China’s Military Emphasizing Research of System-based Superior Warfare: How to Fight Using Informationized Warfare? Analysis of Nine Typical Combat Styles

中國軍隊重視系統優勢戰爭研究:資訊化戰爭如何打仗?九種典型戰鬥風格解析

現代英語:

System-based superior warfare is a system-based warfare in information warfare. It is not limited to a specific combat style, but a “combination punch” or a group of combat styles composed of multiple combat styles and tactics. It emphasizes that according to the changes in combat missions, combat opponents and battlefield situations, as long as it is conducive to forming relative advantages and achieving system victory, any appropriate combat means and styles can be flexibly used to form combat advantages. In the specific implementation of system-based superior warfare, these specific combat styles and action tactics can be organized and implemented separately as part of joint full-domain operations, and more emphasis is placed on “combination punches”, multiple strategies, and overall victory.
In order to better understand its core connotation, this article lists nine typical combat styles, including overall deterrence warfare, electromagnetic interference warfare, network attack warfare, cognitive control and interference warfare, and analyzes them.

System concentration warfare – a “combination punch” that flexibly uses a variety of combat styles. Author: Academic Plus Senior Observer Dong Zhou
The main content and keywords of this article

  1. Overall deterrence warfare: emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence; the implementation of overall deterrence warfare should have three major elements; strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare: the key to competing for information advantage; in terms of combined means and methods, information empowerment is achieved through “connection + sharing”; an effective method to crack unmanned cluster warfare
  3. Network attack warfare: mainly soft killing, combining soft and hard, focusing on breaking the network and reducing energy
  4. Cognitive control and interference warfare: control the cognitive right of situational awareness, compete for information advantage; control the right to command and decision-making, compete for decision-making advantage; control the “brain” right, and seize the brain control advantage
  5. Agile mobile warfare: high-efficiency and rapid decision-making; high-efficiency formation of a favorable combat situation; high-efficiency and instant aggregation of combat forces; agile mobile warfare is an innovative development of traditional mobile warfare
  6. Swarm autonomous warfare: conducive to forming a system advantage to suppress the enemy; conducive to enhancing combat effectiveness; conducive to trapping the enemy in combat difficulties
  7. Precision point killing war: achieve high efficiency and cost-effectiveness in operations; hitting key node targets is an important option; large-scale system support is a basic condition; it is inseparable from accurate intelligence support
  8. Supply chain disruption war: the supply guarantee chain has a huge impact on the overall operation; the focus of attack is the key node of the enemy’s supply guarantee chain; the key is to choose the right time to use tactics
  9. System destruction and paralysis war: the combat goal is to make the enemy’s combat system disordered; hit the key nodes of the combat system with a heavy punch; implement a soft attack on the enemy’s combat system

For learning reference only, welcome to communicate and correct! The views of the article do not represent the position of this organization
The concept of operation is first proposed as a new combat style. Innovative combat style is the core content of the development of combat concepts. It can be said that system-based optimization warfare is a general term for a series of specific tactics. The following nine typical combat styles constitute the combat method system of system-based optimization warfare. They are: First, overall deterrence warfare, actively organizing static power demonstrations and deterrence actions in the system-based superiority warfare, striving to win the battle without fighting or with a small battle; second, electromagnetic interference warfare, using a variety of combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for electromagnetic spectrum advantages, seize information control, and thus win the initiative in combat; third, network attack warfare, using a variety of means such as soft strikes and hard destruction to break the enemy’s command network, intelligence network, communication network, and logistics supply network, and disrupt the enemy’s command and support; fourth, cognitive control and interference warfare. Through information attacks, public opinion attacks, and brain attacks, control advantages are formed in cognitive space; fifth, agile mobile warfare. Rapidly adjust the deployment of troops and weapons, quickly gather capabilities on the battlefield, and seize combat opportunities; sixth, swarm autonomous warfare. Widely use unmanned combat means such as “swarms”, “wolf packs”, and “fish schools” to autonomously organize actions and distributed attacks to achieve human-machine joint victory; seventh, precision point killing warfare. Accurately obtain intelligence, implement multi-domain precision strikes, strive to hit one point to shake the overall situation, and maximize combat effectiveness; Eighth, supply chain disruption warfare. Organize elite forces to attack the enemy’s logistics and equipment supply chain, supply lines and supply bases, and destroy the enemy’s loss of supply and withdrawal from the battle; Ninth, system destruction and paralysis warfare. Comprehensively adopt a variety of means such as breaking the network, training, and hitting nodes to interfere with, delay, destroy or even paralyze the effective operation of the enemy’s combat system and weaken the function of the enemy’s combat system.

  1. Overall deterrence warfare
    Overall deterrence warfare refers to actively organizing static power displays and deterrence actions in system-based superior warfare, striving to defeat the enemy without fighting or fighting a small battle. Sun Tzu said: “To defeat the enemy without fighting is the best of the best.” Deterrence and war are two main forms of military activities. Deterrence is mainly to show determination and will to potential opponents by showing strength or threatening to use strong strength to deter the opponent’s actions. It can be said that the overall deterrence warfare in the system-based superior warfare is an important means or tactics to achieve “stopping” the enemy’s troops without fighting. Clausewitz emphasized that the first rule of strategy is to be as strong as possible, first of all, strong in general, and then strong in key parts. Modern warfare is a confrontation between systems. The overall deterrence war under the informationized local war requires not only the traditional deterrence means and capabilities of land, sea, air and space, but also new deterrence means and capabilities such as space deterrence, electromagnetic deterrence, and network deterrence, and more importantly, the overall deterrence that demonstrates the overall strength of the country. In particular, with the rapid development of advanced technologies such as information technology, the scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution, and military revolution are accelerating integration, and the coupling relationship between strategic competitiveness, social productivity, and military combat effectiveness is closer. Winning the informationized war is more of a contest of national will and national overall strength. If you want to contain the war, you must first deter your opponent from the overall strength.
    1.1 Emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence
    Deterrence means usually include nuclear deterrence and conventional deterrence. In the system-based superiority war, the overall deterrence war is implemented, aiming to comprehensively use the conventional deterrence means of the land, sea, air, space, and power grid in the whole domain to achieve the purpose of deterrence. In particular, with the application of information network technology and space and directed energy technology in the military, space, network, and electromagnetic weapons have become new means of deterrence. Space deterrence mainly uses rapid response electromagnetic orbital weapons, space-ground networked anti-navigation and positioning service systems, large elliptical orbit laser weapons, high-power microwave weapons and other equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s space targets, forming an “interference and blocking” deterrence against the enemy’s space information. Network deterrence mainly uses cyberspace situational awareness and attack equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s military network and other key information infrastructure to achieve deterrence against the enemy. Electromagnetic deterrence mainly uses electromagnetic spectrum combat systems to threaten and attack enemy detection, navigation, communication and other informationized weapon equipment systems to achieve deafening and blinding deterrence against the enemy. 1.2 Three elements should be possessed in the implementation of overall deterrence warfare
    To implement overall deterrence warfare and achieve the expected deterrence effect, three elements are usually required: one is strength. The deterrent party must have reliable capabilities or strength that make the opponent feel daunted and fearful; the second is determination and will. The deterrent party must dare to use this capability when necessary; the third is clear information transmission. The deterrent party must accurately and effectively let the other party know its action capability and determination.
    Historically, there are three main changes in the criteria for judging deterrence strength: first, active military strength; second, comprehensive national strength or war potential; third, the total number of main combat weapons and equipment. For a long period of history, the number of troops was deterrence, and the strength of military strength directly depended on the size of the active army, the number of important weapons and equipment, and non-material factors such as military training and organization morale. After the 20th century, with the expansion of the scale of war, deterrence strength is no longer limited to the number of troops and important weapons and equipment, but is determined by the country’s war potential, including economic strength, scientific and technological strength, energy resources, and even population size, etc. The overall deterrence war in the system-based superiority war, the formation of its deterrence strength is mainly based on the network information system, and the joint full-domain deterrence capability formed under the integration of the system.
    1.3 Strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
    The development of information technology and its extensive penetration and application in the military field have provided favorable conditions for building overall strength and achieving overall deterrence. System-based superior warfare is supported by the network information system and makes full use of the penetration and connectivity of information technology. It not only integrates various combat forces, combat elements, and combat units into an organic whole to achieve military system combat advantages, but also connects and integrates various fields related to war and national mobilization, such as national politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, transportation, and energy, into the national war mobilization system, gathers various forces and resources to form an overall force, realizes the emergence effect of system capabilities, and shows the overall strength advantage. It forms a powerful invisible deterrent of unity and common hatred of the enemy, and creates a situation where the enemy “has power but cannot act” and “can act but has no effect”, which plays a role in containing and winning the war.
    In the overall deterrence war, the scope of national war mobilization will be wider, not limited to a certain direction or region, but throughout the country and even relevant regions of the world; the mobilization time will be faster, and the mobilization and action information can be quickly transmitted to everyone and every node at the first time by using the network and information system; the action coordination and collaboration will be more consistent, and the forces distributed in various regions can act in a unified manner almost at the same time based on the same situation and the same order, greatly improving the efficiency of action coordination; the resource utilization will be more sufficient, and various war resources based on the network can quickly realize the transition from peace to war and from military to civilian, and realize the integrated and precise guarantee of the front and rear.
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare
    Electromagnetic interference warfare refers to the flexible use of various combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for the advantage of the electromagnetic spectrum, seize the right to control information, and then win the initiative in combat.
    2.1 The key to competing for information advantage Local information warfare is highly dependent on the electromagnetic spectrum, and the control and counter-control of electromagnetic space have become the focus of competing for the right to control information. Organizing and implementing electromagnetic interference warfare is mainly to destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum and protect one’s own side from destruction. The electromagnetic spectrum is the main carrier for transmitting information. Using electromagnetic means to disrupt and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum will effectively reduce the enemy’s information combat capability, and enable the enemy to ensure the rapid and effective flow of information in the scenario where the enemy has the right to control information, and drive the command flow, action flow, material flow, and energy flow through the information flow, thereby gaining the dominance and initiative of the operation.
    2.2 The basic focus is to disable and invalidate the enemy’s combat system. The implementation of electromagnetic interference warfare in the system-based superior warfare is mainly aimed at the enemy’s dependence on electromagnetic space. At the same time, in order to ensure the effective use of electromagnetic space by the enemy, various electronic reconnaissance, interference, attack, defense and support forces are organized to interfere with and attack the enemy’s communication network, radar network, computer network and command center, communication hub, radar station, computer network node, global navigation positioning system, space-ground integrated Internet and other space link systems, and other various frequency-using weapons and equipment, block and destroy their communication and data transmission, and destroy the “connection” and “sharing” structural center of gravity of the enemy’s combat system, and provide support for the seizure of information control and electromagnetic control from the root, thereby weakening the enemy’s command and control capabilities and disabling the enemy’s entire combat system.
    2.3 Effective tactics to crack unmanned swarm warfare
    Unmanned autonomous swarm warfare such as “bee swarm”, “wolf pack” and “fish pack” is an important feature of information-based local warfare with intelligent characteristics. There are a large number of various unmanned autonomous clusters, with various types and complex characteristics, and each individual can complement each other and replace each other to play a role. It will be very difficult to intercept and destroy the entire unmanned cluster. However, from a technical perspective, in order to achieve effective coordination in unmanned combat clusters, each individual must share and interact with each other. Once the communication coordination between unmanned clusters is interfered with, it will be impossible to share battlefield situation and information, and it will be difficult to coordinate actions with each other, and it will be difficult to play its due combat effectiveness. This provides an opportunity for the other party to implement communication interception and electromagnetic interference. Therefore, the implementation of electromagnetic spectrum warfare, interference and attack on the information and communication network of unmanned clusters, and destruction of their information sharing and interaction will make it impossible for each individual in the unmanned cluster to achieve effective coordination, thereby losing combat capability.
  3. Network attack warfare
    Network attack warfare refers to the comprehensive use of network and computer technologies and other effective means to conduct military confrontation actions around the control of information and information networks. It is a major combat style for cyberspace operations and the struggle for network control. Its main combat operations include both soft killing and hard destruction, mainly soft and hard. Among them, soft kill is mainly network attack, that is, the comprehensive use of blocking attack, virus attack and other means to block and attack the enemy’s information network, command system, weapon platform, etc., making it difficult for the enemy’s network, command information system, etc. to operate effectively or even paralyzed; hard destruction mainly uses precision firepower strikes, high-energy microwaves, electromagnetic pulses and anti-radiation attacks to paralyze the enemy’s information network physical facilities and destroy the enemy’s combat and weapon equipment entities.
    The focus is on breaking the network and reducing the ability to fail. Organizing network attack in the system concentration war is to target the weaknesses of the opponent’s military information network, take advantage of the system, organize various network attack forces, and continuously implement soft kill and hard destruction actions against the enemy’s combat command network, reconnaissance intelligence network, communication network and even logistics supply network throughout the combat process, destroy the enemy’s network system, and make the enemy’s combat system function decline or even disabled as a whole. Mainly against the enemy’s basic information network, intelligence network, command network, support network and other core targets, implement a series of combat operations such as network and electricity coordinated attack, deception confusion, link blocking, takeover and control, so that the enemy’s intelligent combat network system is disabled and ineffective, and achieve a key victory in paralyzing the enemy system.
  1. Cognitive control and disturbance warfare
    Cognitive control and disturbance warfare refers to the interference, destruction or control of enemy thinking and cognition through information attack, public opinion attack and brain attack in the system-based superiority warfare, so that the enemy cannot make correct judgments and decisions, thereby forming a control advantage over the enemy in the cognitive space.
    The cognitive domain, that is, the human thinking space and consciousness space, is a field that has a key impact on combat decisions and judgments. The development of information technology, especially artificial intelligence technology, and its wide application in the military field have expanded the competition of war from physical space and information space to cognitive space, making cognitive space a new combat domain. With the development of information and intelligent technology and their extensive and in-depth application in the military field, human-machine intelligence tends to merge, making the status of cognition in intelligent warfare operations more prominent, and the cognitive field has gradually become an important battlefield. Controlling cognitive rights has become a key factor in future battlefield control rights. Fighting for cognitive control rights has become an important combat style for winning in informationized local wars with intelligent characteristics.
    4.1 Controlling situational awareness and cognitive rights and fighting for information advantages
    In the system-based superiority warfare, information flow drives material flow and energy flow, and information advantage determines decision advantage. The rapid and accurate recognition of intelligence information and battlefield situation has an important impact on gaining command and decision-making advantages. Therefore, in order to organize and implement system-based optimization, we must make full use of intelligent technology and big data technology to analyze massive intelligence information data.

