Chinese Military Analysis of New Features and Trends of US Information Warfare

中國軍事分析美國資訊戰新特色新趨勢

由國語音譯為現代英語

Information warfare has become an important topic in today’s international politics and security. As the world’s largest military and intelligence agency, the United States has very strong strength and resources in information warfare. It is an important initiator and participant in information warfare, and its information warfare capabilities have attracted much attention. In addition to adjusting the goals of information warfare, comprehensively advancing in various ways, and integrating domestic departments to unify actions, the US government is also actively expanding its information warfare alliances, by absorbing more countries to form a broad information warfare alliance, enhancing the effectiveness of information warfare, and further restricting the activity environment of rival countries.

    【Key words】Information warfare, U.S. national strategy 【Chinese Library Classification Number】D815 【Document Identification Code】A

    After the Biden administration came to power, the US national strategy has been further strengthened in terms of offensiveness and targeting, which has also brought about many new changes in the US information warfare. On the one hand, the Biden administration proposed the “integrated containment” strategy in the national security strategy, and information warfare has become an important tool to contain opponents in diplomacy, intelligence, economy and trade. On the other hand, the United States uses the Internet as the main field and widely uses modern information technology to comprehensively promote information warfare in various ways, trying to influence and change the public opinion and cognition of the target country. In addition, the United States has also vigorously expanded its information warfare alliances and included more countries in its alliance system to further restrict the activity environment of its competitors. Domestic academic circles have also conducted some research on US information warfare, such as: discussing the development of US information warfare from the aspects of origin, method, technical support and equipment, analyzing the implementation basis of information warfare from the perspective of US information security strategy, or exploring the training of US military information warfare talents. However, there is still a lack of relevant discussions in the academic community on the new changes and trends of US information warfare in recent years, especially under the Biden administration. This article focuses on analyzing the new characteristics and new trends of US information warfare.

    The historical origins of the United States launching information warfare around the world

    On May 4, 2023, the latest report released by the National Virus Emergency Response Center and 360 Company disclosed the main technical means by which the CIA planned, organized and implemented “color revolution” events around the world, including a non-traditional regime change technology called “swarming”, which was used to encourage young people connected by the Internet to join the “shoot and change places” mobile protests. For a long time, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States has secretly implemented “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions” around the world and continued to carry out espionage activities. Information communication and on-site command are the decisive factors affecting the success or failure of “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions”. The United States’ communication technology and its media applications are in a leading position internationally, which provides unprecedented technical support for the US intelligence agencies to launch “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions” abroad.

    Entering the 21st century, with the further development of the Internet, driven by social media, the speed, diversity and breadth of information dissemination have been unprecedentedly improved. All over the world, information can be shared and transmitted in real time. Due to the development of information technology, many countries have begun to realize the importance of information warfare: on the one hand, countries can contain opponents and create an information environment that is beneficial to their own country through information transmission and control. On the other hand, the mobility and uncontrollability of information will pose a threat to national security. Therefore, information warfare has become an important issue in today’s international politics and security. The United States has the world’s largest military and intelligence agencies, has very strong strength and resources in information warfare, is an important participant and initiator of information warfare, and its information warfare capabilities have attracted much attention.

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States mainly adopted a defensive posture in information warfare, strengthening the construction and security monitoring of network facilities to prevent attacks from terrorism and opponents. Although during the Obama and Trump administrations, the United States gradually moved from defense to active offense, proposing “preemptive” cyber sanctions against countries suspected of cyber attacks. However, judging from the National Cybersecurity Strategy released in March 2023, the United States focuses mainly on cyber deterrence, using “forward defense” to prevent attacks and infringements on key national facilities. According to media reports, when Musk announced the “amnesty” of Twitter, Meta, the parent company of another American social platform Facebook, announced a list of banned accounts, among which a group of accounts were related to the US military. This shows that the purpose, method and characteristics of the United States in information warfare are undergoing major changes, from cyber defense and deterrence to the field of influencing and shaping cognition.

    In 1995, Colonel Szafranski of the US Army defined information warfare as a conflict that directly attacks information systems to attack the knowledge or concept fields of the opponent. Information warfare can be conducted as part of a larger, more comprehensive hostile activity (such as cyber warfare), or as the only form of hostility. In 2021, Field, an expert at the Hoover Institution in the United States, also made a similar definition: information warfare aims to convey information to the target audience, which is selected to influence emotions, motivations, reasoning, attitudes, understandings, beliefs or behaviors, thereby promoting the interests of the actors. This shows that there is a general consensus among American elites on the form and purpose of information warfare, that is, to influence the cognitive system of the target object in a variety of ways. Previously, although the United States mainly adopted network defense and attack to target the opponent’s network facilities, with the changes in the international environment and the comprehensive strength of the United States, the United States gradually shifted the operational field and goals of information warfare to the cognitive system of the target country to create an international environment more favorable to the United States.

    Information warfare is an important part of the U.S. national strategy and changes with strategic adjustments.

    Information warfare is an important part of the US national strategy and an important means to achieve its national strategic goals. Today is an information age. Information and information technology not only determine the direction of social change, but are also key factors affecting competition between countries. Countries adjust their national strategies based on changes in the external environment and their own strength, and the content, characteristics, methods and fields of information warfare will also change accordingly.

    In 2016, the Obama administration issued a cybersecurity strategy called the National Cybersecurity Action Plan, which mainly includes: innovation and protection of networks, prevention of cybercrime, strengthening cybersecurity education, enhancing international cooperation and strengthening government cybersecurity management. During this period, the US government’s information warfare mainly focused on preventing cyber attacks from opponents and protecting its own network facilities and security. In September 2018, the Trump administration also issued the National Cybersecurity Strategy, which also emphasized the protection of network facilities and ensuring network security. However, in this strategy, Trump proposed the concept of “forward defense”. When it is believed that there is a possibility of an attack, the United States will take the lead in attacking the opponent, which means that the US information warfare has shifted from defense to active offense. In March 2023, the Biden administration released the latest National Cybersecurity Strategy, which further emphasized the offensive posture and greatly expanded the scope of information warfare. In this strategy, five pillars are proposed. In addition to protecting critical infrastructure and establishing international partnerships, it also emphasizes the need to combat and destroy threat actors, expand the scope of information warfare, expand public-private cooperation, combat adversaries through cooperation between public and private sectors, and shape market forces to promote security and resilience. This shows that in information warfare, the United States will further infiltrate the private sector through various means, promote American ideology and rules through the market and investment, and restrict the development environment of its competitors.

    After the Biden administration came to power, the US national strategy has also added more targeted and offensive elements. In the 2021 National Security Strategic Guidance, it is proposed to build a global strategy around the long-term competition with China and Russia; strengthen the US presence and cooperation in the Pacific region, while strengthening cooperation with Asian allies and partners to deal with the so-called “China threat”. The 2022 National Security Strategy clearly proposes the implementation of an “integrated containment strategy”, requiring the comprehensive use of comprehensive national security tools, including military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, trade and financial means, to prevent any potential challenges to the United States and its allies. According to this strategy, information warfare is no longer just a function of defending against adversary cyber attacks and protecting domestic infrastructure. Information warfare occupies an important position in the “integrated containment strategy”. It not only undertakes the function of military strikes, but will also become an important tool for containing opponents in diplomacy, intelligence, economy and trade.

    The United States is comprehensively advancing information warfare with cognitive systems as its target

    Some scholars believe that the Gulf War was the beginning of information warfare, but as early as during the Cold War, the United States had conducted large-scale information warfare against the Soviet Union. The United States used the media it controlled to carry out extensive and in-depth false news propaganda on the Soviet people, instilling American ideology, and to a certain extent affecting the cognition of the Soviet people. After the end of the Cold War, American decision-makers are believed to have gradually reduced their emphasis on the non-material elements of war because they have defeated their ideological opponents. In the following decades, regarding information warfare, the United States is more inclined to frame these activities in a narrower military context. The “integrated containment strategy” proposed by the Biden administration shows that relying solely on a defense-oriented strategy may no longer be enough to limit competitors. The United States intends to contain its opponents in all areas of national strength, including diplomacy, economy, and information. This comprehensive containment approach focuses on mobilizing all elements of national power in competition other than military means. It requires not only the coordination of various important U.S. agencies, including the Department of Defense, the State Department, the CIA, the FBI, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, but also conventional military capabilities – focusing on destroying the target country and occupying its territory. It also requires the development of unconventional military capabilities – competing for influence and legitimacy among the people of various countries, enhancing the influence of the United States by influencing and changing the cognitive system of the people of the target country, and thereby undermining the opponent’s information environment and decision-making ability.

    The information market assumes that people will process information rationally, but psychological research shows that people often do not do so. Instead, the information environment in which people live affects their cognition, decision-making, and behavior, and the information environment is the operational environment of information warfare. In recent years, the U.S. Department of Defense has adopted an increasingly comprehensive understanding of the information environment. In the updated definition of the information environment, it points out that it “contains and aggregates many social, cultural, cognitive, technological, and physical attributes that affect the knowledge, understanding, beliefs, worldview, and ultimate actions of individuals, groups, systems, communities, or organizations.” Information warfare acts on the opponent’s information environment, by analyzing the opponent’s decision-making methods, psychological advantages and weaknesses, changing the information environment, and then affecting the “key factor” of the cognitive system, changing its national behavior to achieve the goal of winning.

    In the networked era, the transmission, aggregation and processing of information are mostly carried out through the network. The network constitutes the most important information environment, and the combat field of information warfare is also concentrated on the network. The United States not only uses its global media and cultural communication power to spread American culture and values ​​to the world through television, movies, music, games, etc., to strengthen its international influence and soft power. In addition, the US government and military also make extensive use of social media, search engines, artificial intelligence, the Internet and other information means, and through professional and systematic information operation agencies and cross-border cooperation between different agencies and departments, they carry out various forms of information warfare, such as posting political propaganda on social media, launching cyber attacks, conducting network monitoring and surveillance, and organizing network sabotage activities. It should be noted that social media is increasingly becoming an important medium for the United States to launch information warfare. This is because social media platforms can have a huge impact on a large number of people with their speed and breadth of information dissemination. At the same time, because people are irrational in cognition, large-scale simple repetition on social media has become a reliable way for people to believe in fallacies. The United States is deploying a large number of fake accounts on social media platforms to widely spread false information, manipulate information, incite emotions, create public opinion, mislead opponents’ decision-making behavior, and formulate and disseminate strategic narratives to prompt national behavior to change in a direction that is beneficial to the United States.

    Expanding the information warfare alliance and further constraining the environment for competitors

    In addition to adjusting the goals of information warfare, advancing it comprehensively in a variety of ways, and integrating domestic departments into unified actions, the U.S. government is also actively expanding its information warfare alliances by absorbing more countries to form a broad information warfare alliance, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of information warfare and further restricting the environment in which rival countries can operate.

    In Europe, the United States has been strengthening its cooperation with its NATO allies on information warfare. In November 2010, NATO updated the “Lisbon Strategic Concept”, emphasizing the need to more thoroughly respond to the rapidly evolving security challenges of the 21st century, including cyber attacks. The policy focuses not only on protecting NATO’s own networks, but also on establishing agreed benchmarks to protect the national networks of allies. The 2014 Wales Summit proposed a policy to strengthen cyber defense, making the cyber field one of its key political and strategic priorities, emphasizing the cooperation and unified action of member states, and linking the cyberspace with the collective defense of the alliance. At the 2016 Warsaw Summit, NATO recognized cyberspace as a new field of military operations. In February 2018, NATO member states established a cyber operations center within the NATO military command structure, which aims to strengthen the defense and response capabilities of NATO member states in cyberspace and improve the overall level of cyber security. These measures show that under the leadership of the United States, NATO has gradually established a strong cyber cooperation platform for information warfare. On the basis of this platform, the United States will implement information warfare more comprehensively and across fields. During the Ukrainian crisis, the United States and its allies used this platform to provide cyber defense for Ukraine and launch a large number of cyber attacks. They also used the Internet to spread various false information, distorting and shaping the country’s image that was unfavorable to Russia.

    In Asia, based on the existing military alliance, the United States has been deepening its security alliances to maintain its interests in the Indo-Pacific region, vigorously promoting the “four-country mechanism” consisting of the United States, Japan, India and Australia, deepening its relations with India, and striving to promote trilateral cooperation between the United States, Japan and South Korea, further promoting network rules that are beneficial to the United States and expanding the alliances led by the United States. This makes it easier for the United States to insert information operators in the networks of allied countries, spread information that is beneficial to the United States in multiple networks, and shape the information environment dominated by the United States to exclude and restrict competing countries in the information environment. At the same time, this transnational network is still expanding, and the United States’ network standards and norms are constantly being implemented in other countries, which has greatly helped the US government and military to infiltrate these networks and conduct information warfare. The United States has also actively engaged with ASEAN countries and their individual member states, including Indonesia, Singapore and Vietnam, and has achieved certain results in network expansion. Despite the differences in governance systems and technical capabilities among these countries, as well as competing domestic priorities, ASEAN has become the first region among developing countries to adopt a consistent e-commerce legal framework. They have adopted the cybersecurity framework of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the United States as a global common language to communicate with different industry sectors and other countries.

    In February 2022, the Biden administration issued a new Indo-Pacific Strategy, which is the first Indo-Pacific Strategy issued by the Biden administration and the second Indo-Pacific Strategy issued by the US government. The strategy proposes five major policy goals, including promoting freedom and openness, regional security and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region, and also proposes an “integrated containment” strategy. For China, the Indo-Pacific Strategy points out that “our goal is not to change China, but to shape the strategic environment in which it operates.” Especially in such a media age, the transmission and release of information are more convenient, and we need to pay more attention to the importance of information warfare. In this regard, we may also need to grasp the psychological demands and emotional needs of the masses more accurately. Taking the latest report released by the National Virus Emergency Response Center and 360 Company as an example, it is particularly important for domestic government agencies, scientific research institutions, industrial enterprises and commercial institutions to quickly “see” and deal with the highly systematic, intelligent and concealed cyber attacks launched by the CIA against my country in the first place. The report recommends that in order to effectively respond to imminent network and real threats, while adopting independent and controllable domestic equipment, we should organize self-inspection and self-examination of APT attacks as soon as possible, and gradually establish a long-term defense system to achieve comprehensive and systematic prevention and control to resist advanced threat attacks.

    As the US information warfare continues to advance, the meaning of shaping the environment has become more prominent, that is, not only to contain China politically, economically and militarily, but also to “shape” China’s activity environment in terms of network and information. For China, facing the more complex and severe international situation under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian crisis and the US’s continuously advancing information warfare strategy, it should make the following responses: First, strengthen network and information security construction to improve its own information security level and guard against attacks on network facilities and key infrastructure. Be vigilant against the spread of false information on the Internet and in the media, trace the source of the spread, and prevent the spread of information by large-scale false accounts and the conscious guidance of the public’s cognitive system. Secondly, continue to promote high-level reform and opening up, actively develop foreign trade, and further strengthen economic ties with countries around the world. This is the most effective strategy to prevent the US “integrated containment” and information warfare. Tell the Chinese story well in foreign exchanges, let the world know more about China, and promote mutual trust and cooperation with other countries through extensive exchanges and strengthening economic interdependence. Thirdly, adhere to economic development. Developing the economy is a necessary condition for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and is also a core task of the country. Through economic development, the world can also understand the Chinese plan and the Chinese road more clearly and vividly, and thus more effectively defend against false information and information distortion in information warfare. Finally, in terms of Sino-US relations, while maintaining the bottom line and preventing conflicts, China can also establish and restore exchanges and cooperation in certain important areas or important groups, increase and accumulate trust, and further expand cooperation to divide and ease the US integrated containment strategy.

    (The author is a professor at the Institute of Contemporary Socialism of Shandong University, a researcher at the Institute of National Governance of Shandong University, and a researcher at the Institute of South Asian Studies of Shandong University)

    【references】

    ① Liu Boran and Wei Xiuming: “U.S. Cyber ​​Security Strategy: Development Process, Evolutionary Characteristics and Essence”, Journal of Liaoning University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), Issue 3, 2019.

    ②Huang Yingxin: “Information Warfare and Its Development”, “Intelligence Command Control System and Simulation Technology”, Issue 6, 2000.

    ③Lu Xinde: “On the Expansiveness of the US Information Security Strategy”, Contemporary Asia-Pacific, Issue 7, 2005.

    ④Liu Xiaoyuan and Pang Bo, “A Perspective on the Training of Information Warfare Talents in the US Military and Its Implications”, Journal of Higher Education Research, No. 3, 2005.

    ⑤[Japan] Kosawa Kunio and Jiang Xinfeng, translators: “IT Revolution and the Development of the U.S. and Japanese Navies”, International Outlook, No. 15, 2001.

    ⑥Wu Fei and Li Xuan: “The Role of the Media in the Information War between Russia and the United States under Geopolitical Game”, “External Communication”, Issue 6, 2022.

    ⑦Yang Guangbin et al.: “Characteristics of the Era of Turbulent Change”, “World Economy and Politics”, Issue 2, 2023.

