轉化為能力優勢,用科技思維的“鑰匙”開啟勝戰“大門” 。

(三)

全面提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是一項長期性、系統性的戰略工程,必須深刻理解貫徹習主席重要指示精神,把提高官兵科技素養作為一項基礎性工作來抓,以高度的使命擔當、科學的思維理念、有效的方法路徑提升官兵科技認知力,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力,實現我軍高質量發展夯實根基。

加快轉變思想觀念。明者因時而變,知者隨事而製。新興領域軍事科技在改造客觀世界的同時,也深刻改變著人們的主觀世界,對傳統的戰爭制勝機理和思維方式形成顛覆性沖擊,內在要求必須轉變思想觀念提昇科技認知力。恩格斯指出:「當科技革命的浪潮正在四周洶湧澎湃的時候……我們需要更新、更勇敢的頭腦。」誰思想保守、因循守舊、固步自封,誰就會錯失寶貴時機,陷於戰略被動,甚至會錯過整整一個時代。我們必須解放思想更新觀念,積極適應當今世界軍事變革的發展趨勢,敏銳感知技術革命帶來的軍事思想革新,勇於改變機械化戰爭的思維定勢,破除守舊守常守成思想束縛,牢固樹立起信息化智能化戰爭新思維,立起科技強軍制勝的新理念,注重從科技角度認識戰爭新面貌、發現戰爭新特點、揭示戰爭新規律,努力把戰爭認知力水平提升到新高度。

涵養科技素養底蘊。科技素養是科學認識和描述客觀世界的能力和科學思維能力,科技素養底蘊的深度,從根本上決定科技認知力高低程度。不懂科技或科技素養不高,對現代戰爭就是霧裡看花、水中觀月,更別說能打仗、打勝仗。提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,理解現代高科技戰爭制勝機理,關鍵要在提高官兵科技素養上下功夫,統籌利用軍地科技優勢資源,大力傳播科學精神、普及科學知識,加強現代科技特別是軍事科技知識的學習,深入研究人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等前沿技術,深刻認識人工智慧深度學習、跨界融合、人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新特點,了解和掌握最新科技成果,構建以資訊化、智慧化技術為主體的多維知識體系,提高思維層次、拓展知識結構,強力推進新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力這個「變量」向強軍勝戰「能量”轉化。

立足實踐提高能力。刀要磨,人要練。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,既需要理論滋養促進思想理念轉型,更要遵循「實踐、認識、再實踐、再認識」的人類認識運動基本規律,用好實戰「磨刀石」砥礪智慧鋒芒,推動新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力向更高一級躍進。要勇於在科技強軍、科技強訓實踐中提質強能,堅持學中乾乾中學,聚焦主責主業、立足崗位戰位鑽研前沿科技,提高科技敏銳度、洞察力和響應速度;增強對新裝備、新技能、新戰法的技術理解,培育科學思維、掌握科學方法,提高科技認知力,培塑從科技視角加強新興領域戰略能力建設的思想意識;緊盯強敵對手和未來戰場練就更強大的“科技頭腦”,熟悉對手的科技成果、科技能力和科技手段,精準把脈對手科技發展的“硬核”和“軟肋”,堅持非對稱思想量身定制鬥爭策略和戰法,為打贏這場未來高端戰爭、混合戰爭提供有力保障。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究院)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/szb_223187/gfbszbxq/index.html?paperName=zggfb&paperDate=2024-06-03&paperNumber=03&articleid=932888