國語中文:

體系聚優戰是資訊化戰爭中的體係作戰,其不限定特指某一種作戰樣式,而是由多種作戰樣式和戰法組成的“組合拳”,或作戰樣式群。強調根據作戰任務、作戰對手和戰場情勢變化,只要有利於形成相對優勢、達成體系製勝,可以靈活運用任何適宜的作戰手段和样式,形成作戰優勢。在體系聚優戰具體實施過程中,這些具體作戰樣式和行動戰法既可以作為聯合全局作戰的一部分單獨組織實施,更強調打“組合拳”,多策並舉,整體制勝。
為更能理解其核心內涵,本文列舉了整體威懾戰、電磁擾阻戰、網路破擊戰、認知控擾戰等九大典型作戰樣式,並進行分析。

體系聚優戰――靈活運用多種作戰樣式的「組合拳」作者:學術plus高級觀察員 東週
本文主要內容及關鍵字
1.整體威懾戰:強調多域聯合威懾;實施整體威懾戰應具備三大要素;強大整體實力是實現有效威懾的核心
2.電磁擾阻戰:爭奪資訊優勢的關鍵;在組合手段方法上,透過「連結+共享」實現資訊賦能;破解無人集群作戰的有效戰法
3.網路破擊戰:軟殺傷為主,軟硬結合,重在破網降能失效
4.認知控擾:控制態勢感知認知權,爭奪資訊優勢;控制指揮決策權,爭奪決策優勢;控制「腦」權,奪取腦控優勢
5.敏捷機動戰:高效率快速決策;高效率形成有利作戰態勢;高效率即時聚合作戰力量;敏捷機動戰是對傳統機動作戰的創新發展
6.蜂群自主戰:有利於形成體系優勢壓制敵方;有利於增強作戰效果;有利於陷敵於作戰困境
7.精確點殺戰:實現作戰的高效費比;打關鍵節點目標是重要選項;大範圍體系支撐是基本條件;離不開精確情報保障
8.補給斷鍊戰:供應保障鏈對作戰全局影響巨大;打擊重心是斷敵供應保障鏈的關鍵節點;重在選準時機活用戰法
9.體系毀癱戰:作戰目標是使敵作戰體系運作失序;重拳打擊作戰體系的關鍵節點;對敵作戰體系實施軟打擊

僅供學習參考,歡迎交流指正!文章觀點不代表本機構立場
作戰概念首先是作為一種新的作戰樣式提出。創新作戰樣式是作戰概念開發的核心內容。可以說,體系聚優戰是一系列具體戰法的總稱。以下九大典型作戰樣式構成了體系聚優戰的戰法體系。分別為:一是整體威懾戰,在體系聚優戰中積極組織靜態威力展示與威懾行動,力爭不戰或小戰而屈人之兵;二是電磁擾阻戰,運用電子偵攻防等多種作戰手段和行動樣式,擾亂、阻止、破壞敵電磁能力的發揮,積極爭奪電磁頻譜優勢,奪取制信息權,進而贏得作戰主動;三是網絡破擊戰,運用軟打擊和硬摧毀等多種手段,破敵指揮網、情報網、通訊網、後勤補給網,亂敵指揮保障;四是認知控擾。透過資訊攻擊、輿論攻擊、腦攻擊,在認知空間形成控制優勢;五是敏捷機動戰。快速調整兵力兵器部署,在即設戰場快速聚集能力,搶奪作戰先機;六是蜂群自主戰。廣泛運用「蜂群」、「狼群」、「魚群」等無人作戰手段,自主組織行動、分散式攻擊,實現人機聯合製勝;七是精確點殺戰。精準獲取情報,實施多域精確打擊,力爭打一點撼全局,實現作戰效益最大化;八是補給斷鏈戰。組織精銳力量,打敵後勤物資裝備供應補給鏈、補給線和補給基地,破敵失去補給而退出戰鬥;九是體系毀癱戰。綜合採取破網、鍛鍊、打節點等多種手段,幹擾、遲滯、破壞甚至癱瘓敵作戰體係有效運轉,削弱敵作戰系統功能。
1.整體威懾戰
整體威懾戰是指在體系聚優戰中積極組織靜態威力展示和威懾行動,力爭不戰或小戰而屈人之兵。孫子曰:「不戰而屈人之兵,善之善者也。」威懾和戰爭是軍事活動的兩種主要形式。而威懾,主要是透過展現力量或威脅使用強大實力,向潛在對手錶明決心意志,以嚇阻對手行動的行為。可以說,體系聚優戰中的整體威懾戰是實現不戰而「止」人之兵的重要手段或戰法。克勞塞維茨強調,策略的第一條規則是盡可能強大,首先是整體的強大,然後是在關鍵部位的強大。現代戰爭是體系與體系的對抗。資訊化局部戰爭下的整體威懾戰,不僅要有陸海空天傳統威懾手段和能力,也需要太空威懾、電磁威懾、網路威懾等新型威懾手段和能力,更需要有顯示國家整體實力的整體威懾。特別是隨著資訊科技等先進科技的快速發展,科技革命、產業革命、軍事革命加速融合,戰略競爭力、社會生產力和軍隊戰鬥力耦合關聯更加緊密,打贏資訊化戰爭更大程度上是國家意志和國家整體實力的較量。若要遏止戰爭,首先要從整體實力上對對手形成嚇阻。
1.1 強調多域聯合威懾
威懾手段通常包括核威懾和常規威懾。在體系聚優戰中,實施整體威懾戰,旨在綜合運用陸海空天電網全域常規威懾手段,以達成威懾目的。特別是隨著資訊網路技術及太空、定向能技術在軍事上的應用,太空、網路、電磁武器等成為新型威懾手段。太空威懾,主要以快速響應電磁軌道武器、天地網路化反導航定位服務系統、大橢圓軌道雷射武器、高功率微波武器等裝備,威脅攻擊對手空間目標,形成對敵空間資訊「幹擾阻斷」威懾。網路威懾,主要是以網路空間態勢感知和攻擊裝備,威脅攻擊對手軍事網路及其它關鍵資訊基礎設施,實現對敵威懾。電磁威懾,主要以電磁頻譜作戰系統,威脅攻擊敵探測、導航、通訊等資訊化武器裝備系統,實現對敵致聾致盲威懾。 1.2 實施整體嚇阻戰應具備三大要素
實施整體威懾戰並達成嚇阻預期效果,通常必須具備三大要素:一是實力。威嚇方必須具備令對手感到忌憚畏懼的可靠能力或力量;二是決心意志。威懾方在必要時必須敢於使用這種能力;三是明確傳遞訊息。威懾方必須將行動能力與決心準確、有效地讓對方清楚知道。
從歷史上看,判斷威懾實力的標準主要有三個面向變化:一是現役軍事力量;二是綜合國力或戰爭潛力;三是主戰武器裝備總數。在相當長一段歷史時期內,軍隊數量就是威懾,軍事實力的強弱直接取決於現役軍隊的規模、重要武器裝備的數量,以及軍隊訓練組織士氣等非物質因素。二十世紀後,隨著戰爭規模的擴大,威懾實力已不再僅限於軍隊兵力和重要武器裝備的數量,而是由國家戰爭潛力所決定,其中包括經濟實力、科技實力、能源資源,甚至人口數量,等等。體系聚優戰中的整體威懾戰,其威懾實力的形成主要基於網路資訊體系,以及在該體系融合整合下形成的聯合全局威懾能力。
1.3 強大整體實力是實現有效威懾的核心
資訊科技的發展及在軍事領域的廣泛滲透和應用,為建構整體實力、實現整體威懾提供了有利條件。體系聚優戰以網路資訊體系為支撐,充分利用資訊科技的滲透性和聯通性,不僅把各種作戰力量、作戰要素、作戰單元融合為一個有機整體,實現軍事上的體係作戰優勢,而且把國家政治、經濟、外交、金融、交通、能源等與戰爭和國家動員相關的各領域,都連結、匯入國家戰爭動員體系,凝聚各方面力量和資源形成整體合力,實現體系能力的湧現效應,從整體上顯示綜合實力優勢,形成眾志成城、同仇敵愾的強大無形威懾,塑造使敵「有力量但不能行動」「能行動但沒有效果」的態勢,起到遏制和打贏戰爭的作用。
在整體威懾戰中,國家戰爭動員的範圍將更加廣泛,不僅限於某一方向、區域,而是遍及全國各地,乃至世界相關地區;動員時間更加迅速,利用網絡和信息系統,動員和行動信息可在第一時間迅速傳達到每個人、每個節點;行動協調和協同更加一致,分佈在各域各地的各方力量可以基於同一態勢、根據同一命令幾乎在同一時間統一行動,極大提高行動協同效率;資源利用更加充分,以網路為基礎的各種戰爭資源,可快速實現平戰轉換、軍民轉換,實現前方後方一體化保障、精確保障。
2.電磁擾阻戰
電磁擾動戰,指靈活運用電子偵攻防等多種作戰手段和行動樣式,擾亂、阻止、破壞敵電磁能力的發揮,積極爭奪電磁頻譜優勢,奪取制信息權,進而贏得作戰主動。
2.1 爭奪資訊優勢的關鍵資訊化局部戰爭高度依賴電磁頻譜,對電磁空間的控制與反控製成為爭奪制資訊權的焦點。組織實施電磁阻擾戰,主要是破壞敵方電磁頻譜,保護己方不受破壞。電磁頻譜是傳遞訊息的主要載體。使用電磁手段對敵方電磁頻譜實施阻擾破壞,將有效降低敵資訊作戰能力,並使己方在擁有製資訊權的場景下,保障資訊的快速有效流動,透過資訊流驅動指揮流、行動流、物質流、能量流,進而擁有作戰的主導權、主動權。
2.2 基本著眼點是使敵作戰體系失能失效體系聚優戰中實施電磁擾阻戰,主要是針對敵方對電磁空間的依賴,同時為確保己方對電磁空間的有效利用,組織各種電子偵察、幹擾、攻擊、防禦和支援力量,對敵通信網、雷達網、電腦網和指揮中心、通信樞紐、雷達站、電腦網路節點,全球導航定位系統、天地一體互聯網等空間鏈路系統,及其他各種用頻武器裝備,實施幹擾、攻擊,阻斷、破壞其通訊聯絡與資料傳輸,破壞敵作戰體系的「連結」與「共享」結構重心,從根源為奪取制資訊權、制電磁權提供支撐,進而削弱敵指揮控制能力,使敵整個作戰體系失能、失效。
2.3 破解無人集群作戰的有效戰法
「蜂群」「狼群」「魚群」等無人自主集群作戰,是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化局部戰爭的重要特徵。各種無人自主集群數量龐大、類型多樣、特徵複雜,且每個個體都可以互補位置、互相替代發揮作用,攔截毀傷整個無人集群將十分困難。但從技術角度分析,無人作戰集群為實現有效協同,每個個體之間必須進行資訊共享與互動。無人集群間通訊協同一旦受到干擾,將無法分享戰場態勢與訊息,無法相互協同行動,也就很難發揮應有作戰效能。這就給對方實施通訊攔截與電磁幹擾提供了機會。因此,實施電磁頻譜戰,對無人集群的資訊通訊網路實施幹擾、攻擊,破壞其資訊共享與交互,將使無人集群中每個個體無法實現有效協同,從而失去作戰能力。
3.網路破擊戰
網路破擊戰,指綜合運用網路和電腦等技術以及其他有效手段,圍繞著資訊、資訊網路的控制權而進行的軍事對抗行動,是網路空間作戰、爭奪制網權的主要作戰樣式。其主要作戰行動既有軟殺傷也有硬摧毀,以軟為主、軟硬結合。其中,軟殺傷主要是網路攻擊,即綜合利用阻塞攻擊、病毒攻擊等手段,對敵資訊網路、指揮系統、武器平台等進行阻滯與攻擊,使敵網路、指揮資訊系統等難以有效運作甚至癱瘓;硬摧毀主要是利用精確火力打擊、高能量微波、電磁脈衝以及反輻射攻擊等手段,癱毀敵資訊網路物理設施,摧毀敵作戰及武器裝備實體。
重在破網降能失效。在體系聚優戰中組織網路破擊戰就是針對作戰對手軍事資訊網路存在的弱點,利用體系優勢,組織各種網路攻擊力量,在作戰全過程對敵作戰指揮網、偵察情報網、通訊網乃至後勤補給網等,持續實施軟殺傷與硬摧毀行動,破壞敵之網路體系,使敵作戰體系功能整體下降甚至失能。主要對敵基礎資訊網、情報網、指揮網、保障網等核心目標,實施網電協同攻擊、欺騙迷惘、連結阻塞、接管控制等一系列作戰行動,使敵智能化作戰網路體系失能失效,達成癱敵體系的關鍵性勝利。


4.認知控擾戰
認知控擾戰,是指在體系聚優戰中透過資訊攻擊、輿論攻擊、腦攻擊,幹擾、破壞或控制敵對思維認知,使敵不能做出正確判斷、決策,從而在認知空間對敵形成控制優勢。
認知域,即人的思考空間、意識空間,是對作戰決策、判斷等具有關鍵性影響的領域。資訊科技特別是人工智慧技術的發展及在軍事領域的廣泛應用,使戰爭的較量從物理空間、資訊空間擴大到認知空間,使認知空間成為一個全新的作戰域。隨著資訊化、智慧化技術發展並在軍事領域廣泛深入應用,人機智慧趨於融合,使認知在智慧化戰爭作戰中的地位更加凸顯,認知領域逐漸成為重要的戰場。制認知權成為未來戰場控制權的關鍵要素。爭奪認知控制權成為具有智慧化特徵的資訊化局部戰爭作戰制勝的重要作戰樣式。
4.1 控制態勢感知認知權,爭奪資訊優勢
體系聚優戰中,資訊流驅動物質流、能量流,資訊優勢決定決策優勢。對情報資訊與戰場態勢的快速、準確認知,對奪取指揮決策優勢有重要影響。因此,組織實施體系聚優戰,要充分利用智慧技術、大數據技術,對海量情報資訊資料進行

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81it.com/2022/0901/13716.html

People’s Liberation Army Looking ahead to the “Battlefield Metaverse”

解放軍展望“戰場元宇宙”

現代英語:

Recently, the “metaverse” has become a hot topic of concern. On November 26 last year, this edition published an article titled “Unveiling the Veil of the Metaverse”, which mentioned the concept of the “battlefield metaverse”.

Simply put, the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet. It is a virtual world that is parallel and isomorphic to the real world, with main features such as multi-dimensionality, full sensory perception, virtual-real integration, and seamless interaction. The “battlefield metaverse” is the manifestation of the “metaverse” in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, more powerful simulation computing capabilities, more real-time and sophisticated interaction requirements, and more prominent battlefield time consistency, virtual-real integration, boundary security, decision-making intelligence, and performance fidelity.

Imagine a typical application scenario

We can preliminarily outline the outline of the “battlefield metaverse” by imagining a typical military training application scenario in the future:

An aircraft carrier fleet was cruising in a certain sea area. Suddenly, in the fleet command room, a virtual AI staff officer projected a virtual figure through the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal, making a clear voice to convey the upper level’s combat readiness inspection instructions.

The fleet commander immediately issued an “exercise combat alert” command to the fleet according to the plan. The fleet’s combat command and control system began to automatically receive combat missions and battlefield situations sent by the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal. Except for the personnel on duty at the bridge of each ship in the fleet who continued to cruise and guard according to the scheduled route, all other personnel were transferred to the combat scene set by the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

On the flight deck of an aircraft carrier, all deck workers immediately put on enhanced terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” after hearing the “combat alert”. Depending on the login user ID, the corresponding virtual information in the “Battlefield Metaverse” is seamlessly superimposed on the workers’ field of vision, supporting the deck workers to complete relevant practical operations in the real world.

Under the unified command of the flight deck commander, all deck operators perform virtual and real integrated deck operations for various types of carrier-based aircraft in accordance with combat mission requirements and carrier-based aircraft take-off procedures, including refueling, bomb loading, towing, safety inspection, ejection, recovery, and ammunition emergency disposal.

In the flight briefing room, all pilots of various types of carrier-based aircraft participating in this mission have put on the immersive terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” and entered the cockpit of the virtual world, waiting for their carrier-based aircraft to complete take-off preparations.

In the cockpit of the virtual carrier-based fighter, an AI assistant with the same configuration as the actual carrier-based aircraft is confirming the status of the aircraft with the pilot and planning the upcoming combat operations according to the combat mission received. During the combat mission, the virtual carrier-based fighter can equivalently feedback the situation information of the enemy and our own reconnaissance, electronic interference, combat damage, etc., providing real-time information for the pilot to make decisions and take actions…

It can be seen from the above typical application scenarios that the “battlefield metaverse” requires a large number of revolutionary breakthroughs in key technologies as its basic support, including VR/AR/MR technology, digital twin technology, cloud computing technology, blockchain technology, high-speed network technology, AI technology, etc.

Construction requires many basic conditions

Compared with the “metaverse” that is open to the public and reconstructs the network ecology, the “battlefield metaverse” needs to be developed based on the actual topological structure of the military network and the construction results of various military information systems, and has higher requirements on key technical indicators. Specifically, the construction of the “battlefield metaverse” should have at least the following basic conditions:

– Independent network communication links. The “Battlefield Metaverse” is an independent form built on the military high-speed network architecture and infrastructure, which is significantly different from the design concept of the “Metaverse” global access. Users of the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to verify and log in through a secure military network node in a relatively fixed place or area. The remote wireless network link is not open to the outside world and has the ability to resist communication interference and network attacks.

