Chinese Military Analysis of New Features and Trends of US Information Warfare



Information warfare has become an important topic in today’s international politics and security. As the world’s largest military and intelligence agency, the United States has very strong strength and resources in information warfare. It is an important initiator and participant in information warfare, and its information warfare capabilities have attracted much attention. In addition to adjusting the goals of information warfare, comprehensively advancing in various ways, and integrating domestic departments to unify actions, the US government is also actively expanding its information warfare alliances, by absorbing more countries to form a broad information warfare alliance, enhancing the effectiveness of information warfare, and further restricting the activity environment of rival countries.

    【Key words】Information warfare, U.S. national strategy 【Chinese Library Classification Number】D815 【Document Identification Code】A

    After the Biden administration came to power, the US national strategy has been further strengthened in terms of offensiveness and targeting, which has also brought about many new changes in the US information warfare. On the one hand, the Biden administration proposed the “integrated containment” strategy in the national security strategy, and information warfare has become an important tool to contain opponents in diplomacy, intelligence, economy and trade. On the other hand, the United States uses the Internet as the main field and widely uses modern information technology to comprehensively promote information warfare in various ways, trying to influence and change the public opinion and cognition of the target country. In addition, the United States has also vigorously expanded its information warfare alliances and included more countries in its alliance system to further restrict the activity environment of its competitors. Domestic academic circles have also conducted some research on US information warfare, such as: discussing the development of US information warfare from the aspects of origin, method, technical support and equipment, analyzing the implementation basis of information warfare from the perspective of US information security strategy, or exploring the training of US military information warfare talents. However, there is still a lack of relevant discussions in the academic community on the new changes and trends of US information warfare in recent years, especially under the Biden administration. This article focuses on analyzing the new characteristics and new trends of US information warfare.

    The historical origins of the United States launching information warfare around the world

    On May 4, 2023, the latest report released by the National Virus Emergency Response Center and 360 Company disclosed the main technical means by which the CIA planned, organized and implemented “color revolution” events around the world, including a non-traditional regime change technology called “swarming”, which was used to encourage young people connected by the Internet to join the “shoot and change places” mobile protests. For a long time, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) of the United States has secretly implemented “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions” around the world and continued to carry out espionage activities. Information communication and on-site command are the decisive factors affecting the success or failure of “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions”. The United States’ communication technology and its media applications are in a leading position internationally, which provides unprecedented technical support for the US intelligence agencies to launch “peaceful evolution” and “color revolutions” abroad.

    Entering the 21st century, with the further development of the Internet, driven by social media, the speed, diversity and breadth of information dissemination have been unprecedentedly improved. All over the world, information can be shared and transmitted in real time. Due to the development of information technology, many countries have begun to realize the importance of information warfare: on the one hand, countries can contain opponents and create an information environment that is beneficial to their own country through information transmission and control. On the other hand, the mobility and uncontrollability of information will pose a threat to national security. Therefore, information warfare has become an important issue in today’s international politics and security. The United States has the world’s largest military and intelligence agencies, has very strong strength and resources in information warfare, is an important participant and initiator of information warfare, and its information warfare capabilities have attracted much attention.

    After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States mainly adopted a defensive posture in information warfare, strengthening the construction and security monitoring of network facilities to prevent attacks from terrorism and opponents. Although during the Obama and Trump administrations, the United States gradually moved from defense to active offense, proposing “preemptive” cyber sanctions against countries suspected of cyber attacks. However, judging from the National Cybersecurity Strategy released in March 2023, the United States focuses mainly on cyber deterrence, using “forward defense” to prevent attacks and infringements on key national facilities. According to media reports, when Musk announced the “amnesty” of Twitter, Meta, the parent company of another American social platform Facebook, announced a list of banned accounts, among which a group of accounts were related to the US military. This shows that the purpose, method and characteristics of the United States in information warfare are undergoing major changes, from cyber defense and deterrence to the field of influencing and shaping cognition.

    In 1995, Colonel Szafranski of the US Army defined information warfare as a conflict that directly attacks information systems to attack the knowledge or concept fields of the opponent. Information warfare can be conducted as part of a larger, more comprehensive hostile activity (such as cyber warfare), or as the only form of hostility. In 2021, Field, an expert at the Hoover Institution in the United States, also made a similar definition: information warfare aims to convey information to the target audience, which is selected to influence emotions, motivations, reasoning, attitudes, understandings, beliefs or behaviors, thereby promoting the interests of the actors. This shows that there is a general consensus among American elites on the form and purpose of information warfare, that is, to influence the cognitive system of the target object in a variety of ways. Previously, although the United States mainly adopted network defense and attack to target the opponent’s network facilities, with the changes in the international environment and the comprehensive strength of the United States, the United States gradually shifted the operational field and goals of information warfare to the cognitive system of the target country to create an international environment more favorable to the United States.

    Information warfare is an important part of the U.S. national strategy and changes with strategic adjustments.

    Information warfare is an important part of the US national strategy and an important means to achieve its national strategic goals. Today is an information age. Information and information technology not only determine the direction of social change, but are also key factors affecting competition between countries. Countries adjust their national strategies based on changes in the external environment and their own strength, and the content, characteristics, methods and fields of information warfare will also change accordingly.

    In 2016, the Obama administration issued a cybersecurity strategy called the National Cybersecurity Action Plan, which mainly includes: innovation and protection of networks, prevention of cybercrime, strengthening cybersecurity education, enhancing international cooperation and strengthening government cybersecurity management. During this period, the US government’s information warfare mainly focused on preventing cyber attacks from opponents and protecting its own network facilities and security. In September 2018, the Trump administration also issued the National Cybersecurity Strategy, which also emphasized the protection of network facilities and ensuring network security. However, in this strategy, Trump proposed the concept of “forward defense”. When it is believed that there is a possibility of an attack, the United States will take the lead in attacking the opponent, which means that the US information warfare has shifted from defense to active offense. In March 2023, the Biden administration released the latest National Cybersecurity Strategy, which further emphasized the offensive posture and greatly expanded the scope of information warfare. In this strategy, five pillars are proposed. In addition to protecting critical infrastructure and establishing international partnerships, it also emphasizes the need to combat and destroy threat actors, expand the scope of information warfare, expand public-private cooperation, combat adversaries through cooperation between public and private sectors, and shape market forces to promote security and resilience. This shows that in information warfare, the United States will further infiltrate the private sector through various means, promote American ideology and rules through the market and investment, and restrict the development environment of its competitors.

    After the Biden administration came to power, the US national strategy has also added more targeted and offensive elements. In the 2021 National Security Strategic Guidance, it is proposed to build a global strategy around the long-term competition with China and Russia; strengthen the US presence and cooperation in the Pacific region, while strengthening cooperation with Asian allies and partners to deal with the so-called “China threat”. The 2022 National Security Strategy clearly proposes the implementation of an “integrated containment strategy”, requiring the comprehensive use of comprehensive national security tools, including military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, trade and financial means, to prevent any potential challenges to the United States and its allies. According to this strategy, information warfare is no longer just a function of defending against adversary cyber attacks and protecting domestic infrastructure. Information warfare occupies an important position in the “integrated containment strategy”. It not only undertakes the function of military strikes, but will also become an important tool for containing opponents in diplomacy, intelligence, economy and trade.

    The United States is comprehensively advancing information warfare with cognitive systems as its target

    Some scholars believe that the Gulf War was the beginning of information warfare, but as early as during the Cold War, the United States had conducted large-scale information warfare against the Soviet Union. The United States used the media it controlled to carry out extensive and in-depth false news propaganda on the Soviet people, instilling American ideology, and to a certain extent affecting the cognition of the Soviet people. After the end of the Cold War, American decision-makers are believed to have gradually reduced their emphasis on the non-material elements of war because they have defeated their ideological opponents. In the following decades, regarding information warfare, the United States is more inclined to frame these activities in a narrower military context. The “integrated containment strategy” proposed by the Biden administration shows that relying solely on a defense-oriented strategy may no longer be enough to limit competitors. The United States intends to contain its opponents in all areas of national strength, including diplomacy, economy, and information. This comprehensive containment approach focuses on mobilizing all elements of national power in competition other than military means. It requires not only the coordination of various important U.S. agencies, including the Department of Defense, the State Department, the CIA, the FBI, and the U.S. Agency for International Development, but also conventional military capabilities – focusing on destroying the target country and occupying its territory. It also requires the development of unconventional military capabilities – competing for influence and legitimacy among the people of various countries, enhancing the influence of the United States by influencing and changing the cognitive system of the people of the target country, and thereby undermining the opponent’s information environment and decision-making ability.

    The information market assumes that people will process information rationally, but psychological research shows that people often do not do so. Instead, the information environment in which people live affects their cognition, decision-making, and behavior, and the information environment is the operational environment of information warfare. In recent years, the U.S. Department of Defense has adopted an increasingly comprehensive understanding of the information environment. In the updated definition of the information environment, it points out that it “contains and aggregates many social, cultural, cognitive, technological, and physical attributes that affect the knowledge, understanding, beliefs, worldview, and ultimate actions of individuals, groups, systems, communities, or organizations.” Information warfare acts on the opponent’s information environment, by analyzing the opponent’s decision-making methods, psychological advantages and weaknesses, changing the information environment, and then affecting the “key factor” of the cognitive system, changing its national behavior to achieve the goal of winning.

    In the networked era, the transmission, aggregation and processing of information are mostly carried out through the network. The network constitutes the most important information environment, and the combat field of information warfare is also concentrated on the network. The United States not only uses its global media and cultural communication power to spread American culture and values ​​to the world through television, movies, music, games, etc., to strengthen its international influence and soft power. In addition, the US government and military also make extensive use of social media, search engines, artificial intelligence, the Internet and other information means, and through professional and systematic information operation agencies and cross-border cooperation between different agencies and departments, they carry out various forms of information warfare, such as posting political propaganda on social media, launching cyber attacks, conducting network monitoring and surveillance, and organizing network sabotage activities. It should be noted that social media is increasingly becoming an important medium for the United States to launch information warfare. This is because social media platforms can have a huge impact on a large number of people with their speed and breadth of information dissemination. At the same time, because people are irrational in cognition, large-scale simple repetition on social media has become a reliable way for people to believe in fallacies. The United States is deploying a large number of fake accounts on social media platforms to widely spread false information, manipulate information, incite emotions, create public opinion, mislead opponents’ decision-making behavior, and formulate and disseminate strategic narratives to prompt national behavior to change in a direction that is beneficial to the United States.