繁體中文

《 人民論壇 》( 2023年10月09日 第 04 版)
【摘要】資訊戰已成為當今國際政治和安全領域的重要議題。因其全球最大的軍事和情報機構,在資訊戰方面有著非常強的實力和資源,是資訊戰的重要發起者和參與者,其資訊戰的能力備受關注。除了調整資訊戰的目標,以多種方式全面推進,整合國內各部門而統一行動外,美國政府還積極擴展資訊戰的同盟,透過吸收更多國家以形成廣泛的資訊戰聯盟,增強資訊戰的效果,並進一步限制對手國家的活動環境。

【關鍵字】資訊戰 美國國家戰略 【中圖分類號】D815 【文獻標識碼】A

拜登政府上台後,在美國國家戰略上進一步加強了攻擊性和針對性,這也使美國的資訊戰發生了許多新的變化。一方面,拜登政府在國家安全戰略中提出了「一體化遏制」策略,資訊戰在外交、情報、經濟和貿易等方面成為遏制對手的重要工具;另一方面,美國以網路為主要場域,廣泛運用現代資訊科技以多種方式全面推進資訊戰,試圖影響和改變目標國家的輿論風向和認知;此外,美國還大力擴展資訊戰同盟,將更多國家納入其同盟體係以進一步限制競爭對手的活動環境。國內學界對美國資訊戰也進行了一定的研究,例如:從起源、方式、技術支援和裝備等方面討論美國資訊戰的發展,從美國資訊安全戰略角度分析資訊戰的實施基礎,抑或探析美軍信息戰人才的培養。但對於近年來,特別是拜登政府治下美國資訊戰的新變化及其趨勢,學界仍缺乏相關討論,本文則聚焦於剖析美國資訊戰的新特徵與新動向。

美國在世界各地發動資訊戰的歷史溯源

2023年5月4日,國家病毒緊急處理中心和360公司發布的最新報告披露了CIA在全球各地策劃組織實施「顏色革命」事件的主要技術手段,其中包括一款被稱為「蜂擁」的非傳統政權更迭技術,用於推動透過網路連線的年輕人加入「打一槍換一個地方」的流動性抗議活動。長期以來,美國中央情報局(CIA)在世界各地秘密實施“和平演變”和“顏色革命”,並持續進行間諜竊密活動。資訊通信和現場指揮是影響「和平演變」和「顏色革命」成敗的決定性因素。美國的通訊技術及其媒體應用在國際上處於領先地位,這給美國情報部門對外發動「和平演變」和「顏色革命」提供了前所未有的技術支援。

進入21世紀,隨著網路的進一步發展,在社群媒體的推動下,資訊傳播的高速性、多樣性和廣泛性得到了空前的提升。在世界範圍內,各地資訊都能夠即時共享和飛速傳遞。因資訊科技的發展,許多國家開始意識到資訊戰的重要性:一方面,國家可以透過資訊傳遞和控制來遏制對手並創造有利於本國的資訊環境。另一方面,資訊的流動性和不可控性會對國家安全造成威脅。因此,資訊戰已成為當今國際政治和安全領域的重要議題。美國擁有全球最大的軍事和情報機構,在資訊戰方面有著非常強的實力和資源,是資訊戰的重要參與者和發起者,其資訊戰的能力備受關注。

在「911」恐怖事件後,美國在資訊戰方面主要是採用防禦為主的態勢,加強網路設施的建設和安全監控,以防止恐怖主義和對手的攻擊。雖然在歐巴馬和川普政府時期,美國由防禦逐漸走向主動進攻,提出對疑似網路攻擊國進行「先發制人」的網路制裁。但從2023年3月發布的《國家網路安全戰略》來看,美國的重點主要放在網路威懾上,透過「向前防禦」來防備對國家關鍵設施的攻擊和侵害。根據媒體報道,馬斯克宣布「大赦」推特之際,美國另一家社群平台臉書(Facebook)的母公司Meta公佈了一份封禁帳號名單,在名單中,有一批帳號與美國軍方有關。這顯示美國在資訊戰上的目的、方式和特徵正在發生重大變化,由網路防禦和威懾進入到影響和塑造認知領域。

美軍上校沙弗蘭斯基(Szafranski)在1995年對資訊戰進行過界定,資訊戰是一種直接攻擊資訊系統以攻擊對手知識或觀念領域的衝突。資訊戰可以作為更大規模、更全面的敵對活動的組成部分(如網路戰),或作為唯一的敵對形式進行。 2021年,美國胡佛研究所專家菲爾德(Field)也做出了類似的定義:資訊戰旨在向目標受眾傳達訊息,這些訊息被挑選出來,以影響情感、動機、推理、態度、理解、信仰或行為,從而促進行動者的利益。這說明在美國菁英中對於資訊戰的形式和目的有大致一致的認識,即透過多種方式影響目標對象的認知系統。此前,美國雖然主要採用網路防禦和攻擊,有針對性地打擊對手的網路設施,但隨著國際環境和美國綜合實力的變化,美國逐步將資訊戰的作戰領域和目標轉移到對象國的認知系統,以營造更有利於美國的國際環境。

資訊戰是美國國家戰略的重要組成部分,隨戰略調整而變化

資訊戰是美國國家戰略的重要組成部分,也是實現其國家戰略目標的重要手段。當今時代是資訊化時代,資訊與資訊科技不僅決定社會變革的方向,同時也是影響國家間競爭的關鍵因素。國家依據外部環境和自身實力的變化調整國家戰略,而資訊戰的內容、特徵、方式和領域也會隨之改變。

歐巴馬政府在2016年推出了名為《網路安全國家行動計畫》的網路安全策略,其主要內容包括:創新和保護網絡,預防網路犯罪,加強網路安全教育,增強國際合作與加強政府網路安全管理。在這段時期,美國政府在資訊戰上主要是防範對手的網路攻擊,保護自身的網路設施和安全。在2018年9月,川普政府也頒布了《國家網路安全戰略》,同樣強調對網路設施的防護,並確保網路安全。但在這份戰略中,川普提出了「向前防禦」的概念,當認為有可能遭遇到襲擊時,美國將率先攻擊對方,這意味著美國資訊戰由防禦轉向了主動進攻。 2023年3月,拜登政府公佈了最新的《國家網路安全戰略》,進一步強調了進攻的態勢,並大大擴展了資訊戰的範圍。在該戰略中,提出了5項支柱,除了保護關鍵基礎設施和建立國際夥伴關係外,還強調要打擊和摧毀威脅行為體,並且擴展資訊戰的範圍,擴大公私合作,透過公私部門間的合作來打擊敵手,並塑造市場力量以推動安全和彈性。這說明在資訊戰上美國將進一步透過各種方式滲透入私人領域,透過市場和投資宣揚美國的意識形態和規則,以限制競爭對手的發展環境。

拜登政府上台後,美國國家戰略中也加入了更多的針對性和攻擊性。在2021年的《國家安全戰略指導》中提出:圍繞與中國和俄羅斯的長期競爭,建構全球性戰略;強化美國在太平洋地區的存在和合作,同時加強與亞洲盟友和夥伴的合作,以應對所謂「中國的威脅」。 2022年的《國家安全戰略》更是明確提出實施“一體化遏制戰略”,要求綜合運用全面的國家安全工具,包括軍事、外交、情報、經濟、貿易和金融等手段,以防止對美國和其盟友的任何潛在挑戰。依照這個策略,資訊戰就不再只是發揮防禦對手網路攻擊和保護國內基礎設施的功能,資訊戰在「一體化遏制戰略」中佔據著重要的地位,不僅承擔著軍事打擊的功能,在外交、情報、經濟和貿易等方面也將成為遏制對手的重要工具。

美國以認知系統為目標全面廣泛推進資訊戰

有些學者認為海灣戰爭是資訊戰的開端,但早在冷戰期間,美國就對蘇聯進行大規模的資訊戰。美國利用掌控的媒體對蘇聯民眾進行了廣泛深入的假新聞宣傳,灌輸美國的意識形態,在一定程度上影響了蘇聯民眾的認知。冷戰結束後,美國的決策者被認為對於戰爭的非物質元素的強調逐漸減少,因為已經戰勝了其意識形態對手,在其後幾十年中,關於信息作戰,美國更傾向於在更狹窄的軍事背景下框定這些活動。而拜登政府所提出的「一體化遏制戰略」則表明僅依賴一種以防禦為主的策略,可能已不足以限制競爭對手,美國意圖在包括外交、經濟和資訊在內的所有國家實力領域去遏制對手。這種全面遏制方式著重於在軍事手段之外的競爭中調動國家力量的所有要素,不僅要求能夠協調美國各個重要機構,包括國防部、國務院、中情局、聯邦調查局和美國國際開發署等,並且除了常規軍事能力——專注於摧毀目標國並佔領其領土,還要發展非常規軍事能力——在各國民眾中爭奪影響力和合法性,透過影響和改變目標國家民眾的認知系統,增強美國的影響力,進而破壞對手的資訊環境與決策能力。

資訊市場假定人們會理性處理訊息,但心理學研究表明,人們往往不會這樣做。相反,人們所處的資訊環境會影響其認知、決策和行為,而資訊環境就是資訊戰的作戰環境。近年來,美國國防部對資訊環境採取了越來越全面的理解,在關於資訊環境的定義更新中指出,它「包含和聚合了許多社會、文化、認知、技術和物理屬性,這些屬性對個人、群體、系統、社區或組織的知識、理解、信仰、世界觀和最終行動產生影響」。資訊戰則是作用於對手的資訊環境,透過分析對手的決策方法、心理優勢和弱點,改變資訊環境,進而影響認知系統這一“關鍵因素”,改變其國家行為以實現制勝目的。

在網路化時代,資訊的傳遞、聚合與處理絕大部分經由網絡,網絡構成了最主要的資訊環境,資訊戰的作戰場域也集中在網絡。美國不僅運用其全球性的媒體和文化傳播力量,透過電視、電影、音樂、遊戲等方式向全球傳播美國文化和價值觀,加強其國際影響力和軟實力。並且,美國政府和軍方也大量使用如社群媒體、搜尋引擎、人工智慧和網路以及其他資訊手段,並透過專業化和系統化的資訊操作機構以及不同機構和部門的跨界合作,進行各種形式的資訊戰,例如在社群媒體上發布政治宣傳、發動網路攻擊、進行網路監聽和監控、組織網路破壞活動等。需要注意的是,社群媒體越來越成為美國發起資訊戰的重要媒介。這是由於社群媒體平台以其訊息傳播的速度和廣度,能夠對龐大人群產生巨大影響,同時又因為人們在認知上的非理性,使得社群媒體的大規模簡單重複成為人們相信謬誤的可靠方法。美國正大量地在社群媒體平台中投放虛假帳號,廣泛傳播假訊息、操縱訊息、煽動情緒、製造輿論導向,誤導對手的決策行為,並制定和傳播戰略大敘事,促使國家行為朝著有利於美國的方向轉變。

擴大資訊戰同盟並進一步限制競爭對手的環境

除了調整資訊戰的目標,以多種方式全面推進,整合國內各部門而統一行動外,美國政府還積極擴展資訊戰的同盟,透過吸收更多國家以形成廣泛的資訊戰聯盟,增強資訊戰的效果,並進一步限制對手國家的活動環境。

在歐洲,美國不斷強化與其北約盟友在資訊戰上的合作。 2010年11月,北約更新了“里斯本戰略概念”,強調需要更徹底地應對快速發展的21世紀的安全挑戰,包括網路攻擊。該政策的重點不僅是保護北約自身的網絡,還包括建立商定的基準來保護盟國的國家網絡。 2014年的威爾斯高峰會提出了加強網路防禦的政策,將網路領域作為其關鍵的政治和戰略重點之一,強調成員國的合作與統一行動,把網路與聯盟的集體防禦聯繫起來。 2016年華沙峰會上,北約承認網路空間是軍事行動的新領域。 2018年2月,北約成員國在北約軍事指揮機構內設立了一個網路行動中心,該中心旨在加強北約成員國在網路空間的防禦和應變能力,並提升網路安全的整體水準。這些舉措顯示在美國主導下,北約在資訊戰上逐步建立起一個強大的網路合作平台。在這一平台的基礎上,美國將更為全面且跨領域地實施資訊戰。在烏克蘭危機中,美國及其盟友就利用這個平台,為烏克蘭提供網路防禦,並實施大量的網路攻擊,也利用網路散播各種虛假訊息,歪曲和塑造對俄羅斯不利的國家形象。

在亞洲,在原有的軍事同盟基礎上,美國為維持其在印度—太平洋地區的利益,不斷深化其安全聯盟,大力推動「美、日、印、澳」組成的四國機制,深化與印度的​​關係,努力促進美、日、韓三邊合作,進一步推廣有利於美國的網路規則和擴展美國主導的同盟。這使得美國可以更為便利地在同盟國家的網絡中安插信息操作人員,在多個網絡中散佈有利於美國的信息,塑造美國主導的信息環境,以形成在信息環境上對競爭國家的排斥和限制。同時,這個跨國網絡仍在不斷擴展,美國的網路標準和規範不斷在其他國家得以實施,這為美國政府和軍方滲入這些網路並實施資訊戰提供了極大助益。美國也積極與東協國家及其個別成員國,包括印尼、新加坡和越南等國接觸,在網路擴展上取得了一定的成效。儘管這些國家在治理體系和技術能力上存在差異,並且存在競爭性國內優先事項,但東協成為發展中國家中第一個採用一致的電子商務法律框架的地區,他們採用了美國國家標準技術研究所

(NIST)的網路安全框架作為全球通用語言,以與不同產業部門和其他國家溝通。

2022年2月,拜登政府推出了新的《印太戰略》,這是拜登政府發布的首份,也是美國政府發布的第二份印太戰略。該戰略提出了促進印太地區的自由開放、區域安全和繁榮等五大政策目標,也提出了「一體化遏制」策略。對於中國,《印太戰略》指出「我們的目標不是改變中國,而是塑造其運作的戰略環境」。尤其是在這樣一個媒體時代,訊息的傳遞和發布更加方便,我們更需要重視資訊戰的重要性。在這方面,我們也可能需要更精確地抓住群眾的心理訴求和情感需求。以國家病毒緊急處理中心和360公司發布的最新報告為例,針對CIA對我國發起的高度體系化、智慧化、隱蔽化的網路攻擊,境內政府機構、科研院校、工業企業和商業機構如何快速「看見」並第一時間進行處置尤為重要。報告建議,為有效應對迫在眉睫的網路和現實威脅,我們在採用自主可控國產化設備的同時,應盡快組織開展APT攻擊的自檢自查工作,並逐步建立起長效的防禦體系,實現全面系統化防治,抵禦高階威脅攻擊。

隨著美國資訊戰的不斷推進,塑造環境的意義得以彰顯,即不僅是在政治、經濟和軍事上對中國進行遏制,同時在網路和資訊上也要「塑造」中國的活動環境。對中國而言,面對在新冠疫情和烏克蘭危機衝擊下更為複雜嚴峻的國際局勢以及美國不斷推進的信息戰策略,應該做好以下應對:首先,加強網絡和信息安全建設提高自身信息安全水平,防備對網路設施和關鍵基礎設施的攻擊。警惕網路和媒體中的假訊息傳播,追溯傳播源頭,防範大規模假帳號所進行的資訊散播和有意識地對民眾認知系統的引導。其次,持續推動高水準的改革開放,積極發展對外貿易,進一步加強與世界各國的經濟聯繫。這是防範美國「一體化遏制」和資訊戰最有效的策略。在對外交往中講好中國故事,讓世界更了解中國,透過廣泛交流和加強經濟互賴,促進和其他國家的互信與合作。再次,堅持經濟發展。發展經濟是中華民族復興的必要條件,同時也是國家的核心任務。透過經濟發展也可以讓世界更清楚、形象化地理解中國方案和中國道路,進而更有效地防禦資訊戰中的假訊息和訊息扭曲。最後,在中美關係上,中國在守住底線、防止衝突的同時,也可以建立和恢復某些重要領域或重要團體的交往與合作,增加和積累信任,並進​​一步擴展合作,分化和緩解美國的一體化遏制戰略。

(作者為山東大學當代社會主義研究所教授、山東大學國家治理研究院研究員、山東大學南亞研究所研究員)

【參考文獻】

①劉勃然、魏秀明:《美國網路資訊安全戰略:發展歷程、演進特徵與實質》,《遼寧大學學報(哲學社會會科學版)》,2019年第3期。

②黃迎馨:《資訊戰及其發展》,《情報指揮控制系統與模擬技術》,2000年第6期。

③盧新德:《論美國資訊安全戰略的擴張性》,《當代亞太》,2005年第7期。

④劉曉元、龐波:《美軍資訊戰人才培養透視及其啟示》,《高等教育研究期刊》,2005年第3期。

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⑥吳非、李旋:《地緣政治博弈下俄美訊息戰中的媒體角色》,《對外傳播》,2022年第6期。

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原始中國政府資源:http://paper.people.com.cn/rmlt/html/2023-10/09/content_26023698.htm

Chinese Military Emphasis of Dedicated Research on Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍方重視認知領域作戰的專門研究

現代英文音譯:

In today’s era, the world pattern and social form are evolving rapidly, intelligent technology and cutting-edge cross-cutting technologies are constantly making new breakthroughs, new developments and new applications, and the scope of human action is accelerating from the physical domain, information domain, and social domain to the cognitive domain. Recent local wars in the world have shown that the status of cognitive domain operations has been rapidly improving and its role has become increasingly prominent. It has become the trend of the times and the key fulcrum for shaping the situation in advance, effectively balancing and influencing wars.

Clarify the basic methods of cognitive domain operations

Cognition is the reflection of the objective world in the subjective world of human beings, mainly involving knowledge, experience, consciousness, emotion and psychology. The targets of cognitive domain operations are mainly people who are in the main position in the war, with the characteristics of low cost, high efficiency and strong concealment. Entering the 21st century, the development of advanced science and technology and the changes in social structure have made cognitive domain operations a new high ground for the game between major powers, and even a “shortcut” to defeat the enemy without fighting.

Strengthen cognitive effects through continuous action in the physical domain. Cognitive domain warfare has always been associated with social development and human warfare. Before the mechanized era, cognitive domain warfare was mainly carried out through violent destruction of the physical domain by military forces, coupled with the flexible use of military strategies, and taking advantage of military forces to seize decisive results, to continuously strengthen the cognitive domain warfare effect. For example, the comparison of the number of military forces of both sides, the vastness of the occupied territory, the scale of the resources controlled, the support of peripheral countries, and the acceptance of the risk of failure, etc., can indirectly achieve the result of changing the enemy’s cognition, reluctantly accepting failure, and being forced to compromise. In 1945, Japanese fascism was at the end of its rope, but it was still dreaming of resisting stubbornly until the Chinese military and civilians launched a full-scale counterattack, the United States used atomic bombs to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet army sent troops to Northeast China, forcing it to realize that defeat was inevitable and had to surrender unconditionally.

Using the interaction between the virtual and the real in the social domain to influence cognitive effects. War is the product of social development. In the information age, the rapid development of information networks has highlighted the role of the social domain. Cognitive domain warfare no longer emphasizes violent change of cognition, but pays more attention to the use of media platforms such as online media, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, and interviews to emotionally attract, anti-intellectual propaganda, corrupt and degenerate, and polarize various social groups. Collect the discordant factors in the emotional appeals, life needs, and value identification of typical social groups, and plan, step by step, and premeditatedly in the fields of politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, society, and culture, through the methods of continuously detonating topics, intensifying contradictions, adding fuel to the fire, continuing fermentation, and creating divisions, ultimately causing social unrest and even overthrowing the national regime. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, the upheaval in Eastern Europe, and the “color revolutions” in many parts of the world since the 1990s all have this shadow.

Targeting the cognitive domain to directly intervene in cognitive results. The way humans understand the world will transform the objective world in the same way, which is exactly the point of action of cognitive domain operations. Entering the intelligent era, breakthroughs have been made in cutting-edge fields such as biological intersection and brain control, and intelligent technologies such as advanced algorithms and brain-computer interfaces have been continuously upgraded. Advanced technologies such as big data and cloud computing have been rapidly developed and applied. Cognitive domain operations in the intelligent era pay more attention to the role of intelligent technology. Through the deep interaction between real life and the virtual world of the Internet, the information collected and obtained is richer, the data is more complete, and the elements are more complete. Cognitive domain operations can already bypass the traditional physical domain and social domain based on the widely distributed intelligent information network, the surrounding visible intelligent terminals and the colorful intelligent applications, break through the tangible blockade restrictions of the other party, and directly implement the “downward strike” of the cognitive domain on the core circle, elite class and the general public of the predetermined target through targeted and precise push.