——Strict identity authentication mechanism. All individual users accessing the “Battlefield Metaverse” are required to be military personnel who have passed confidentiality review and military scientific research personnel with confidentiality qualifications. The authentication information of all types of users cannot be tampered with, fabricated, or misused in the “Battlefield Metaverse”. All user operations will be recorded in detail in the “Battlefield Metaverse” to facilitate tracking and analysis by the operation and maintenance security department, and any illegal users and operations will have no chance to take advantage.

——Diverse user access capabilities. Users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” can be divided into individual users, equipment users, and system users according to their types. Among them, individual users are organic individuals who directly enter the “Battlefield Metaverse” activities; equipment users and system users are key digital equipment and information systems that need to access the “Battlefield Metaverse”, and their operators or maintenance personnel participate in the activities in the “Battlefield Metaverse” in an indirect way through operational control behaviors in the real world.

——Clear command, coordination and interaction relationship. Different from the high degree of freedom of ordinary users in the “metaverse”, all types of users in different locations in the “battlefield metaverse” participate in specific activities, play designated roles or undertake major tasks, which are uniformly planned, deployed and coordinated by the only event organizer. Before each activity is launched, the event organizer determines the user identification, command relationship, coordination relationship, information interaction permissions, etc. of the participants based on the elements required to achieve the goal.

——Immersive real-time interaction capabilities. Individual users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to log in through a human-computer interaction terminal and achieve real-time interaction with the “Battlefield Metaverse” and other users in the real world. In addition to having basic immersive interaction and time-based functions, terminal devices also need to enhance the user’s operational freedom and sensitivity, so that users can operate and use a variety of weapons, equipment and information systems in the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

——Powerful AI individuals. Similar to the “metaverse”, AI individuals with intelligence and autonomous behavior capabilities will act as permanent residents in the “battlefield metaverse”. They can play the role of virtual red team, blue team, and third-party entities to participate in combat, training and test tasks, and can also play the role of instructors, examiners, staff, system operation and maintenance personnel, etc., to assist individual users in making decisions and taking actions.

——Realistic performance simulation capability. All weapons, equipment and information systems mapped into the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to have functional performance and consistent operation methods equivalent to those in the real world. Through signal-level simulation models and performance algorithms, simulation of reconnaissance detection effectiveness, electronic countermeasure effectiveness, firepower strike effectiveness and comprehensive protection effectiveness can be achieved, ensuring that the experience accumulated by individual users in the “Battlefield Metaverse” can guide actual combat operations.

——Flexible scenario generation capability. The “Battlefield Metaverse” needs to set a battlefield area for each activity, including the geographical environment, electromagnetic environment, meteorological environment, and hydrological environment of the area. Its scenario data is required to be more real and accurate, and requires institutions with relevant qualifications to build and maintain it step by step.

Application, bringing significant benefits in multiple fields

In the future, the “metaverse” may first be applied to areas such as online social networking, online games, and online economy, becoming the starting point for the virtualization of human society.

After the “Battlefield Metaverse” is built, it will have a huge impact on the application fields of education, training, testing, research, etc. of the troops, greatly change the original methods of organizing and implementing activities, significantly improve the comprehensive benefits of various military activities, and effectively stimulate the innovation capabilities of military personnel and scientific researchers.

In the field of education, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can play an important role in centralized education in colleges and universities, in-service distance education, etc. The teachers and students can interact and communicate with each other freely in different locations, which is conducive to creating a harmonious and relaxed teaching atmosphere. On the one hand, the teachers can use more powerful teaching content to demonstrate their teaching ability and achieve more vivid teaching effects; on the other hand, the students can recognize and understand the problems more intuitively, effectively improving their personal interest in self-study and subjective initiative.

In the field of training, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can fully meet the requirements of actual combat training in the context of large-scale combat. Participants at all levels can play the roles of their current positions or proposed positions, and repeatedly receive training and assessments in a larger, more confrontational, and longer-lasting environment. While honing combat skills, honing tactical coordination, and forging combat will, they can apply the accumulated simulated combat experience to actual combat operations. The evaluation of training effects will also be more quantitative and intuitive, which is more conducive to selecting talents.

In the field of testing, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a practical background and large-scale test scenarios with equivalent simulation capabilities for the design and demonstration of new weapons and equipment, weapons and equipment performance testing, weapons and equipment compatibility testing, and weapon system combat effectiveness testing. It can bring virtual and real equipment into a peer environment to operate together, and fully grasp the various states and parameter changes of the equipment, thereby effectively solving practical problems such as limited test times, simple test links, low complexity of the test background, and difficulty in building a combat system.

In the field of research, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a public platform for remote simulation and verification for the use of new equipment and innovation of tactics. On the basis of coordinating expert resources from various regions and centrally calling simulation computing power, virtual AI is used to play the combat forces of all parties, conduct uninterrupted simulation calculations, obtain massive data samples, and mine and analyze knowledge and conclusions that meet the research objectives. During the research process, researchers can also communicate and collaborate with relevant experts, intervene in real time and improve the simulation elements to ensure that the research results can stand the test of actual troops.

From the perspective of system architecture and functional characteristics, although the “Battlefield Metaverse” cannot directly affect actual combat operations, it can serve as a backup for wartime command and communication networks. When the command and communication network is paralyzed by enemy network attacks or key nodes are damaged by attacks, combat troops can try to access the communication link of the “Battlefield Metaverse” to ensure the most basic combat command and information exchange.

The above picture is a schematic diagram of the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

Gaosong System

國語中文:

近期,「元宇宙」成為人們關注的熱點。本版去年11月26日曾刊登《揭開「元宇宙」面紗》一文,並提到了「戰場元宇宙」概念。

簡單地說,「元宇宙」將是下一代網路的終極形態,是與現實世界平行同構的一個虛擬世界,具備多維度、全感官、虛實融合、無縫互動等主要特徵。 “戰場元宇宙”,則是“元宇宙”在軍事領域的表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求,更突出的戰場時統一致性、虛實一體性、邊界安全性、決策智能性、效能逼真性。

設想,一個典型應用場景呈現

我們可透過假想未來一個典型軍事訓練應用場景,初步描繪出「戰場元宇宙」的輪廓——

一支航母編隊正在某海域巡航。突然,編隊指揮室內,虛擬的AI參謀透過「戰場元宇宙」終端,投射生成一個虛擬人影,發出清脆聲音,傳達上一級戰備檢查指令。

編隊指揮官立即依照預案,向編隊下達「演習戰鬥警報」命令。編隊作戰指控系統開始自動接收「戰場元宇宙」終端發送的作戰任務和戰場態勢,除編隊各艦艦橋部位的值更人員按照預定航線繼續進行巡航和警戒外,其餘人員全部轉入「戰場元宇宙」設定的作戰場景之中。

在航空母艦飛行甲板上,所有甲板作業人員在聽到「戰鬥警報」後,立即穿戴好「戰場元宇宙」的增強型終端,根據登入使用者ID的不同,「戰場元宇宙」中對應的虛擬資訊無縫疊加至作業人員視野,支撐甲板作業人員在真實世界完成相關實作動作。

在飛行甲板指揮官統一指揮下,所有甲板作業人員依照作戰任務要求和艦載機起飛流程,對各型艦載機進行虛實融合的甲板作業,包括加油、掛彈、牽引、安全檢查、彈射、回收、彈藥緊急處置等內容。

飛行簡報室內,所有參與本次任務的各型艦載機飛行員已穿戴好「戰場元宇宙」的沉浸型終端,進入虛擬世界的駕駛座艙中,等待自己的艦載機完成起飛準備。

虛擬的艦載戰鬥機座艙內,一位與艦載機實裝配置相同的AI助理正在向飛行員確認飛機的各項狀態,並根據受領的作戰任務,籌劃即將開始的作戰行動。在執行作戰任務期間,虛擬艦載戰鬥機能等效反饋敵我雙方的偵察探測、電子乾擾、交戰毀傷等態勢信息,實時供飛行員決策判斷和採取行動…

透過上述典型應用場景可以看出,「戰場元宇宙」需要大量關鍵技術的革命性突破作為基礎支撐,包括VR/AR/MR技術、數位孿生技術、雲端運算技術、區塊鏈技術、高速網路技術、AI技術等。

構建,需要具備許多基本條件

相較於面向大眾、重構網路生態的“元宇宙”,“戰場元宇宙”需要在軍用網路實際拓撲結構和各類軍用資訊系統的建設成果上展開,對關鍵技術指標上的要求更高。具體來說,建構「戰場元宇宙」應至少具備以下基本條件:

——獨立的網路通訊鏈路。 「戰場元宇宙」是建立在軍用高速網路架構和基礎設施上的獨立形態,與「元宇宙」全球隨遇接入的設計理念有明顯差異。 「戰場元宇宙」的使用者需要在相對固定的場所或區域,透過安全的軍用網路節點進行驗證登入。遠端無線網路連結不對外開放,並具備抵禦通訊幹擾和網路攻擊能力。

——嚴格的身份認證機制。所有接取「戰場元宇宙」的個人用戶,均要求是透過保密審查的軍方人員和具備保密資質的軍工科研人員。所有類型用戶的認證資訊在「戰場元宇宙」中不可篡改、虛構、冒用,所有用戶的操作行為在「戰場元宇宙」中將被詳細記錄,以利於運維安全部門追蹤分析,任何非法用戶及操作均無機可乘。

——多樣化的用戶接入能力。接取「戰場元宇宙」的用戶,依類型可分為個人用戶、裝備用戶及系統用戶等。其中,個人使用者是直接進入「戰場元宇宙」活動的有機個體;裝備使用者和系統使用者則是需要連接「戰場元宇宙」的關鍵數位化裝備和資訊化系統,其操作或維運人員透過在現實世界中的操作控制行為,以間接方式參與「戰場元宇宙」內的活動。

——明確的指揮協同互動關係。與「元宇宙」中普通用戶高自由度不同,異地分佈的所有類型用戶在「戰場元宇宙」中參與的特定活動、扮演的指定角色或擔負的主要任務,均由唯一的活動組織者進行統一籌劃、部署和協調。在每項活動展開前,由活動組織者圍繞達成目標所需的要素,確定參與活動的使用者標識、指揮關係、協同關係、資訊互動權限等。

——沉浸式的即時互動能力。接取「戰場元宇宙」的個人用戶,需透過人機互動終端進行登錄,並與「戰場元宇宙」及現實世界中其他用戶達成即時互動。終端設備在具備基本的沉浸式互動功能和時統功能基礎上,也需要強化使用者的操作自由度和靈敏度,以便於使用者在「戰場元宇宙」中操作使用各式各樣武器裝備和資訊系統。

——強大的AI個體。與「元宇宙」類似,具備智慧和自主行為能力的AI個體,將作為「戰場元宇宙」中永久居民進行活動,既可扮演虛擬的紅方、藍方、第三方實體,參與到作戰、訓練和試驗任務中,也可扮演教官、考官、參謀、系統維運人員等角色,輔助個人使用者進行決策與行動。

——逼真的效能模擬能力。所有映射到「戰場元宇宙」中的武器裝備和資訊系統,均需要具有與真實世界等效的功能性能和一致的操作方法。透過訊號級的模擬模型和效能演算法,實現對偵察探測效能、電子對抗效能、火力打擊效能和綜合防護效能的仿真,確保個人用戶在「戰場元宇宙」中累積的經驗能指導實際作戰行動。

——靈活的場景生成能力。 「戰場元宇宙」需要針對每次活動,設定戰場區域,包括該區域地理環境、電磁環境、氣象環境和水文環境等。其情境資料需求更真實且準確,需要具備相關資格的機構進行逐步建置與持續維護。

應用,多個領域帶來顯著效益

未來,「元宇宙」可能首先應用於網路社交、網路遊戲、網路經濟等領域,成為人類社會虛擬化起點。

「戰場元宇宙」建成後,則會對部隊的教育、訓練、試驗、研究等應用領域帶來巨大影響,極大改變原有的活動組織實施方式,顯著提升各類軍事活動的綜合效益,有效激發軍事人員和科學研究人員的創新能力。

在教育領域,「戰場元宇宙」能在院校集中教育、在職遠距教育等方面發揮重要作用,施教方與受教方在不同地點就能進行自由度極高的互動交流,有利於營造和諧輕鬆的授課氛圍。一方面,施教方能利用更強大的教學內容來展現宣講能力,達成更生動的宣教效果;另一方面,受教方能更直觀地認識和理解問題,有效提升個人自學興趣和主觀能動性。

在訓練領域,「戰場元宇宙」能充分滿足大規模作戰背景下的實戰化訓練要求,各級參訓對象可透過扮演現任職位或擬任崗位的角色,在更大規模、更具對抗性、在更長持續時間的環境中,反覆接受訓練與考核,在錘鍊戰鬥技巧、磨合戰術配合、鍛造戰鬥意志的同時,將累積的模擬作戰經驗應用到實際作戰行動中。訓練效果的評鑑也將更量化直觀,更有利於選賢任能。

在試驗領域,「戰場元宇宙」能為新型武器裝備設計論證、武器裝備性能試驗、武器裝備相容性試驗、武器系統體係作戰效能檢驗等,提供具備等效模擬能力的實戰化背景及大規模試驗場景,將虛實裝備納入對等的環境中共同運行,並全面掌握裝備的各種狀態和參數的變化情況,從而有效解決試驗次數受限、試驗環節簡單、試驗背景複雜度低、作戰體系構建困難等現實問題。

在研究領域,「戰場元宇宙」能為新型裝備運用和戰法創新提供遠端推演驗證的公共平台。在協調各地專家資源與集中調用模擬算力的基礎上,利用虛擬AI扮演各方作戰力量,進行不間斷推演計算,得出海量資料樣本,並從中挖掘分析出符合研究目標的知識和結論。在研究過程中,研究人員還可與相關專家共同交流協作,即時介入並完善推演要素,以確保研究成果經得起實兵檢驗。

從體系架構和功能特性來看,「戰場元宇宙」雖然無法直接影響實際作戰行動,但可作為戰時指揮通訊網路的備份手段。當指揮通訊網路遭受敵方網路攻擊而癱瘓或關鍵節點遭受打擊被損毀時,作戰部隊可嘗試接取「戰場元宇宙」的通訊鏈路,確保最基本的作戰指揮和資訊互動。

上圖為「戰場元宇宙」示意圖。

高 嵩制

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-01/21/content_307950.htm

Chinese Military Training and the Metaverse: Challenges & Opportunities Coexist

中國軍事訓練與虛擬世界:挑戰與機會並存

現代英語:

 In the field of military training, the basic technology of the Metaverse has long been used as a virtual resource by the military to varying degrees. It must be acknowledged that the value and potential of the Metaverse in military training is immeasurable and is the focus of current and future military competition. However, due to the immaturity of the development of Metaverse-related technologies and their application in military training, the bright prospects are accompanied by potential risks.