    Expanding the information warfare alliance and further constraining the environment for competitors

    In addition to adjusting the goals of information warfare, advancing it comprehensively in a variety of ways, and integrating domestic departments into unified actions, the U.S. government is also actively expanding its information warfare alliances by absorbing more countries to form a broad information warfare alliance, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of information warfare and further restricting the environment in which rival countries can operate.

    In Europe, the United States has been strengthening its cooperation with its NATO allies on information warfare. In November 2010, NATO updated the “Lisbon Strategic Concept”, emphasizing the need to more thoroughly respond to the rapidly evolving security challenges of the 21st century, including cyber attacks. The policy focuses not only on protecting NATO’s own networks, but also on establishing agreed benchmarks to protect the national networks of allies. The 2014 Wales Summit proposed a policy to strengthen cyber defense, making the cyber field one of its key political and strategic priorities, emphasizing the cooperation and unified action of member states, and linking the cyberspace with the collective defense of the alliance. At the 2016 Warsaw Summit, NATO recognized cyberspace as a new field of military operations. In February 2018, NATO member states established a cyber operations center within the NATO military command structure, which aims to strengthen the defense and response capabilities of NATO member states in cyberspace and improve the overall level of cyber security. These measures show that under the leadership of the United States, NATO has gradually established a strong cyber cooperation platform for information warfare. On the basis of this platform, the United States will implement information warfare more comprehensively and across fields. During the Ukrainian crisis, the United States and its allies used this platform to provide cyber defense for Ukraine and launch a large number of cyber attacks. They also used the Internet to spread various false information, distorting and shaping the country’s image that was unfavorable to Russia.

    In Asia, based on the existing military alliance, the United States has been deepening its security alliances to maintain its interests in the Indo-Pacific region, vigorously promoting the “four-country mechanism” consisting of the United States, Japan, India and Australia, deepening its relations with India, and striving to promote trilateral cooperation between the United States, Japan and South Korea, further promoting network rules that are beneficial to the United States and expanding the alliances led by the United States. This makes it easier for the United States to insert information operators in the networks of allied countries, spread information that is beneficial to the United States in multiple networks, and shape the information environment dominated by the United States to exclude and restrict competing countries in the information environment. At the same time, this transnational network is still expanding, and the United States’ network standards and norms are constantly being implemented in other countries, which has greatly helped the US government and military to infiltrate these networks and conduct information warfare. The United States has also actively engaged with ASEAN countries and their individual member states, including Indonesia, Singapore and Vietnam, and has achieved certain results in network expansion. Despite the differences in governance systems and technical capabilities among these countries, as well as competing domestic priorities, ASEAN has become the first region among developing countries to adopt a consistent e-commerce legal framework. They have adopted the cybersecurity framework of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the United States as a global common language to communicate with different industry sectors and other countries.

    In February 2022, the Biden administration issued a new Indo-Pacific Strategy, which is the first Indo-Pacific Strategy issued by the Biden administration and the second Indo-Pacific Strategy issued by the US government. The strategy proposes five major policy goals, including promoting freedom and openness, regional security and prosperity in the Indo-Pacific region, and also proposes an “integrated containment” strategy. For China, the Indo-Pacific Strategy points out that “our goal is not to change China, but to shape the strategic environment in which it operates.” Especially in such a media age, the transmission and release of information are more convenient, and we need to pay more attention to the importance of information warfare. In this regard, we may also need to grasp the psychological demands and emotional needs of the masses more accurately. Taking the latest report released by the National Virus Emergency Response Center and 360 Company as an example, it is particularly important for domestic government agencies, scientific research institutions, industrial enterprises and commercial institutions to quickly “see” and deal with the highly systematic, intelligent and concealed cyber attacks launched by the CIA against my country in the first place. The report recommends that in order to effectively respond to imminent network and real threats, while adopting independent and controllable domestic equipment, we should organize self-inspection and self-examination of APT attacks as soon as possible, and gradually establish a long-term defense system to achieve comprehensive and systematic prevention and control to resist advanced threat attacks.

    As the US information warfare continues to advance, the meaning of shaping the environment has become more prominent, that is, not only to contain China politically, economically and militarily, but also to “shape” China’s activity environment in terms of network and information. For China, facing the more complex and severe international situation under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukrainian crisis and the US’s continuously advancing information warfare strategy, it should make the following responses: First, strengthen network and information security construction to improve its own information security level and guard against attacks on network facilities and key infrastructure. Be vigilant against the spread of false information on the Internet and in the media, trace the source of the spread, and prevent the spread of information by large-scale false accounts and the conscious guidance of the public’s cognitive system. Secondly, continue to promote high-level reform and opening up, actively develop foreign trade, and further strengthen economic ties with countries around the world. This is the most effective strategy to prevent the US “integrated containment” and information warfare. Tell the Chinese story well in foreign exchanges, let the world know more about China, and promote mutual trust and cooperation with other countries through extensive exchanges and strengthening economic interdependence. Thirdly, adhere to economic development. Developing the economy is a necessary condition for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and is also a core task of the country. Through economic development, the world can also understand the Chinese plan and the Chinese road more clearly and vividly, and thus more effectively defend against false information and information distortion in information warfare. Finally, in terms of Sino-US relations, while maintaining the bottom line and preventing conflicts, China can also establish and restore exchanges and cooperation in certain important areas or important groups, increase and accumulate trust, and further expand cooperation to divide and ease the US integrated containment strategy.

    (The author is a professor at the Institute of Contemporary Socialism of Shandong University, a researcher at the Institute of National Governance of Shandong University, and a researcher at the Institute of South Asian Studies of Shandong University)


    ① Liu Boran and Wei Xiuming: “U.S. Cyber ​​Security Strategy: Development Process, Evolutionary Characteristics and Essence”, Journal of Liaoning University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), Issue 3, 2019.

    ②Huang Yingxin: “Information Warfare and Its Development”, “Intelligence Command Control System and Simulation Technology”, Issue 6, 2000.

    ③Lu Xinde: “On the Expansiveness of the US Information Security Strategy”, Contemporary Asia-Pacific, Issue 7, 2005.

    ④Liu Xiaoyuan and Pang Bo, “A Perspective on the Training of Information Warfare Talents in the US Military and Its Implications”, Journal of Higher Education Research, No. 3, 2005.

    ⑤[Japan] Kosawa Kunio and Jiang Xinfeng, translators: “IT Revolution and the Development of the U.S. and Japanese Navies”, International Outlook, No. 15, 2001.

    ⑥Wu Fei and Li Xuan: “The Role of the Media in the Information War between Russia and the United States under Geopolitical Game”, “External Communication”, Issue 6, 2022.

    ⑦Yang Guangbin et al.: “Characteristics of the Era of Turbulent Change”, “World Economy and Politics”, Issue 2, 2023.


《 人民論壇 》( 2023年10月09日 第 04 版)

【關鍵字】資訊戰 美國國家戰略 【中圖分類號】D815 【文獻標識碼】A






美軍上校沙弗蘭斯基(Szafranski)在1995年對資訊戰進行過界定,資訊戰是一種直接攻擊資訊系統以攻擊對手知識或觀念領域的衝突。資訊戰可以作為更大規模、更全面的敵對活動的組成部分(如網路戰),或作為唯一的敵對形式進行。 2021年,美國胡佛研究所專家菲爾德(Field)也做出了類似的定義:資訊戰旨在向目標受眾傳達訊息,這些訊息被挑選出來,以影響情感、動機、推理、態度、理解、信仰或行為,從而促進行動者的利益。這說明在美國菁英中對於資訊戰的形式和目的有大致一致的認識,即透過多種方式影響目標對象的認知系統。此前,美國雖然主要採用網路防禦和攻擊,有針對性地打擊對手的網路設施,但隨著國際環境和美國綜合實力的變化,美國逐步將資訊戰的作戰領域和目標轉移到對象國的認知系統,以營造更有利於美國的國際環境。



歐巴馬政府在2016年推出了名為《網路安全國家行動計畫》的網路安全策略,其主要內容包括:創新和保護網絡,預防網路犯罪,加強網路安全教育,增強國際合作與加強政府網路安全管理。在這段時期,美國政府在資訊戰上主要是防範對手的網路攻擊,保護自身的網路設施和安全。在2018年9月,川普政府也頒布了《國家網路安全戰略》,同樣強調對網路設施的防護,並確保網路安全。但在這份戰略中,川普提出了「向前防禦」的概念,當認為有可能遭遇到襲擊時,美國將率先攻擊對方,這意味著美國資訊戰由防禦轉向了主動進攻。 2023年3月,拜登政府公佈了最新的《國家網路安全戰略》,進一步強調了進攻的態勢,並大大擴展了資訊戰的範圍。在該戰略中,提出了5項支柱,除了保護關鍵基礎設施和建立國際夥伴關係外,還強調要打擊和摧毀威脅行為體,並且擴展資訊戰的範圍,擴大公私合作,透過公私部門間的合作來打擊敵手,並塑造市場力量以推動安全和彈性。這說明在資訊戰上美國將進一步透過各種方式滲透入私人領域,透過市場和投資宣揚美國的意識形態和規則,以限制競爭對手的發展環境。