Clarify the mechanism of cognitive domain operations

Entering the era of intelligence, human thinking has become a new direction for war planning and a new field for war games. Its essence is to face the spiritual level of the combat target, and to list human will, belief, thinking, psychology, etc. as combat targets. By maintaining one’s own cognitive advantage and attacking the enemy’s cognitive disadvantage, the cognitive domain attack and defense confrontation is carried out. The specific action mechanism also presents the characteristics of multi-domain action and mixed superposition.

Implement value standard penetration. Values ​​are the principle standards for people to distinguish right from wrong and good from bad. They are at the core of generating motivations for personnel behavior, play a leading role in driving group behavior patterns, and are the key to seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations are mainly based on network psychology and cybernetics to identify and predict human group behavior and individual activities, and then create more accurate specific group interaction concepts. On this basis, targeting the opponent’s value orientation, using the opponent’s cultural language, and comprehensively using strong media, social networks, and intelligent technologies, deliberately weave “information cocoons”, malicious narrative editing hints, mobilize the emotions of the target group, advocate minority extreme orientations, induce value deviations, kidnap and manipulate public opinion, and ultimately make cognitive domain operations effective. The foundation of the opponent’s belief, the destination of the soul, and the spiritual home. In recent local conflicts, the United States and Western countries have launched cognitive domain operations through narrative fabrication, script arrangement, and rhetoric manipulation, attempting to cause oppressive pressure on the opponent in multiple fields at all times, and many countries who are unaware of the situation have been dragged into it unknowingly.

Creating psychological and emotional internal friction. Psychological fluctuations and emotional changes are natural biological attributes of human beings, and are also the breakthrough points for cognitive domain operations to strike, weaken, and disintegrate the enemy’s will to fight. Cognitive domain operations are based on the basic principles of psychology, neurology, and brain science, emphasizing the use of human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, suspicion, and doubt, and are carried out or implemented simultaneously at the strategic, campaign, and tactical levels. Cognitive domain operations mainly use deep fakes, scene posing, and algorithm recommendations to fabricate remarks on mainstream social platforms to discredit opponents. Foreign armies have used Internet celebrities, virtual accounts, and zombie armies to confuse cognition, disrupt public opinion, and deviate from the rhythm. By creating insecurity and exaggerating uncertainty within the enemy, group conflicts are intensified; by creating internal rifts, unity and harmony are destroyed; by amplifying distrust and increasing decision-making doubts, internal fighting and internal friction are increased. Ultimately, based on the traceless implantation, seamless connection, invisible operation, and senseless substitution of psychological emotions, “winning without fighting” is achieved.

Conduct human consciousness guidance and control. The integrated development of cognitive science and advanced technology has prompted cognitive domain operations to develop in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence and cognitive intelligence, with stronger penetration and deeper influence. Major breakthroughs have been made in technologies such as multimodal emotion recognition, activation and protection based on big data. After mining and analyzing information data, the cognitive state of social groups can be seen at a glance, and the mental portrait of target personnel can be detailed. Based on efficient and flexible cognitive scenarios, subtle emotional associations and tendency intervention of brain-computer interfaces, cognitive domain operations can unconsciously influence and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Intelligent cognitive weapon systems can effectively limit the enemy’s acquisition of useful information, induce the enemy to use erroneous data, reduce the speed of command decision-making, interfere with the operation of cognitive modes, and block correct cognitive output. Reports show that NATO, led by the United States, is actively promoting the weaponization of brain science and cognitive science research results, and is attempting to achieve cognitive control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

Build a strong confrontation system for cognitive domain operations

The local war practices in recent years have shown that military force and technological advantages alone cannot completely determine the outcome of a war, and cognitive domain operations have an increasingly significant impact on the course of a war. They can not only trigger the start of a war, direct the continuation of a war, but also affect the end of a war. Therefore, it is particularly necessary to build a strong and resilient cognitive domain combat confrontation system.

Smooth the command and control mechanism of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations involve a wide range of fields and cover a lot of content. They require a combination of long-term preparation and short-term promotion, strengthening construction and preemptive preparation. Establish a firm overall national security concept, formulate an overall strategy for coping with cognitive domain operations, take the initiative to break the situation and shape the momentum, participate in global governance, strengthen China’s voice, and purify the public opinion environment. Overall consideration of the establishment of command organizations, integration of command nodes in different strategic directions, opening up multi-domain command and control links, improving cross-domain command processes, and flexible multi-domain integration guidance and control methods. Overall design of a multi-domain and cross-departmental collaboration framework, combined with national security situation analysis, regularly promote the operation of the collaboration mechanism. Sort out the list of responsibilities of each command level, draw clear functional boundaries in each field, and clarify cross-domain collaboration matters, operating procedures and standard requirements. Establish a cognitive early warning mechanism, divide combat intensity, organize virtual exercises and multi-level confrontations, and improve the ability to deal with cognitive domain threats.

Integrate the elements and forces of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations have both the threat of “gray rhinos” and the variables of “black swans”, so it is necessary to strengthen prevention and forge strong forces. Combine the design of the cognitive domain combat command system and provide multi-domain counterattack forces. Strengthen the response forces in traditional fields, expand the scope of functional business, and deepen the selection and training of professional talents. Develop new counterattack forces and integrate advantageous resources in emerging fields such as social media, psychological cognition, and intelligent unmanned. Activate civilian forces and international high-quality resources to create a cross-domain crisis response team and counterattack force cluster with systematic support, complete elements, and superb professional skills. Combine confrontation exercises and social practices, invest new forces, integrate new technologies, and add new means to strengthen the evaluation and inspection of containment and countermeasures.

Strengthen the basic engineering of cognitive domain operations. As the research and practice of cognitive domain operations continue to deepen, many new technologies and new theories will inevitably emerge, which need to be closely tracked and followed. Strengthen the research on global hot spots, pay attention to the changes in the gray area, and keep abreast of the latest developments in foreign cognitive domain operations and the latest trends in force deployment. Strengthen the analysis of war cases and explore new factors and elements of cognitive domain operations. Organize special topics to gather wisdom and analyze new mechanisms and laws of cognitive domain operations. Analyze the strategies and means of opponents, track and grasp their strategic adjustments and focus, and carry out counter-strategies and response research by level and field. Analyze the new means, technologies and practices of opponents using social media, international organizations and agents to carry out cognitive domain operations, so as to prevent and foresee in advance.

原始現代國語:

引 言

當今時代,世界格局與社會形態加速演進,智慧科技與前沿交叉技術不斷取得新突破新發展新應用,人類的作用領域正由物理域、資訊域、社會域向認知域不斷加速拓展。近幾場世界局部戰爭顯示,認知域作戰的地位快速提升、作用日益凸顯,已成為先期塑勢、有效制衡、影響戰爭的時代風口和關鍵支點。

釐清認知域作戰的基本方式

認知是客觀世界在人類主觀世界中的反映,主要涉及知識、經驗、意識、情緒和心理等多個面向。認知域作戰的對象主要是在戰爭中處於主體地位的人,具有成本低、效益高、隱蔽性強等特質。進入21世紀,先進科技的發展與社會結構的變遷,使得認知域作戰成為大國博弈的新高地,甚至成為不戰而屈人之兵的「捷徑」。

透過物理域持續作用強化認知效果。一直以來,認知域作戰就與社會發展和人類戰爭相生相伴。機械化時代以前,受社會形態和溝通方式等限制,認知域作戰主要透過軍事力量在物理域的暴力破壞,再加上軍事謀略的靈活運用,並藉勢軍事力量奪取決定性戰果,來持續強化認知域作戰效果。例如,雙方軍事力量的數量對比、佔領疆域的廣闊程度、掌控資源的規模體量、外圍國家的支持力度和失敗風險的接受程度等,從而間接達成改變敵方認知、無奈接受失敗和被迫作出妥協的結果。 1945年,日本法西斯已經窮途末路,卻還在妄想負隅頑抗,直到中國軍民發動全面反攻和美國動用原子彈轟炸廣島、長崎以及蘇軍出兵中國東北,迫使其認識到敗局已定,不得不無條件投降。

借助社會域虛實互動影響認知效果。戰爭是社會發展的產物。在資訊化時代,資訊網絡的快速發展促使社會域的角色得以凸顯。認知域作戰不再強調暴力改變認知,而是更重視利用網路媒體、廣播電視、報紙雜誌和訪談交流等介質平台,來對各類社會群體進行情感拉攏、反智宣傳、腐蝕墮化和分化渲染。蒐集典型社會群體的情感訴求、生活需求和價值認同等方面的不和諧因素,有策劃、有步驟、有預謀地在政治、經濟、外交、金融、社會、文化等領域,透過連貫引爆話題、激化矛盾、拱火澆油、持續發酵和製造撕裂等方式,最終引發社會動盪,甚至傾覆國家政權。 1990年代以來的蘇聯解體、東歐劇變以及世界多地的「顏色革命」等,都有這方面的影子。

瞄準認知域直接介入介入認知結果。人類以什麼方式認識世界就會以什麼方式來改造客觀世界,這正是認知域作戰的作用點。進入智慧化時代,生物交叉、腦控控腦等前沿領域連續取得突破,先進演算法、腦機介面等智慧技術不斷迭代升級,大數據、雲端運算等先進技術快速發展應用。智慧化時代的認知域作戰更重視發揮智慧科技的作用,透過現實生活和網路虛擬世界的深度互動,收集獲取資訊更加豐富,數據更加完整,要素更加齊全。認知域作戰已經可以基於廣域分佈的智慧化資訊網路、週邊可見的智慧化終端和多彩多樣的智慧化應用程序,繞過傳統的物理域、社會域,衝破對方有形封鎖限制,透過定向精準推播,對預定對象的核心圈層、菁英階層和社會大眾等目標,直接實施認知域的「降域打擊」。

明晰認知域作戰的作用機制

進入智慧化時代,人類思維成為戰爭策動的新方向和戰爭賽局的新領域。其本質上是面向作戰對象的精神層面,把人的意志、信念、思維、心理等列為作戰目標,透過保持己方認知優勢、攻擊敵方認知劣勢來展開認知域攻防對抗,具體的作用機理也呈現出多域作用、混合疊加的特徵。

實施價值標準滲透。價值觀念是人們明辨是非、區分好壞的原則標準,在生成人員行為動機中居於核心地位,在驅動群體行為模式中發揮主導作用,是奪取認知域作戰主動權的關鍵。認知域作戰主要基於網路心理學和控制論,來辨識預測人類群體行為和個體活動,進而創造更準確的特定群體互動觀念。在此基礎上,針對對手價值取向,使用對方文化語系,綜合運用強勢媒體、社交網絡和智能技術等,蓄意編織“信息繭房”,惡意敘事剪輯暗示,調動目標群體情緒,鼓吹小眾偏激取向,誘導價值觀念偏移,綁架操縱民心民意,最終使認知域作戰效能直抵對手的信念根基、靈魂歸宿和精神家園。近期局部衝突中,美西方國家透過敘事編造、劇本編排和話術操控,大肆展開認知域作戰,企圖給對手造成全時段多領域的壓迫式緊逼,不明就裡的諸多國家在不知不覺中被裹挾進去。

製造心理情感內耗。心理波動和情緒變化是人類自然的生物屬性,也是認知域作戰打擊、削弱、瓦解敵方戰爭意志的突破。認知域作戰基於心理學、神經學和腦科學等學科基本原理,強調利用恐懼、焦慮、猜忌、懷疑等人類心理弱點,在戰略、戰役和戰術層面同步展開或重點實施。認知域作戰主要透過深度偽造、場景擺拍和演算法推薦等手段,在主流社群平台,大肆砲制言論抹黑對手。外軍曾藉助網路大V、虛擬帳號和殭屍軍團等,混淆認知、攪亂輿論、偏節奏。透過在敵方內部製造不安全感,誇大不確定性,來激化群體矛盾;透過製造內部撕裂,來破壞團結和諧;透過放大不信任度,增加決策疑慮,來加大內鬥內耗。最終基於心理情緒的無痕植入、無縫關聯、無形操作和無感代入,實現「不戰而勝」。

開展人體意識導控。認知科學和先進科技的融合發展,促使認知域作戰正朝著運算智慧、感知智慧和認知智慧的方向發展,具有更強穿透力和更深影響力。基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動和防護等技術已取得重大突破,經過資訊資料的挖掘分析,社會群體的認知狀態一覽無餘,目標人員的精神畫像細緻入微。基於高效彈性的認知場景、潛移默化的情緒關聯和腦機介面的傾向性幹預,認知域作戰可以不知不覺地影響和塑造對手思維認知。智慧化認知武器系統能夠有效限制敵獲取有用資訊、誘導敵使用錯誤資料、降低指揮決策速度、幹擾認知模式運作、阻斷正確認知輸出。有報告顯示,以美國為首的北約正積極推動腦科學和認知科學研究成果武器化,並企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵認知控制。

建強認知域作戰的對抗體系

近年來局部戰爭的實踐顯示,單憑武力和技術優勢並不能完全左右戰爭,認知域作戰對戰爭進程的影響愈發明顯。其既可以引發戰爭開始,也可以導演戰爭持續,還可以影響戰爭結束。因此,建強托底管用、韌性的認知域作戰對抗體係就顯得格外必要。

暢通認知域作戰指控機制。認知域作戰涉及領域廣,涵蓋內容多,需要長線準備和短線促進相結合,強化建設、先手準備。樹牢整體國家安全觀,制定因應認知域作戰整體方略,主動破局塑勢,參與全球治理,強化中國聲音,淨化輿論環境。統籌考量指揮機構設置,整合不同策略方向指揮節點,打通多域指控鏈路,完善跨域指揮流程,靈活多域融合導控方法。整體設計多領域跨部門協作框架,結合國家安全情勢分析,定期推動協作機制運作。整理各指揮層級職責清單,劃清各領域職能邊界,明確跨領域協作事項、作業流程及標準要求。建立認知預警機制,進行作戰強度劃分,組織進行虛擬演練與多層次對抗,提升因應認知域威脅處置能力。

整合認知域作戰要素力量。認知域作戰既具有「灰犀牛」的威脅,又充滿「黑天鵝」的變數,需要加強防範、鍛造過硬力量。結合認知域作戰指揮體系設計,搭配多域反制力量。強化傳統領域因應力量,拓展職能業務範疇,深化專業人才選拔培訓。發展新型反制力量,整合社群媒體、心理認知、智慧無人等新興領域優勢資源。盤活民間力量與國際優質資源,打造系統配套、要素齊全、專業精湛的跨領域危機應變團隊與反制力量群聚。結合對抗演練與社會實踐,投入新力量、融入新科技、加入新手段,加強遏制與反製手段的評估檢驗。

強固認知域作戰基礎工程。隨著認知域作戰研究和實踐不斷深入,必將產生許多新技術和新理論,需要密切追蹤關注。加強全球熱點研究,聚焦灰色地帶變化,及時掌握外國認知域作戰最新發展、力量部署最新動向。加強戰例案例分析,挖掘認知域作戰新因子新要素。組織專題集智攻關,分析認知域作戰新機理新法則。透析對手策略手段,追蹤掌握其策略調整與關注重點,分層級分領域進行反制策略與因應研究。研析對手使用社群媒體、國際組織和代理人等工具進行認知域作戰的新手段新技術新做法,做到防範在先、預見在前。

中國原創軍事資源:http://www.71.cn/2023/0425/1198888shtml

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Analysis of How Their Military Implements Strategic & Tactical Warfare

中國人民解放軍分析軍隊如何執行戰略戰術戰

現代漢語音譯:

To implement the general principle of “the CMC is in overall control, the theater commands are responsible for combat, and the services are responsible for construction,” the services need to accurately grasp the interaction between combat and construction, strengthen coordination with the theater commands, and form a work pattern with clear rights and responsibilities, positive interaction, smooth and efficient operations. They should focus their main tasks, main responsibilities, and main energy on building and managing the troops. They should always adhere to the principles of leading construction in accordance with combat, building for combat, managing for combat, and using construction to promote combat, comprehensively improve the level of practical military training, and provide theater commands with high-quality combat forces.

Get the coordinates of building for war

The coordinates are the direction of the times for building for war. Only when the direction is clear can the construction be accelerated according to the track. Entering the new era, the firepower intensity, mobility speed, strike accuracy and intelligence level of weapons and equipment have greatly increased, the battlefield space has been continuously expanded, the coupling of combat operations has become closer, and the battlefield situation has changed more rapidly. Wars have gradually shown the characteristics of platform combat, system support, tactical operations, and strategic guarantees. In particular, the use of intelligent, stealth, and unmanned combat, as well as aerospace forces, new concept weapons, and highly effective destructive ammunition have fundamentally changed the concept of war time and space. The war form has accelerated the evolution from mechanized informationization to informationization and intelligence, and intelligent warfare has begun to emerge. The main construction of the military service should be the combat effectiveness of informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, rather than the combat effectiveness of mechanized warfare. The military service should focus on informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, turn its attention to intelligent military transformation, fully imagine the future war form, scale, intensity, spatial region, etc., and use concepts that transcend the times to lead the construction vision forward and forward; it is necessary to deeply study the victory mechanism, scientifically judge, and build what kind of troops are needed to win future wars, so as to be targeted.

Find the right target for construction

The target is not only a beacon of construction and development, but also a scale to test combat effectiveness. Only by setting up the correct target can the military build for war and guide the innovation and development of weapons and equipment, system organization and combat theory without deformation or distortion. The military builds for war, and the enemy is not an ordinary opponent, but a strong enemy in the world military game. This requires the military to build for war, and it must lock on the strong enemy, insist on focusing all its attention on defeating the strong enemy, and work hard to defeat the strong enemy. Closely aiming at the world’s first-class standards, the focus should be on firmly grasping the characteristics of future combat systems and system confrontations, exploring standardized and modular construction issues, and forming an integrated and linked system combat capability; focusing on the requirements of all-domain operations, focusing on tackling realistic issues such as rapid response, long-range delivery, and integrated support, and building a strong rapid and mobile cross-domain action capability. We must seize the key of balancing strong enemies, strengthen targeted research on strong enemies, focus on building what the enemy fears, and develop more things that can balance strong enemies. We must strive to have a chance of winning in battles, bargaining chips in negotiations, and confidence in deterrence. We must focus on solving bottleneck problems such as the construction of new forces of the military, the use of high-tech equipment, and information and intelligent integration, and comprehensively build a world-class military.