1. The past and present of the military training metaverse
       
 The metaverse relies on a technology group with virtual reality technology as its core. In its early form in the military field, it is also called virtual simulation or simulated Internet. It can be said that virtual simulation training is very close to today’s concept of the metaverse and is the primary form of the military training metaverse. From ancient times to the present, the progress that has brought great influence in the field of science and technology is generally for winning wars or maintaining combat effectiveness. As the leading technology of the third scientific and technological revolution, the metaverse is used for military training in different forms of basic metaverses in the global military field.
      The US military began to deploy the “Military Metaverse” plan very early. In 1978, Jack Thorpe, a captain of the US Air Force, proposed the idea of ​​a military simulator network in his paper, hoping to establish a distributed or networked military modeling system to facilitate training. In 1983, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US Department of Defense developed the Virtual Battlefield Network Simulator (SIMNET Simulator), which uses computers to generate virtual battlefields, simulate the situation of fighting between the two sides, and summarize errors and failures. Replacing field exercises in this way saves costs to a certain extent and improves the effectiveness of training. Although the SIMNET simulator, as the earliest version, was still at a lower level of battlefield simulation, it pioneered distributed or networked modeling and simulation. By the end of the 1980s, the project reached its peak, and eventually more than 200 simulated interconnected tank and aircraft simulators based on local area networks and wide area networks were formed across the United States and across Europe, and used for large-scale training and exercises. The distributed interactive simulation (DIS) protocol developed at that time is still in use today, and through more advanced high-level architectures, different military simulations can be linked to provide a richer collective training or mission preparation experience. It can be said that the SIMNET simulator project directly or indirectly promoted the development of many key technologies of the current metaverse. Today, the US military is very interested in the metaverse that has sprung up like mushrooms after rain. The newly established military branch, the United States Space Force (USSF), wants to create a military-specific metaverse for collaborative operations, training, and mission execution. Its chief technology officer, Lisa Costa, declared: “Soldiers cannot go to space in person. The only way they can experience their own combat territory is through visual data display. The virtual reality environment will provide them with situational awareness and understand their options in order to make decisions.”
       In recent years, virtual reality and augmented reality technologies of the metaverse have been incorporated into the regular military training of the US military. In 2014, the BlueShark project developed by the Office of Naval Research and the Institute for Creative Technologies at the University of Southern California allowed soldiers to collaborate in a virtual environment to conduct driving technology training; in 2018, the US Army and Microsoft cooperated to develop an integrated visual enhancement system IVAS for soldiers to conduct regular training; in 2020, the US Navy launched the Avengers Project to conduct flight course training through virtual reality, artificial intelligence and biometric technology; in 2021, Boeing created a military aircraft training system that enables maintenance personnel to use AR technology for related simulated maintenance drills; on May 10, 2022, two US fighter pilots took a jet and completed a high-altitude prototype metaverse experiment over the California desert. Refueling operations were performed using a virtual tanker through a specially designed augmented reality display connected to a computer system that displayed a glowing image of a virtual refueling aircraft.

 (I) The US military uses virtual reality technology for military training on a large scale
       
 . At the same time, Russia is also a leader in the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embeddedness. For example, the Sound M universal virtual training system is a universal virtual training equipment for combat personnel of surface-to-air missile weapon systems. The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a special virtual training vehicle, which can complete battlefield simulation training while searching for targets and conducting weapon operations.

 (II) The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a dedicated virtual training vehicle.
        
 In addition, other countries have also begun to explore the combination of metaverse technology and military training. The British Army has been committed to studying the use of extended reality technology, which can put more than 30 soldiers in the same virtual training scene. The British Ministry of Defense’s “Single Synthetic Environment” has used this technology in soldier training. In South Korea, a developer and supplier of a military training simulator called “Optimus Prime” completed the development of the DEIMOS military training system based on metaverse technology in 2019 and applied it to the training of the armed forces. The system can create various environments for professional military training, including precision shooting training, tactical behavior training and observation training.

       2. The inherent advantages of the metaverse in military training Military training
       
is a commonplace in the military, specifically referring to the military theory and related professional knowledge education, combat skills training and military operations exercises conducted by the armed forces and other trainees. The continuous innovation of technologies such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality has accelerated the trend of intelligentization in future wars. Single actual combat exercises in traditional forms will be difficult to meet the combat requirements under the new situation. As a huge group of new technologies, the metaverse plays an increasingly important role in military training. If training is an important support for combat effectiveness, then the primary use of the metaverse in military training is as an important “enabler” for simulation training.       Immersive experience can improve the effectiveness of battlefield environment simulation. As a practical science, military training is centered on experience and the key to training is immersion. The virtual space created by the metaverse makes people feel a “common sense of embodied presence”, allowing trainees to fully immerse themselves in the virtual space and experience a war close to reality. Battlefield environment simulation uses virtual reality technology to process battlefield element data such as battlefield terrain, battlefield personnel, weapons and equipment through computer systems, and finally creates a realistic three-dimensional battlefield environment. Soldiers are immersed in digital environments such as deserts, mountains or plateaus. Each environment has different tactics, techniques and procedures, and soldiers can constantly practice tasks. Even if the soldiers are not in the actual battlefield environment, this technology is enough to restore the authenticity of the environment. More importantly, through battlefield simulation training, not only can soldiers become familiar with the battlefield environment and obtain information to the greatest extent, but they can also improve their ability to observe things from multiple angles and solve emergencies. The US military has developed a virtual reality system called a laser sand table, which can identify and convert photos and videos sent back by satellites, and turn them into realistic three-dimensional maps, presenting the battlefield environment thousands of miles away to commanders. Before the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes, including battlefield conditions, personnel appearances, etc., in order to allow soldiers to adapt to the environment in advance and improve their combat capabilities.

 (II) On the eve of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes
        
. Open interconnection better supports synthetic training. The various parts of the Metaverse ecosystem can be interconnected and operated, and information can be transmitted across platforms and across the world (between virtual worlds or between the virtual world and the real world) without hindrance. Synthetic training uses the open interconnection advantage of Metaverse technology to supplement actual combat training. According to statistics, since 2015, the number of non-combat deaths in the U.S. military has exceeded the number of deaths in actual military operations each year, and many of the deaths in non-combat operations are caused by conventional military training. Therefore, the U.S. Army has begun to use Metaverse to carry out synthetic training in an attempt to establish a virtual synthetic training environment (STE) to reduce casualties in training. From urban warfare to mountain warfare, the “synthetic training environment” integrates “real-time, virtual and constructive training environments into a single synthetic training environment, and provides training functions to ground, transport and air platforms and command posts where needed.” Practice has proved that the synthetic training environment built by the metaverse, with the help of multi-sensory simulation and restoration, can help soldiers break through the limitations of theoretical learning and cognition, and improve the quality and ability of team combat coordination, injury treatment and safe evacuation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US military stationed in Kuwait conducted synthetic training on Iraq’s urban conditions, which enhanced the soldiers’ urban combat capabilities while minimizing casualties in actual combat. The
      imaginative space stimulates innovation in military training thinking to the greatest extent. War exercises have been valued by military strategists since ancient times. During the Warring States Period, Mozi and Gongshu Ban’s deduction games of “untying belts to make a city” and “wooden pieces to make weapons” rehearsed the real situation on the battlefield, thus avoiding fighting between the two armies. In the deep scene era opened by the future metaverse, the military system will become highly intelligent, and the two sides of the war may be able to conduct war deductions in the battlefield metaverse, and even compete in the virtual world. Based on the information obtained in the virtual world, the two sides of the deduction capture and predict the changes in the battlefield through thinking processes such as association, reasoning and logical judgment, which is not only conducive to learning more war laws, but also can exercise the soldiers’ logical deduction ability. In the Gulf War of 1991, the U.S. military conducted war games based on the training level of the troops, the possible course of the war, and the time required for actual combat before implementing Operation Desert Storm. Practice has proved that the U.S. military used the problems found in this war game to transform the combat concept into an actual action plan and ultimately won. This also fully demonstrates that the real battlefield is full of uncertainties, so it is necessary to be fully prepared through continuous war exercises. Undoubtedly, it is almost impossible for the enemy and us to conduct coordinated deductions in the real world, but if the deployment of the enemy and us can be made public to a certain extent by their respective satellites, air and ground reconnaissance equipment, then at a certain time point, between two or more parties about to break out a military crisis, it is expected that the deployment of troops in the metaverse can be carried out first, and the actual military conflict can be resolved.
      The application of metaverse technology in military training can not only avoid accidental casualties during training, but also allow a single or many trainees to complete training tasks in different virtual environments without leaving home and without actual contact. And this kind of non-contact training plays a more obvious role in the regular form of the new crown epidemic.
       3. Potential risks of the metaverse in military training
      
Although the metaverse provides technical support for military training to a large extent, it should never be simply understood as a training program or considered as a means of conducting training. Even if the metaverse technology brings convenience and innovation to military training, the technology itself and its accompanying challenges and uncertainties cannot be ignored.
      The development of metaverse technology may cause security issues. The metaverse is a huge technology group. Its system architecture, core algorithms and immersive technology are still in a stage of continuous development. The supporting industry, value consensus, management standards, etc. have not yet been reached. In general, the metaverse is still a new thing, and its application in military training is even more so. Although the use of virtual training systems can reduce casualties to a certain extent, it is worth thinking about whether such training can be truly used in combat sites. It is still an unknown. And whether the technology is safe enough in operation is also an urgent problem to be solved. James Crowley of Virtual City Training Experts pointed out that computer power may be the most influential part of it. Unless the delay can be reduced to a level that does not make people uncomfortable and feels real, and unless the movement and communication data between different people can be stored in different simulators, it will not be able to provide practical training tools. At the same time, another challenge is the security issue of mutual contact between the armies of different countries in the open virtual world of the Metaverse.
      Virtual training environments are prone to cognitive illusions. Military training in the Metaverse world is the result of a contest between human intelligence and technology. War simulations and military training conducted in a virtual environment can have a powerful deterrent effect on future wars, just like “nuclear weapons”. Although it makes up for the limited senses of people at the physiological level, it also brings psychological cognitive illusions to trainees. Taking unmanned combat military training as an example, long-term combat training under a virtual system will cause the operator to have a gaming mentality. Because the audiovisual senses are out of touch with the real battlefield situation, they are alienated from the real people and society, and have a numb mentality towards the behavior of depriving others of their lives. With the continuous maturity of Metaverse technology, the interaction between the virtual world and the real world will become closer and closer, forming a mixed world that is difficult to distinguish between the real and the virtual. By then, it will not only cause a distinction dilemma for the cognitive psychology of soldiers, but also a major challenge for future military training. The
      “decentralization” of the Metaverse deviates from the traditional military training structure. In the world of the metaverse, all parties involved are virtual entities with equal status after computer processing and digitization. They can act autonomously in the metaverse, so they pursue “decentralization”. However, the traditional military training organizational structure is highly centralized and hierarchical management from top to bottom, which is contrary to the value needs of the metaverse. The US military has made a lot of efforts in pursuing “decentralized” operations, such as the “network-centric warfare” proposed in the 1990s, and the current distributed lethality and mosaic warfare. However, the traditional military training structure and thinking inertia are still obstacles to “decentralization”, and this situation is common in the armies of various countries.
     Yuval Noah Harari said in “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” that humans conquer the world by relying on the ability of fiction and imagination. The metaverse gives us the ability to fiction and imagine, and at the same time, the uncertainty of the metaverse in the field of military training also increases the element of fear. Therefore, we must pay attention to innovative scientific and technological theories, develop cutting-edge metaverse technologies, continuously stimulate the potential of the military training metaverse, and at the same time improve relevant laws, regulations and moral and ethical regulations to make advance preparations for winning future intelligent wars.

國語中文:

在軍事訓練領域,元宇宙的基本技術其實早就作為一種虛擬資源,在不同程度上為軍方使用。必須承認,元宇宙在軍事訓練中的價值潛力不可估量,是當下和未來軍事領域爭鋒的焦點。但由於元宇宙相關技術的發展及其在軍事訓練中的應用尚不成熟,美好前景背後也伴隨著潛在風險。
一、軍事訓練元宇宙的前世今生
元宇宙依賴的是以虛擬實境技術為核心的技術群,在軍事領域的早期形態又稱為虛擬模擬或模擬互聯網。可以說,虛擬模擬訓練已經非常接近今天的元宇宙概念,是軍事訓練元宇宙的初級形態。從古至今,科技領域帶來巨大影響力的進步普遍都是為了贏得戰爭或保持戰鬥力。作為第三次科技革命的領導技術,元宇宙在全球軍事領域,以不同形式的基本元宇宙被用於軍事訓練。
美軍很早就開始部署「軍事元宇宙」計畫。 1978年,美空軍上尉傑克·索普在自己的論文中提出了軍事模擬器網路的構想,希望建立一個分散式或網路化的軍事建模系統方便訓練。 1983年美國防部高級研究計畫局(DARPA),開發了虛擬戰場網路模擬器(SIMNET模擬器),以電腦生成虛擬戰場,模擬雙方交戰的情形進行推演,總結錯誤和失敗。用這樣的方式取代實地演習,一定程度上節省了成本,也提高了訓練的效果。雖然SIMNET模擬器作為最早的版本仍處於較低階的戰場仿真,但卻開闢了分散式或網路化建模仿真的先河。到了20世紀80年代末,該計畫達到頂峰,最終落地形成200多個遍布美國、橫跨歐洲,基於區域網路和廣域網路的模擬互聯坦克和飛機模擬器,並用於大規模訓練與演習。而當時開發的分散式互動式模擬(DIS)協議,至今仍在使用,並且透過更先進的高階體系結構,可以連結不同的軍事模擬,以提供更豐富的集體訓練或任務準備體驗。可以說SIMNET模擬器專案直接或間接推動了當前元宇宙的許多關鍵技術的發展。時至今日,美軍對如雨後春筍般崛起的元宇宙興趣正濃,新成立的軍種——美國太空部隊(USSF)欲打造軍事專用元宇宙,用於協同作戰、訓練、執行任務。其技術主管利薩·科斯塔宣稱:「軍人們並不能親自上太空,他們體驗自身作戰疆域的唯一途徑就是視覺數據顯示,虛擬現實環境會為他們提供態勢感知,並了解自己的選項,以便做出決策。
近年來,元宇宙的虛擬實境和擴增實境技術已納入美軍的常規軍事訓練。 2014年,南加州大學海軍研究辦公室和創意技術研究所開發的BlueShark項目,讓士兵在虛擬環境中協作配合,進行駕駛技術訓練;2018年,美陸軍與微軟合作開發了一款集成視覺增強系統IVAS ,供士兵進行常規訓練;2020年,美海軍又推出了復仇者計劃,透過虛擬現實、人工智慧以及生物識別技術,開展飛行課程培訓;2021年,波音公司打造了一個軍用飛機培訓系統,使維修人員利用AR技術進行相關模擬維修演練;2022年5月10日,兩名美軍戰鬥機飛行員乘坐噴射機,在加州沙漠上空完成了一次高空原型元宇宙實驗。透過特製的擴增實境顯示器,連接到一個虛擬加油飛機發光影像的電腦系統,使用虛擬加油機進行了加油操作。
(一)美軍大量採用虛擬實境技術進行軍事訓練
同時,俄羅斯在虛擬訓練系統的開發上也是領先者,其先進武器裝備幾乎都配有相應的虛擬訓練系統,並且正在朝著通用化和嵌入式的方向發展。如音色M通用虛擬訓練系統就是用於地對空飛彈武器系統作戰人員的通用虛擬訓練裝備。道爾M1型地對空飛彈系統也配備有專用虛擬訓練車,可在目標搜尋和武器作戰的同時完成戰地模擬訓練。