拜登政府上台後,美國國家戰略中也加入了更多的針對性和攻擊性。在2021年的《國家安全戰略指導》中提出:圍繞與中國和俄羅斯的長期競爭,建構全球性戰略;強化美國在太平洋地區的存在和合作,同時加強與亞洲盟友和夥伴的合作,以應對所謂「中國的威脅」。 2022年的《國家安全戰略》更是明確提出實施“一體化遏制戰略”,要求綜合運用全面的國家安全工具,包括軍事、外交、情報、經濟、貿易和金融等手段,以防止對美國和其盟友的任何潛在挑戰。依照這個策略,資訊戰就不再只是發揮防禦對手網路攻擊和保護國內基礎設施的功能,資訊戰在「一體化遏制戰略」中佔據著重要的地位,不僅承擔著軍事打擊的功能,在外交、情報、經濟和貿易等方面也將成為遏制對手的重要工具。







在歐洲,美國不斷強化與其北約盟友在資訊戰上的合作。 2010年11月,北約更新了“里斯本戰略概念”,強調需要更徹底地應對快速發展的21世紀的安全挑戰,包括網路攻擊。該政策的重點不僅是保護北約自身的網絡,還包括建立商定的基準來保護盟國的國家網絡。 2014年的威爾斯高峰會提出了加強網路防禦的政策,將網路領域作為其關鍵的政治和戰略重點之一,強調成員國的合作與統一行動,把網路與聯盟的集體防禦聯繫起來。 2016年華沙峰會上,北約承認網路空間是軍事行動的新領域。 2018年2月,北約成員國在北約軍事指揮機構內設立了一個網路行動中心,該中心旨在加強北約成員國在網路空間的防禦和應變能力,並提升網路安全的整體水準。這些舉措顯示在美國主導下,北約在資訊戰上逐步建立起一個強大的網路合作平台。在這一平台的基礎上,美國將更為全面且跨領域地實施資訊戰。在烏克蘭危機中,美國及其盟友就利用這個平台,為烏克蘭提供網路防禦,並實施大量的網路攻擊,也利用網路散播各種虛假訊息,歪曲和塑造對俄羅斯不利的國家形象。















Chinese Military Emphasis of Dedicated Research on Cognitive Domain Operations



In today’s era, the world pattern and social form are evolving rapidly, intelligent technology and cutting-edge cross-cutting technologies are constantly making new breakthroughs, new developments and new applications, and the scope of human action is accelerating from the physical domain, information domain, and social domain to the cognitive domain. Recent local wars in the world have shown that the status of cognitive domain operations has been rapidly improving and its role has become increasingly prominent. It has become the trend of the times and the key fulcrum for shaping the situation in advance, effectively balancing and influencing wars.

Clarify the basic methods of cognitive domain operations

Cognition is the reflection of the objective world in the subjective world of human beings, mainly involving knowledge, experience, consciousness, emotion and psychology. The targets of cognitive domain operations are mainly people who are in the main position in the war, with the characteristics of low cost, high efficiency and strong concealment. Entering the 21st century, the development of advanced science and technology and the changes in social structure have made cognitive domain operations a new high ground for the game between major powers, and even a “shortcut” to defeat the enemy without fighting.

Strengthen cognitive effects through continuous action in the physical domain. Cognitive domain warfare has always been associated with social development and human warfare. Before the mechanized era, cognitive domain warfare was mainly carried out through violent destruction of the physical domain by military forces, coupled with the flexible use of military strategies, and taking advantage of military forces to seize decisive results, to continuously strengthen the cognitive domain warfare effect. For example, the comparison of the number of military forces of both sides, the vastness of the occupied territory, the scale of the resources controlled, the support of peripheral countries, and the acceptance of the risk of failure, etc., can indirectly achieve the result of changing the enemy’s cognition, reluctantly accepting failure, and being forced to compromise. In 1945, Japanese fascism was at the end of its rope, but it was still dreaming of resisting stubbornly until the Chinese military and civilians launched a full-scale counterattack, the United States used atomic bombs to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet army sent troops to Northeast China, forcing it to realize that defeat was inevitable and had to surrender unconditionally.

Using the interaction between the virtual and the real in the social domain to influence cognitive effects. War is the product of social development. In the information age, the rapid development of information networks has highlighted the role of the social domain. Cognitive domain warfare no longer emphasizes violent change of cognition, but pays more attention to the use of media platforms such as online media, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, and interviews to emotionally attract, anti-intellectual propaganda, corrupt and degenerate, and polarize various social groups. Collect the discordant factors in the emotional appeals, life needs, and value identification of typical social groups, and plan, step by step, and premeditatedly in the fields of politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, society, and culture, through the methods of continuously detonating topics, intensifying contradictions, adding fuel to the fire, continuing fermentation, and creating divisions, ultimately causing social unrest and even overthrowing the national regime. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, the upheaval in Eastern Europe, and the “color revolutions” in many parts of the world since the 1990s all have this shadow.

Targeting the cognitive domain to directly intervene in cognitive results. The way humans understand the world will transform the objective world in the same way, which is exactly the point of action of cognitive domain operations. Entering the intelligent era, breakthroughs have been made in cutting-edge fields such as biological intersection and brain control, and intelligent technologies such as advanced algorithms and brain-computer interfaces have been continuously upgraded. Advanced technologies such as big data and cloud computing have been rapidly developed and applied. Cognitive domain operations in the intelligent era pay more attention to the role of intelligent technology. Through the deep interaction between real life and the virtual world of the Internet, the information collected and obtained is richer, the data is more complete, and the elements are more complete. Cognitive domain operations can already bypass the traditional physical domain and social domain based on the widely distributed intelligent information network, the surrounding visible intelligent terminals and the colorful intelligent applications, break through the tangible blockade restrictions of the other party, and directly implement the “downward strike” of the cognitive domain on the core circle, elite class and the general public of the predetermined target through targeted and precise push.

Clarify the mechanism of cognitive domain operations

Entering the era of intelligence, human thinking has become a new direction for war planning and a new field for war games. Its essence is to face the spiritual level of the combat target, and to list human will, belief, thinking, psychology, etc. as combat targets. By maintaining one’s own cognitive advantage and attacking the enemy’s cognitive disadvantage, the cognitive domain attack and defense confrontation is carried out. The specific action mechanism also presents the characteristics of multi-domain action and mixed superposition.

Implement value standard penetration. Values ​​are the principle standards for people to distinguish right from wrong and good from bad. They are at the core of generating motivations for personnel behavior, play a leading role in driving group behavior patterns, and are the key to seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations are mainly based on network psychology and cybernetics to identify and predict human group behavior and individual activities, and then create more accurate specific group interaction concepts. On this basis, targeting the opponent’s value orientation, using the opponent’s cultural language, and comprehensively using strong media, social networks, and intelligent technologies, deliberately weave “information cocoons”, malicious narrative editing hints, mobilize the emotions of the target group, advocate minority extreme orientations, induce value deviations, kidnap and manipulate public opinion, and ultimately make cognitive domain operations effective. The foundation of the opponent’s belief, the destination of the soul, and the spiritual home. In recent local conflicts, the United States and Western countries have launched cognitive domain operations through narrative fabrication, script arrangement, and rhetoric manipulation, attempting to cause oppressive pressure on the opponent in multiple fields at all times, and many countries who are unaware of the situation have been dragged into it unknowingly.

Creating psychological and emotional internal friction. Psychological fluctuations and emotional changes are natural biological attributes of human beings, and are also the breakthrough points for cognitive domain operations to strike, weaken, and disintegrate the enemy’s will to fight. Cognitive domain operations are based on the basic principles of psychology, neurology, and brain science, emphasizing the use of human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, suspicion, and doubt, and are carried out or implemented simultaneously at the strategic, campaign, and tactical levels. Cognitive domain operations mainly use deep fakes, scene posing, and algorithm recommendations to fabricate remarks on mainstream social platforms to discredit opponents. Foreign armies have used Internet celebrities, virtual accounts, and zombie armies to confuse cognition, disrupt public opinion, and deviate from the rhythm. By creating insecurity and exaggerating uncertainty within the enemy, group conflicts are intensified; by creating internal rifts, unity and harmony are destroyed; by amplifying distrust and increasing decision-making doubts, internal fighting and internal friction are increased. Ultimately, based on the traceless implantation, seamless connection, invisible operation, and senseless substitution of psychological emotions, “winning without fighting” is achieved.

Conduct human consciousness guidance and control. The integrated development of cognitive science and advanced technology has prompted cognitive domain operations to develop in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence and cognitive intelligence, with stronger penetration and deeper influence. Major breakthroughs have been made in technologies such as multimodal emotion recognition, activation and protection based on big data. After mining and analyzing information data, the cognitive state of social groups can be seen at a glance, and the mental portrait of target personnel can be detailed. Based on efficient and flexible cognitive scenarios, subtle emotional associations and tendency intervention of brain-computer interfaces, cognitive domain operations can unconsciously influence and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Intelligent cognitive weapon systems can effectively limit the enemy’s acquisition of useful information, induce the enemy to use erroneous data, reduce the speed of command decision-making, interfere with the operation of cognitive modes, and block correct cognitive output. Reports show that NATO, led by the United States, is actively promoting the weaponization of brain science and cognitive science research results, and is attempting to achieve cognitive control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

Build a strong confrontation system for cognitive domain operations

The local war practices in recent years have shown that military force and technological advantages alone cannot completely determine the outcome of a war, and cognitive domain operations have an increasingly significant impact on the course of a war. They can not only trigger the start of a war, direct the continuation of a war, but also affect the end of a war. Therefore, it is particularly necessary to build a strong and resilient cognitive domain combat confrontation system.

Smooth the command and control mechanism of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations involve a wide range of fields and cover a lot of content. They require a combination of long-term preparation and short-term promotion, strengthening construction and preemptive preparation. Establish a firm overall national security concept, formulate an overall strategy for coping with cognitive domain operations, take the initiative to break the situation and shape the momentum, participate in global governance, strengthen China’s voice, and purify the public opinion environment. Overall consideration of the establishment of command organizations, integration of command nodes in different strategic directions, opening up multi-domain command and control links, improving cross-domain command processes, and flexible multi-domain integration guidance and control methods. Overall design of a multi-domain and cross-departmental collaboration framework, combined with national security situation analysis, regularly promote the operation of the collaboration mechanism. Sort out the list of responsibilities of each command level, draw clear functional boundaries in each field, and clarify cross-domain collaboration matters, operating procedures and standard requirements. Establish a cognitive early warning mechanism, divide combat intensity, organize virtual exercises and multi-level confrontations, and improve the ability to deal with cognitive domain threats.