Innovation and construction as the forerunner of the war

Theory is the forerunner of practice, and scientific military theory is combat effectiveness. Whoever can grasp the pulse of future war development and possess superb war design capabilities will win the initiative in war and even the final victory. The military should build for war, and it cannot just go wherever it wants. It should put research and construction in a strategic position, carry out forward-looking, targeted, and reserve innovative research, propose new concepts, find new breakthroughs, and form innovative theories that are contemporary, leading, and unique. The military should build for war, and it must focus on the current practice and future development of war, clarify the vertical evolution axis, focus on shaping the future battlefield and changing the research of future combat rules, and promote the reshaping of concepts and the reconstruction of systems as soon as possible; focus on cutting-edge technology and future intelligent war design, and make great efforts to achieve major breakthroughs in new technologies and new forms of war; focus on continuously promoting the development of new concepts such as combat thinking, action style, and capability requirements, and form forward-looking thinking on future combat operations. At the same time, the new theories and concepts should be systematized and concretized, and become a “roadmap” for planning and designing the construction of force systems, the development of weapons and equipment, the transformation of military training, and the training of combat talents. It is necessary to form a closed loop from practice to theory and then from theory to practice, allow military theoretical research to draw rich nutrients from practice, allow advanced and mature theoretical results to enter the military decision-making and practical links, and achieve a virtuous interaction between theory and practice.

Build a hard core of construction for war

Science and technology are the most revolutionary force. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race against time and speed. If you don’t work hard to innovate, you will fall behind and be beaten. If you innovate slowly, you will also fall behind and be beaten. Today, scientific and technological innovation has become the core strategy for many countries and militaries to seek advantages. The military must pay close attention to the leading role of science and technology in building for war. By integrating the most cutting-edge and even imagined future science and technology into the overall construction plan, it will lead the basic direction of construction and development, and actively explore the scientific and technological innovation path of using the future army to fight a future war with the future enemy; it must implement the strategy of strengthening the military with science and technology, demand combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, vigorously cultivate new scientific and technological growth points, and strive to increase the contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to the development of the combat effectiveness of the military; it must face the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the main battlefields of the future, and the major needs of combat, accelerate the pace of innovation, and plan and demonstrate that one item must be launched, especially to let disruptive technology run ahead, strive to run faster, and win new advantages. Obviously, talent is the key to building a hard core for war. Talent is the most difficult preparation. Whoever has more high-quality new military talents will be able to gain or gain more winning opportunities on the battlefield in the future. We must accurately grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the requirements for military transformation and construction, so as to train the talents needed for war and prioritize the talents that are most in short supply, so that the supply side of talent training can be accurately matched with the demand side of future battlefields.

Laying a solid foundation for building for war

Fighting is hard-hitting, while training is practical. The root of “war” lies in “construction”, and the foundation of “construction” lies in “training”. Military training, as the regular and central work of the troops, is not only the basic way to generate and improve combat effectiveness, but also the most direct preparation for military struggle. In the new era, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence, the mission and tasks of the army are constantly expanding, the level of informationization and intelligence of weapons and equipment is gradually improving, and the conditions for training support are gradually improving. It is urgent for the services to comprehensively upgrade their combat capabilities from considering the interaction of multiple fields such as the form of war, combat methods, weapons and equipment, and personnel quality, to analyzing the influence of many factors such as known and unknown, possible and impossible, and possible and impossible. To build for war, we must focus on training against strong enemies, practice reconnaissance, coordination, equipment, and support around the progress of the real enemy situation, practice strong force deployment, practice fast battlefield construction, practice real equipment data, and practice strong support support; we must aim at the latest enemy situation in multiple fields such as land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, and carry out real, difficult, strict, and practical full-element training in the re-enactment of the scene, “fight” with strong enemies, and let the troops hone their skills and strengthen their strength in the real confrontation; we must pursue extreme training, constantly impact the limits of people and equipment, so that the physiological and psychological limits of officers and soldiers, the performance limits of equipment, and the combat effectiveness limits of the combination of people and weapons can be fully exerted. Only by using “forced to the extreme, difficult to the extreme” training to present all shortcomings and weaknesses and overcome them can we cope with the most brutal battlefield. Some tactics and methods trained beyond the limit are often the key move and fatal blow to defeat the enemy in actual combat.

Do a good job in coupling construction with combat

The fundamental purpose of war and construction is to be able to fight and win. We must accelerate the realization of functional coupling under the new system and work together to accelerate the generation of combat effectiveness. To build an army that adapts to future combat needs is to build troops that can complete future combat tasks and have corresponding combat capabilities. Combat requirements are the specific embodiment of such task requirements and capabilities. Construction for war should be based on the needs of fulfilling missions and tasks, and should be designed in advance for future combat military needs. Military needs should be used to guide various military constructions, and combat needs should be continuously refined and dynamically adjusted to promote the coupling of war and construction. By strengthening the demonstration and research of future combat needs and making good top-level planning, we can grasp the direction and focus of military construction in general, consider the comprehensive development of military weapons and equipment and personnel quality from a strategic height and long-term development, clarify the focus, insist on doing what we should do and not doing what we should not do, concentrate on developing strategic and key projects, give priority to emergency operations, correctly handle the primary and secondary, urgent and slow, light and heavy aspects of military construction, firmly grasp the main and key aspects, and promote coordinated and coordinated military construction, scientific and reasonable, standardized and orderly, and sustainable development. Scientific combat effectiveness assessment can not only scientifically and specifically understand the composition and strength of one’s own combat effectiveness, but also help to take targeted measures to promote the coupling of construction and combat, timely discover and correct deficiencies in construction, truly realize the scientific development, intensive and efficient development of the army, and promote combat effectiveness construction to a higher level.

Strictly grasp the test of building for war

Whether a unit is well built and has the ability to win a battle must ultimately be tested through military practice. After a comprehensive test of military practice, problems in unit construction will inevitably be exposed, thereby promoting the army to make corresponding adjustments in the content, focus and direction of construction. Through repeated tests of military practice, new requirements and new goals are constantly put forward for unit construction, thereby leading the development of unit construction to a higher stage. Make good use of network simulation confrontation test. The informatization and intelligence of network simulation confrontation make the cognition, decision-making, feedback, correction, and action of simulation confrontation more close to actual combat, revolutionize the process of military activities, and then have a positive effect on weapons and equipment, command and control, force organization and other fields, thereby promoting the continuous leap in the combat effectiveness of the troops, and even giving birth to new war styles and changing the mechanism of winning wars. Make good use of on-site live-fire exercises. As a pre-practice of future wars, live-fire exercises can not only effectively test the actual combat capabilities of the troops, but more importantly, they can discover some weak links in the construction of the troops, optimize and improve them in a targeted manner, and obtain the maximum combat effectiveness return. Make good use of war practice tests. The leading role of war practice in unit construction is irreplaceable. The harsh practice of war can truly test which troop construction is suitable and which is unsuitable for future wars, and then correct deviations and mistakes in many aspects such as construction guidance, construction focus, and construction methods, so as to prepare for winning the next war.

現代國語軍語:

貫徹「軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建」總原則,軍種部隊需要準確掌握戰與建互動規律,加強同戰區對接,形成權責清晰、正向互動、順暢高效的工作格局,把主要任務、主要職責、主要精力放在建設、管理部隊上,始終堅持以戰領建、抓建為戰、抓管為戰、以建促戰,全面提高軍事訓練實戰化水平,為戰區提供優質作戰力量。

把準抓建為戰的座標

座標是抓建為戰的時代方位,只有方位明晰,建設才能依軌加速。進入新時代,武器裝備的火力強度、機動速度、打擊精度、智能化程度大幅躍升,戰場空間不斷拓展,作戰行動耦合更加緊密,戰場態勢變換更加迅速,戰爭逐漸呈現出平台作戰、體系支撐,戰術行動、戰略保障等特點,特別是智能化、隱身化、無人化作戰以及空天力量、新概念武器、高效毀傷彈藥的運用,從根本上改變了戰爭時空概念,戰爭形態加速由機械化信息化朝向資訊化智能化演變,智能化戰爭初見端倪。軍種主建,建的應是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的戰鬥力,而不是機械化戰爭的戰鬥力。軍種抓建為戰,必須聚焦具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭,把目光投向智慧化軍事變革,充分設想未來戰爭形態、規模、強度、空間地域等,用超越時代的理念,引領建設視野向前再向前;必須深研製勝機理,科學研判,打贏未來戰爭需要什麼部隊就建設什麼部隊,做到有的放矢。

找準抓建為戰的靶標

標靶既是建設發展的燈塔,也是檢驗戰鬥力的天秤。只有樹立正確靶標,軍種抓建為戰才能有的放矢,不變形、不走樣地牽引武器裝備、體制編制和作戰理論創新發展。軍種抓建為戰,戰的不是一般對手,而是世界軍事賽場上的強敵。這就要求軍種抓建為戰,必然要鎖定強敵,堅持全部心思向打敗強敵聚焦、各項工作向戰勝強敵用勁。緊緊瞄準世界級標準,重點要牢牢把握未來作戰體系與體系對抗的特徵,探索標準化、模組化建設問題,形成一體聯動的體係作戰能力;圍繞全局作戰要求,聚力攻關快速反應、遠程投送、融合保障等現實課題,建強快速機動跨域行動能力。抓住制衡強敵這個關鍵,加強對強敵的針對性研究,堅持敵人怕什麼就重點建什麼,發展什麼能製衡強敵就多備幾手,力求做到戰有勝算、談有籌碼、懾有底氣,著力解決軍種新型力量建設、高新裝備運用、資訊智慧整合等瓶頸問題,全面建成世界一流軍隊。

創新抓建為戰的先導

理論是實踐的先導​​,科學的軍事理論就是戰鬥力。誰能把準未來戰爭的發展脈動、擁有高超的戰爭設計能力,誰就能贏得戰爭的主動權甚至最後的勝利。軍種抓建為戰,不能走到哪算哪,要把研戰謀建擺在戰略位置,開展前瞻性、針對性、儲備性創新研究,提出新概念、尋找新突破,形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的創新理論。軍種抓建為戰,必須著眼戰爭當前實踐和未來發展,理清縱向演進軸線,把重點放在塑造未來戰場、改變未來作戰規則研究上,盡快推動觀念重塑、體系重構;放在聚焦前沿科技領域、未來智慧化戰爭設計上,下氣力在戰爭新技術、新形態方面實現重大突破;放在持續推進作戰思想、行動樣式、能力需求等新概念的開發上,形成對未來作戰行動的前瞻性思考。同時把新理論新概念體系化、具體化,成為規劃設計力量體系建構、武器裝備發展、軍事訓練轉變、作戰人才培育的「路線圖」。要形成從實踐到理論、再從理論到實踐的閉環迴路,讓軍事理論研究從實踐中汲取豐厚養分,讓先進成熟的理論成果進入軍事決策和實踐環節,實現理論和實踐良性互動。

打造抓建為戰的硬核

科技是最具革命性的力量。科技創新歷來是與時間和速度的賽跑。不努力創新就會落後挨打,創新速度慢了也同樣會落後挨打。今天,科技創新已成為許多國家和軍隊尋求優勢的核心策略。軍種抓建為戰,必須高度關注科技引領作用的發揮,透過把當前最前沿甚至是設想中的未來科學技術融入建設整體規劃之中,引領建設發展的基本方向,積極探索用未來的我軍與未來的敵人打一場未來戰爭的科技創新路徑;必須落實科技強軍戰略,向科技創新要戰鬥力,大力培育新的科技增長點,著力提高科技創新對軍種戰鬥力發展的貢獻率;必鬚麵向世界科技前沿、面向未來主要戰場、面向作戰重大需求,加快創新速度,規劃論證好一項就要上馬一項,特別是要讓顛覆性技術跑在前面,力爭跑出加速度,贏得新優勢。顯然,打造抓建為戰的硬核,人才是關鍵。人才是最艱鉅的準備,誰擁有更多高素質新型軍事人才,誰就能在未來戰場上提早獲得或多獲得一些致勝先機。要準確掌握現代戰爭特徵規律和軍種轉型建設要求,做到打仗需要什麼人才就培養什麼人才、什麼人才最緊缺就優先鍛造什麼人才,使人才培養供給側同未來戰場需求側精準對接。

夯實抓建為戰的根基

打仗硬碰硬,訓練實打實。 「戰」的根本在於「建」,「建」的基礎在於「練」。軍事訓練作為部隊的經常性中心工作,既是產生和提高戰鬥力的基本途徑,也是最直接的軍事鬥爭準備。新時代,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化發展,軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,武器裝備資訊化智能化水準逐步提高,訓練保障條件逐步改善,迫切需要軍種部隊從考慮戰爭形態、作戰方法、武器裝備、人員素質等多個領域的相互作用,到分析已知與未知、可能與不可能、可為與不可為等諸多因素的影響,全面升級實戰能力。抓建為戰,必須聚焦強敵練兵,圍繞真實敵情的進展,練偵察、練協同、練裝備、練保障,練實力量布勢、練快戰場建設、練真裝備數據、練強保障支撐;必須瞄準陸海空及太空、網路空間等多領域最新敵情,在情景重現中開展真、難、嚴、實的全要素訓練,與強敵“過招”,讓部隊在真刀真槍對抗中礪功、強實力;必須追求極限訓練,不斷向人和裝備極限衝擊,使官兵的生理心理極限、裝備的性能極限、人與武器結合的戰鬥力極限全面迸發。唯有用「逼到絕境、難到極致」的訓練呈現所有短板弱項,並加以克服,才能應付最殘酷的戰場。一些超越極限訓出的戰術戰法,往往是實戰中勝敵的關鍵一招、致命一擊。

搞好抓建為戰的耦合

戰與建,根本目的都是為了能打仗、打勝仗,必須在新體制下加快實現功能耦合,為加速戰鬥力生成共同發力。建構適應未來作戰需求的軍隊,說到底是建設能完成未來作戰任務、具備相應作戰能力的部隊,作戰需求就是這種任務需求和能力的具體展現。抓建為戰應根據履行使命任務需要,針對未來作戰軍事需求超前設計,以軍事需求牽引軍隊各項建設,不斷細化和動態化調整作戰需求促進戰建耦合。透過加強未來作戰需求論證研究搞好頂層規劃,從整體上把握軍隊建設的方向和重點,從戰略高度和長遠發展考慮軍隊武器裝備、人員素質的全面發展,明確重點,堅持有所為有所不為,集中力量發展戰略性、關鍵性項目,優先保障應急作戰,正確處理軍隊建設的主與次、急與緩、輕與重,緊緊抓住主要的、關鍵的,推動軍隊建設協調配套,科學合理,規範有序,持續發展。科學的戰鬥力評估不僅能夠科學具體地認識己方戰鬥力的組成及其強弱,還有利於採取針對性措施促進抓建為戰的耦合,及時發現並糾正建設中的不足,真正實現軍隊建設的科學發展、集約高效,促進戰鬥力建設上台階。

嚴格抓建為戰的檢驗

一支部隊建設得好不好,是不是已經具備打勝仗的能力,最終還是要透過軍事實踐來檢驗。經過軍事實踐的全面檢驗,必然暴露部隊建設上存在的問題,從而推動軍隊在建設內容、重點、方向上做出相應的調整。透過這樣一次次軍事實踐的反覆檢驗,不斷地給部隊建設提出新要求新目標,由此引領部隊建設向著更高的階段發展。用好網路模擬對抗檢驗。網路模擬對抗資訊智慧化,使得模擬對抗的認知、決策、回饋、修正、行動等更趨於實戰,革命性地改造軍事活動流程,進而對武器裝備、指揮控制、力量編組等多個領域產生正面作用,由此促進部隊戰鬥力不斷躍升,甚至催生新的戰爭樣式、改變戰爭制勝機制。用好現地實兵演習檢驗。作為未來戰爭的預實踐,實兵演習不僅能有效檢驗部隊的實戰能力,更為重要的,是能發現部隊建設中存在的一些薄弱環節,有針對性地加以優化改進,獲得最大限度的戰鬥力回報。用好戰爭實踐檢驗。戰爭實踐對部隊建設的引領作用不可取代。嚴酷的戰爭實踐,可以真正檢驗部隊建設哪些適合、哪些不適合未來戰爭,進而修正在建設指導、建設重點、建設方法等諸多方面的偏差和失誤,為打贏下一場戰爭做好準備。

中國軍事資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/48713888.html

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:王雪平  許炎 朱曉萌 責任編輯:

喬楠楠 2020-09-17 08:38:16

Chinese Military Brief Analysis of Basic Essences of Cognitive Domain Warfare

中國軍隊淺析認知域戰爭的基本本質

中国军网 国防部网 2022年9月8日 星期四

音譯現代外語:


The central task is to attack and defend values. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards used by people to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive elements and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of values ​​is a prerequisite for winning cognitive warfare. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often use their advantages in cyberspace to adopt technical means and cultural infiltration to forcibly export values, gradually erode values ​​through the interaction between virtual space and real space, and distort values ​​through the combination of coaxing and corruption, so as to achieve infiltration and erosion of the thinking, cognition, and value orientation of personnel in hostile countries. To seize the dominant position in cognitive warfare, it is necessary to thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuit, get close to the opponent’s cultural language system, and determine the opponent’s political beliefs and interests, so that the effectiveness of cognitive warfare can directly reach the foundation of the opponent’s beliefs and the anchor of the soul. At the same time, it is necessary to scientifically explain and disseminate the connotation and essence of one’s own excellent values, and guide their transformation with excellent values ​​and the excellent achievements of human civilization.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and recognition of the war form, especially the focus issue, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with the “war of attrition” centered on annihilating the enemy’s main force and the “mobile war” centered on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain warfare takes the human brain as the main combat space, focuses on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight, and takes human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as breakthroughs. It focuses on soft kill means to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increase its internal struggles and internal consumption, and decision-making doubts, so as to achieve the goal of “winning without fighting”. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded the combat field to the sixth level, the “human field”, to compete for brain control, weaponize brain science, and launch offensive and defensive actions on cognitive elements such as beliefs, thinking methods, spiritual will, attitudes, and behavioral tendencies of the target object. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive science research results, the United States is attempting to achieve the goal of psychological control over the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize the control of intelligence. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intelligence will become a new type of battlefield control that is growing rapidly and has a greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligence advantage is the dominant factor in winning, and intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force. Seizing “intelligence control” will become a new commanding height for war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have some human intelligence characteristics, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. With cognitive loops as the goal, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, force the enemy to use wrong information, delay cognitive speed, induce cognitive patterns, and block cognitive output, it can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making, disintegrate its military morale, and achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if the cognitive advantage is lost, even if there is information advantage and energy advantage, the overall combat effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the disharmony between man and machine and the failure of autonomous decision-making.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important way. Cognitive domain warfare is essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation is mainly manifested in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win the public’s cognitive field competition. Public opinion warfare focuses on changing concepts, winning people’s hearts, and paying more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of the ever-evolving social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade and restrictions of opponents and reach the inside of the target group. In recent years, the status of public opinion attack and defense has become increasingly prominent in the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech, etc., and has attracted widespread attention. Public opinion warfare can portray a positive image of oneself, while demonizing the target country, etc., to win international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, under the manipulation of “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, woven absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, and pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field, bringing severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perceptual recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat targets. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it uses tendency information to build efficient and flexible cognitive scenarios, make tendency interventions, and then unconsciously influence and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the combination of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. It can realize mind control, i.e. brain control, externally, and autonomy enhancement, i.e. strong brain, internally, and can realize the direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in related technical means such as multimodal emotion recognition, activation, and protection based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional associations are established to identify people’s emotions and intentions, providing new means for conducting cognitive control warfare. Therefore, the new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a combination of above-threshold indoctrination and below-threshold penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.