(二)道爾M1型地空飛彈系統也配備有專用虛擬訓練車
此外,其他國家也紛紛開始探索元宇宙技術與軍事訓練的結合。英陸軍一直致力於研究擴展實境技術的使用,可以讓30多名士兵處於相同的虛擬訓練場景。英國防部的「單一合成環境」已經在士兵訓練中使用了這項技術。在韓國,一家名為「擎天柱」的軍事訓練模擬器的開發商和供應商,在2019年完成了基於元宇宙技術的DEIMOS軍事訓練系統研發並應用於武裝部隊的訓練。該系統能夠為專業軍事訓練創造各種環境,包括精準射擊訓練、戰術行為訓練和觀察訓練。
二、軍事訓練元宇宙的內在優勢
軍事訓練乃是兵家常事,具體指武裝力量及其他受訓對象所進行的軍事理論及相關專業知識教育、作戰技能教練和軍事行動演練的活動。人工智慧、虛擬實境等技術的不斷革新,加速了未來戰爭的智慧化趨勢。傳統形式下的單一實戰演練將難以滿足新情勢下的作戰要求。而元宇宙作為一個龐大的新技術群,在軍事訓練中扮演越來越重要的角色。如果說訓練是戰鬥效能的重要支撐,那麼元宇宙在軍事訓練中的首要用途便是作為模擬訓練重要的「賦能器」。
沉浸式體驗能夠提升戰場環境模擬效能。軍事訓練作為實踐科學,訓練的核心在體驗,訓練的關鍵在沉浸。元宇宙所創造的虛擬空間,使人感受到一種“共同的具身在場感”,讓受訓者完全沉浸虛擬空間,體驗一場接近真實的戰爭。戰場環境模擬正是利用虛擬實境技術,透過電腦系統對取得的戰場要素資料如戰場地形、戰場人員、武器裝備等進行處理,最終創設出逼真的立體戰場環境。士兵們沉浸在沙漠、山區或高原的數位環境中,每個環境都有不同的戰術、技術和程序,士兵們可以不斷地演練任務。即便士兵不是在實際的戰場環境中,但這項技術足以還原環境的真實度,更重要的是透過戰場模擬訓練,不僅能夠讓士兵熟悉戰場環境,最大程度獲取信息,而且還能提升其多角度觀察事物、解決突發狀況的能力。美軍目前已研發出一款被稱為雷射沙盤的虛擬實境系統,能夠辨識和轉換衛星發回的照片和錄像,並將其轉變成逼真的立體地圖,將遠在千里外的戰場環境呈現給指揮員。在阿富汗戰爭和伊拉克戰爭前夕,美軍都採用了虛擬實境技術來打造真實的戰爭場景,包括戰地狀況、人員樣貌等。旨在讓士兵提前適應環境,提升作戰能力。

(一)元宇宙所創造的虛擬空間,使人感受到一種“共同的具身在場感”

(二)在阿富汗戰爭和伊拉克戰爭前夕,美軍都採用了虛擬實境技術打造真實的戰爭場景
開放式互聯較能支撐合成訓練開展。元宇宙生態系統各部分之間可以實現相互連接和操作,資訊可以暢通無阻地實現跨平台和跨世界傳輸(在虛擬世界之間或虛擬世界與現實世界之間)。合成訓練正是利用元宇宙技術的這一開放式互聯優勢,來實現實戰訓練的補充。根據統計,從2015年開始,美軍每年的非戰鬥死亡人數超出了在實際軍事行動中犧牲的人數,而在非戰鬥行動中喪生的人員很多是由常規軍事訓練造成的。因此,美陸軍已經開始採用元宇宙進行合成訓練,試圖建立虛擬合成訓練環境(STE)來減少訓練中的傷亡。從城市作戰到山地作戰,「合成訓練環境」將「即時、虛擬和建設性的訓練環境整合到一個單一的合成訓練環境中,並在有需要的地方向地面、運載和空中平台以及指揮所提供訓練功能」。實務證明,透過元宇宙建構的合成訓練環境,藉助多感官模擬還原,能夠幫助戰士突破理論學習和認知局限,提升團隊作戰協同、傷情處置和安全撤離等素質和能力。伊拉克戰爭前夕,駐紮在科威特的美軍就對伊拉克的城市狀況進行了合成訓練,增強了士兵城市作戰能力的同時,把實戰中的傷亡降到了最低。
想像性空間最大程度激發軍事訓練思維創新。戰爭演習自古就受到兵家重視,戰國時期墨子和公輸班「解帶為城」「木片為械」的推演遊戲將戰場上的真實情況演練出來,從而避免了兩軍交戰。在未來元宇宙開啟的深度場景時代,軍事體系將走向高度智慧化,作戰雙方或許能在戰場元宇宙進行戰爭推演,甚至在虛擬世界一決高下。推演雙方根據虛擬世界獲取的信息,透過聯想、推理和邏輯判斷等思維過程,對戰場風雲變化進行捕捉和預判,不僅有利於習得更多戰爭規律,還能夠鍛鍊士兵的邏輯推演能力。 1991年的海灣戰爭中,美軍就在實施「沙漠風暴」行動前,根據部隊的訓練水準和可能的戰爭進程,以及實際作戰所需時間進行了兵棋推演。實踐證明,美軍借助這次兵棋推演發現的問題,將作戰設想轉化為實際行動方案,最終取得勝利。這也充分說明了真實的戰場充滿了種種不確定性,因此需要透過不斷進行戰爭演習來做好充分準備。毋庸置疑,敵我雙方在現實世界中進行協同推演幾乎是不可能的,但若敵我雙方的兵力部署可以被各自的衛星、空中和地面偵查設備進行一定程度的公開,那麼在某個時間節點,在即將爆發軍事危機的雙方或多方之間,先在元宇宙中進行排兵布陣,可以化解現實的軍事衝突則有望實現。
元宇宙技術在軍事訓練中的應用不僅可以避免訓練中的人員意外傷亡,還可以讓單一或眾多參訓者在足不出戶,無需實際接觸便可在不同虛擬環境下完成訓練任務。而這種非接觸式訓練在新冠疫情的常規化形態下,所扮演的角色更加明顯。
三、軍事訓練元宇宙的潛在風險
元宇宙在很大程度上雖然為軍事訓練提供技術支撐,但絕不能僅僅將其簡單地理解為一種訓練項目,或者被認為是一種開展訓練的手段。即使元宇宙技術為軍事訓練帶來便利和創新,也不能忽視科技本身及其伴生的挑戰和不確定性。
元宇宙技術發展或引發安全問題。元宇宙是一個龐大的技術群,其體系架構、核心演算法和沈浸技術等尚處於不斷開發的階段,配套產業、價值共識、管理標準等還沒有達成,總的來說,元宇宙還是一個新事物,在軍事訓練中的應用更是如此。儘管使用虛擬訓練系統能夠在一定程度上減少傷亡,但值得思考的是這樣的訓練是否能夠真正用於作戰現場,目前仍是一個未知數。而技術在運作中是否夠安全也是一個亟待解決的問題。虛擬城市訓練專家公司的詹姆斯·克勞利指出,電腦能力可能是其中最有影響力的部分,除非可以將延遲降低到不會讓人不適並且感覺真實的程度,除非可以在不同的模擬器中儲存不同人之間的行動和通訊數據,否則將無法提供實用的訓練工具。同時,另一個擺在眼前的挑戰則是在開放的元宇宙虛擬世界中,不同國家軍隊之間相互接觸的安全問題。
虛擬訓練環境易造成認知錯覺。元宇宙世界裡的軍事訓練是人類智力和技術較量的結果,在虛擬環境下進行的戰爭推演、軍事訓練等對未來戰爭的作用,如同「核武」一般,不用動用實槍實彈也能起到強大的威懾效果。儘管在生理層面彌補了人的有限感官,同時也帶來了受訓者在心理上的認知錯覺。以無人作戰的軍事訓練為例,長期在虛擬系統下進行作戰訓練,將會造成操縱者的遊戲心態。由於視聽感官與真實戰場情況脫節,而疏離了現實的人與社會,對於剝奪他人生命的行為產生麻木心態。隨著元宇宙技術的不斷成熟,虛擬世界、現實世界的互動將會越來越緊密,形成虛實難分的混合世界。到那時,不僅對士兵的認知心理造成區分困境,對於未來的軍事訓練也是重大挑戰。
元宇宙「去中心化」與傳統軍事訓練結構相背離。在元宇宙的世界中,參與各方都是經過電腦處理、資料化後產生的地位平等的虛擬主體,可以在元宇宙中自主活動,因而其追求「去中心化」。但傳統的軍事訓練組織結構則是高度集中、自上而下的分層化管理,這一方面與元宇宙的價值需求是背離的。美軍在追求“去中心化”作戰上做出了很多努力,如20世紀90年代提出的“網絡中心戰”,以及當前的分散式殺傷以及馬賽克戰等。但傳統的軍事訓練結構和思維慣性仍然是「去中心化」的阻力,而這種情況普遍存在於各國軍隊。
尤瓦爾·赫拉利在《人類簡史》中談道,人類靠著的是虛構和想像的能力征服世界。元宇宙給了我們虛構和想像的能力,同時元宇宙在軍事訓練領域的不確定性也增加了恐懼的成分。因此,我們必須關注創新科技理論、發展元宇宙前沿科技,不斷激發軍事訓練元宇宙的潛力,同時完善相關法律法規和道德倫理規約,為打贏未來智慧化戰爭做好超前準備。
版權聲明:本文刊於2023年1期《軍事文摘》雜誌,作者:張愷悅、李傑春,如需轉載請務必註明「轉自《軍事文摘》」。

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81it.com/2023/0321/14167.html

Chinese Military Analysis on the Application of Metaverse in Military Communication

中國軍事分析虛擬宇宙在軍事通訊的應用

現代英語翻譯:

Abstract: Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technologies, will become the key to future media content production and cognitive advantage. Looking forward to the development prospects of Metaverse, this article explains the concept of Metaverse and analyzes its development prospects, key technologies and practical applications, aiming to provide reference for the application of Metaverse in the field of military communication.

Keywords: Metaverse; Military Communication; Development Prospects

The Metaverse has become a hot topic that people are competing to talk about, and has been selected as one of the “Top Ten Internet Terms of 2021”. Globally renowned Internet companies from Facebook to ByteDance are all planning the Metaverse. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was called a “public opinion war” and “cognitive war” with various means by domestic and foreign public opinion experts. Some experts even exclaimed that cognitive domain warfare in the form of the Metaverse has begun. The Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technology, will become the key to future media content production and gaining cognitive advantages. Exploring the application of the Metaverse in the field of military communication has become an important topic in the era of omnimedia.

1. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects

Metaverse was born in the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. The Metaverse described in the novel is a virtual shared space parallel to the real world. According to relevant information, as early as 1990, Qian Xuesen had a vision of virtual reality and Metaverse, and gave it a very meaningful name – “Spirit Realm”. Four years later, Qian Xuesen specifically mentioned: “Spirit Realm technology is another technological revolution after the computer technology revolution. It will trigger a series of changes that will shock the world and must be a major event in human history.” Qian Xuesen had already foreseen that Metaverse-related technologies would bring profound changes to human society.

From originating from science fiction to entering reality, the industry has not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the metaverse. According to the research of relevant experts, the essential characteristics of the metaverse are two: virtual-real integration and immersive experience. Virtual-real integration means that the boundary between the digital world and the physical world gradually disappears, and the economy, life, assets and identity of the two worlds are fully integrated. Immersive experience means that people’s two-dimensional audio-visual experience of the Internet is expanded into a three-dimensional, immersive, full-sensory experience. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects.

The Metaverse is the next generation of the Internet. Looking back at the development of the Internet, from PC Internet to mobile Internet, the sense of immersion when using the Internet has gradually increased, and the distance between virtual and reality has gradually shortened. Under this trend, the Metaverse, where both immersion and participation have reached their peak, may be the “ultimate form” of the Internet. Regarding the future development of the Metaverse, some experts predict that: in terms of hardware terminals, with the portable development of wearable devices such as VR/AR glasses, their popularity will increase significantly, and people will gradually adapt to and accept the larger visual range and more natural interaction methods brought by new devices; in terms of content ecology and application scenarios, explosive Metaverse content will continue to emerge, and application scenarios will gradually expand. In the Metaverse, user experience has achieved an improvement and transformation from “online” to “presence”, thus entering the “scenario era”.

The metaverse is a new type of holographic medium. With the development of media technology, the presentation of media content has evolved from one-dimensional, two-dimensional to multi-dimensional. The emergence of the metaverse is another revolution in communication media after radio, television, and the Internet. From the perspective of user experience, the metaverse not only expands the user’s experience space, but also brings an immersive experience of “you are not just watching the content, you are in it as a whole”. From the perspective of media products, a large number of “we are on the scene” news media products will appear in the metaverse. The media products of the metaverse will achieve the advancement of news content with immersive narratives. For example, major sudden incident reports, large-scale live events, news documentaries, etc., can make the complete news scene into a digital scene of the metaverse, allowing the audience to enter the scene from various perspectives for experience. From the perspective of communication methods, there are currently four main modes of information communication: mass communication, network communication, social communication, and intelligent communication. The arrival of the new media of the metaverse will enrich the means of information communication in the era of intelligent communication, and “holographic communication” will become possible.

The metaverse is the future battlefield of cognitive domain warfare. The essence of communication media is the communication platform and channel, which is the material basis and main weapon of cognitive narrative in cognitive domain warfare. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was reported to the world in countless “first-person perspectives”. Both Russia and Ukraine spoke out on online media and social platforms to compete for the dominance of international communication cognitive narrative. As a new type of holographic medium, the metaverse transmits cognition in a full-dimensional, full-system and immersive way. It can shape people’s thinking and cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly, and has immeasurable application value in cognitive warfare. In addition, the metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenarios, where cognitive warfare can be efficiently promoted and presented in a panoramic manner.

2. A Preliminary Study on the Application of Metaverse in the Field of Military Communication

Like other new technologies, the metaverse was quickly applied to the field of military communication. The PLA News and Communication Center made a bold attempt and launched the “Holographic Military Newspaper” during the National People’s Congress for three consecutive years. It used technologies such as extended reality and digital construction to show a newspaper full of futuristic atmosphere: you can wear VR glasses to experience the “Holographic Military Newspaper” immersively, or you can watch it through your mobile phone. The “Holographic Military Newspaper” is the first of its kind in the domestic newspaper publishing industry and has been selected as an innovative case of deep integration and development of China’s newspaper industry. During the 2021 National People’s Congress, the center also launched the military media intelligent cartoon virtual person “Xiaojun”, which realized the same-screen interaction between 3D cartoons and real people. In 2022, the center and the Art Department of the PLA Culture and Art Center jointly launched the “2022 Metaverse Military Camp Network Spring Festival Gala”, which used metaverse technology to build a virtual space and interactive platform. Netizens and audiences can enter the three-dimensional virtual space by avatars, visit the performance site, and choose their favorite seats to watch the Spring Festival Gala. They can also interact with the audience around them through language and gestures. Some netizens commented: “It’s so shocking! The literary and artistic light cavalry team expressed it in the form of the metaverse, which shows the advancement of technology!” In addition, the center’s network department also took the lead in launching the public welfare NFT digital collection “Stars Accompany Me to Guard the Border”.

At present, the military-related authoritative media is organizing a team to promote the preliminary research and design of the Metaverse Editorial Department. Looking at the development process from traditional news editorial departments to intelligent editorial departments, combined with the advanced technology and future development of the Metaverse, experts have proposed the concept of “Metaverse Editorial Department”, that is, “Metaverse Editorial Department” enables editors and reporters at multiple locations to efficiently complete planning, interviews, editing, publishing and other tasks “face to face” in the same virtual space, the same chain of command, and the same work system. This will be the evolution of the news editorial department in the future. Each editor and reporter has his or her own virtual workspace. When there is a need for a meeting discussion, they can instantly travel to the virtual conference room for “face-to-face” communication.

3. Thoughts on how to win the cognitive war in the metaverse

A major feature of the 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict is the deep involvement of social media. Mobile Internet has become the main source of information related to this conflict. As mentioned earlier, the special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects. How to win the cognitive war in the metaverse urgently requires us to think forward-lookingly.

Strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse. As a pioneering and innovative frontier field, the metaverse has huge initial R&D costs and requires long-term and continuous high investment to achieve the docking and unification of massive standards and specifications and the connection and interaction of ultra-large-scale users. This also leads to the inherent monopoly gene of the metaverse. At present, American companies such as Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, with the support of their governments and military, have deeply laid out the metaverse, and are very likely to become the technology monopolist and ruler of the future metaverse, just like the current situation of the Internet. In this Russia-Ukraine conflict, these technology giants “one-sidedly” pointed their spearheads at Russia, restricted or even banned Russia from using its technology products, and provided support for the United States to impose comprehensive sanctions. This warns us that in order not to be constrained in technology in the future, we should concentrate the superior forces of the military and the local area, aim at the metaverse technology, work together to tackle key problems, and strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse.