Integrate the elements and forces of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations have both the threat of “gray rhinos” and the variables of “black swans”, so it is necessary to strengthen prevention and forge strong forces. Combine the design of the cognitive domain combat command system and provide multi-domain counterattack forces. Strengthen the response forces in traditional fields, expand the scope of functional business, and deepen the selection and training of professional talents. Develop new counterattack forces and integrate advantageous resources in emerging fields such as social media, psychological cognition, and intelligent unmanned. Activate civilian forces and international high-quality resources to create a cross-domain crisis response team and counterattack force cluster with systematic support, complete elements, and superb professional skills. Combine confrontation exercises and social practices, invest new forces, integrate new technologies, and add new means to strengthen the evaluation and inspection of containment and countermeasures.

Strengthen the basic engineering of cognitive domain operations. As the research and practice of cognitive domain operations continue to deepen, many new technologies and new theories will inevitably emerge, which need to be closely tracked and followed. Strengthen the research on global hot spots, pay attention to the changes in the gray area, and keep abreast of the latest developments in foreign cognitive domain operations and the latest trends in force deployment. Strengthen the analysis of war cases and explore new factors and elements of cognitive domain operations. Organize special topics to gather wisdom and analyze new mechanisms and laws of cognitive domain operations. Analyze the strategies and means of opponents, track and grasp their strategic adjustments and focus, and carry out counter-strategies and response research by level and field. Analyze the new means, technologies and practices of opponents using social media, international organizations and agents to carry out cognitive domain operations, so as to prevent and foresee in advance.


引 言




透過物理域持續作用強化認知效果。一直以來,認知域作戰就與社會發展和人類戰爭相生相伴。機械化時代以前,受社會形態和溝通方式等限制,認知域作戰主要透過軍事力量在物理域的暴力破壞,再加上軍事謀略的靈活運用,並藉勢軍事力量奪取決定性戰果,來持續強化認知域作戰效果。例如,雙方軍事力量的數量對比、佔領疆域的廣闊程度、掌控資源的規模體量、外圍國家的支持力度和失敗風險的接受程度等,從而間接達成改變敵方認知、無奈接受失敗和被迫作出妥協的結果。 1945年,日本法西斯已經窮途末路,卻還在妄想負隅頑抗,直到中國軍民發動全面反攻和美國動用原子彈轟炸廣島、長崎以及蘇軍出兵中國東北,迫使其認識到敗局已定,不得不無條件投降。

借助社會域虛實互動影響認知效果。戰爭是社會發展的產物。在資訊化時代,資訊網絡的快速發展促使社會域的角色得以凸顯。認知域作戰不再強調暴力改變認知,而是更重視利用網路媒體、廣播電視、報紙雜誌和訪談交流等介質平台,來對各類社會群體進行情感拉攏、反智宣傳、腐蝕墮化和分化渲染。蒐集典型社會群體的情感訴求、生活需求和價值認同等方面的不和諧因素,有策劃、有步驟、有預謀地在政治、經濟、外交、金融、社會、文化等領域,透過連貫引爆話題、激化矛盾、拱火澆油、持續發酵和製造撕裂等方式,最終引發社會動盪,甚至傾覆國家政權。 1990年代以來的蘇聯解體、東歐劇變以及世界多地的「顏色革命」等,都有這方面的影子。













Chinese People’s Liberation Army Analysis of How Their Military Implements Strategic & Tactical Warfare



To implement the general principle of “the CMC is in overall control, the theater commands are responsible for combat, and the services are responsible for construction,” the services need to accurately grasp the interaction between combat and construction, strengthen coordination with the theater commands, and form a work pattern with clear rights and responsibilities, positive interaction, smooth and efficient operations. They should focus their main tasks, main responsibilities, and main energy on building and managing the troops. They should always adhere to the principles of leading construction in accordance with combat, building for combat, managing for combat, and using construction to promote combat, comprehensively improve the level of practical military training, and provide theater commands with high-quality combat forces.

Get the coordinates of building for war

The coordinates are the direction of the times for building for war. Only when the direction is clear can the construction be accelerated according to the track. Entering the new era, the firepower intensity, mobility speed, strike accuracy and intelligence level of weapons and equipment have greatly increased, the battlefield space has been continuously expanded, the coupling of combat operations has become closer, and the battlefield situation has changed more rapidly. Wars have gradually shown the characteristics of platform combat, system support, tactical operations, and strategic guarantees. In particular, the use of intelligent, stealth, and unmanned combat, as well as aerospace forces, new concept weapons, and highly effective destructive ammunition have fundamentally changed the concept of war time and space. The war form has accelerated the evolution from mechanized informationization to informationization and intelligence, and intelligent warfare has begun to emerge. The main construction of the military service should be the combat effectiveness of informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, rather than the combat effectiveness of mechanized warfare. The military service should focus on informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, turn its attention to intelligent military transformation, fully imagine the future war form, scale, intensity, spatial region, etc., and use concepts that transcend the times to lead the construction vision forward and forward; it is necessary to deeply study the victory mechanism, scientifically judge, and build what kind of troops are needed to win future wars, so as to be targeted.

Find the right target for construction

The target is not only a beacon of construction and development, but also a scale to test combat effectiveness. Only by setting up the correct target can the military build for war and guide the innovation and development of weapons and equipment, system organization and combat theory without deformation or distortion. The military builds for war, and the enemy is not an ordinary opponent, but a strong enemy in the world military game. This requires the military to build for war, and it must lock on the strong enemy, insist on focusing all its attention on defeating the strong enemy, and work hard to defeat the strong enemy. Closely aiming at the world’s first-class standards, the focus should be on firmly grasping the characteristics of future combat systems and system confrontations, exploring standardized and modular construction issues, and forming an integrated and linked system combat capability; focusing on the requirements of all-domain operations, focusing on tackling realistic issues such as rapid response, long-range delivery, and integrated support, and building a strong rapid and mobile cross-domain action capability. We must seize the key of balancing strong enemies, strengthen targeted research on strong enemies, focus on building what the enemy fears, and develop more things that can balance strong enemies. We must strive to have a chance of winning in battles, bargaining chips in negotiations, and confidence in deterrence. We must focus on solving bottleneck problems such as the construction of new forces of the military, the use of high-tech equipment, and information and intelligent integration, and comprehensively build a world-class military.

Innovation and construction as the forerunner of the war

Theory is the forerunner of practice, and scientific military theory is combat effectiveness. Whoever can grasp the pulse of future war development and possess superb war design capabilities will win the initiative in war and even the final victory. The military should build for war, and it cannot just go wherever it wants. It should put research and construction in a strategic position, carry out forward-looking, targeted, and reserve innovative research, propose new concepts, find new breakthroughs, and form innovative theories that are contemporary, leading, and unique. The military should build for war, and it must focus on the current practice and future development of war, clarify the vertical evolution axis, focus on shaping the future battlefield and changing the research of future combat rules, and promote the reshaping of concepts and the reconstruction of systems as soon as possible; focus on cutting-edge technology and future intelligent war design, and make great efforts to achieve major breakthroughs in new technologies and new forms of war; focus on continuously promoting the development of new concepts such as combat thinking, action style, and capability requirements, and form forward-looking thinking on future combat operations. At the same time, the new theories and concepts should be systematized and concretized, and become a “roadmap” for planning and designing the construction of force systems, the development of weapons and equipment, the transformation of military training, and the training of combat talents. It is necessary to form a closed loop from practice to theory and then from theory to practice, allow military theoretical research to draw rich nutrients from practice, allow advanced and mature theoretical results to enter the military decision-making and practical links, and achieve a virtuous interaction between theory and practice.

Build a hard core of construction for war

Science and technology are the most revolutionary force. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race against time and speed. If you don’t work hard to innovate, you will fall behind and be beaten. If you innovate slowly, you will also fall behind and be beaten. Today, scientific and technological innovation has become the core strategy for many countries and militaries to seek advantages. The military must pay close attention to the leading role of science and technology in building for war. By integrating the most cutting-edge and even imagined future science and technology into the overall construction plan, it will lead the basic direction of construction and development, and actively explore the scientific and technological innovation path of using the future army to fight a future war with the future enemy; it must implement the strategy of strengthening the military with science and technology, demand combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, vigorously cultivate new scientific and technological growth points, and strive to increase the contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to the development of the combat effectiveness of the military; it must face the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the main battlefields of the future, and the major needs of combat, accelerate the pace of innovation, and plan and demonstrate that one item must be launched, especially to let disruptive technology run ahead, strive to run faster, and win new advantages. Obviously, talent is the key to building a hard core for war. Talent is the most difficult preparation. Whoever has more high-quality new military talents will be able to gain or gain more winning opportunities on the battlefield in the future. We must accurately grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the requirements for military transformation and construction, so as to train the talents needed for war and prioritize the talents that are most in short supply, so that the supply side of talent training can be accurately matched with the demand side of future battlefields.