繁體中文:

認知域作戰作為一種新的作戰形式,目前已成為繼體力對抗、火力對抗、資訊對抗後,又一個嶄新的對抗領域。區別於物理域、資訊域等作戰,認知域作戰的作戰目標為思維、理念等,有明顯區別於其他作戰形式的內在需求。

以價值攻防為中心任務。一般認為,價值觀念是人用來區分好壞、分辨是非及重要性的原則與標準,是諸認知要素中最具穩定性的內容,是人的動機與行為模式的主宰。因此,搶佔價值制高點是贏得認知戰的先決條件。外軍歷來重視價值傳播,經常藉助其網路空間優勢,採取技術手段與文化滲透強行輸出價值觀、虛擬空間與現實空間互動漸進侵蝕價值觀、拉攏與腐蝕結合扭曲價值觀,實現對敵對國家人員思維認知、價值取向等的滲透侵蝕。搶佔認知戰主導權,必須研透對手價值追求,貼近對手文化語系,判明對手的政治信念、利益訴求,使認知作戰效能直抵對手信念根基、靈魂錨地。同時要科學闡釋和傳播己方優秀價值觀念的內涵與精髓,以優秀價值觀念與人類優秀文明成果引導其轉變。

以大腦認知為主要戰場。對戰爭形態特別重心問題的理解與認識,是戰法設計的重要內容。與以殲敵主力為重心的「消耗戰」、以破敵體系為重心的「機動戰」相比,認知域作戰以人腦為主要作戰空間,以打擊、削弱、瓦解敵戰爭意志為重心,以恐懼、焦慮、猜疑等人類心理弱點為突破口,重點依托軟殺傷手段,在敵方內部製造不安全、不確定、不信任的氛圍,加大其內鬥內耗和決策疑慮,從而實現「不戰而勝」目的。近年來,隨著新興技術的發展,北約將作戰領域拓展到第六層次即「人類領域」爭奪制腦權,讓腦科學武器化,對目標對象的信念信念、思考方式、精神意志、立場態度、行為傾向等認知要素展開攻防行動。據報道,借助腦與認知科學研究成果,美國正企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵方的心理控制目標。

以奪控智權為關鍵目標。隨著軍事智慧化的快速推進,智權將成為一種快速成長、對作戰全局有更大戰略影響力的新型戰場控制權。在智慧化戰爭中,智慧優勢是製勝的主導要素,智慧化武器系統成為主要作戰力量,奪取「制智權」將成為戰爭制權新的製高點。智慧化武器系統依賴先進的人工智慧系統,將具有部分人的智力特徵,這使得智權爭奪範圍將擴展到部分武器裝備。以認知迴路為目標,依托認知裝備限敵獲取有效資訊、迫敵使用錯誤訊息、延遲認知速度、誘導認知模式、阻斷認知輸出,能夠打亂敵指揮決策、瓦解其軍心士氣,達到「攻心為上」的效果。智慧化戰爭中,如果失去了認知優勢,即使具有資訊優勢和能量優勢,也會因為人機協同失調、自主決策失靈,而導致整體作戰效能的大幅降低。

以輿論攻防為重要途徑。認知域作戰本質上講是爭取人心、贏得人心的鬥爭。認知對抗中的輿論攻防,主要表現為控制、操縱、利用各種輿論工具,壓制對手、贏得大眾的認知領域較量。輿論戰重在改變觀念、爭奪人心,更重視精神和意志的征服。借助不斷發展的社群網路、融媒體技術,輿論戰得以衝破對手封鎖限制,直抵目標群體內部。近年來,圍繞著意識形態、網路空間、高新科技等領域,輿論攻防的地位愈發凸顯,引發普遍關注。輿論戰可以刻畫己方正面形象,同時妖魔化目標國等,爭取國際道義優勢和人民支持。從「顏色革命」到局部衝突,西方國家在「美式話術」操弄下,編造荒謬的劇本,編織荒誕的敘事、荒謬的結論,全時全場壓迫式緊逼,在認知領域大肆侵略,為諸多國家政治安全帶來了嚴峻挑戰。

以新質技術為有力手段。認知科學是新興研究門類,是探究人腦或心智工作機制的前沿性尖端學科,正朝著計算智能、感知智能、認知智能方向發展。人工智慧技術,在感知辨識、機器學習等方面具有獨特優勢,對作戰對象的思維認知具有天然穿透性和深刻影響力。人工智慧用於認知戰,可透過無孔不入且高度自動化的精準推送,運用傾向性訊息,建構起高效的柔性認知場景,作出傾向性幹預,進而不知不覺影響和塑造對手的思維認知。腦機介面技術,實現了認知維度的人機結合,對外可以實現意念控制即腦控,對內實現自主性增強即強腦,可實現用意識和思維直接操控複雜武器系統。目前基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動、防護等相關技術手段已有重大突破,透過採集人的表情、動作、語意和語調、腦電、各項生理指標等,建立情緒關聯,以識別人的情緒和意圖,為開展認知控制戰提供了新手段。因此,新質認知技術手段與傳統認知技術手段形成閾上灌輸與閾下滲透相結合的途徑,將進一步增強認知影響的隱藏性和有效性。

中國軍事原文參考:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/08/content_323888.htm

Chinese Military Focuses On Information Networks as Emphasis to Winning the Cognitive War

中國軍隊以資訊網為打贏認知戰爭的重點

國語音譯:

In today’s era of integrated development of informatization and intelligence, information networks will play an irreplaceable and important role in cognitive warfare with their advantages of deep reach, wide audience, and strong interactivity. With the blessing of information networks, cognitive warfare will be even more powerful and at ease. A deep understanding of the mechanisms, basic forms, methods and means of information networks’ role in cognitive warfare will help to timely grasp the initiative in cognitive warfare and lay the foundation for victory.

The Mechanism and Law of Information Network Cognitive Warfare

The essence of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks is to provide massive amounts of information through core algorithms, create biased cognitive scenarios, and influence the thinking and cognition of people and intelligent machines. This process integrates the operating rules of information networks and the internal mechanisms of thinking and cognition, has strong predictability, and is the underlying architecture and key point that must be grasped in information network cognitive warfare.

Sticky effects based on path dependence. The highly developed information network in today’s society provides an inseparable platform for people to study, work, live, and entertain, as well as for military construction, operations, and military struggle preparations, forming an interconnected path dependence between them. With information as the core and the Internet as the medium, this platform connects different groups of people, societies, countries, including the military, through invisible stickiness. It not only opens up the entire world into a closely connected global village, but also objectively provides a basis for carrying out cognitive operations. , influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, and provide a bridge and link to win the cognitive war. In 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton delivered an “Internet Freedom” speech, advocating the “Internet Freedom” strategy in an attempt to use the channel formed by people’s high dependence on the Internet to influence the thinking and cognition of people in rival countries, especially the younger generation, and spread American values. .

Interactive influence based on information exchange. Education believes that interactive communication can effectively overcome the cognitive barriers formed by one-way information transmission, reach consensus, form empathy, and strengthen empathy through information exchange, emotional integration, and mutual promotion of needs. A big difference between information networks and traditional communication media is that they provide a carrier that can interact and communicate on a large scale, at a fast pace, and with high efficiency. In this carrier, the information-dominant party can repeatedly confirm the influence, adjust methods and strategies, and intervene in the thinking and cognition of the other party through the interactive mechanism provided by the carrier based on the other party’s ideological fluctuations, emotional changes, attitude feedback, etc. For a long time, the United States has maintained a “engagement + containment” strategy toward China. One of the important considerations is that this kind of contact can effectively overcome the communication barriers and information gaps formed by simple blockade and confrontation, enhance the interaction between the two governments and the people, and thus find opportunities to open gaps and influence our ideas and ideologies. Although this strategy occurs in the traditional field, it is inherently consistent with the interactive influence mechanism of information networks based on information exchange.

Induced influence based on preset scenarios. The concealment, virtuality and permeability of information networks enable their controllers to create highly deceptive, tempting and inflammatory information scenarios through technical and strategic means such as water army flooding, information filtering and “fishing in troubled waters”, so that the opponent is deeply trapped in it without knowing it, but develops towards the preset process and results. This directional manipulation of information networks can subtly and efficiently influence, infect and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition, so that they are unconsciously led by the rhythm, and achieve a much better combat effect than confrontation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US media spread false information such as the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq through the Internet and other platforms, accusing the Saddam regime of collusion with al-Qaeda, corruption, and unprovoked killing of the Iraqi people. At the same time, they tried every means to cover up the truth, filter out the anti-war voices of their own people, and strive to create an atmosphere that the Saddam regime is evil and hateful and the whole United States is united against the enemy.

The basic form of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks

The laws of war and the winning mechanism determine the basic shape of war. The regular mechanism of information network’s role in cognitive warfare inherently determines the external form of this kind of war. The most basic and representative ones include information confusion warfare, thinking misleading warfare and will-destroying warfare.

Information confusion war. It is to infuse the network with a large amount of complex information that combines reality and reality, and is both real and illusory, causing the enemy’s information network capacity to be overloaded, dysfunctional, and out of order, or causing specific audiences to become “deaf, blind, and insensible,” causing cognitive congestion and cognitive impairment. and impaired decision-making and judgment. This form of war is often used in the early stages of combat and on opaque battlefields. The party with information superiority can cause the enemy to fall into a state of confusion and panic, resulting in loss of perception, loss of thinking, and confusion. According to Bloomberg, the Space Force, the newly established sixth military branch of the United States, plans to purchase 48 jamming systems by 2027, aiming to interfere with satellite signals of major powers “in the event of conflict.” The military forces of many countries generally feel that the information they obtain now is not too little but too much. The huge amount of information coming from all directions has caused huge pressure on situational awareness and analysis and judgment.

War of misleading thinking. It is to form a tendentious information scene by instilling specific information containing the intention of the information network controller, misleading, deceiving and influencing the thinking and ideas of specific countries, armies and people, causing them to deviate from the correct development track and move in a direction that is beneficial to oneself and harmful to the enemy. The direction deviation is the highest state and common practice of cognitive attack. This kind of misdirection is premised on strong external pressure, based on specious strategies, and uses mixed information as a weapon. It targets the opponent’s thinking characteristics and weak links to implement clearly oriented deception, causing the opponent to lose its way in tension and panic. Unknowingly fell into the “trap”. In recent years, while implementing the strategy of great power competition, some countries have used online trolls to fabricate false information, create false information, and spread true rumors to stir up trouble around our country and instigate some countries that have had grievances with our country in history and friction in reality. The purpose of provoking quarrels and provoking troubles is to induce us to divert our attention, weaken the investment of resources and strength in the main strategic directions, deviate from the track of rejuvenation of a strong country, and seek to reap the benefits of the fishermen.

Will-destroying war. Futurist Alfred Toffler said that whoever controls the human mind controls the entire world. War is ultimately a confrontation between people. People’s psychological activities greatly affect their mental state, which in turn affects their will to fight. Will-destroying war is different from traditional warfare that indirectly affects people’s will through material destruction. It directly affects the psychological activities, mental state and thinking decisions of key figures, affecting military morale, fighting will and combat operations. With the development of science and technology and social progress, the intervention in people’s will has evolved from the traditional strategy-based intervention to the “technology + strategy” stage. More than ten years ago, scientists developed a “sound wave cluster” weapon that emits extremely narrow sound wave “sound columns” from hundreds of meters away through an electromagnetic network, interfering with the enemy’s judgment and even causing strong-willed soldiers to become insane. In recent years, studies have shown that artificial speech synthesis technology based on brain wave signals can extract signals from the brain and synthesize speech that humans can directly understand.

Information network plays a major role in cognitive warfare

“Technology + strategy” constitutes the basic means of modern cognitive warfare. As a product of the development of modern science and technology, the information network’s role in cognitive warfare is mainly reflected in “technology + strategy”. This provides a basic entry point for us to understand and grasp the methods and scientific paths of the role of information networks in cognitive warfare, so as to win the war.

Big data shaping. As the core component of information networks, data is not only the carrier of information, but also the “new oil” that drives the value of information networks, and is the basic ammunition for cognitive warfare. By constructing complex information scenarios for my own use through massive data, it can confuse the opponent’s thinking, mislead and deceive the opponent’s thinking, or destroy belief and will, which constitutes the basic logic of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks. In this logical architecture, data is undoubtedly the most basic resource and the core element. A few years ago, authoritative departments calculated that the world produces about 2.5 exabytes (EB) of data every day, of which only 20% is structured data that can be directly utilized, and the remaining 80% needs to be analyzed, screened, and screened. These geometrically growing data resources provide inexhaustible “data ammunition” for shaping data information scenarios and implementing cognitive warfare.

Intelligent push. In the information network era, intelligent push has become a convenient channel for people to absorb external information, gain thinking recognition, emotional resonance, and influence others’ thinking cognition. Using advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence to collect, organize, and analyze people’s thinking inertia and behavioral preference data, forming anthropomorphic customized perception push, can produce an “echo wall” of social cognitive convergence and an information cocoon that shackles people. At the same time, it is also conducive to empathizing with others, understanding the opponent’s thinking trends and possible actions, and taking targeted countermeasures. In life, we all have the experience of a large amount of similar information being pushed in after shopping online or searching for a certain type of information once or several times. This intelligent push method is applied to cognitive operations, which can easily enable the information leader to use information network data to make forward-looking analysis and judgment on the decisions and actions that the command and decision-making level of the combat target may make, and induce them to make the decision actions they want to see or make corresponding countermeasures in advance.

Emotionally imbued. Freud said that we are not pure intelligence, pure soul, but a collection of impulses. In the information network space, conceptual cognition that can be widely and rapidly spread is often not a calm, rational and objective thinking analysis, but mostly impulsive and irrational emotional mobilization. This is determined by the fast pace of information dissemination and news release “pre-emptively”. The cognitive need to respond quickly to this information, in turn, leads to “fast thinking” conditioned reflexes, impulsive, and emotional reactions, transforming seemingly isolated social cases into strongly oppressive, inciting psychological suggestions and Behavior-driven, explosive behavior prompts irrational decision-making. A diplomatic cable disclosed by WikiLeaks in June 2009 described an extravagant banquet for the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and described the regime as a “mafia” of corruption and tyranny, which deepened the resentment of the country’s citizens. Emotions thus became an important driver of the “Jasmine Revolution” that overthrew Ben Ali’s regime.

原始繁體中文:

在資訊化智慧化融合發展的當今時代,資訊網絡以其觸角深、受眾廣、互動性強等優勢,在認知戰中將發揮無可取代的重要作用。有了資訊網絡的加持,認知戰將如虎添翼、如魚得水。深刻掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的機制法則、基本形態、方法手段等,有助於及時掌控認知戰主動權,為贏得勝利奠定基礎。

資訊網路作用認知戰的機理規律

資訊網路作用認知戰的本質在於透過核心演算法,提供大量訊息,營造傾向性認知場景,影響人和智慧機器的思考認知。這個過程融合資訊網路運作規律和思考認知內在機理,具有很強的可預測性,是資訊網路認知戰必須掌握的底層架構和關鍵之點。

基於路徑依賴的粘性影響。當今社會高度發展的資訊網絡,提供了一個人們學習、工作、生活、娛樂,軍隊建設、作戰和軍事鬥爭準備須臾離不開的平台,在彼此之間形成一個互聯互通的路徑依賴。這個平台以資訊為核子、網路為媒,透過無形的黏性把不同人群、社會、國家包括軍隊連結在一起,既將整個世界打通成一個緊密聯繫的地球村,客觀上也為開展認知作戰、影響對手思維認知、制勝認知戰爭提供了橋樑和紐帶。 2009年美國國務卿希拉蕊曾發表「網路自由」演說,鼓吹「網路自由」策略,企圖利用人們對網路的高度依賴形成的作用通道,影響對手國民眾特別是青年世代的思維認知,傳播美式價值觀。

基於資訊交換的互動影響。教育學認為,互動交流能有效克服訊息單向傳遞所形成的認知屏障,在彼此訊息交換、情感融通、需求相促中達成共識、形成同理心、強化同理。資訊網路與傳統溝通溝通媒介的一個很大不同,在於提供了一個能大範圍、快節奏、高效率互動交流的載體。在這載體中,資訊強勢一方能透過載體提供的互動機制,依據另一方的思想波動、情緒變化、態度回饋等,反覆確認影響,調整方法策略,介入另一方的思考認知。長期以來,美國對華保持「接觸+遏制」策略,一個很重要的考慮就在於這種接觸能有效克服單純封鎖對抗形成的溝通壁壘和資訊鴻溝,增強兩國政府和民眾之間的互動,從而尋找機會打開缺口,影響我們的思想觀念和意識形態。這項策略雖然發生在傳統領域,但與資訊網路基於資訊交換的互動影響機理內在一致。

基於預設場景的誘導影響。資訊網路的隱密性、虛擬性、滲透性,使其掌控者能透過水軍灌水、資訊過濾、「渾水摸魚」等技術和謀略手段,營造極具欺騙性、誘惑性、煽動性的資訊場景,使對手深陷其中而不自知,反而朝著預設的過程和結果發展。這種對資訊網路的指向性操控,能潛移默化地高效影響、感染和塑造對手的思維認知,使之不知不覺被帶節奏,收到遠比對抗硬槓好得多的作戰效果。伊拉克戰爭前夕,美國媒體透過網路等平台大肆散佈伊拉克存在大規模殺傷性武器等虛假訊息,指責薩達姆政權與蓋達組織相互勾連、腐敗成風,還無端殘害伊拉克人民,同時又想方設法掩蓋事實真相,過濾本國人民的反戰聲音,極力營造薩達姆政權邪惡可恨、全美上下同仇敵愾的氛圍。

資訊網路作用認知戰的基本形態

戰爭規律和致勝機制決定戰爭的基本形態。資訊網路作用認知戰的規律機制內在規定這種戰爭的外在呈現形態。其中最基本、最具代表性的包括資訊迷茫、思維誤導戰和意志毀傷戰。

資訊迷茫戰。就是用海量虛實結合、亦真亦幻的複雜信息灌注網絡,使敵對方信息網絡容量過載、功能失常、運轉失序,或導致特定受眾對象“失聰失明失感”、認知能力擁堵、思維認知和決策判斷受阻。這戰爭形態常用於作戰初期和不透明戰場,擁有資訊優勢的一方能使敵對方陷入茫然不知所措的恐慌狀態,從而感知失靈、思維失據、自亂陣腳。彭博社稱,美國成立不久的第六大軍種——太空軍,計劃2027年前採購48套幹擾系統,旨在“與大國發生衝突情況下”,幹擾迷茫其衛星信號。不少國家軍隊普遍感到,現在獲取的資訊不是太少了而是太多了,來自四面八方的巨量資訊大量聚集,給態勢感知和分析判斷造成巨大壓力。