Develop a metaverse platform that adapts to cognitive warfare. Developing a metaverse platform that is autonomous, controllable, has a wide coverage, and has a great influence is the key to winning in the cognitive domain battlefield in the future. Back to the Russia-Ukraine conflict, in order to suppress Russia from public opinion, American social platforms such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, at the instruction of the US officials, directly restricted the exposure of Russian media. It can be said that they have taken advantage of the platform at the cognitive warfare level. This requires us to actively think about the future form of military communication platforms, develop metaverse platforms that adapt to cognitive warfare, and strive to create explosive products. For example, launching a metaverse version of the military’s new media platform.

We should speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. In addition to the traditional visible content types, content creation in the Metaverse era has also added a large amount of three-dimensional content, including panoramic shooting, digital twins of the real world, artificial construction of virtual space, and the display of virtual digital people. It is an issue that needs to be considered at present to speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. For example, the creation of digital history museums, the creation of heroic virtual people, the reproduction of classic battles, etc., can truly make history “perceptible” and make cultural relics “speaking”. In addition, the independent research and development of content creation tools is also critical.

國語中文:

摘 要:元宇宙作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。展望元宇宙發展前景,本文闡釋了元宇宙概念,並圍繞其發展圖景、關鍵技術和實踐應用進行闡釋分析,旨在為元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用提供借鑒參考。

關鍵字:元宇宙;軍事傳播;發展前景

元宇宙,目前成為人們競相談論的熱門話題,並入選了「2021年度十大網路用語」。從Facebook到位元組跳動等全球知名網路公司都在版面元宇宙。 2022年的俄烏衝突被國內外輿論戰專家稱作是一場手段多樣的“輿論戰”“認知戰”,有專家甚至驚呼元宇宙形態下的認知域作戰拉開了序幕。元宇宙,作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。探尋元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用,成為全媒體時代一門重要課題。

一、元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景

元宇宙(Metaverse),誕生於1992年的科幻小說《雪崩》。小說中所描述的元宇宙是一個平行於現實世界的虛擬共享空間。根據相關資料顯示,早在1990年,錢學森就對虛擬實境與元宇宙有過展望,並為其起了個頗有意境的名字—「靈境」。 4年後,錢學森特別提到:「靈境技術是繼電腦科技革命之後的另一場科技革命。它將引發一系列震撼全世界的變革,一定是人類歷史中的大事。」錢學森當時就已預見元宇宙相關技術將對人類社會帶來的深層變革。

從源自科幻到走進現實,業界對於元宇宙的定義還沒能達成共識。根據相關專家的研究,認為元宇宙的本質特徵是兩個:虛實融合和沈浸體驗。虛實融合,就是數位世界和實體世界的邊界逐漸消失,實現兩個世界的經濟、生活、資產和身分認同等全方位的融合。沉浸體驗,就是人們對網路的二維視聽體驗拓展為三維立體、沉浸式的全感官體驗。元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景。

元宇宙是下一代互聯網。回顧網路的發展歷程,從PC互聯網到行動互聯網,使用網路時的沉浸感逐漸提升,虛擬與現實的距離也逐漸縮短。在此趨勢下,沉浸感和參與度都達到高峰的元宇宙或是網路的「終極形態」。對於元宇宙的未來發展,有專家預計:硬體終端方面,隨著VR/AR眼鏡等穿戴設備的便攜化發展,其普及程度將大幅度提高,人們逐漸適應和接受新設備帶來的更大的視覺範圍和更自然的互動方式;內容生態及應用場景方面,爆款元宇宙內容將不斷湧現,應用場景也將逐步拓展。在元宇宙中,使用者體驗實現了從「線上」到「在場」的提升和轉變,從而進入「場景時代」。

元宇宙是新型全息媒介。隨著媒介技術的發展,媒體內容的呈現方式從一維、二維到多維不斷演進。元宇宙的出現,是繼廣播、電視、網路之後傳播媒介的另一次革命。從使用者體驗來看,元宇宙不僅拓展了使用者的體驗空間,也帶來了「你不只是觀看內容,你整個人就身在其中」的沉浸式體驗。從媒體產品來看,元宇宙將出現大量「我們在現場」式的新聞媒體產品。元宇宙的媒體產品將以沉浸式敘事實現新聞內容的進階。例如,重大突發事件報導、大型現場活動、新聞紀錄片等,可以將完整的新聞現場做成元宇宙的一個數位場景,讓觀眾以各種視角進入現場進行體驗。從傳播方式來看,目前,訊息傳播主要有4種傳播模式:大眾傳播、網路傳播、社交傳播、智慧傳播。元宇宙新型媒介的到來將使得智慧傳播時代訊息傳播的手段更為豐富,「全像傳播」成為可能。

元宇宙是認知域作戰的未來戰場。傳播媒介實質就是傳播平台和管道,是認知域作戰中認知敘事的物質基礎和主要武器。 2022年的俄烏衝突以無數「第一視角」的方式向全球報道,俄烏雙方都在網路媒體和社群平台發聲,爭奪國際傳播認知敘事主導權。元宇宙作為新型全像媒介,其傳導認知的方式是全維度、全系統和沈浸式的,能夠更全面、更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知,具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。另外,元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進和全景式呈現。

二、元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用初探

和其他新技術的產生一樣,元宇宙也很快被應用於軍事傳播領域。解放軍新聞傳播中心進行了大膽嘗試,連續3年在全國兩會期間推出的“全息軍報”,運用擴展現實、數字構建等技術,展示了一份充滿未來氣息的報紙:可以佩戴VR眼鏡沉浸式體驗“全息軍報”,也可以透過手機觀看。 「全像軍報」是國內報紙出版業的首創,入選了中國報業深度融合發展創新案例。 2021年全國兩會期間,該中心還推出軍媒智慧卡通虛擬人“小軍”,實現了3D卡通與現實人物的同屏互動。 2022年,該中心和解放軍文化藝術中心文藝部共同推出的“2022年元宇宙軍營網絡春晚”,利用元宇宙技術搭建虛擬空間和互動平台。網友觀眾化身虛擬人即可進入立體虛擬空間,參觀演出現場,並自行選擇喜好的座位觀看春晚,還可以跟著周圍的觀眾進行語言和手勢互動。有網友評價:「太震撼了!文藝輕騎以元宇宙的形式表現,真是科技在進步!」另外,該中心網絡部還率先推出了公益性NFT數字藏品《星星伴我守邊防》。

目前,軍隊相關權威媒體正在組織團隊推進元宇宙編輯部的前期研究和設計。縱觀傳統新聞編輯部到智慧編輯部的發展歷程,結合元宇宙先進技術和未來發展,專家提出了「元宇宙編輯部」的概念,即「元宇宙編輯部」使多點位的編輯記者在同一虛擬空間、同一指揮鏈、同一工作體系裡「面對面」有效率地完成規劃、訪談、編輯、發布等工作。這將是未來新聞編輯部的進化形態,每個編輯記者都擁有各自的虛擬工作空間,當有會議討論需求時,可以瞬間穿越到虛擬會議室進行「面對面」交流。

三、如何在元宇宙中打贏認知戰的思考

2022年俄烏衝突的一個主要特徵,是社群媒體的深度參與。行動互聯網成了這次衝突關聯資訊的主要來源。如前所述,元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景。如何在元宇宙中打贏認知戰,迫切需要我們做前瞻性思考。

努力實現未來元宇宙核心技術的自主可控。元宇宙作為開拓性和創新性的前沿領域,前期研發成本龐大,需要長期且持續的高額投資,以實現大量標準規範的對接統一、超大規模用戶的連結互動。這也導致了元宇宙具有內在壟斷基因。目前,Facebook、Google、微軟等美國公司在其政府和軍方的支持下,深入佈局元宇宙,極大可能成為未來元宇宙的技術壟斷者和統治者,就像現在互聯網的情況一樣。在這次俄烏衝突中,上述這些科技巨頭「一邊倒」地將矛頭對準俄羅斯,限制甚至禁止俄羅斯使用其科技產品,為美國實施全面製裁施壓提供了支撐。這警告我們,為了將來在技術上不被掣肘,應該集中軍地優勢力量,瞄準元宇宙技術,協力攻關,努力實現未來元宇宙核心技術的自主可控。

發展適應認知戰的元宇宙平台。開發自主可控、覆蓋範圍廣、影響力大的元宇宙平台,是未來在認知域戰場上取得勝利的關鍵。回到俄烏衝突中,為了從輿論上打壓俄羅斯,YouTube、Twitter和Facebook等美國的社群平台在美國官方的授意下,直接限制了俄羅斯媒體的曝光率,可以說在認知戰層面佔盡了平台優勢。這就需要我們主動思考未來軍隊傳播平台型態,開發適應認知戰的元宇宙平台,努力打造爆款產品。例如,推出軍隊新媒體平台的元宇宙版本等。

抓緊生產與累積適合元宇宙時代的沉浸式內容。元宇宙時代的內容創作除了傳統可見的內容類型外,還大量增加了三維內容,包括全景拍攝、真實世界的數位孿生、虛擬空間的人工構建、虛擬數位人的展示等等。抓緊生產和累積適合元宇宙時代的沉浸式內容,是當前需要重點考慮的問題。例如,製作數位史館、打造英雄虛擬人、復現經典戰例等等,真正實現讓歷史「可感知」、讓文物「會說話」。另外,內容創作工具的自主研發也很關鍵。

(作者單位:解放軍新聞傳播中心網絡部)

中國軍事資源:http://www.81.cn/rmjz_203219/jsjz/2022nd5q_242715/tbch_242721/10193529.html

Metaverse-enabled military training is on the rise for China’s People’s Liberation Army

中國人民解放軍元宇宙軍事訓練正在興起

現代英語:

The metaverse is an artificial online virtual world that is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It is parallel to the real world, reacts to the real world, and integrates a variety of high technologies. These are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural laws of human understanding and transformation of the world, providing a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operation behavior, state, and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. Researching the application of the metaverse in the field of foreign military training and analyzing the opportunities and challenges that the metaverse brings to the field of military training have important theoretical and practical value in solving the key problems that need to be solved in military training in the intelligent era, promoting scientific and technological training, and promoting the innovative development of military training models.

Background of cognitive metaverse empowering military training

The scientific and technological revolution has given rise to a new ecosystem for military training. Driven by the new scientific and technological revolution and the industrial revolution, cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things are accelerating their development. Technology giants are laying out the metaverse, and human real life is migrating to the virtual world more rapidly. The metaverse integrates a variety of emerging technologies, thus generating new Internet applications and new social forms that integrate the virtual and the real. Perception technology supports the integration of the virtual and the real in the metaverse, “AI+” technology supports the social nature of the metaverse, data transmission technology supports the real-time nature of the metaverse, electronic game technology supports the diversity of the metaverse, digital twin technology supports the sustainability of the metaverse, and blockchain technology supports the security of the metaverse. The future metaverse, where virtuality and reality are highly interconnected, is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It integrates all elements such as the Internet, virtual reality, immersive experience, blockchain, and digital twins to build a new basic ecology for intelligent military training.

The evolution of war dominates the transformation and upgrading of military training. With the advent of the intelligent era, the war form is accelerating its evolution towards informationization and intelligence. The informationized warfare system with “information acquisition and utilization as the core” will gradually transition to an intelligent warfare system with “intelligent simulation and expansion as the core”. The trend of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned weapons and equipment is more obvious, and intelligent warfare has surfaced. At the same time, combat elements represented by artificial intelligence such as “AI, cloud, network, group, and terminal” and their diversified combinations have formed a new battlefield ecology. The metaverse has built a new battlefield space where virtual and real are integrated and parallel and interactive. The traditional war winning mechanism is being profoundly changed. The development and change of intelligent warfare has compulsorily driven the transformation and reshaping of the military’s thinking and concepts, requiring the acceleration of the transformation and upgrading of military training, paying more attention to the impact of technological development and changes on war, and using the “new engine” of training and war to run out of the “acceleration” of preparation.

Foreign militaries explore breakthroughs in military training models. In order to seize the strategic commanding heights of military intelligence, the world’s military powers attach great importance to the innovation of military training models, and some countries have begun to try to apply the metaverse and related technologies in military training. For example, the United States has successively released the “National Security Strategy”, “National Defense Strategy” and “Department of Defense Transformation Plan”, focusing on building an “all-round army” and forming a “full spectrum advantage”. At the same time, it has formulated the “Training Transformation Strategic Plan” and “Training Transformation Implementation Plan”, and proposed the concept of comprehensive training environment (STE), the core of which is immersive and integrated virtual training, which intends to integrate real-time, virtual, constructive and game environments into a comprehensive training environment. Russia also attaches great importance to the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embedding. The United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, etc. are also actively developing various professional military training virtual environments. Intelligent training supported by technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality and augmented reality is gradually becoming the mainstream of military training research in powerful countries.

Clarify the advantages of metaverse-enabled military training

Sprouting new concepts of military training. Only by leading opponents in thought can we gain the upper hand in action. The emergence of disruptive technologies will inevitably rewrite the current military training rules and systems, and will also innovate the existing military training thinking concepts. On the one hand, the metaverse has set off a hurricane-like “brainstorm”, and the training thinking led by “intelligence” will organically connect training with actual combat, and upgrade to intelligent military training thinking. On the other hand, new technologies and new means represented by the metaverse empower military training, strengthen the concept of winning by science and technology and intelligent driving, and greatly improve the scientific and technological content of military training, in order to control the initiative in future wars. The future metaverse will create more impossible possibilities by constructing a virtual battlefield space, designing wars and evolving wars.

Innovate new theories of military training. War is the area that needs innovation the most. Military training must adapt to the development of intelligent warfare, and theoretical innovation and training practice must be driven by two wheels. Training transformation will not happen automatically. It requires not only a sharp and profound foresight to grasp the general trend, but also a scientific and powerful solid theory to drive forward. On the one hand, by keeping up with the development of the times and starting from new concepts and new cognitions, we can build a scientific theoretical system for metaverse-enabled military training. On the other hand, by following the laws of combat-training coupling, we can establish an intelligent military training theory innovation model with the characteristics of the times, so that the metaverse can empower and improve the efficiency of promoting the iterative development of military training transformation.

Transform the new model of military training. The combat style determines the training mode. Intelligent warfare changes the “rules of the game”. Military training for the next war must adapt to the requirements of future wars by changing the training mode. The first is to be able to build an intelligent blue army with “both form and spirit”. With the help of optimized AI technology, powerful computing support, and realistic performance simulation, the Metaverse follows the evolutionary process of “knowing the enemy, imitating the enemy, surpassing the enemy, and defeating the enemy” to create an intelligent blue army with platform support and data empowerment, and carry out “real” confrontation training and effect evaluation in the Metaverse space. The second is to be able to carry out new domain and new quality combat training. The metaverse expands the practical application path with new domains and new types of combat forces as the leading elements, highlights the research and development of training methods and tactics that are compatible with advanced combat concepts and winning mechanisms, and creates new types of training such as unmanned and seamless human-machine collaboration, becoming a new point of combat power growth. Third, it can cultivate new military talents. At present, the educational metaverse has led the intelligent transformation of education. In the future, the military metaverse will accelerate the realization of intelligent interaction between people and equipment, deep integration between people and systems, and adaptive evolution between people and the environment, and promote the integrated development of “commanders” and “fighters” to “scientists” and “technicians”.

Reshape the new ecology of military training. The multi-dimensional perception, virtual-real integration, free creativity, and open development of the metaverse will make the future metaverse a fully immersive, time-transcending, self-creating and developing space. First, create a digital twin “battlefield metaverse”. The “battlefield metaverse” will be a typical manifestation of the metaverse in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, stronger simulation computing capabilities, and more real-time and detailed interaction requirements. Secondly, create a full-dimensional three-dimensional metaverse training environment. The metaverse uses technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality to create an immersive and complex scene environment; using powerful data and network support, it builds a full-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and the Internet. Furthermore, build a metaverse verification platform for weapons and equipment. The platform will have functions such as new weapon equipment design demonstration, weapon equipment performance test, weapon equipment compatibility test, and weapon system combat effectiveness test. In the future, the metaverse will greatly shorten the timeline of weapons and equipment from “weak intelligence” to “strong intelligence” and then to “super intelligence”, and realize the intelligent multiplication effect of weapons and equipment.