Laying a solid foundation for building for war

Fighting is hard-hitting, while training is practical. The root of “war” lies in “construction”, and the foundation of “construction” lies in “training”. Military training, as the regular and central work of the troops, is not only the basic way to generate and improve combat effectiveness, but also the most direct preparation for military struggle. In the new era, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence, the mission and tasks of the army are constantly expanding, the level of informationization and intelligence of weapons and equipment is gradually improving, and the conditions for training support are gradually improving. It is urgent for the services to comprehensively upgrade their combat capabilities from considering the interaction of multiple fields such as the form of war, combat methods, weapons and equipment, and personnel quality, to analyzing the influence of many factors such as known and unknown, possible and impossible, and possible and impossible. To build for war, we must focus on training against strong enemies, practice reconnaissance, coordination, equipment, and support around the progress of the real enemy situation, practice strong force deployment, practice fast battlefield construction, practice real equipment data, and practice strong support support; we must aim at the latest enemy situation in multiple fields such as land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, and carry out real, difficult, strict, and practical full-element training in the re-enactment of the scene, “fight” with strong enemies, and let the troops hone their skills and strengthen their strength in the real confrontation; we must pursue extreme training, constantly impact the limits of people and equipment, so that the physiological and psychological limits of officers and soldiers, the performance limits of equipment, and the combat effectiveness limits of the combination of people and weapons can be fully exerted. Only by using “forced to the extreme, difficult to the extreme” training to present all shortcomings and weaknesses and overcome them can we cope with the most brutal battlefield. Some tactics and methods trained beyond the limit are often the key move and fatal blow to defeat the enemy in actual combat.

Do a good job in coupling construction with combat

The fundamental purpose of war and construction is to be able to fight and win. We must accelerate the realization of functional coupling under the new system and work together to accelerate the generation of combat effectiveness. To build an army that adapts to future combat needs is to build troops that can complete future combat tasks and have corresponding combat capabilities. Combat requirements are the specific embodiment of such task requirements and capabilities. Construction for war should be based on the needs of fulfilling missions and tasks, and should be designed in advance for future combat military needs. Military needs should be used to guide various military constructions, and combat needs should be continuously refined and dynamically adjusted to promote the coupling of war and construction. By strengthening the demonstration and research of future combat needs and making good top-level planning, we can grasp the direction and focus of military construction in general, consider the comprehensive development of military weapons and equipment and personnel quality from a strategic height and long-term development, clarify the focus, insist on doing what we should do and not doing what we should not do, concentrate on developing strategic and key projects, give priority to emergency operations, correctly handle the primary and secondary, urgent and slow, light and heavy aspects of military construction, firmly grasp the main and key aspects, and promote coordinated and coordinated military construction, scientific and reasonable, standardized and orderly, and sustainable development. Scientific combat effectiveness assessment can not only scientifically and specifically understand the composition and strength of one’s own combat effectiveness, but also help to take targeted measures to promote the coupling of construction and combat, timely discover and correct deficiencies in construction, truly realize the scientific development, intensive and efficient development of the army, and promote combat effectiveness construction to a higher level.

Strictly grasp the test of building for war

Whether a unit is well built and has the ability to win a battle must ultimately be tested through military practice. After a comprehensive test of military practice, problems in unit construction will inevitably be exposed, thereby promoting the army to make corresponding adjustments in the content, focus and direction of construction. Through repeated tests of military practice, new requirements and new goals are constantly put forward for unit construction, thereby leading the development of unit construction to a higher stage. Make good use of network simulation confrontation test. The informatization and intelligence of network simulation confrontation make the cognition, decision-making, feedback, correction, and action of simulation confrontation more close to actual combat, revolutionize the process of military activities, and then have a positive effect on weapons and equipment, command and control, force organization and other fields, thereby promoting the continuous leap in the combat effectiveness of the troops, and even giving birth to new war styles and changing the mechanism of winning wars. Make good use of on-site live-fire exercises. As a pre-practice of future wars, live-fire exercises can not only effectively test the actual combat capabilities of the troops, but more importantly, they can discover some weak links in the construction of the troops, optimize and improve them in a targeted manner, and obtain the maximum combat effectiveness return. Make good use of war practice tests. The leading role of war practice in unit construction is irreplaceable. The harsh practice of war can truly test which troop construction is suitable and which is unsuitable for future wars, and then correct deviations and mistakes in many aspects such as construction guidance, construction focus, and construction methods, so as to prepare for winning the next war.












打仗硬碰硬,訓練實打實。 「戰」的根本在於「建」,「建」的基礎在於「練」。軍事訓練作為部隊的經常性中心工作,既是產生和提高戰鬥力的基本途徑,也是最直接的軍事鬥爭準備。新時代,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化發展,軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,武器裝備資訊化智能化水準逐步提高,訓練保障條件逐步改善,迫切需要軍種部隊從考慮戰爭形態、作戰方法、武器裝備、人員素質等多個領域的相互作用,到分析已知與未知、可能與不可能、可為與不可為等諸多因素的影響,全面升級實戰能力。抓建為戰,必須聚焦強敵練兵,圍繞真實敵情的進展,練偵察、練協同、練裝備、練保障,練實力量布勢、練快戰場建設、練真裝備數據、練強保障支撐;必須瞄準陸海空及太空、網路空間等多領域最新敵情,在情景重現中開展真、難、嚴、實的全要素訓練,與強敵“過招”,讓部隊在真刀真槍對抗中礪功、強實力;必須追求極限訓練,不斷向人和裝備極限衝擊,使官兵的生理心理極限、裝備的性能極限、人與武器結合的戰鬥力極限全面迸發。唯有用「逼到絕境、難到極致」的訓練呈現所有短板弱項,並加以克服,才能應付最殘酷的戰場。一些超越極限訓出的戰術戰法,往往是實戰中勝敵的關鍵一招、致命一擊。






資料來源:解放軍報 作者:王雪平  許炎 朱曉萌 責任編輯:

喬楠楠 2020-09-17 08:38:16

Chinese Military Brief Analysis of Basic Essences of Cognitive Domain Warfare


中国军网 国防部网 2022年9月8日 星期四


The central task is to attack and defend values. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards used by people to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive elements and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of values ​​is a prerequisite for winning cognitive warfare. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often use their advantages in cyberspace to adopt technical means and cultural infiltration to forcibly export values, gradually erode values ​​through the interaction between virtual space and real space, and distort values ​​through the combination of coaxing and corruption, so as to achieve infiltration and erosion of the thinking, cognition, and value orientation of personnel in hostile countries. To seize the dominant position in cognitive warfare, it is necessary to thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuit, get close to the opponent’s cultural language system, and determine the opponent’s political beliefs and interests, so that the effectiveness of cognitive warfare can directly reach the foundation of the opponent’s beliefs and the anchor of the soul. At the same time, it is necessary to scientifically explain and disseminate the connotation and essence of one’s own excellent values, and guide their transformation with excellent values ​​and the excellent achievements of human civilization.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and recognition of the war form, especially the focus issue, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with the “war of attrition” centered on annihilating the enemy’s main force and the “mobile war” centered on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain warfare takes the human brain as the main combat space, focuses on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight, and takes human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as breakthroughs. It focuses on soft kill means to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increase its internal struggles and internal consumption, and decision-making doubts, so as to achieve the goal of “winning without fighting”. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded the combat field to the sixth level, the “human field”, to compete for brain control, weaponize brain science, and launch offensive and defensive actions on cognitive elements such as beliefs, thinking methods, spiritual will, attitudes, and behavioral tendencies of the target object. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive science research results, the United States is attempting to achieve the goal of psychological control over the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize the control of intelligence. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intelligence will become a new type of battlefield control that is growing rapidly and has a greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligence advantage is the dominant factor in winning, and intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force. Seizing “intelligence control” will become a new commanding height for war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have some human intelligence characteristics, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. With cognitive loops as the goal, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, force the enemy to use wrong information, delay cognitive speed, induce cognitive patterns, and block cognitive output, it can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making, disintegrate its military morale, and achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if the cognitive advantage is lost, even if there is information advantage and energy advantage, the overall combat effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the disharmony between man and machine and the failure of autonomous decision-making.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important way. Cognitive domain warfare is essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation is mainly manifested in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win the public’s cognitive field competition. Public opinion warfare focuses on changing concepts, winning people’s hearts, and paying more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of the ever-evolving social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade and restrictions of opponents and reach the inside of the target group. In recent years, the status of public opinion attack and defense has become increasingly prominent in the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech, etc., and has attracted widespread attention. Public opinion warfare can portray a positive image of oneself, while demonizing the target country, etc., to win international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, under the manipulation of “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, woven absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, and pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field, bringing severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perceptual recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat targets. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it uses tendency information to build efficient and flexible cognitive scenarios, make tendency interventions, and then unconsciously influence and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the combination of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. It can realize mind control, i.e. brain control, externally, and autonomy enhancement, i.e. strong brain, internally, and can realize the direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in related technical means such as multimodal emotion recognition, activation, and protection based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional associations are established to identify people’s emotions and intentions, providing new means for conducting cognitive control warfare. Therefore, the new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a combination of above-threshold indoctrination and below-threshold penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.









Chinese Military Focuses On Information Networks as Emphasis to Winning the Cognitive War



In today’s era of integrated development of informatization and intelligence, information networks will play an irreplaceable and important role in cognitive warfare with their advantages of deep reach, wide audience, and strong interactivity. With the blessing of information networks, cognitive warfare will be even more powerful and at ease. A deep understanding of the mechanisms, basic forms, methods and means of information networks’ role in cognitive warfare will help to timely grasp the initiative in cognitive warfare and lay the foundation for victory.

The Mechanism and Law of Information Network Cognitive Warfare

The essence of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks is to provide massive amounts of information through core algorithms, create biased cognitive scenarios, and influence the thinking and cognition of people and intelligent machines. This process integrates the operating rules of information networks and the internal mechanisms of thinking and cognition, has strong predictability, and is the underlying architecture and key point that must be grasped in information network cognitive warfare.

Sticky effects based on path dependence. The highly developed information network in today’s society provides an inseparable platform for people to study, work, live, and entertain, as well as for military construction, operations, and military struggle preparations, forming an interconnected path dependence between them. With information as the core and the Internet as the medium, this platform connects different groups of people, societies, countries, including the military, through invisible stickiness. It not only opens up the entire world into a closely connected global village, but also objectively provides a basis for carrying out cognitive operations. , influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, and provide a bridge and link to win the cognitive war. In 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton delivered an “Internet Freedom” speech, advocating the “Internet Freedom” strategy in an attempt to use the channel formed by people’s high dependence on the Internet to influence the thinking and cognition of people in rival countries, especially the younger generation, and spread American values. .