思維誤導戰。就是透過灌輸包含資訊網路掌控方意圖指向的特定訊息,形成傾向性訊息場景,誤導欺騙和影響特定國家、軍隊和人群思維理念,使之偏離正確發展軌道,朝著於己有利、於敵有損的方向偏移,是認知攻擊的最高境界和慣常做法。這種誤導以強大的外部壓力為前提,以似是而非的策略為基礎,以摻雜水分的信息為武器,針對對手思維特點和薄弱環節,實施導向鮮明的誘騙,使對手在緊張慌亂中迷失方向,不知不覺落入「圈套」。這些年來,一些國家在實施大國競爭戰略的同時,透過網路水軍虛構假情況、製造假資訊、散佈真謠言,在我國週邊煽風點火,鼓動一些在歷史上與我國有積怨、現實中有摩擦的國家尋覓滋事,目的就是要誘導我們轉移注意力,削弱在主要戰略方向上的資源力量投入,偏離強國復興的軌道,謀取漁翁之利。

意志毀傷戰。未來學家托夫勒說,誰控制了人的心理,誰就控制了整個世界。戰爭說到底是人與人的對抗,人的心理活動很大程度影響人的精神狀態,進而影響作戰意志。意志毀傷戰與傳統作戰透過物質摧毀間接影響人的意志不同,它透過直接影響關鍵人物的心理活動、精神狀態和思考決策,影響軍心士氣、戰鬥意志和作戰行動。隨著科技發展和社會進步,對人的意志的干預,已經由傳統以謀略為主演進到“技術+謀略”階段。早在十多年前就有科學家研製出“聲波集束”武器,通過電磁網絡從數百米外發射極為狹窄的聲波“音柱”,幹擾敵人判斷甚至使意志堅強的軍人精神錯亂。近年來有研究表明,基於腦電波訊號的人工語音合成技術可提取大腦中的訊號,合成人類能夠直接理解的語音。

資訊網路作用認知戰的主要手段

「技術+謀略」構成現代認知戰的基本手段。資訊網絡作為現代科技發展的產物,其對認知戰的作用手段也主要體現在「技術+謀略」上。這為我們認識和掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的方式方法、科學路徑,從而製勝戰爭提供了基本切入點。

大數據構塑。數據作為資訊網路的核心構件,不僅是資訊的載體,而且是資訊網路價值驅動的“新石油”,更是作用認知戰的基本彈藥。透過大量資料構塑為我所用的複雜資訊場景,或對對手進行思維認知迷茫,或給予思維誤導欺騙,或進行信念意志摧毀,構成資訊網路作用認知戰的基本邏輯。在這邏輯架構中,資料無疑是最基礎的資源、最核心的元素。遠在幾年前,權威部門就統計,全球每天生產約2.5艾字節(EB)的數據,其中僅20%是可以直接利用的結構化數據,其餘80%則需要進行分析、甄別、篩選。這些幾何級數成長湧現的資料資源,為構塑資料資訊場景、實施認知戰提供了取之不盡用之不竭的「資料彈藥」。

智能化推送。資訊網路時代,智慧化推播成為人們攝取外在訊息,獲得思維認同、情感共鳴、影響他人思維認知的便捷管道。運用人工智慧等先進技術收集、整理、分析人的思維慣性、行為偏好數據,形成擬人化客製化感知推送,能夠產生社會認知趨同的「回音壁」和桎梏人的信息繭房,同時也有利於推己及人、了解對手的思維趨向和可能行動,有針對性地採取應對措施。生活中,我們都有一次或幾次網上購物、搜索某類信息後,大量類同信息推送進來的經歷,這種智能化推送手段應用到認知作戰中,很容易使信息主導方通過信息網絡數據,對作戰對象指揮決策層可能作出的決策、採取的行動等予以前瞻分析研判,誘導其作出希望看到的決策行動或預先作出相應的應對措施。

情緒浸染。佛洛伊德說,我們不是純粹的智慧、純粹的靈魂,而是衝動的集合。在資訊網路空間,能夠得到廣泛且快速傳播的觀念認知,往往不是冷靜理性客觀的思考分析,多是衝動非理性的情緒情緒動員。這是由資訊傳播、新聞發布「先發制人」的快節奏決定的。對這些資訊做出快速反應的認知需求,反過來又導致「快速思維」條件反射性、衝動性、情緒化反應,將看似孤立的社會個案轉化為具有強烈壓迫性、煽動性的心理暗示和行為驅動,暴發性催生非理性決策行動。 2009年6月維基解密披露的一份外交電文中,描繪了突尼斯本·阿里政權家族宴會的奢靡場景,並煞有介事地將該政權形容為腐敗暴政的“黑手黨”,這加深了該國國民怨恨情緒,因而成為引燃推翻本·阿里政權的「茉莉花革命」重要推手。

中國國防部資源:

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/18/content_303888.htm

Chinese Cognitive Warfare: Penetrating Quasi-cognitive Domains and Affects on Rules of Multi-domain Operations

中國認知戰:準認知域的滲透及對多域作戰規則的影響

繁體中文國語:

From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of land, sea, air, and space; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all of which are related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain on the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion and other levels of both the enemy and ourselves, which will be rapid, sudden, and unexpected. It profoundly affects the overall situation of the war, and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, mind, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemies destroyed, the temporary gains and losses of one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their indicator significance in evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be considered from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions caused by them. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategic situation, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first of all because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of the captives to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations all convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact is also significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for operations such as fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations, etc., different levels of imagination and creative thinking, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee during the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming active kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. To realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain impact in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to impact multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

原始中國軍事繁體普通話:

從冷兵器時代“弓馬騎射、刀兵相接”式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到信息化智能化時代涵蓋物理、信息、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有一定基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機理。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的制高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵

現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、制海、制空、制天權;在信息域阻斷敵人、聯通自己,爭奪制網、制信息權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策干擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

籌劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的復雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互聯通、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的“蝴蝶風暴”。籌劃實施物理域信息域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精准控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的總體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層面去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體聯動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。信息化智能化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的“不可算”“不可控”快速向相當程度上的“可算”“可控”發展。大數據、智能算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確制導炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為通過作戰行動點穴式精准打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精准畫像、智能分發、社交媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬現實等智能化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智能技術的交叉融合發展,使籌劃實施“X+認知攻防”、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷高效。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰籌劃和實施路徑的創新性設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考量對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立信道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考量對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我信息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報信息搜集的重點,要重點考量掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特征、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞“對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度”等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、采用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃和細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的信息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求實現效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網絡攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想象能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮員公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報數據、信道帶寬、取證信息、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、實時、體系、精准調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層次的理念革命,需要加強各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體聯動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度和協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、信息域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮員能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮員需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和信息制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水平。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突出錘煉指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的升華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究和戰法創新,以理論積淀打牢思想根基。

http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/10213888.html

Chinese Military Analysis of the Basics of Cognitive Domain Operations Warfare

中國軍事對認知域作戰基礎的分析

中國軍網 國防部網

現代英語音譯:

As a new form of combat, cognitive domain operations have become another new area of ​​confrontation after physical confrontation, firepower confrontation, and information confrontation. Different from operations in the physical domain and information domain, the operational goals of cognitive domain operations are thinking, concepts, etc., which have inherent requirements that are obviously different from other forms of operations.

Taking value offense and defense as the central task. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards that people use to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive factors and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of value is a prerequisite for winning the cognitive war. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often take advantage of their cyberspace advantages to use technical means and cultural penetration to forcibly export values. The interaction between virtual space and real space gradually erodes values, and the combination of co-optation and corrosion distorts values ​​to realize the thinking and understanding of personnel from hostile countries. Penetration and erosion of value orientation, etc. To seize the initiative in cognitive warfare, we must thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuits, get close to the opponent’s cultural language, and identify the opponent’s political beliefs and interest demands, so that the effectiveness of cognitive operations can directly reach the opponent’s belief base and soul anchorage. At the same time, we must scientifically interpret and disseminate the connotation and essence of our own excellent values, and use our excellent values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization to guide its transformation.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and understanding of the form of war, especially the central issues, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with “war of attrition” which focuses on annihilating the enemy’s main force and “maneuver warfare” which focuses on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain operations use the human brain as the main combat space and focus on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight. , using human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as a breakthrough point, and relying mainly on soft killing methods to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increasing internal strife and doubts in decision-making, thereby achieving “unprecedented” “Fight and win” purpose. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded its combat field to the sixth level, the “human domain” to compete for brain control and weaponize brain science to control the target’s beliefs, ways of thinking, spiritual will, and stance. , behavioral tendencies and other cognitive factors to launch offensive and defensive actions. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive scientific research results, the United States is trying to achieve the goal of psychological control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize intellectual power. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intellectual power will become a new type of battlefield control power that is growing rapidly and has greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligent superiority is the dominant factor for victory, intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force, and seizing “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights of war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have the intellectual characteristics of some people, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. Targeting the cognitive loop, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, forcing the enemy to use wrong information, delaying cognitive speed, inducing cognitive patterns, and blocking cognitive output can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making and undermine the morale of his military. Morale, to achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if cognitive advantages are lost, even if there are information advantages and energy advantages, the overall combat effectiveness will be significantly reduced due to human-machine coordination imbalance and autonomous decision-making failure.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important approach. Cognitive domain operations are essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation mainly manifests itself in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win public competition in the cognitive field. The war of public opinion focuses on changing ideas and competing for people’s hearts, and pays more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of continuously developing social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade restrictions of opponents and reach directly into the target group. In recent years, around the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech and other fields, the status of public opinion offense and defense has become increasingly prominent, attracting widespread attention. Public opinion wars can portray a positive image of one’s own side, while demonizing target countries and others to gain international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, manipulated by “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, weaved absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field. , which has brought severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perception and recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat objects. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it can use tendentious information to build efficient flexible cognitive scenarios and make tendentious intervention, thereby unknowingly affecting and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the integration of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. Externally, it can realize mind control, that is, brain control, and internally, it can achieve enhanced autonomy, that is, brain strengthening. It can realize direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in multi-modal emotion recognition, activation, protection and other related technical means based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional correlations are established to identify Human emotions and intentions provide new means for carrying out cognitive control warfare. Therefore, new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a way to combine suprathreshold infusion and subliminal penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.

繁體中文:

中國軍網 國防部網

認知域作戰作為一種新的作戰形式,目前已成為繼體力對抗、火力對抗、資訊對抗後,又一個嶄新的對抗領域。區別於物理域、資訊域等作戰,認知域作戰的作戰目標為思維、理念等,有明顯區別於其他作戰形式的內在需求。

以價值攻防為中心任務。一般認為,價值觀念是人用來區分好壞、分辨是非及重要性的原則與標準,是諸認知要素中最具穩定性的內容,是人的動機與行為模式的主宰。因此,搶佔價值制高點是贏得認知戰的先決條件。外軍歷來重視價值傳播,經常藉助其網路空間優勢,採取技術手段與文化滲透強行輸出價值觀、虛擬空間與現實空間互動漸進侵蝕價值觀、拉攏與腐蝕結合扭曲價值觀,實現對敵對國家人員思維認知、價值取向等的滲透侵蝕。搶佔認知戰主導權,必須研透對手價值追求,貼近對手文化語系,判明對手的政治信念、利益訴求,使認知作戰效能直抵對手信念根基、靈魂錨地。同時要科學闡釋和傳播己方優秀價值觀念的內涵與精髓,以優秀價值觀念與人類優秀文明成果引導其轉變。

以大腦認知為主要戰場。對戰爭形態特別重心問題的理解與認識,是戰法設計的重要內容。與以殲敵主力為重心的「消耗戰」、以破敵體系為重心的「機動戰」相比,認知域作戰以人腦為主要作戰空間,以打擊、削弱、瓦解敵戰爭意志為重心,以恐懼、焦慮、猜疑等人類心理弱點為突破口,重點依托軟殺傷手段,在敵方內部製造不安全、不確定、不信任的氛圍,加大其內鬥內耗和決策疑慮,從而實現「不戰而勝」目的。近年來,隨著新興技術的發展,北約將作戰領域拓展到第六層次即「人類領域」爭奪制腦權,讓腦科學武器化,對目標對象的信念信念、思考方式、精神意志、立場態度、行為傾向等認知要素展開攻防行動。據報道,借助腦與認知科學研究成果,美國正企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵方的心理控制目標。

以奪控智權為關鍵目標。隨著軍事智慧化的快速推進,智權將成為一種快速成長、對作戰全局有更大戰略影響力的新型戰場控制權。在智慧化戰爭中,智慧優勢是製勝的主導要素,智慧化武器系統成為主要作戰力量,奪取「制智權」將成為戰爭制權新的製高點。智慧化武器系統依賴先進的人工智慧系統,將具有部分人的智力特徵,這使得智權爭奪範圍將擴展到部分武器裝備。以認知迴路為目標,依托認知裝備限敵獲取有效資訊、迫敵使用錯誤訊息、延遲認知速度、誘導認知模式、阻斷認知輸出,能夠打亂敵指揮決策、瓦解其軍心士氣,達到「攻心為上」的效果。智慧化戰爭中,如果失去了認知優勢,即使具有資訊優勢和能量優勢,也會因為人機協同失調、自主決策失靈,而導致整體作戰效能的大幅降低。

以輿論攻防為重要途徑。認知域作戰本質上講是爭取人心、贏得人心的鬥爭。認知對抗中的輿論攻防,主要表現為控制、操縱、利用各種輿論工具,壓制對手、贏得大眾的認知領域較量。輿論戰重在改變觀念、爭奪人心,更重視精神和意志的征服。借助不斷發展的社群網路、融媒體技術,輿論戰得以衝破對手封鎖限制,直抵目標群體內部。近年來,圍繞著意識形態、網路空間、高新科技等領域,輿論攻防的地位愈發凸顯,引發普遍關注。輿論戰可以刻畫己方正面形象,同時妖魔化目標國等,爭取國際道義優勢和人民支持。從「顏色革命」到局部衝突,西方國家在「美式話術」操弄下,編造荒謬的劇本,編織荒誕的敘事、荒謬的結論,全時全場壓迫式緊逼,在認知領域大肆侵略,為諸多國家政治安全帶來了嚴峻挑戰。

以新質技術為有力手段。認知科學是新興研究門類,是探究人腦或心智工作機制的前沿性尖端學科,正朝著計算智能、感知智能、認知智能方向發展。人工智慧技術,在感知辨識、機器學習等方面具有獨特優勢,對作戰對象的思維認知具有天然穿透性和深刻影響力。人工智慧用於認知戰,可透過無孔不入且高度自動化的精準推送,運用傾向性訊息,建構起高效的柔性認知場景,作出傾向性幹預,進而不知不覺影響和塑造對手的思維認知。腦機介面技術,實現了認知維度的人機結合,對外可以實現意念控制即腦控,對內實現自主性增強即強腦,可實現用意識和思維直接操控複雜武器系統。目前基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動、防護等相關技術手段已有重大突破,透過採集人的表情、動作、語意和語調、腦電、各項生理指標等,建立情緒關聯,以識別人的情緒和意圖,為開展認知控制戰提供了新手段。因此,新質認知技術手段與傳統認知技術手段形成閾上灌輸與閾下滲透相結合的途徑,將進一步增強認知影響的隱藏性和有效性。

中國軍網國防部網參考: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/08/content_328888.htm

People’s Republic of China’s Ten Major Military Principles and Dialectical Opposition Intent for Adversaries

中華人民共和國十大軍事原則與辯證對敵意圖

現代英語音譯:

July 28, 2022 08:14 Source: People’s Liberation Army Daily

People’s Liberation Army Daily – China Military Network

Editor’s note

The Ten Military Principles are our Party’s scientific summary of the practical experience of the People’s Army in combat during the revolutionary war years. They are a concentrated reflection of Comrade Mao Zedong’s profound military thought and the commanding art of using troops like a god. They embody the basic principles and tactics of the People’s War strategy and tactics. The methodological principle of seeking truth from facts is full of materialism and dialectics, and has vitality that spans time and space. It is the historical responsibility of our generation of soldiers to continue to inherit the winning magic weapon of the people’s army. Of course, all military principles are moving forward. Today, when intelligent warfare has gradually become a new form of warfare, this article focuses on the ten major military principles, summarizes and sorts out the dialectical implications and enlightenment of the times in nine aspects, and provides readers with reference.

Strategic contempt and tactical attention

Operational judgment is the prerequisite for planning operations. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that we must despise the enemy strategically and attach great importance to the enemy tactically. Strategic contempt and tactical attention are a complete idea. The first is to strategically despise the enemy, dare to fight against them, and dare to win. At the same time, we must pay attention to the enemy tactically, adopt a cautious attitude, and pay attention to the art of struggle. If you cannot see the weak side of the enemy and cannot despise the enemy strategically, then paying attention to the enemy tactically may become a fear of the enemy; if you ignore the strong side of the enemy and ignore the enemy tactically, despising the enemy strategically will become underestimating the enemy. Recognizing the dual nature of struggle and preventing one tendency from overshadowing the other is the key to defeating the enemy. The victory in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea was a victory in which our army despised the enemy strategically and paid attention to the enemy tactically. It was a victory in which our army had the courage to fight and was good at fighting.

In today’s era, a century of changes and a century’s epidemic are superimposed on each other, and the strategic game between countries has become more intense. We must always remain clear-headed and determined, defy all dangers and difficulties, organically combine strategic contempt for the enemy with tactical attention to the enemy, and deal with the enemy. Be fully prepared for all possible situations, be neither afraid of nor underestimate the enemy, dare to fight and be good at winning.

Careful preparation and cautious initial battle

Combat preparation is the basis for winning the battle. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we should never fight an unprepared battle or a battle that we are not sure of; he called for caution in the first battle, believing that the victory or defeat in the first battle would have a great impact on the overall situation of the war, and it would be especially important for the army at a disadvantage or in a defensive position. Long-term war practice tells us that the more complex and difficult the situation, the more detailed the preparation for combat is to analyze the strength and situation of friends and foes, and to put ourselves in their shoes and analyze what the opponent will think and do. In particular, we should strive to be prepared for every battle, anticipate the most difficult and dangerous possible situations, and strive to be sure of victory under the contrasting conditions between the enemy and ourselves. The Battle of Yijiangshan Island was our army’s first three-service joint operation. The planning of the battle lasted for several years, and the preparation for the battle lasted for more than 2 months. It is an example of careful preparation and cautious initial battle.

In today’s era, China, which is at a critical stage of development from big to strong, faces complex and diverse challenges. This requires us to strengthen the concept of combat readiness, improve the ability to win, be prepared for war at any time, and truly carry out construction, development, and preparation for war in accordance with the standards of war. We must anticipate the most difficult and complex situations and treat such situations as The starting point for all combat preparations is to make sufficient and detailed preparations and formulate a comprehensive plan for integrated implementation, so as to achieve the goal of winning if we do not fight and win if we fight.