Grasp the key points of metaverse empowered military training

Focus on top-level design. From the perspective of the development of things, the metaverse, as a new thing, has yet to be verified to mature. Intelligent military training is also a complex, arduous and long-term system engineering, which requires strengthening strategic planning and top-level layout. We should pay close attention to the development and technological trends of the metaverse, scientifically formulate the development plan of the “training metaverse”, and give full play to the outstanding advantages of the metaverse in allowing trainees to immerse themselves in experiential training under the realistic background of the integration of intelligence, informatization, and mechanization, so that the metaverse can not only be a display platform for virtual technology, but also a practical platform for improving the effectiveness of military training.

Strengthen technology research and development. From a technical perspective, the metaverse re-integrates the existing technologies in the information and intelligent technology group, puts forward an overall innovative concept, and provides a comprehensive application scenario, thereby giving birth to new vitality. To accelerate the development of the “training metaverse”, we must speed up the research on basic software and hardware technologies such as algorithm engines and network communications, strengthen the research and development capabilities of core technologies such as artificial intelligence, digital twins, blockchain, and the Internet of Things, and at the same time strengthen the overall technical design and development of the metaverse, such as immersion, sociality, openness, collaboration, and decentralization.

Create training types. From the perspective of time and space, the metaverse may construct an extremely large virtual war space, reproduce the war environment, present the war process, and virtualize the future of war. An intelligent military training operation system based on the metaverse should be constructed, the military training thinking concept should be updated in a timely manner, and innovations in military training models, management guarantees, and legal mechanisms should be deepened. Construct a dynamic and high-level combat-oriented military training environment based on the metaverse to fully support strategic, campaign and tactical training and war games. At the same time, in the process of “intelligent adaptation” of military training, realize the expansion of wisdom and intelligent evolution towards the unknown space of military training with “innovation, openness, multiple iterations, and new intelligent ecology”.

Pay attention to risk prevention and control. From the perspective of safety and controllability, the concept and technology of the metaverse bring innovative opportunities for intelligent military training, but what cannot be ignored is the potential risks associated with the technology itself. The Metaverse is a huge technology complex, and its system architecture, key technologies, and application environment are still in the development and implementation stage. The supporting protection system, safety technology, and management standards will bring security risks. In addition, the integrated application of multiple emerging technologies during the construction process, as well as the complexity and confidentiality of the application process, will be unknown factors that will be the key prevention and risk challenges of the Metaverse in military training.

繁體中文:

元宇宙是脫胎於、平行、獨立於現實世界的人造線上虛擬世界,與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。元宇宙運行符合人類認識世界、改造世界的自然規律,提供了理解和發現現實復雜系統運行行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式和探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段。研究元宇宙在外軍軍事訓練領域的運用,剖析元宇宙在軍事訓練領域帶來的機遇與挑戰,對破解智能化時代軍事訓練亟待解決的關鍵問題,推動科技強訓,促進軍事訓練模式創新發展,具有重要理論和實踐價值。

認知元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的背景

科技革命催生軍事訓練嶄新生態。在新科技革命和產業革命推動下,人工智慧、大數據、雲端計算、物聯網等前沿科技加速發展,科技巨頭紛紛佈局元宇宙,人類現實生活更快速向虛擬世界遷移。元宇宙整合多種新興技術,從而產生出虛實相融的互聯網新應用與社會新形態。感知技術支撐元宇宙的虛實相融性,「AI+」技術支撐元宇宙的社會性,數據傳輸技術支撐元宇宙的實時性,電子遊戲技術支撐元宇宙的多樣性,數字孿生技術支撐元宇宙的永續性,區塊鏈技術支撐元宇宙的安全性。虛擬與現實高度互通的未來元宇宙,脫胎於、平行於、獨立於現實世界,將互聯網、虛擬現實、沉浸式體驗、區塊鍊及數字孿生等全要素融合,為智能化軍事訓練構建起全新基礎生態。

戰爭演進主導軍事訓練轉型升級。智能化時代到來,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化演變,以「資訊獲取利用為內核」的資訊化戰爭體系,將逐漸過渡至以「智慧模擬與拓展為內核」的智能化戰爭體系,武器裝備遠程精確化、智慧化、隱身化、無人化趨勢更明顯,智慧化作戰浮現。同時,以「AI、雲、網、群、端」等人工智慧為代表的作戰要素及其多樣化組合,構成了新的戰場生態,元宇宙構建出虛實融生、平行互動的戰場新空間,傳統的戰爭制勝機理正被深刻改變。智慧化戰爭形態發展變化,強制性驅動軍隊思維理念的變革重塑,要求加快實現軍事訓練轉型升級,更加重視科技發展變化對戰爭的影響,以練戰「新引擎」跑出備戰「加速」。

外軍探索開啟軍事訓練模式突破。為搶佔軍事智慧化戰略制高點,世界軍事強國高度重視軍事訓練模式創新,有的國家開始嘗試應用元宇宙及相關技術運用在軍事訓練方面。如美國先後發布《國家安全戰略》《國家防務戰略》和《國防部轉型計劃》,圍繞打造“全能型軍隊”、形成“全頻譜優勢”,同步製定了《訓練轉型戰略計劃》和《訓練轉型實施計劃》,並提出了綜合訓練環境(STE)理念,其內核是沉浸式、集成虛擬訓練,擬將實時、虛擬、建設性和遊戲環境整合到綜合培訓環境中。俄羅斯也高度重視虛擬訓練系統開發,其先進武器裝備幾乎都配有相應虛擬訓練系統,並且正朝著通用化和嵌入化方向發展。英國、德國、韓國等也都積極發展各種專業軍事訓練虛擬環境。以人工智慧、虛擬現實與增強現實等技術為支撐的智慧化訓練,正逐漸成為強國軍隊訓練研究的主流。

明晰元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的優勢

萌發軍事訓練新理念。在思想上領先對手,才能在行動上贏得先機。顛覆性技術的出現必將改寫現行的軍事訓練規則制度,也必將革新現有的軍事訓練思維理念。一方面,元宇宙掀動颶風式的“頭腦風暴”,以“智”引領的練兵思維將訓練與實戰有機銜接起來,升級成智能化軍事訓練思維。另一方面,以元宇宙為代表的新技術新手段賦能軍事訓練,強化科技制勝、智慧驅動理念,大幅提升軍事訓練科技含量,以期掌控未來戰爭主動權。未來元宇宙透過構設虛擬戰場空間,設計戰爭並演化戰爭,將創造出更多不可能的可能性。

創新軍事訓練新論。戰爭是最需要創新的領域。軍事訓練要順應智慧化戰爭發展,理論創新與訓練實踐必須雙輪驅動。訓練轉型不會自動發生,既需要敏銳而深邃的前瞻性眼光把握大勢,更需要科學而強大的堅實理論驅動前行。一方面,緊跟時代發展,從新觀念新認知出發,可以建構元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的科學理論體系。另一方面,遵循戰訓耦合規律,可以建立具有時代特色的智慧化軍事訓練理論創新模式,讓元宇宙為推進軍事訓練轉型迭代發展賦能提效。

變革軍事訓練新模式。作戰樣式決定著訓練模式,智慧化戰爭改變著“遊戲規則”,預演下一場戰爭的軍事訓練必須通過變革訓練模式,來適應未來戰爭要求。一是能夠建造「形神兼備」的智慧藍軍。元宇宙藉由優化的AI技術、強大的算力支撐、逼真的效能仿真,依照「知敵、像敵、超敵、勝敵」的演化進程,打造以平台支撐、數據賦能等綜合整合的智能藍軍,並在元宇宙空間進行「真實」的對抗訓練和效果評估。二是能夠開展新域新質作戰研練。元宇宙拓展新域新質作戰力量為主導要素的實戰化運用路徑,突顯與先進作戰概念、制勝機理相適應的訓法戰法的研練,開創無人化、人機無縫協同等新樣式訓練,成為新的戰鬥力增長點。第三是能夠培養新型軍事人才。當前,教育元宇宙已經引領了教育智慧化變革。未來軍事元宇宙將加速實現人與裝備智慧互動、人與體系深度融合、人與環境適應進化,推動「指揮者」「戰鬥員」向「科學家」與「技術家」融合發展。

重塑軍事訓練新生態。元宇宙的多維感知性、虛實融合性、自由創造性、開放發展性等特點,使未來元宇宙將成為完全沉浸式的、超越時空的、自我創造發展的空間。首先,打造數字孿生的「戰場元宇宙」。 「戰場元宇宙」將是元宇宙在軍事領域的典型表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求。其次,創造全維立體的元宇宙訓練環境。元宇宙運用虛擬現實、增強現實以及混合現實等技術,創造沉浸複雜的場景環境;利用強大的數據、網絡支撐,搭建起陸、海、空、天、電、網等全維空間。再者,建造武器裝備的元宇宙驗證平台。該平台將具備新型武器裝備設計論證、武器裝備性能試驗、武器裝備相容性試驗、武器系統體係作戰效能檢驗等功能。未來元宇宙將大幅縮短武器裝備從「弱智」到「強智」再到「超智」的時間軸,以實現武器裝備的智慧倍增效應。

掌握元宇宙賦能軍事訓練的重點

著重頂層設計。從事物發展上看,元宇宙作為新生事物,發展成熟尚待驗證。智慧化軍事訓練又是一項複雜、艱巨且長期的系統工程,需要加強戰略籌劃與頂層佈局。應密切關注元宇宙發展動向與技術趨勢,科學制定「訓練元宇宙」的發展規劃,在智慧化、資訊化、機械化「三化」融合的現實背景下,充分發揮元宇宙能讓受訓者沉浸式體驗式訓練等突顯優勢,讓元宇宙不能只是虛擬技術的展示平台,而應成為提升軍事訓練效益的實踐平台。

加強技術研發。從技術意義上看,元宇宙把資訊化智能化技術群中已有的技術重新整合到了一起,提出了整體性創新性概念,給出了綜合性的應用場景,從而煥發出了新的生命力。加速「訓練元宇宙」的發展,要加速演算法引擎、網路通訊等基礎軟硬體技術研究,強化人工智慧、數字孿生、區塊鏈、物聯網等核心技術的研發能力,同時也要加強沉浸性、社交性、開放性、協作性、去中心化等元宇宙整體性技術設計與研發。

創設訓練種類。從時空視角來看,元宇宙可能構造出龐大無比的虛擬戰爭空間,重現戰爭環境,呈現戰爭進程,虛擬戰爭未來。應建構基於元宇宙的智慧化軍訓運行體系,及時更新軍事訓練思維理念,深化軍事訓練模式、管理保障、法規機制等創新。建構基於元宇宙的動態高階的實戰化軍事訓練環境,全面支持戰略、戰役和戰術訓練以及戰爭推演。同時,在軍事訓練「智適應」運作過程中,實現拓展生慧,向「創新開放、多元迭代、新智生態」的軍事訓練未知空間智能演進。

重視風險防控。從安全可控上看,元宇宙概念與技術為智慧化軍事訓練帶來創新機遇,但不容忽視的是技術本身伴生的潛在風險。元宇宙龐大的技術群,其體系架構、關鍵技術和應用環境等尚處於開發落地階段,配套防護體系、安全技術、管理標準等都會帶來安全風險,加上建設過程中多種新興技術的整合運用,運用過程中的複雜性與保密性,都將是軍事訓練元宇宙重點防範與風險挑戰的未知數。

來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:侯春牧 王勇 責任編輯:於雅倩 發布:2024-01-16

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/16280588.html

China’s Military Unveils the Metaverse

中國軍隊推出虛擬宇宙

現代英語翻譯:

As if overnight, “metaverse” suddenly became a hot word, and related concepts formed many hot topics.

With the development of technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks, blockchain, and the iteration of terminal equipment, the construction and evolution of the “metaverse” may far exceed people’s expectations, and a new Internet form of multi-dimensional, full-sensory, immersive human-computer interaction will hopefully become a reality.

What is the Metaverse?

“Metaverse” is a term that comes from the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. In the novel, humans live in a virtual three-dimensional world through “Avatar” (digital virtual avatar), and the author calls this space “Metaverse”.

From science fiction to reality, people have not yet reached an absolute consensus on “what is the metaverse”. Due to the evolution of the times and technological changes, the “metaverse” is still an evolving concept. “There are a thousand Hamlets in the eyes of a thousand people”. Different participants are constantly enriching its definition in their own way, and the possibilities of the characteristics and forms of the “metaverse” are also constantly changing. However, we can explore a little through the existing presentation of the “metaverse”.

At present, “Metaverse” concept products are mainly concentrated in online games, VR/AR, social networking and other fields.

Online games are generally considered by the industry to be the most likely field to realize the “metaverse” because they have virtual scenes and players’ virtual avatars. Today, game functions have gone beyond the game itself, and the boundaries of games are expanding, and they are no longer just games.

A well-known singer held a virtual concert with his virtual image in the game “Fortnite”, which attracted more than 12 million players from all over the world to participate, breaking the boundary between entertainment and games; due to the impact of the epidemic, the University of California, Berkeley and the School of Animation and Digital Studies of Communication University of China coincidentally rebuilt their campuses in the sandbox game “Minecraft”. Students gathered together with virtual avatars to complete the “cloud graduation ceremony”, realizing the integration of virtual games and real social interactions.

The new generation of “VR social (virtual offline social)” has gradually developed and become popular. It is a fusion of offline social (face-to-face in reality) and online social (through social software such as WeChat). Some well-known VR social platforms provide a free community environment, which not only becomes a place for players’ online activities and virtual face-to-face gatherings, but also becomes a social and cultural phenomenon closely related to the current concept of “metaverse”.

The above-mentioned “metaverse slices” are all important explorations into the construction of the “metaverse”, and they explain in a variety of visible and tangible ways how the “metaverse” will change our real life.

In common research, the following consensus has been formed: “Metaverse” is a new type of Internet application and social form that integrates multiple new technologies and integrates virtual and real. It provides immersive experience based on extended reality technology, generates virtual and real scenes based on digital twins and 3D rendering technology, builds basic software and hardware services based on cloud computing, artificial intelligence and high-speed networks, and builds an economic system based on blockchain technology, closely integrating the virtual world with the real world in economic system, social system and identity system. At the same time, it allows each user to produce and edit content, and has complete self-driving and iteration capabilities.

The development direction of the “metaverse”

Today’s mobile Internet is actually still in a flat information interaction state, presented on mobile terminals through text, sound, pictures, and videos. Although news information, e-commerce, social chat, live video, etc. meet people’s needs for using the Internet, it is obviously impossible to achieve the effect of face-to-face communication and full sensory experience in real life through the mobile phone screen. With the development of society, people need more original and rich experience and interaction.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to move their daily lives from offline to online. This forced transformation has led to more thinking, discussion and attention on the “metaverse”. In particular, the core feature of the “metaverse” is the immersive experience, which can turn a plane into a three-dimensional, multi-dimensional, real-time interactive space, greatly enriching and restoring the real physical world and various human relationships. Therefore, people have high hopes for the “metaverse”.

Looking back at the development of information technology and media, humans have continuously changed the way they perceive the world, and later began to consciously transform and reshape the world. From the newspaper era, the radio and television era, to the Internet era, and the mobile Internet era, the tools and platforms under the concept of “metaverse” are becoming increasingly complete, and the path to the “metaverse” is gradually becoming clearer.

Since 2020, Internet giants in various countries have been closely deploying cutting-edge technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks and blockchain, and the door to the ultimate closed-loop ecosystem of the “metaverse” has been opened little by little. Today, when the “bonus” of mobile Internet users has peaked, many experts and scholars have stated that the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet.