Interactive influence based on information exchange. Education believes that interactive communication can effectively overcome the cognitive barriers formed by one-way information transmission, reach consensus, form empathy, and strengthen empathy through information exchange, emotional integration, and mutual promotion of needs. A big difference between information networks and traditional communication media is that they provide a carrier that can interact and communicate on a large scale, at a fast pace, and with high efficiency. In this carrier, the information-dominant party can repeatedly confirm the influence, adjust methods and strategies, and intervene in the thinking and cognition of the other party through the interactive mechanism provided by the carrier based on the other party’s ideological fluctuations, emotional changes, attitude feedback, etc. For a long time, the United States has maintained a “engagement + containment” strategy toward China. One of the important considerations is that this kind of contact can effectively overcome the communication barriers and information gaps formed by simple blockade and confrontation, enhance the interaction between the two governments and the people, and thus find opportunities to open gaps and influence our ideas and ideologies. Although this strategy occurs in the traditional field, it is inherently consistent with the interactive influence mechanism of information networks based on information exchange.

Induced influence based on preset scenarios. The concealment, virtuality and permeability of information networks enable their controllers to create highly deceptive, tempting and inflammatory information scenarios through technical and strategic means such as water army flooding, information filtering and “fishing in troubled waters”, so that the opponent is deeply trapped in it without knowing it, but develops towards the preset process and results. This directional manipulation of information networks can subtly and efficiently influence, infect and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition, so that they are unconsciously led by the rhythm, and achieve a much better combat effect than confrontation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US media spread false information such as the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq through the Internet and other platforms, accusing the Saddam regime of collusion with al-Qaeda, corruption, and unprovoked killing of the Iraqi people. At the same time, they tried every means to cover up the truth, filter out the anti-war voices of their own people, and strive to create an atmosphere that the Saddam regime is evil and hateful and the whole United States is united against the enemy.

The basic form of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks

The laws of war and the winning mechanism determine the basic shape of war. The regular mechanism of information network’s role in cognitive warfare inherently determines the external form of this kind of war. The most basic and representative ones include information confusion warfare, thinking misleading warfare and will-destroying warfare.

Information confusion war. It is to infuse the network with a large amount of complex information that combines reality and reality, and is both real and illusory, causing the enemy’s information network capacity to be overloaded, dysfunctional, and out of order, or causing specific audiences to become “deaf, blind, and insensible,” causing cognitive congestion and cognitive impairment. and impaired decision-making and judgment. This form of war is often used in the early stages of combat and on opaque battlefields. The party with information superiority can cause the enemy to fall into a state of confusion and panic, resulting in loss of perception, loss of thinking, and confusion. According to Bloomberg, the Space Force, the newly established sixth military branch of the United States, plans to purchase 48 jamming systems by 2027, aiming to interfere with satellite signals of major powers “in the event of conflict.” The military forces of many countries generally feel that the information they obtain now is not too little but too much. The huge amount of information coming from all directions has caused huge pressure on situational awareness and analysis and judgment.

War of misleading thinking. It is to form a tendentious information scene by instilling specific information containing the intention of the information network controller, misleading, deceiving and influencing the thinking and ideas of specific countries, armies and people, causing them to deviate from the correct development track and move in a direction that is beneficial to oneself and harmful to the enemy. The direction deviation is the highest state and common practice of cognitive attack. This kind of misdirection is premised on strong external pressure, based on specious strategies, and uses mixed information as a weapon. It targets the opponent’s thinking characteristics and weak links to implement clearly oriented deception, causing the opponent to lose its way in tension and panic. Unknowingly fell into the “trap”. In recent years, while implementing the strategy of great power competition, some countries have used online trolls to fabricate false information, create false information, and spread true rumors to stir up trouble around our country and instigate some countries that have had grievances with our country in history and friction in reality. The purpose of provoking quarrels and provoking troubles is to induce us to divert our attention, weaken the investment of resources and strength in the main strategic directions, deviate from the track of rejuvenation of a strong country, and seek to reap the benefits of the fishermen.

Will-destroying war. Futurist Alfred Toffler said that whoever controls the human mind controls the entire world. War is ultimately a confrontation between people. People’s psychological activities greatly affect their mental state, which in turn affects their will to fight. Will-destroying war is different from traditional warfare that indirectly affects people’s will through material destruction. It directly affects the psychological activities, mental state and thinking decisions of key figures, affecting military morale, fighting will and combat operations. With the development of science and technology and social progress, the intervention in people’s will has evolved from the traditional strategy-based intervention to the “technology + strategy” stage. More than ten years ago, scientists developed a “sound wave cluster” weapon that emits extremely narrow sound wave “sound columns” from hundreds of meters away through an electromagnetic network, interfering with the enemy’s judgment and even causing strong-willed soldiers to become insane. In recent years, studies have shown that artificial speech synthesis technology based on brain wave signals can extract signals from the brain and synthesize speech that humans can directly understand.

Information network plays a major role in cognitive warfare

“Technology + strategy” constitutes the basic means of modern cognitive warfare. As a product of the development of modern science and technology, the information network’s role in cognitive warfare is mainly reflected in “technology + strategy”. This provides a basic entry point for us to understand and grasp the methods and scientific paths of the role of information networks in cognitive warfare, so as to win the war.

Big data shaping. As the core component of information networks, data is not only the carrier of information, but also the “new oil” that drives the value of information networks, and is the basic ammunition for cognitive warfare. By constructing complex information scenarios for my own use through massive data, it can confuse the opponent’s thinking, mislead and deceive the opponent’s thinking, or destroy belief and will, which constitutes the basic logic of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks. In this logical architecture, data is undoubtedly the most basic resource and the core element. A few years ago, authoritative departments calculated that the world produces about 2.5 exabytes (EB) of data every day, of which only 20% is structured data that can be directly utilized, and the remaining 80% needs to be analyzed, screened, and screened. These geometrically growing data resources provide inexhaustible “data ammunition” for shaping data information scenarios and implementing cognitive warfare.

Intelligent push. In the information network era, intelligent push has become a convenient channel for people to absorb external information, gain thinking recognition, emotional resonance, and influence others’ thinking cognition. Using advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence to collect, organize, and analyze people’s thinking inertia and behavioral preference data, forming anthropomorphic customized perception push, can produce an “echo wall” of social cognitive convergence and an information cocoon that shackles people. At the same time, it is also conducive to empathizing with others, understanding the opponent’s thinking trends and possible actions, and taking targeted countermeasures. In life, we all have the experience of a large amount of similar information being pushed in after shopping online or searching for a certain type of information once or several times. This intelligent push method is applied to cognitive operations, which can easily enable the information leader to use information network data to make forward-looking analysis and judgment on the decisions and actions that the command and decision-making level of the combat target may make, and induce them to make the decision actions they want to see or make corresponding countermeasures in advance.

Emotionally imbued. Freud said that we are not pure intelligence, pure soul, but a collection of impulses. In the information network space, conceptual cognition that can be widely and rapidly spread is often not a calm, rational and objective thinking analysis, but mostly impulsive and irrational emotional mobilization. This is determined by the fast pace of information dissemination and news release “pre-emptively”. The cognitive need to respond quickly to this information, in turn, leads to “fast thinking” conditioned reflexes, impulsive, and emotional reactions, transforming seemingly isolated social cases into strongly oppressive, inciting psychological suggestions and Behavior-driven, explosive behavior prompts irrational decision-making. A diplomatic cable disclosed by WikiLeaks in June 2009 described an extravagant banquet for the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and described the regime as a “mafia” of corruption and tyranny, which deepened the resentment of the country’s citizens. Emotions thus became an important driver of the “Jasmine Revolution” that overthrew Ben Ali’s regime.





基於路徑依賴的粘性影響。當今社會高度發展的資訊網絡,提供了一個人們學習、工作、生活、娛樂,軍隊建設、作戰和軍事鬥爭準備須臾離不開的平台,在彼此之間形成一個互聯互通的路徑依賴。這個平台以資訊為核子、網路為媒,透過無形的黏性把不同人群、社會、國家包括軍隊連結在一起,既將整個世界打通成一個緊密聯繫的地球村,客觀上也為開展認知作戰、影響對手思維認知、制勝認知戰爭提供了橋樑和紐帶。 2009年美國國務卿希拉蕊曾發表「網路自由」演說,鼓吹「網路自由」策略,企圖利用人們對網路的高度依賴形成的作用通道,影響對手國民眾特別是青年世代的思維認知,傳播美式價值觀。












情緒浸染。佛洛伊德說,我們不是純粹的智慧、純粹的靈魂,而是衝動的集合。在資訊網路空間,能夠得到廣泛且快速傳播的觀念認知,往往不是冷靜理性客觀的思考分析,多是衝動非理性的情緒情緒動員。這是由資訊傳播、新聞發布「先發制人」的快節奏決定的。對這些資訊做出快速反應的認知需求,反過來又導致「快速思維」條件反射性、衝動性、情緒化反應,將看似孤立的社會個案轉化為具有強烈壓迫性、煽動性的心理暗示和行為驅動,暴發性催生非理性決策行動。 2009年6月維基解密披露的一份外交電文中,描繪了突尼斯本·阿里政權家族宴會的奢靡場景,並煞有介事地將該政權形容為腐敗暴政的“黑手黨”,這加深了該國國民怨恨情緒,因而成為引燃推翻本·阿里政權的「茉莉花革命」重要推手。


Chinese Cognitive Warfare: Penetrating Quasi-cognitive Domains and Affects on Rules of Multi-domain Operations



From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of land, sea, air, and space; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all of which are related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain on the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion and other levels of both the enemy and ourselves, which will be rapid, sudden, and unexpected. It profoundly affects the overall situation of the war, and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, mind, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemies destroyed, the temporary gains and losses of one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their indicator significance in evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be considered from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions caused by them. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategic situation, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first of all because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of the captives to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations all convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact is also significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for operations such as fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations, etc., different levels of imagination and creative thinking, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee during the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming active kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. To realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain impact in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to impact multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.


