Destroy enemies and capture places

The purpose of combat is the core of implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that the main goal be to annihilate the enemy’s effective forces and not to defend or capture cities and places. He vividly pointed out that for a person, it is better to cut off one of his ten fingers than to hurt him; for the enemy, it is better to annihilate one of his divisions than to defeat his ten divisions. When the enemy is large and we are small, the enemy is strong and we are weak, it is generally impossible to achieve the two goals of annihilating the enemy and seizing the place at the same time. Only after annihilating the enemy’s effective strength can the place be finally defended or captured. Therefore, annihilating the enemy is a means to seize territory, and seizing territory is the result of annihilating the enemy. Therefore, annihilating the enemy should be the first priority, and consolidating the territory second. During the Yan’an Defense War, the Party Central Committee resolutely withdrew from Yan’an, and while annihilating the effective strength of the Kuomintang army on a large scale, it realized the strategic concept of “save people and lose land, and save both people and land”.

In today’s era, system breaking and precise victory are becoming key words in modern combat theory. We must change the traditional operational thinking of annihilating the enemy and seizing territory, and regard the pursuit of deterrence effects and depriving the enemy of combat power as important operational options. We must step up efforts to forge capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield, so as to destroy the enemy’s key support elements and deprive them of their combat power. The objective material basis for its continued operations and the operational purpose of disintegrating its will to carry out war.

Pay attention to the overall situation and grasp the key points

Combat guidance is the criterion for controlling combat. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that the overall situation and the local part of a war are the unity of opposites. The key to combat guidance is to unify focusing on the overall situation and grasping the key points, “seizing the strategic key point to deploy the campaign, and seizing the operational key point to deploy the battle.” Only in this way can the war situation be effectively promoted in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. In particular, a weak army must follow the objective laws of the development of things, start from the local area, and continue to accumulate the quantity of local victories to cause a qualitative leap and achieve overall changes. In the long-term revolutionary war, our army was good at firmly grasping strategic pivots to promote the development of the war situation, and firmly grasping the main contradictions to promote the transformation of contradictions. Only then did our army turn from passive to active, and from disadvantage to advantage. In the Liaoshen Campaign, our army made comprehensive considerations and decided to “attack Jinzhou first”, which effectively promoted the battle process and won the victory.

In today’s era, wars are becoming more and more hybrid, security threats are complex, diverse and multi-dimensional, and they are characterized by multi-domain linkage. Changes in war practice require us to consider the overall situation and the overall situation in operational guidance, focus on the actual situation on the battlefield, coordinate the struggle in the main strategic direction and other strategic directions, coordinate the military struggle in the traditional security field and the new security field, and coordinate the political, The economic, diplomatic, military, cultural, public opinion and other fronts realize the mutual superposition and accumulation of combat effects, forming an overall emergence of anti-hybrid warfare capabilities and ensuring the strategic goal of complete victory.

Fight weak enemies first and strong enemies later

The focus of operations is the key to implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we must first attack dispersed and isolated enemies, and then attack concentrated and powerful enemies. In the practice of long-term revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. We must first annihilate the enemies that are isolated, dispersed, weakly defended, and garrisoned in small and medium-sized cities. Then, the enemies that are concentrated, strong, well-garrisoned, and garrisoned in large cities will become weaker. , which creates conditions for the next attack and annihilation. If we attack the strong enemy first, not only will it be difficult to deal with the strong enemy quickly, but the weak enemy will also easily become a strong enemy, which will make us passive. Of course, sometimes when you are really sure, you can also wait for an opportunity to attack a strong enemy first to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. In the Battle of Menglianggu, Su Yu made the first attack and completely annihilated the reorganized 74th Division, the “first of the five main forces” of the Kuomintang army. This defeated the Kuomintang army’s key attack on the Shandong Liberated Areas and reversed the strategic situation on the East China battlefield.

In today’s era, war is a confrontation between systems. The fundamental goal of defeating the system is to attack the enemy’s center of gravity and key points. Combat operations must be carried out closely around the enemy’s center of gravity, and the selected targets must be the “keys”, “vital points” and “joints” in the enemy’s entire war system. These enemy targets may be “strong enemies” or “weak enemies” in the traditional sense. However, once they are identified as centers of gravity, all efforts should be concentrated on destroying these centers of gravity in order to paralyze the enemy’s entire combat system and quickly complete the operation. Purpose.

Concentrate and disperse forces

Combat posture is the posture in which troops are deployed. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that operations must focus on eliminating the enemy’s effective strength and concentrate superior forces to annihilate the enemy one by one. The essence of concentrating superior forces is to use forces intensively to obtain local advantages and initiative against the enemy based on the overall needs of the operation and to ensure a decisive victory in the decisive battle. In traditional wars, the concentration of troops is mainly reflected in the concentration of personnel and weapons, relying on quantitative advantages to make up for qualitative deficiencies. In battles, our army’s consistent thinking is to concentrate its absolutely superior forces, adopt roundabout encirclement tactics, and annihilate enemies one by one. The opposite of concentrated force is decentralization or military egalitarianism. Military egalitarianism may result in having neither an overall strength advantage nor a local strength advantage, making it impossible to control the enemy and to be controlled by the enemy. During the Red Army’s fifth counter-campaign against “encirclement and suppression”, the “six-way division of troops” and “all-front resistance” were manifestations of military egalitarianism.

In today’s era, information power, mobility, strike power, etc. have all increased unprecedentedly. Concentrating superior forces requires concentrating and using one’s own advantages in more diverse fields, and more adopting the approach of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but combined strength”. Dynamically combine the various combat forces distributed on the multi-dimensional battlefield, rely on the quality accumulation, efficiency integration, and real-time optimization of multiple combat elements to suddenly change the contrast with the opponent’s combat power, forming a hammer effect to defeat the enemy.

Weapons and equipment and fighting spirit

Combat elements are the components of combat strength. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that weapons and equipment are important factors in the victory or defeat of a war, but they are not the decisive factor. The decisive factor is people, not things. He asked the troops to carry forward the style of fighting bravely, not afraid of sacrifice, not afraid of fatigue and continuous fighting. Obviously, war is not only a confrontation of hard power such as weapons and equipment between the opposing parties, but also a competition of soft power such as will and quality. As an important component of combat effectiveness, fighting spirit plays a key role in the outcome of war. Material causes and effects are but the hilt of the knife; spiritual causes and effects are the sharp edge. Why in history has our army been able to defeat powerful enemies one after another and create miracles one after another even if it does not have an advantage in weapons and equipment? One of the most fundamental reasons is that we have the courage to “show swords when facing the enemy, be brave and tenacious” and have the fighting spirit of “not being afraid of hardship and not being afraid of death.”

In today’s era, war forms and combat styles are evolving at an accelerated pace, science and technology have become the core combat effectiveness, and weapons and equipment are becoming more and more important to winning wars. The contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to military construction and combat effectiveness development must be continuously increased. At the same time, we must forge the spiritual edge to defeat the enemy while inheriting the glorious tradition and fine style, and combine advanced science and technology with tenacious will, so that the majority of commanders and soldiers have a high degree of revolutionary consciousness and spirit of self-sacrifice, and master advanced Weapons, equipment and complex military technology form a powerful combat force to achieve victory in every attack and victory.

You hit yours and I hit mine

Combat methods are the carrier of strategy and tactics. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that people should give full play to their conscious initiative and seize the initiative in war. Starting from the overall situation of the revolutionary war, he successively proposed a series of flexible strategies and tactics, such as “Fight if you can win, leave if you can’t”, “You fight yours, I’ll fight mine”, “Mobile warfare, positional warfare, guerrilla warfare”. Cooperate with each other” and so on. This set of strategies and tactics that seek advantages and avoid disadvantages and are flexible and mobile reveals the laws and methods of war guidance for defeating enemies with superior equipment with inferior equipment, and raises flexible strategies and tactics to a new level. During the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, in response to the U.S. military’s strong land and sea support and strong land firepower and mobility, our military emphasized small-scale annihilation wars, which enriched the implementation of annihilation wars. It relied on tunnels to carry out small-scale counterattacks and found a new way to fight positional warfare. .

In today’s era, wars will be carried out in multiple domains simultaneously, and combat operations such as networked and electronic operations, air and space attacks, and unmanned operations are prominent. Proactive, flexible and changeable strategies and tactics are still a weapon to gain the initiative and defeat the enemy. It is necessary to follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, step up the forging of new quality and new domain combat capability means, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive warfare”, “cross-domain warfare” and “intelligent warfare” and other tactics to temper dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. Wait for the way of fighting, do not follow the enemy’s routines, focus on the enemy’s weaknesses, use our army’s strengths and strengths to control the battle, and win the victory.

Continuous combat and rest supplement

Combat support is the cornerstone of sustaining operations. Comrade Mao Zedong always believed that the deepest roots of the power of war exist among the people, and that soldiers and people are the foundation of victory. During the long-term revolutionary war, our army’s manpower and material resources supplementation mainly emphasized obtaining them from the enemy and relying on the support of the base areas. At the same time, we used the gaps between campaigns to reorganize and train the troops, improve military and political quality, and enhance the combat effectiveness of the troops. These are all necessary conditions for carrying out another battle. However, in order to prevent the enemy from taking a breather and to inflict continuous blows to the enemy, sometimes even without supplementary rest and recuperation, it is necessary to develop a style of not being afraid of sacrifice or fatigue and achieve continuous operations. Just after the Liaoshen Campaign, the Northeast Field Army changed its plan to use three months to half a year to rest and reorganize its troops. It took a shortcut and quickly sent troops into the pass to participate in the Pingjin Campaign, which changed the battlefield situation in North China in one fell swoop.

In today’s era, in a sense, fighting a war is fighting for security. With the profound changes in the international military competition landscape, national interests and military missions continue to expand, and the time and space span of combat support has expanded dramatically. In particular, the intensity, difficulty, and With the unprecedented increase in speed, we must continue to deepen national defense mobilization, build an integrated national strategic system and capabilities, and form strong war capabilities and war potential that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory.

現代繁體中文:

2022年07月28日08:14    來源:解放軍報

原標題:十大軍事原則的辯証意蘊及時代啟示 – 解放軍報 – 中國軍網

編者按

十大軍事原則是革命戰爭年代我們黨對人民軍隊作戰實踐經驗的科學總結,是毛澤東同志博大精深的軍事思想、用兵如神的指揮藝術的集中反映,它所體現的人民戰爭戰略戰術的基本原理和實事求是的方法論原則,充滿了唯物論、洋溢著辯証法,具有跨越時空的生命力。賡續傳承好人民軍隊的制勝法寶,是我們這代軍人的歷史責任。當然,一切軍事原則都是向前發展的,在智能化戰爭逐漸成為新戰爭形態的今天,本文聚焦十大軍事原則,總結梳理了9個方面辯証意蘊及時代啟示,供讀者參考借鑒。

戰略藐視與戰術重視

作戰判斷是籌劃作戰的前提。毛澤東同志指出,要在戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人。戰略藐視與戰術重視是一個完整的思想。首先是要戰略上藐視敵人,敢於同它們斗爭,敢於奪取勝利。同時,在戰術上重視敵人,要採取謹慎態度,講究斗爭藝術。如果看不到敵人脆弱的一面,不能在戰略上藐視敵人,那麼在戰術上重視就可能成了畏敵如虎﹔如果忽視敵人強大的一面,離開戰術上重視敵人,戰略上藐視便成了輕敵。認清斗爭的兩重性,防止一種傾向掩蓋另一種傾向,是克敵制勝的關鍵。抗美援朝戰爭勝利就是我軍戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人的勝利,就是敢於斗爭和善於斗爭的勝利。

當今時代,百年變局與世紀疫情相互疊加,國家間戰略博弈更加激烈,我們要時刻保持清醒和堅定,不畏一切險阻,不怕一切困難,把戰略上藐視敵人同戰術上重視敵人有機結合起來,對各種可能發生的情況做好充分的准備,既不畏敵、亦不輕敵,敢於斗爭、善於勝利。

周密備戰與慎重初戰

作戰准備是贏得作戰的基礎。毛澤東同志強調,不打無准備之仗,不打無把握之仗﹔要求慎重初戰,認為初戰的勝敗對戰爭的全局影響極大,尤其對劣勢或處於防御地位的軍隊更加重要。長期的戰爭實踐告訴我們,越是復雜困難的形勢下,作戰准備越是要細致地分析敵我友的力量、敵我友的情況,並換位思考分析對手會怎麼想、怎麼做。特別是每戰都應力求有准備,必須預計到最困難最危險的各種可能情況,力求在敵我條件對比下有勝利的把握。一江山島戰役,是我軍首次三軍聯合作戰,戰役籌劃長達幾年,戰役准備長達2個多月,是周密備戰與慎重初戰的范例。

當今時代,處在由大向強發展關鍵階段的中國,面臨的挑戰復雜多樣。這要求我們必須強化戰備觀念,提高打贏本領,做好隨時打仗的准備,真正按照打仗的標准搞建設、謀發展、抓備戰﹔必須預計到最困難最復雜的情況,並把這種情況當作一切作戰准備的出發點,做充分細致准備,制訂一體實施的周密計劃,實現不打則已、打則必勝。

殲滅敵人與奪取地方

作戰目的是實施作戰的中心。毛澤東同志要求,以殲滅敵人有生力量為主要目標,不以保守或奪取城市和地方為主要目標。他形象指出,對於人,傷其十指不如斷其一指﹔對於敵,擊潰其十個師不如殲滅其一個師。在敵大我小、敵強我弱條件下,殲滅敵人和奪取地方這兩個目標,一般不可能同時達到。隻有在殲滅敵人有生力量之后,才能最后保守或奪取地方。因此,殲滅敵人是奪取地方的手段,奪取地方是殲滅敵人的結果,所以要殲敵為主、略地次之。延安保衛戰,黨中央毅然撤出延安,在大規模殲滅國民黨軍有生力量的同時實現了“存人失地,人地皆存”的戰略構想。

當今時代,體系破擊、精打制勝等正成為現代作戰理論的關鍵詞。我們必須轉變傳統殲敵奪地的作戰思維,把追求震懾效應、剝奪敵方戰力作為作戰重要選項,加緊鍛造奪控綜合制權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,達成摧毀敵方作戰關鍵支持要素、剝奪其持續作戰的客觀物質基礎、瓦解其遂行戰爭意志的作戰目的。

關照全局與抓住重點

作戰指導是駕馭作戰的准繩。毛澤東同志指出,戰爭的全局與局部是對立的統一物。作戰指導的關鍵就是把著眼全局與抓住樞紐統一起來,“抓住戰略樞紐去部署戰役,抓住戰役樞紐去部署戰斗”,如此方能切實推動戰局向著有利於己的方向發展。特別是弱小之軍必須遵循事物發展的客觀規律,從局部入手,不斷通過局部勝利的量的積累,以引起質的飛躍,達到全局的變化。在長期的革命戰爭中,我軍善於緊緊抓住戰略樞紐推動戰局發展,緊緊抓住主要矛盾推動矛盾轉化,才使我軍由被動轉為主動、劣勢轉為優勢。遼沈戰役,我軍通盤考量決定“首打錦州”,有力地推動了戰役進程並贏得了勝利。

當今時代,戰爭越來越呈現出混合化態勢,安全威脅復雜多樣多維,並呈現多域聯動的特點。戰爭實踐變化要求我們,作戰指導要通盤考慮、全局考量,從戰場實際出發抓樞紐,統籌好主要戰略方向和其他戰略方向斗爭,統籌好傳統安全領域與新型安全領域的軍事斗爭,統籌好政治、經濟、外交、軍事、文化、輿論等各條戰線,實現作戰效果相互疊加、累積,形成反混合戰爭能力的整體涌現,確保實現全勝的戰略目標。

先打弱敵與后打強敵

作戰重心是實施作戰的要害。毛澤東同志強調,要先打分散和孤立之敵,后打集中和強大之敵。在長期革命戰爭實踐中,我軍在數量、規模和裝備上常常處於劣勢,首先殲滅孤立分散、守備薄弱和據守中小城市之敵,則集中強大、守備堅固和據守大城市之敵即變弱了,這就為下一步攻殲創造了條件。若先打強敵,則不僅強敵難以迅速解決,弱敵也易變成強敵,反而使我方陷入被動。當然,有時在確有把握的情況下,也可伺機先打強敵,以迅速削弱敵方戰略優勢。孟良崮戰役,粟裕首打且全殲國民黨軍“五大主力之首”的整編第74師,挫敗了國民黨軍對山東解放區的重點進攻,扭轉了華東戰場戰略態勢。

當今時代,戰爭是體系與體系的對抗,體系破擊的根本是要打敵重心、要害。作戰行動必須緊緊圍繞打敵重心展開,所選目標必須是敵整個戰爭系統中的“關鍵”“要害”與“關節”。這些敵之目標在傳統意義上可能是“強敵”,也可能是“弱敵”,然而一旦被確定為打擊重心,就應集中全力摧毀這些重心,以毀癱敵整個作戰體系,快速達成作戰目的。

集中兵力與分散兵力

作戰布勢是兵力部署的態勢。毛澤東同志要求,作戰必須著眼於消滅敵人有生力量,集中優勢兵力各個殲滅敵人。集中優勢兵力的實質是根據作戰全局的需要,集中使用兵力以獲得對敵之局部優勢和主動,確保決戰決勝。傳統戰爭中,集中兵力主要體現為人員、武器的規模集中,依靠數量上的優勢來彌補質量上的不足。在戰役戰斗上,集中絕對優勢兵力,採取迂回包圍戰術,各個殲滅敵人,是我軍作戰的一貫思想。與集中兵力對立的是分散兵力亦或軍事平均主義。軍事平均主義可能導致既沒有全局力量優勢,更沒有局部力量優勢,不能制敵反被敵所制。紅軍第五次反“圍剿”時“六路分兵”“全線抵御”就是軍事平均主義的表現。

當今時代,信息力、機動力、打擊力等都空前增強,集中優勢兵力要求在更加多元領域中集中和運用己方優勢,更多採取“貌散而神聚,形散而力合”的方式,將分布在多維戰場的諸作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,依靠多種戰斗要素的質量累聚、效能融合、即時聚優,突然改變與對方戰斗力量的對比,形成重錘效應,克敵制勝。

武器裝備與戰斗精神

作戰要素是作戰實力的構成。毛澤東同志指出,武器裝備是戰爭勝負的重要因素,但不是決定性因素,決定性因素是人而不是物。他要求部隊要發揚勇敢戰斗、不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞和連續作戰的作風。顯然,打仗既是敵對雙方武器裝備等硬實力的對抗,也是意志品質等軟實力的比拼。戰斗精神作為戰斗力的重要組成部分,對戰爭勝負起著關鍵性作用。物質的原因和結果不過是刀柄,精神的原因和結果才是鋒利的刀刃。為什麼我軍歷史上即使在武器裝備上不佔優勢,卻總能戰勝一個又一個強敵,創造一個又一個奇跡?其中一個最根本的原因,就是我們具有“逢敵亮劍、英勇頑強”的血性膽氣,具有“一不怕苦、二不怕死”的戰斗精神。