Chinese Military Analysis of the Basics of Cognitive Domain Operations Warfare


中國軍網 國防部網


As a new form of combat, cognitive domain operations have become another new area of ​​confrontation after physical confrontation, firepower confrontation, and information confrontation. Different from operations in the physical domain and information domain, the operational goals of cognitive domain operations are thinking, concepts, etc., which have inherent requirements that are obviously different from other forms of operations.

Taking value offense and defense as the central task. It is generally believed that values ​​are the principles and standards that people use to distinguish good from bad, right from wrong, and importance. They are the most stable content among all cognitive factors and dominate people’s motivations and behavior patterns. Therefore, seizing the commanding heights of value is a prerequisite for winning the cognitive war. Foreign militaries have always attached great importance to the dissemination of values. They often take advantage of their cyberspace advantages to use technical means and cultural penetration to forcibly export values. The interaction between virtual space and real space gradually erodes values, and the combination of co-optation and corrosion distorts values ​​to realize the thinking and understanding of personnel from hostile countries. Penetration and erosion of value orientation, etc. To seize the initiative in cognitive warfare, we must thoroughly study the opponent’s value pursuits, get close to the opponent’s cultural language, and identify the opponent’s political beliefs and interest demands, so that the effectiveness of cognitive operations can directly reach the opponent’s belief base and soul anchorage. At the same time, we must scientifically interpret and disseminate the connotation and essence of our own excellent values, and use our excellent values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization to guide its transformation.

Taking brain cognition as the main battlefield. The understanding and understanding of the form of war, especially the central issues, is an important part of the design of tactics. Compared with “war of attrition” which focuses on annihilating the enemy’s main force and “maneuver warfare” which focuses on destroying the enemy’s system, cognitive domain operations use the human brain as the main combat space and focus on attacking, weakening, and disintegrating the enemy’s will to fight. , using human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, and suspicion as a breakthrough point, and relying mainly on soft killing methods to create an atmosphere of insecurity, uncertainty, and distrust within the enemy, increasing internal strife and doubts in decision-making, thereby achieving “unprecedented” “Fight and win” purpose. In recent years, with the development of emerging technologies, NATO has expanded its combat field to the sixth level, the “human domain” to compete for brain control and weaponize brain science to control the target’s beliefs, ways of thinking, spiritual will, and stance. , behavioral tendencies and other cognitive factors to launch offensive and defensive actions. According to reports, with the help of brain and cognitive scientific research results, the United States is trying to achieve the goal of psychological control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering, and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

The key goal is to seize intellectual power. With the rapid advancement of military intelligence, intellectual power will become a new type of battlefield control power that is growing rapidly and has greater strategic influence on the overall combat situation. In intelligent warfare, intelligent superiority is the dominant factor for victory, intelligent weapon systems have become the main combat force, and seizing “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights of war control. Intelligent weapon systems rely on advanced artificial intelligence systems and will have the intellectual characteristics of some people, which will expand the scope of intellectual power competition to some weapons and equipment. Targeting the cognitive loop, relying on cognitive equipment to limit the enemy’s acquisition of effective information, forcing the enemy to use wrong information, delaying cognitive speed, inducing cognitive patterns, and blocking cognitive output can disrupt the enemy’s command decision-making and undermine the morale of his military. Morale, to achieve the effect of “attacking the heart first”. In intelligent warfare, if cognitive advantages are lost, even if there are information advantages and energy advantages, the overall combat effectiveness will be significantly reduced due to human-machine coordination imbalance and autonomous decision-making failure.

Taking public opinion attack and defense as an important approach. Cognitive domain operations are essentially a struggle to win people’s hearts and minds. Public opinion attack and defense in cognitive confrontation mainly manifests itself in controlling, manipulating, and using various public opinion tools to suppress opponents and win public competition in the cognitive field. The war of public opinion focuses on changing ideas and competing for people’s hearts, and pays more attention to the conquest of spirit and will. With the help of continuously developing social networks and integrated media technologies, public opinion warfare can break through the blockade restrictions of opponents and reach directly into the target group. In recent years, around the fields of ideology, cyberspace, high-tech and other fields, the status of public opinion offense and defense has become increasingly prominent, attracting widespread attention. Public opinion wars can portray a positive image of one’s own side, while demonizing target countries and others to gain international moral advantages and public support. From “color revolutions” to local conflicts, Western countries, manipulated by “American rhetoric”, have fabricated absurd scripts, weaved absurd narratives, and absurd conclusions, pressed hard all the time, and invaded the cognitive field. , which has brought severe challenges to the political security of many countries.

Use new quality technology as a powerful means. Cognitive science is an emerging research category and a cutting-edge discipline that explores the working mechanism of the human brain or mind. It is developing in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence, and cognitive intelligence. Artificial intelligence technology has unique advantages in perception and recognition, machine learning, etc., and has natural penetration and profound influence on the thinking and cognition of combat objects. Artificial intelligence is used in cognitive warfare. Through pervasive and highly automated precise push, it can use tendentious information to build efficient flexible cognitive scenarios and make tendentious intervention, thereby unknowingly affecting and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Brain-computer interface technology realizes the integration of man and machine in the cognitive dimension. Externally, it can realize mind control, that is, brain control, and internally, it can achieve enhanced autonomy, that is, brain strengthening. It can realize direct control of complex weapon systems with consciousness and thinking. At present, there have been major breakthroughs in multi-modal emotion recognition, activation, protection and other related technical means based on big data. By collecting people’s expressions, movements, semantics and intonation, EEG, various physiological indicators, etc., emotional correlations are established to identify Human emotions and intentions provide new means for carrying out cognitive control warfare. Therefore, new cognitive technology means and traditional cognitive technology means form a way to combine suprathreshold infusion and subliminal penetration, which will further enhance the concealment and effectiveness of cognitive influence.


中國軍網 國防部網








People’s Republic of China’s Ten Major Military Principles and Dialectical Opposition Intent for Adversaries



July 28, 2022 08:14 Source: People’s Liberation Army Daily

People’s Liberation Army Daily – China Military Network

Editor’s note

The Ten Military Principles are our Party’s scientific summary of the practical experience of the People’s Army in combat during the revolutionary war years. They are a concentrated reflection of Comrade Mao Zedong’s profound military thought and the commanding art of using troops like a god. They embody the basic principles and tactics of the People’s War strategy and tactics. The methodological principle of seeking truth from facts is full of materialism and dialectics, and has vitality that spans time and space. It is the historical responsibility of our generation of soldiers to continue to inherit the winning magic weapon of the people’s army. Of course, all military principles are moving forward. Today, when intelligent warfare has gradually become a new form of warfare, this article focuses on the ten major military principles, summarizes and sorts out the dialectical implications and enlightenment of the times in nine aspects, and provides readers with reference.

Strategic contempt and tactical attention

Operational judgment is the prerequisite for planning operations. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that we must despise the enemy strategically and attach great importance to the enemy tactically. Strategic contempt and tactical attention are a complete idea. The first is to strategically despise the enemy, dare to fight against them, and dare to win. At the same time, we must pay attention to the enemy tactically, adopt a cautious attitude, and pay attention to the art of struggle. If you cannot see the weak side of the enemy and cannot despise the enemy strategically, then paying attention to the enemy tactically may become a fear of the enemy; if you ignore the strong side of the enemy and ignore the enemy tactically, despising the enemy strategically will become underestimating the enemy. Recognizing the dual nature of struggle and preventing one tendency from overshadowing the other is the key to defeating the enemy. The victory in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea was a victory in which our army despised the enemy strategically and paid attention to the enemy tactically. It was a victory in which our army had the courage to fight and was good at fighting.

In today’s era, a century of changes and a century’s epidemic are superimposed on each other, and the strategic game between countries has become more intense. We must always remain clear-headed and determined, defy all dangers and difficulties, organically combine strategic contempt for the enemy with tactical attention to the enemy, and deal with the enemy. Be fully prepared for all possible situations, be neither afraid of nor underestimate the enemy, dare to fight and be good at winning.

Careful preparation and cautious initial battle

Combat preparation is the basis for winning the battle. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we should never fight an unprepared battle or a battle that we are not sure of; he called for caution in the first battle, believing that the victory or defeat in the first battle would have a great impact on the overall situation of the war, and it would be especially important for the army at a disadvantage or in a defensive position. Long-term war practice tells us that the more complex and difficult the situation, the more detailed the preparation for combat is to analyze the strength and situation of friends and foes, and to put ourselves in their shoes and analyze what the opponent will think and do. In particular, we should strive to be prepared for every battle, anticipate the most difficult and dangerous possible situations, and strive to be sure of victory under the contrasting conditions between the enemy and ourselves. The Battle of Yijiangshan Island was our army’s first three-service joint operation. The planning of the battle lasted for several years, and the preparation for the battle lasted for more than 2 months. It is an example of careful preparation and cautious initial battle.

In today’s era, China, which is at a critical stage of development from big to strong, faces complex and diverse challenges. This requires us to strengthen the concept of combat readiness, improve the ability to win, be prepared for war at any time, and truly carry out construction, development, and preparation for war in accordance with the standards of war. We must anticipate the most difficult and complex situations and treat such situations as The starting point for all combat preparations is to make sufficient and detailed preparations and formulate a comprehensive plan for integrated implementation, so as to achieve the goal of winning if we do not fight and win if we fight.