當今時代,戰爭形態和作戰樣式加速演變,科技成為核心戰斗力,武器裝備對打贏戰爭越來越重要,必須不斷提高科技創新對軍隊建設和戰斗力發展的貢獻率。與此同時,我們要在傳承光榮傳統和優良作風中鍛造克敵制勝的精神利刃,把先進科技與頑強意志很好地結合起來,使廣大指戰員既具備高度的革命覺悟和自我犧牲精神,又掌握先進的武器裝備和復雜的軍事技術,從而形成強大的戰斗力量,實現攻必克、戰必勝。

你打你的與我打我的

作戰方法是戰略戰術的承載。毛澤東同志強調,要發揮人的自覺能動性,掌握戰爭的主動權。從革命戰爭全局出發,他先后提出過一系列靈活機動的戰略戰術,比如“打得贏就打,打不贏就走”“你打你的,我打我的”“運動戰、陣地戰、游擊戰相互配合”等等。這一整套趨利避害、靈活機動的戰略戰術,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。抗美援朝戰爭中,針對美軍有海空支援以及陸上火力、機動力強的特點,我軍強調打小殲滅戰,豐富了殲滅戰的實現形式﹔依托坑道實施小規模反擊,找到了打陣地戰的新辦法。

當今時代,戰爭將在多域同時展開,網電作戰、空天襲擊、無人作戰等作戰行動地位凸顯,積極主動靈活多變的戰略戰術仍然是贏得主動、克敵制勝的利器。要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,加緊鍛造新質新域的作戰能力手段,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰”“智能戰”等戰法,錘煉降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在“以能擊不能”中掌控作戰制權,進而贏得勝利。

持續作戰與休整補充

作戰保障是維持作戰的基石。毛澤東同志始終認為,戰爭偉力之最深厚的根源存在於民眾之中,兵民是勝利之本。長期革命戰爭中,我軍人力物力的補充主要強調取之於敵和依靠根據地的支持,同時利用戰役間隙整頓訓練部隊,提高軍政素質,增強部隊戰斗力,這些都是實行再戰的必要條件。但是,為了不讓敵人喘息,給敵連續打擊,有時即使在未得到補充休整的情況下,亦須發揚不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞的作風,實現連續作戰。遼沈戰役剛結束,東北野戰軍改變利用三個月至半年時間休整部隊的計劃,取捷徑迅即揮師入關參加平津戰役,一舉改變了華北戰場態勢。

當今時代,從某種意義上講,打仗就是打保障。隨著國際軍事競爭格局深刻變化,國家利益和軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,作戰保障時空跨度急劇擴大,特別是戰爭作戰進程快、毀傷能力強、力量控制精、技術含量高,保障的強度、難度和速度空前增加,必須不斷深化國防動員,構建一體化國家戰略體系和能力,形成既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力。

中國共產黨原文參考:http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/0728/c443712-32487888.html

Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict

中國軍隊在自信認知對抗衝突中取得成功

現代英語音譯:

Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.

現代國語軍語:

適應情勢發展革新制勝理念

軍事實踐一再證明,戰爭的勝負不單單是兵力兵器的對抗,更是思維方式、作戰理念的較量。要在認知領域佔據優勢主動地位,當前特別關鍵的是確立與資訊時代相適應的新型指導理念。

集能聚優。集能聚優是對傳統集中優勢兵力的創新發展,不僅是打贏具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的重要遵循,也是奪佔認知對抗綜合優勢的關鍵一招。近幾年,資訊網路、叢集控制等技術日益成熟,不斷推動作戰朝向廣域分佈、即時聚優方向轉變。與之相適應,認知域下更要強調在具有決定意義的節點樞紐,綜合施策、跨域集能、奪控優勢,實現快速控局、速決制勝。

數據主導。數據作為一種新型戰爭資源,已成為現代戰爭指揮決策的依據、系統運作的血液。充分發揮資料資源優勢,佔據認知域作戰主動,是搶佔戰略制高點的重要一環。要進一步強化數據意識、數據思維,努力提升數據決策、數據引導的素養,真正讓數據成為認知致勝的「助推劑」。

智能協同。人工智慧技術的不斷發展,基於網路資訊體系的自主感知、決策、評估等能力的不斷增強,正推動著人機動態分享資訊、智慧規劃分配任務、密切協同精準出擊日趨成熟。認知域下,智慧協同將成為重要抓手,資訊互融、人機協作、優算決策、即時互助將成為贏得戰場先機、佔據主動、謀求勝勢的必要手段。

遵循內在規律緊扣價值攻防

認知域作戰並非獨立存在,而是透過物理域行動、資訊域流轉進入感知空間,在認知攻防中影響對手價值判斷、改變對手認知體系,進而引發對手認知「雪崩」效應,置對手於「兵敗如山倒」境地。基於此目的,必須深入研究分析對手的政治、經濟、軍事、文化等要素,發掘影響對手作戰認知的核心價值,進而綜合採取謀略、技術等手段,深度影響塑造對手思維認知、價值判斷。

必須看到,認知域作戰效能的釋放往往具有較強的持久性,只有在深謀遠慮、長期佈局的基礎上,透過採取一系列不間斷、常態化柔性手段,在對手內部漸進式構築共同價值觀,才能形成影響,進而實現認知域作戰功效。在資訊時代,西方已開發國家往往藉由網路傳播技術潛移默化地影響、塑造對手的思維認知、價值體系,進而動搖對手思想文化根基,建構認知域作戰輿論基礎。近年來世界各地發生的多起“顏色革命”,背後很大程度上正是西方國家長期滲透操縱輿論、認知域作戰效能逐漸釋放顯現的結果。

毋庸置疑,發生在認知域的對抗最終還是作用於人的大腦,影響人的情緒、動機、判斷和行動,甚至控制人的思考。正因如此,有人認為,作為認知的引擎,「大腦」有可能成為未來戰爭的主目標、主戰場。值得關注的是,現代認知域作戰的一個顯著特徵,就是科技的應用趨頻、作用突顯。尤其是隨著資訊科技、人工智慧等深度介入,認知域作戰將更重視科技綜合實力的比拼。從這個角度說,只有在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、佔據主動,才能贏得認知優勢。

著眼最大效能堅持軟硬結合

認知空間具有強烈的伸縮性,但就本質而言仍是人類活動及社會關係的映射,與現實世界緊密關聯、相互作用。缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的強力支撐,認知域作戰終將難以產生真正效果。從這個角度看,認知域作戰不是孤立的行動,只有釐清認知域作戰軟力量與物理域硬實力綜合運用的內在規律,將認知攻防融入聯合作戰鏈條,實現不同領域作戰力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能發揮認知域作戰最大效能。

在資訊時代,認知對抗的重心絕非單純追求徹底消滅敵人,而是更強調透過精準的時間、精準的資訊和精準的行動,精確釋放作戰能量,進而剝奪或降低敵方決策能力等。一方面要注重充分借助非對稱手段,透過陸、海、空、天等有形作戰域的高效快捷行動,破壞敵情報、指揮、通信、打擊、保障鏈路,擊垮敵戰爭潛力基礎,牢牢把握戰場主動權。另一方面要強調未雨綢繆、事先佈置虛擬空間對抗,始終關注精神意志對抗,積極尋求形成強大心理壓迫、瓦解對手抵抗意志的方法途徑。為了實現兩者效果疊加,應高度關注物理域的信火打擊與認知域的綜合毀癱聯動配合,密切跟踪基於網絡信息體系,精確打擊敵方決策、行動以及精神、信念的效果,積極主動摸索以攻心奪志為根本目的的戰法打法。

瞄準體系運行癱瘓戰鬥意志

無論時代如何發展,科技如何進步,人始終是戰爭勝負的決定性因素和支撐作戰體系運作的核心力量。在這當中,戰鬥意志可謂是支撐作戰的精神核心。認知域作戰正是要廣泛採取各種措施,尤其是藉助情報戰、心理戰、輿論戰、網路戰等殺傷手段,對敵方戰鬥意志這一精神內核進行打擊、削弱和剝奪,使其在心理、意誌上屈服,最終導致其作戰體係自行瓦解。

資訊時代的認知域作戰,具有大範圍、全領域的特點,剝奪敵方戰鬥意志強調在多個領域、多個維度、多個時段施加干涉、影響、控制,透過整體合力達成對敵認知優勢,實現己方作戰企圖。如精準掌握對手認知基礎、思考模式、文化習慣等,針對性採取營造態勢、改變氛圍、刺激心理、滲透侵蝕等行動,以瓦解對手認知體系整體性統一性,強力削弱對手決心意志。再如廣泛採取各種認知手段,積極借助物理域資訊域攻勢行動,強力摧毀對手關鍵節點,幹擾對手認知判斷,遲滯對手有效反應,以摧毀剝奪其兵心士氣。也可以根據對手傳統文化、理性邏輯以及性格短板等,採取針對性策略,有步驟、成系統地進行軍事、經濟、文化、外交、民心各方面各層級行動,在改變原有認知中形成有效控制,以消解軟化其戰鬥意志。隨著技術的深度發展,未來以控腦武器為代表的認知裝備可能具備直接幹擾或控制敵方大腦認知的能力,不僅能造成其意識混亂,甚至會誘發其做出違背戰爭常理的行動。

注重主動適應優化戰鬥設計

儘管認知域作戰在現代戰爭中的地位作用日益突顯,但不能就此認為認知域作戰無所不能,甚至取代傳統作戰行動。認知域作戰綜合效能的發揮,是一項複雜的系統工程。為了佔據認知主動、適應資訊化戰爭,必須從戰略全局出發,在實踐中努力優化作戰設計。

謀技融合。在認知域作戰中,謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容。儘管技術因素在現代認知域作戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。可以說,認知域作戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相互促進、緊密融合的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的加入而更加豐富,科技因謀略的運用而更加強勁。要掌握認知主動權、打好認知主動仗,不只要善用謀略,也要強化技術應用,將施謀與用技有機結合,努力強化認知攻防綜合效能。

攻防結合。認知域作戰是進攻與防禦的對立統一體,是在認知空間展開影響與反影響、滲透與逆滲透、破壞與反破壞、控制與反控制的認知攻防活動。要認清強弱優劣,抓住對手認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,以癱瘓其心理防線,全面佔據認知主動。同時,要把準攻防轉換節點,加強全域認知防護。要固守己方認知,旗幟鮮明宣揚己方價值理念、戰爭立場,統一意志、凝聚兵心、激發士氣。加強重要認知領域的防護隱密措施,降低己方政治、經濟、社會、資訊等敏感領域的可感知性,強化相關保密防護手段,實際築牢認知防護安全屏障。

中國軍事原文來源:

中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-01/10/content_331888.htm

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy

中國軍隊與智慧戰爭戰略制勝機制的確定

現代英語音譯:

Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.

國語音譯:

2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。

对抗方式从“体系对抗”向“算法博弈”转变,算法优势主导战争优势

算法是求解问题的策略机制。实际上,“算法”是一系列解决问题的清晰指令,是按照一定规则解决某一类问题的明确步骤。未来战争掌握算法优势的一方,能快速准确预测战场态势,创新最优作战方法,实现“未战而先胜”的战争目的。

算法是主导智能化战争的关键。第一,算法优势主导认知优势。大数据通过高性能、高效率的算法进行处理后,将海量数据快速转换为有用的情报。因此,占有算法优势的一方,能驱散因数据得不到及时处理而产生的“战场迷雾”,使得认知更为深刻。第二,算法优势主导速度优势。量子算法相比于经典算法,实现了指数级的加速效果,再加上量子计算机从2003年的1位量子比特,到2015年1000位量子比特,计算效率比经典计算机快了一亿倍,使人工智能实现了质的飞跃。第三,算法优势主导决策优势。算法以其高速、精确的计算,代替人的“冥思苦想”和反复探索,从而加速知识迭代。掌握超强算法能够针对敌情变化快速提出灵活多样的作战方案与应对之策,不断打乱敌既定企图和部署。

算法是战争效能跃升的核心。一是战争效率更高。在算法的支撑下,人工智能的反应速度是人类的成百上千倍。2016年,美国研发的“阿尔法”智能软件,反应速度比人类快250倍,在模拟空战中操控三代机击败了有人驾驶的四代机。二是战争耐力更强。人工智能不受生理机能限制,可连续执行重复性、机械性任务。2016年9月,一架F-16战机在训练中达到8倍重力过载,导致飞行员失去知觉,然而,在飞机撞击地面前,机载“自动防撞系统”自动将飞机拉起,避免了悲剧发生。三是战争结局更好。在海量数据和超算能力支持下,人工智能的判断和预测结果更加准确。美军寻找和捕杀本·拉登行动,有人和无人装备的组合运用就是一个成功的战例。

作战要素从“信息主导”向“机器主战”转变,机器主战重塑作战流程

未来智能科技将渗透到战争全要素全过程。物联网、智联网与脑联网成为战争的基础,物理域、信息域、认知域、社会域四域深度融合,使战场全息透明,战争控制有人,战场交锋无人。智能化武器装备将重塑“从传感器到射手”的作战流程。

慧眼“侦”。“侦”,即智能化情报侦察。能将陆、海、空、天、电等多维传感器,进行虚拟化协同组网、自组织动态调度、多源情报自动挖掘、订单式按需使用,最大程度上拨开信息不足或信息冗余带来的“战争迷雾”,开启透视智能化战争的“慧眼”。

回路“控”。“控”,即智能化指挥控制。围绕决策优势这一核心,运用“人在回路”的人机协同技术,按照机器的自主权限,采取“人在回路中”“人在回路上”“人在回路外”三种决策与控制方式,以高敌一筹的决策质量和行动速度形成全面优势。

智能“打”。“打”,即智能化攻防作战。依托体系结构和算法优势,实时调集全域多维、有人无人作战平台,快速耦合作战力量,按需构建作战体系,聚焦目标,自主实施“分布式”“蜂群式”协同作战,交战完毕迅速解耦待战,做到兵无常势、聚散随机。2015年底,俄罗斯投入6台履带式无人战车、4台轮式无人战车和1架无人机,支援叙利亚政府军强攻伊斯兰极端势力据点,取得了世界上第一场以无人战车为主的攻坚战胜利。战斗中约70名极端势力武装分子被击毙,而叙利亚政府军只有4人受伤。

决策方式从“人脑决策”向“智能决策”转变,智能决策优化作战行动

随着智能辅助决策技术和“云端大脑”“数字参谋”“虚拟仓储”的出现,战争决策由单纯的人脑决策发展为人机混合决策、云脑智能决策和神经网络决策。

人机混合决策。人与机器的合理分工与交互协同是探索解决问题的最优方案。人脑的优势在于创造性、灵活性、主动性;机器的优势在于速度快、精度高、抗疲劳。高层决策等艺术性强的工作由人脑来处理,大数据计算由机器完成。人机交互是让机器能“听”懂人类语言、“看”懂人类动作与表情、“理解”人的情绪和意图,把计算过程和结果用人容易理解的方式呈现出来。

云脑智能决策。未来智能化战争,将有一个“大脑”的隐喻中心,分布式的作战单元将通过云大脑链接。这个云大脑既是物理信息、生理信息和心理信息中心,也是军事指控中心。云脑决策以智能“网、云、端”体系为依托。“网”,是集智能化战场感知、决策和武器控制系统于一体的智能型作战基础网络。“云”,依“网”而建,以智能型资源服务层为主体,既是融合各类作战资源的“资源池”,也是为作战行动提供智能化服务的“智能云”。由于多中心的耦合,即使遭受信息轰炸也能快速组网和决策。“端”,是指作战资源端,作战流程上的分立智能和联网智能,既能自主决策,又能为战争体系提供分布式智能资源,使新的战争体系涌现出群体智能。

神经网络决策。2018年7月,俄罗斯研制的人工神经网络全自动软件,能做到发现即摧毁。美军研发的智能化决策工具,意在缩短决策周期,提高决策效率。神经网络的应用曾局限于战术级计算,难以对战略级宏观复杂态势做出定性分析和决策。“阿尔法狗”通过模拟人脑神经网络工作机制在围棋领域取得突破。未来深度神经网络的超强自我进化和战略决策能力,将实现“人在回路外”的作战循环。

作战样式从“断链破体”向“极限作战”转变,极限作战颠覆传统作战手段

极限作战突破了传统战争的界限,颠覆了传统的作战样式,使战争效能剧增,出现了真正意义上的全天候、全时空、全方位、全领域的智能化战争。

突破人类生理和思维极限。一是作战空间和领域极度拓展。未来智能化作战是立体、全维、全领域作战,战争空间将从传统的空间领域,向极地、深海、太空等极限拓展,特别是向认知域、信息域渗透并贯穿其他领域,作战领域更加模糊。二是作战进程极度加快。无人自主作战大幅压缩“观察—判断—决策—行动”周期,从信息化战争的“瞬时摧毁”发展为智能化战争的“即时摧毁”。智能化战争的胜利,是通过预警时间提前、决策时间缩短,作战行动向前延伸,达到先手布局、先发制人的效果。三是作战行动极度灵活。智能化战争中,人工智能能够提出极为丰富的作战方案,加之无人作战平台,能够在不同功能角色之间快速切换,作战行动更为大胆冒险,战术战法更为出乎意料。即使作战要素中的某一个丧失功能,“去中心化”的功能也会确保群体功能不受影响。

颠覆传统作战样式。一是侵入式独狼作战。即单套无人系统独立作战。二是有人无人协同体系破击战。即基于智能无人系统,通过有无人装备混合作战,快速达成作战目的。三是无人系统编队独立作战。多套无人系统构成作战单元,可执行多目标攻击等复杂任务。四是母舰蜂群集群作战。以母舰为运输载体和指挥中心,形成有人无人混合集群作战样式。

具备“核威力”的作战效能。智能化战争把智能机器人的特性和潜能发挥到极致,导致作战效能接近极限。一是目标小、难发现。比如微型化隐身机器人,雷达和声呐很难发现。美国在“蜻蜓”中嵌入“光极”芯片的混合无人机,更小更轻更隐秘,续航时间高达几个月。二是对抗难,代价高。比如甲虫大小的微型无人机只要扫描到人脸景象,经数据分析和确定即可直接撞向目标头部,携带的弹药足以穿透大脑。三是造价低、破坏大。未来运用智能化武器极限作战具有核武器的威力,特别是极大体量的智能化武器装备,极低成本的机器人自动生产,极度灵活的机器人集群作战,可能会超越核武器爆炸威力的极大化。

中國政府原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0115/c1011-3053888.html

中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research