Destroy enemies and capture places

The purpose of combat is the core of implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that the main goal be to annihilate the enemy’s effective forces and not to defend or capture cities and places. He vividly pointed out that for a person, it is better to cut off one of his ten fingers than to hurt him; for the enemy, it is better to annihilate one of his divisions than to defeat his ten divisions. When the enemy is large and we are small, the enemy is strong and we are weak, it is generally impossible to achieve the two goals of annihilating the enemy and seizing the place at the same time. Only after annihilating the enemy’s effective strength can the place be finally defended or captured. Therefore, annihilating the enemy is a means to seize territory, and seizing territory is the result of annihilating the enemy. Therefore, annihilating the enemy should be the first priority, and consolidating the territory second. During the Yan’an Defense War, the Party Central Committee resolutely withdrew from Yan’an, and while annihilating the effective strength of the Kuomintang army on a large scale, it realized the strategic concept of “save people and lose land, and save both people and land”.

In today’s era, system breaking and precise victory are becoming key words in modern combat theory. We must change the traditional operational thinking of annihilating the enemy and seizing territory, and regard the pursuit of deterrence effects and depriving the enemy of combat power as important operational options. We must step up efforts to forge capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield, so as to destroy the enemy’s key support elements and deprive them of their combat power. The objective material basis for its continued operations and the operational purpose of disintegrating its will to carry out war.

Pay attention to the overall situation and grasp the key points

Combat guidance is the criterion for controlling combat. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that the overall situation and the local part of a war are the unity of opposites. The key to combat guidance is to unify focusing on the overall situation and grasping the key points, “seizing the strategic key point to deploy the campaign, and seizing the operational key point to deploy the battle.” Only in this way can the war situation be effectively promoted in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. In particular, a weak army must follow the objective laws of the development of things, start from the local area, and continue to accumulate the quantity of local victories to cause a qualitative leap and achieve overall changes. In the long-term revolutionary war, our army was good at firmly grasping strategic pivots to promote the development of the war situation, and firmly grasping the main contradictions to promote the transformation of contradictions. Only then did our army turn from passive to active, and from disadvantage to advantage. In the Liaoshen Campaign, our army made comprehensive considerations and decided to “attack Jinzhou first”, which effectively promoted the battle process and won the victory.

In today’s era, wars are becoming more and more hybrid, security threats are complex, diverse and multi-dimensional, and they are characterized by multi-domain linkage. Changes in war practice require us to consider the overall situation and the overall situation in operational guidance, focus on the actual situation on the battlefield, coordinate the struggle in the main strategic direction and other strategic directions, coordinate the military struggle in the traditional security field and the new security field, and coordinate the political, The economic, diplomatic, military, cultural, public opinion and other fronts realize the mutual superposition and accumulation of combat effects, forming an overall emergence of anti-hybrid warfare capabilities and ensuring the strategic goal of complete victory.

Fight weak enemies first and strong enemies later

The focus of operations is the key to implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we must first attack dispersed and isolated enemies, and then attack concentrated and powerful enemies. In the practice of long-term revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. We must first annihilate the enemies that are isolated, dispersed, weakly defended, and garrisoned in small and medium-sized cities. Then, the enemies that are concentrated, strong, well-garrisoned, and garrisoned in large cities will become weaker. , which creates conditions for the next attack and annihilation. If we attack the strong enemy first, not only will it be difficult to deal with the strong enemy quickly, but the weak enemy will also easily become a strong enemy, which will make us passive. Of course, sometimes when you are really sure, you can also wait for an opportunity to attack a strong enemy first to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. In the Battle of Menglianggu, Su Yu made the first attack and completely annihilated the reorganized 74th Division, the “first of the five main forces” of the Kuomintang army. This defeated the Kuomintang army’s key attack on the Shandong Liberated Areas and reversed the strategic situation on the East China battlefield.

In today’s era, war is a confrontation between systems. The fundamental goal of defeating the system is to attack the enemy’s center of gravity and key points. Combat operations must be carried out closely around the enemy’s center of gravity, and the selected targets must be the “keys”, “vital points” and “joints” in the enemy’s entire war system. These enemy targets may be “strong enemies” or “weak enemies” in the traditional sense. However, once they are identified as centers of gravity, all efforts should be concentrated on destroying these centers of gravity in order to paralyze the enemy’s entire combat system and quickly complete the operation. Purpose.

Concentrate and disperse forces

Combat posture is the posture in which troops are deployed. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that operations must focus on eliminating the enemy’s effective strength and concentrate superior forces to annihilate the enemy one by one. The essence of concentrating superior forces is to use forces intensively to obtain local advantages and initiative against the enemy based on the overall needs of the operation and to ensure a decisive victory in the decisive battle. In traditional wars, the concentration of troops is mainly reflected in the concentration of personnel and weapons, relying on quantitative advantages to make up for qualitative deficiencies. In battles, our army’s consistent thinking is to concentrate its absolutely superior forces, adopt roundabout encirclement tactics, and annihilate enemies one by one. The opposite of concentrated force is decentralization or military egalitarianism. Military egalitarianism may result in having neither an overall strength advantage nor a local strength advantage, making it impossible to control the enemy and to be controlled by the enemy. During the Red Army’s fifth counter-campaign against “encirclement and suppression”, the “six-way division of troops” and “all-front resistance” were manifestations of military egalitarianism.

In today’s era, information power, mobility, strike power, etc. have all increased unprecedentedly. Concentrating superior forces requires concentrating and using one’s own advantages in more diverse fields, and more adopting the approach of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but combined strength”. Dynamically combine the various combat forces distributed on the multi-dimensional battlefield, rely on the quality accumulation, efficiency integration, and real-time optimization of multiple combat elements to suddenly change the contrast with the opponent’s combat power, forming a hammer effect to defeat the enemy.

Weapons and equipment and fighting spirit

Combat elements are the components of combat strength. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that weapons and equipment are important factors in the victory or defeat of a war, but they are not the decisive factor. The decisive factor is people, not things. He asked the troops to carry forward the style of fighting bravely, not afraid of sacrifice, not afraid of fatigue and continuous fighting. Obviously, war is not only a confrontation of hard power such as weapons and equipment between the opposing parties, but also a competition of soft power such as will and quality. As an important component of combat effectiveness, fighting spirit plays a key role in the outcome of war. Material causes and effects are but the hilt of the knife; spiritual causes and effects are the sharp edge. Why in history has our army been able to defeat powerful enemies one after another and create miracles one after another even if it does not have an advantage in weapons and equipment? One of the most fundamental reasons is that we have the courage to “show swords when facing the enemy, be brave and tenacious” and have the fighting spirit of “not being afraid of hardship and not being afraid of death.”

In today’s era, war forms and combat styles are evolving at an accelerated pace, science and technology have become the core combat effectiveness, and weapons and equipment are becoming more and more important to winning wars. The contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to military construction and combat effectiveness development must be continuously increased. At the same time, we must forge the spiritual edge to defeat the enemy while inheriting the glorious tradition and fine style, and combine advanced science and technology with tenacious will, so that the majority of commanders and soldiers have a high degree of revolutionary consciousness and spirit of self-sacrifice, and master advanced Weapons, equipment and complex military technology form a powerful combat force to achieve victory in every attack and victory.

You hit yours and I hit mine

Combat methods are the carrier of strategy and tactics. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that people should give full play to their conscious initiative and seize the initiative in war. Starting from the overall situation of the revolutionary war, he successively proposed a series of flexible strategies and tactics, such as “Fight if you can win, leave if you can’t”, “You fight yours, I’ll fight mine”, “Mobile warfare, positional warfare, guerrilla warfare”. Cooperate with each other” and so on. This set of strategies and tactics that seek advantages and avoid disadvantages and are flexible and mobile reveals the laws and methods of war guidance for defeating enemies with superior equipment with inferior equipment, and raises flexible strategies and tactics to a new level. During the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, in response to the U.S. military’s strong land and sea support and strong land firepower and mobility, our military emphasized small-scale annihilation wars, which enriched the implementation of annihilation wars. It relied on tunnels to carry out small-scale counterattacks and found a new way to fight positional warfare. .

In today’s era, wars will be carried out in multiple domains simultaneously, and combat operations such as networked and electronic operations, air and space attacks, and unmanned operations are prominent. Proactive, flexible and changeable strategies and tactics are still a weapon to gain the initiative and defeat the enemy. It is necessary to follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, step up the forging of new quality and new domain combat capability means, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive warfare”, “cross-domain warfare” and “intelligent warfare” and other tactics to temper dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. Wait for the way of fighting, do not follow the enemy’s routines, focus on the enemy’s weaknesses, use our army’s strengths and strengths to control the battle, and win the victory.

Continuous combat and rest supplement

Combat support is the cornerstone of sustaining operations. Comrade Mao Zedong always believed that the deepest roots of the power of war exist among the people, and that soldiers and people are the foundation of victory. During the long-term revolutionary war, our army’s manpower and material resources supplementation mainly emphasized obtaining them from the enemy and relying on the support of the base areas. At the same time, we used the gaps between campaigns to reorganize and train the troops, improve military and political quality, and enhance the combat effectiveness of the troops. These are all necessary conditions for carrying out another battle. However, in order to prevent the enemy from taking a breather and to inflict continuous blows to the enemy, sometimes even without supplementary rest and recuperation, it is necessary to develop a style of not being afraid of sacrifice or fatigue and achieve continuous operations. Just after the Liaoshen Campaign, the Northeast Field Army changed its plan to use three months to half a year to rest and reorganize its troops. It took a shortcut and quickly sent troops into the pass to participate in the Pingjin Campaign, which changed the battlefield situation in North China in one fell swoop.

In today’s era, in a sense, fighting a war is fighting for security. With the profound changes in the international military competition landscape, national interests and military missions continue to expand, and the time and space span of combat support has expanded dramatically. In particular, the intensity, difficulty, and With the unprecedented increase in speed, we must continue to deepen national defense mobilization, build an integrated national strategic system and capabilities, and form strong war capabilities and war potential that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory.


2022年07月28日08:14    來源:解放軍報

原標題:十大軍事原則的辯証意蘊及時代啟示 – 解放軍報 – 中國軍網































Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict



Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.






















中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy



Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.


2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。





















中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research