Just as it was difficult to accurately predict the development of the Internet 20 years ago, people cannot accurately predict the future form of the “metaverse”. However, combined with the development trends of related industries today, we can see that: the Internet has changed human life and digitized communication between people, and the “metaverse” will digitize the relationship between people and society; the technologies related to the “metaverse” will show gradual development, single-point technological innovations will continue to appear and merge, and all aspects of the industry will move closer to the ultimate form of the “metaverse”; the “metaverse” will emerge with a large amount of user-generated content, and at the same time, the value of digital assets will be revealed.

In general, the “metaverse” will profoundly change the organization and operation of the existing society through the integration of the virtual and the real, form a new lifestyle with both virtual and real poles, give birth to a new social relationship that integrates online and offline, and give new vitality to the real economy from the virtual dimension.

The future physical “metaverse” will be similar to the scene described in the science fiction movie “Ready Player One”: one day in the future, people can switch identities anytime and anywhere, freely shuttle between the real world and the virtual world, and study, work, make friends, shop, travel, etc. in the “metaverse”. Through immersive experience, the virtual world will be closer to and integrated into the real world.

In this virtual world, there will be self-evolving content and economic systems that will always remain safe and stable to meet the social needs of individuals.

The mediating role of the “metaverse”

“Imagine the ‘metaverse’ as a physical Internet, where you are not just watching content, but you are fully immersed in it.” This is a vivid description. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, the content of these “metaverses” that allow “full immersion” is relatively scarce. It needs more content that can be independently written, self-iterated, and multi-dimensionally attract users to participate in the experience and even participate in the creation.

The “metaverse” is bound to become a brand-new platform for media content production. Content producers can transform the “small universe” into the “big universe” through rich content production. In the short term, the breakthrough of the “metaverse” is immersive content. With the development and penetration of the concept of “metaverse”, the integration of immersive virtual content (such as games, cartoons, etc.) and immersive physical content (such as media, social networking, film and television, etc.) will become higher and higher. In other words, the “metaverse” will play a greater role as a medium.

In September this year, Yu Guoming, a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication of Beijing Normal University, pointed out at the release conference of the “2020-2021 “Metaverse” Development Research Report”: “Today, the role of the media is generally to provide cognitive information, but the role of the media is completing a process from providing cognition to providing experience. The entire media and technology has undergone a huge transformation from cognitive development to experience. Once the goal of “Metaverse” is established, it will play a directional role in communication technology, communication forms, communication methods and even communication effects.” If the “Metaverse” is the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet, then it is a super media channel that will show the ultimate form of media convergence and provide the best immersive experience.

Theoretically, the best communication experience must be based on real scenes. For example, when watching a football game, the ideal situation is to watch it in person on the field. In the “metaverse”, with the development of display interaction, high-speed communication and computing technology, it will become a reality to construct a communication scene that is infinitely close to reality. Users can become “witnesses” and “on-site observers” of news events in a three-dimensional, multi-sensory reception situation.

Therefore, the “metaverse” media can achieve true “multimedia”, and various human senses such as vision, smell, hearing, taste, touch, etc. can play a role, and even fully unfold and cooperate with each other to achieve “immersive” media applications.

Today’s media content is constantly evolving and innovating, and its development trend seems to be moving closer to the concept of “metaverse”. Media content will no longer be limited to flat presentation methods such as TV, computer, and mobile phone screens. Media content production will consider holographic presentation more, pay attention to creating an on-site environment atmosphere, and make users feel immersive. Social interaction will no longer be limited to text messages and comments. Feelings can be expressed instantly with voice and body movements, and face-to-face communication can be virtualized on the spot.

Imagine if news reports could restore the war scene and create a “battlefield metaverse”, making people feel as if they were there and feel in real time the tremendous trauma that war has caused to human civilization. This shock would further stimulate human society’s desire and yearning for peace, and media content would have a stronger influence and dissemination power.

現代國語:

彷彿在一夜之間,「元宇宙」突然成為熱詞,相關概念形成許多熱門話題。

隨著擴展現實、數位孿生、3D渲染、雲端運算、人工智慧、高速網路、區塊鏈等技術的發展及終端設備的迭代,「元宇宙」建設和演變可能遠超人們的預期,多維度、全感官、沉浸式的人機互動新網路形態,將有望成為現實。

何為“元宇宙”

“元宇宙”,英文為“Metaverse”。此字出自1992年的科幻小說《雪崩》。小說中,人類透過“Avatar”(數位虛擬化身),在一個虛擬三維世界中生活,作者稱這個空間為“Metaverse”,即“元宇宙”。

從科幻走進現實,人們對「元宇宙是什麼」還未能達成一個絕對標準的共識。因為時代的演變、技術的變革,“元宇宙”仍是一個不斷發展的概念,“一千個人眼中就有一千個哈姆雷特”,不同參與者以自己的方式不斷豐富著它的定義,“元宇宙」特徵和形態的可能性也在不斷變化。不過,我們可透過「元宇宙」現有的呈現形態來探討一二。

目前,「元宇宙」概念產品主要集中在網路遊戲、VR/AR、社交等領域。

網路遊戲被業界普遍認為是最有可能實現「元宇宙」的領域,因為它本身就具有虛擬場景和玩家的虛擬化身。如今,遊戲功能已超越遊戲本身,遊戲邊界正在擴展,甚至不只是遊戲了。

知名歌手在遊戲《要塞英雄》中,以虛擬形象舉辦一場虛擬演唱會,吸引了全球超過1200萬玩家參與其中,打破了娛樂與遊戲的邊界;因為疫情影響,美國加州大學柏克萊分校、中國傳媒大學動畫與數位學院不約而同地在沙盤遊戲《我的世界》裡重建校園,學生們以虛擬化身齊聚一堂,完成“雲畢業典禮”,實現了虛擬遊戲和現實社交的融合。

新一代「VR社交(虛擬線下社交)」已在逐漸發展和流行。它是線下社交(現實面對面)、線上社交(透過微信等社群軟體)的融合產物。一些知名VR社交平台,提供自由的社區環境,不僅成為玩家線上活動與虛擬面對面聚會的場所,也成了一種與目前「元宇宙」概念密切相關的社會文化現象。

以上這些“元宇宙切片”,都是對建構“元宇宙”的重要探索,用多種看得見、摸得著的方式,詮釋了“元宇宙”將會如何改變我們的現實生活。

在通常研究中,一般形成了這樣的共識:「元宇宙」是整合多種新技術而產生的新型虛實融合的網路應用和社會形態。它基於擴展現實技術提供沉浸式體驗,基於數位孿生和3D渲染技術生成虛實場景,基於雲端運算、人工智慧和高速網路建立基礎軟體硬體服務,基於區塊鏈技術建立經濟體系,將虛擬世界與現實世界在經濟系統、社交系統、身分系統上密切融合。同時,允許每個使用者進行內容生產和編輯,具備完整的自我驅動和迭代能力。

「元宇宙」發展走向

現今的行動互聯網,其實仍是平面資訊互動狀態,透過文字、聲音、圖片、視訊方式在行動終端進行呈現。新聞資訊、電子商務、社群聊天、視訊直播等型態,雖然滿足了人們使用網路的需求,但隔著手機螢幕,顯然無法達到現實生活中面對面交流、全感官體驗所能達到的效果。隨著社會發展,人們需要更原生、更豐富的體驗與互動。

新冠疫情讓人們生活場景從線下更多地移到線上。這種被迫的轉變,讓大家對「元宇宙」有了更多思考、討論和關注。特別是「元宇宙」最核心的特徵,在於沉浸式體驗,它可將一個平面變成一個立體、多維、即時的互動空間,極大地豐富、還原真實物理世界和人類各種關係。因此,「元宇宙」被人們寄予厚望。

縱觀過往資訊科技和媒介的發展歷程,人類不斷改變認知世界的方法,乃至於後來開始有意識地改造和重塑世界。從報業時代、廣播電視時代,到網路時代、行動網路時代,「元宇宙」概念下的工具和平台日益完備,通往「元宇宙」的路徑逐漸清晰。

自2020年以來,各國網路大廠圍繞著擴展實境、數位孿生、3D渲染、雲端運算、人工智慧、高速網路和區塊鏈等前沿科技,展開緊密佈局,通往「元宇宙」終極閉環生態的大門被一點點打開。在行動網路用戶「紅利」已經見頂的今天,不少專家學者表示,「元宇宙」將是下一代網路的終極形態。

如同20年前難以精準預測網路的發展一樣,人們也無法精準預判未來「元宇宙」的形態。但是,結合當今相關產業發展趨勢可以看到:互聯網改變人類生活,將人與人交流數位化,而「元宇宙」將把人與社會關係數位化;「元宇宙」相關技術將呈現漸進式發展,單點技術創新將不斷出現與融合,從產業各方面向「元宇宙」終極形態靠近;「元宇宙」將湧現海量用戶創作內容,同時顯現數位資產價值問題。

概括地說,「元宇宙」將以虛實融合的方式,深刻改變現有社會的組織與運作,形成虛、實兩極的新型生活方式,催生線上、線下一體的新型社會關係,並從虛擬維度賦予實體經濟新的活力。

未來實體化的“元宇宙”,將類似於科幻電影《頭號玩家》裡描述的場景:在未來的某一天,人們可隨時隨地切換身份,自由穿梭於現實世界和虛擬世界,在“元宇宙”中學習、工作、交友、購物、旅遊等。透過沉浸式體驗,讓虛擬世界進一步接近並融入現實世界。

在這個虛擬世界裡,將有自我不斷發展的內容和經濟系統,並且始終保持安全穩定運行,滿足個體的社會需求。

「元宇宙」的媒介作用

「把『元宇宙』想像為一個實體互聯網,你在那裡不只是觀看內容,整個人都身在其中。」這是一個圖像描述。可就現狀而言,這些能讓“整個人都身在其中”的“元宇宙”,內容是相對匱乏的。它需要更多可以獨立成篇、自我迭代、多維立體地吸引使用者參與體驗甚至參與創作的內容。

「元宇宙」勢必成為媒體內容生產的嶄新平台。內容生產者透過豐富的內容生產,可將「小宇宙」演變成「大宇宙」。短期內,「元宇宙」的突破口是沉浸式內容。隨著「元宇宙」概念的發展與滲透,沉浸式虛擬內容(如遊戲、卡通等)與沉浸式實體內容(如媒體、社交、影視等)的融合程度將會越來越高。換句話說,「元宇宙」將發揮更大的媒介作用。

今年9月,北京師範大學新聞與傳播學院教授喻國明在《2020-2021年「元宇宙」發展研究報告》發布會議上指出:「如今媒介所扮演的角色大體上都是認知方面的訊息給予,但媒介的角色正在完成一個從給予認知到給予體驗的過程。甚至傳播效果,都能起到一個定向作用。體驗。

從理論上講,最好的傳播體驗必然是基於真實場景。如看球賽,理想情形是在球場上親身觀看。在「元宇宙」裡,隨著顯示互動、高速通訊和運算技術的發展,建構無限逼近真實的傳播場景將成為現實,使用者能在立體化、多感官接收情境中,成為新聞事件的「目擊者」和「實地觀察者」。

因而,“元宇宙”媒體可實現真正的“多媒體化”,人類的各種感官如視覺、嗅覺、聽覺、味覺、觸覺等,都能發揮作用,甚至完全展開、相互配合,實現“沉浸式”的媒體應用。

當今媒體內容不斷進化和創​​新,其發展趨勢也似乎正在向「元宇宙」概念靠攏。媒體內容將不再侷限於電視、電腦、手機螢幕等平面式的呈現方式,媒體內容製作將更考慮全像化呈現,重視營造現場環境氛圍,使用戶有身臨其境之感。社交也將不再侷限於文字留言評論,可即時用語音、肢體動作來抒發感受,現場虛擬化面對面交流。

設想一下,如果新聞報道能還原戰爭現場,打造“戰場元宇宙”,使人如身臨其境,實時感受到戰爭對於人類文明造成的巨大創傷,這份震撼會更能刺激人類社會對於和平的渴望與嚮往,媒體內容將具備更強大的影響力與傳播力。

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/26/content_303888.htm

Chinese Military Considerations for the Effective Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare During Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍事在認知域作戰中有效運用證據進行輿論戰的思考

翻譯成現代英文:

 In the operational chain of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the collection and application of evidence is a fundamental link of great value, and is an important starting point for the preparation of cognitive domain construction at all levels. Combining the special background of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to study evidence, accurately grasp its characteristics and laws, continuously study strategies and usage, and improve the effective application of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is of great reference significance for our army to fight the proactive battle of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the future.

Keywords: cognitive domain; public opinion warfare; evidence

With the formation of the three major operational dimensions of the modern information battlefield, namely the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain, cognitive domain operations have received increasing attention in the context of future intelligent hybrid warfare. Cognitive domain operations refer to a type of operations that directly acts on the brain’s cognition through special means to influence its emotions, motivations, judgments and behaviors, and even achieve the purpose of controlling the brain. As a cognitive carrier, the brain may become the main battlefield of future wars, and the right to control the brain will soon become the key to cognitive domain operations and the highest level of war control. In this sense, cognitive domain operations are cognitive confrontation actions that influence the decision-making and behavior of the target audience by influencing their cognition in order to achieve the strategic goals of national security. In the meantime, evidence has become an important factor affecting cognition, and evidence game is a basic link that must be paid attention to in planning and implementing public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. According to the general consensus of the legal community, evidence refers to the basis for determining the facts of an event in accordance with the rules of litigation. The evidence of public opinion warfare referred to in this article is derived from this. It can be seen that only by grasping evidence more accurately and timely and using evidence more prudently and appropriately can we more effectively destroy the enemy’s cognition, consolidate our own cognition, and shape the cognition of neutral forces, and provide effective support for the comprehensive victory of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain.

1. A deep understanding of the three values ​​of evidence in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain is the prerequisite for the effective use of evidence

Information is the basic “ammunition” of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As one of the ammunition, evidence has great value and can be examined from the following three dimensions.

1. Evidence is an indispensable cognitive weapon in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain and has fighting value.

To examine the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is to explore the essence of fact-finding in public opinion warfare from the cognitive level. The cognitive domain takes the human brain as the main combat space. Evidence, as a trace left by a certain “past fact”, undoubtedly exists regardless of whether people can find it. However, some evidence is specially proposed and emphasized at certain times, and its purpose must be to prove certain facts, cater to certain views, and influence certain attitudes. In fact, it is the process of proving the subject’s own cognition shaping, viewpoint presentation and value dissemination. With the help of the cognitive justification theory of contemporary epistemic evidentialism, it is demonstrated that there is an unignorable logical connection between belief attitude and cognitive justification: the epistemological rationality of belief attitude depends on the quality of evidence possessed by the believer at that time. It can be said that the value of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is highly consistent with the weapon context of informationized cognitive warfare. High-quality evidence can influence cognition in a high-quality manner and is an indispensable and irreplaceable weapon of struggle. This “basis of proof” is not only a spear and a sharp sword to strike and change the enemy’s cognition and make cognitive attacks in the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, but also a solid shield to guide and consolidate one’s own cognition and make cognitive protection.

(II) Evidence is the basis for the value guidance of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has guiding value

Authenticity is the essential characteristic of facts, but not the essential characteristic of evidence. Evidence is not equivalent to objective facts. It can be said that there are no false facts, but there are false evidence. According to the rules of evidence law, facts proved by evidence are possible facts, not necessarily inevitable. The result it produces may be a “wrong” result, but this so-called “wrong” is still a legitimate result in legal procedures. To be precise, although it is wrong, it is legitimate. Based on this dialectical logic, the evidential facts recognized by public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain are not equivalent to objective facts in themselves, and there may be differences between the evidential facts and objective facts. Evidence may be true or false, or half true and half false. It does not pursue an absolutely true and correct result, but a “legitimate” result that can influence cognition. Through these cognitive elements presented in the form of evidence, because of the “legitimate” label, they are more persuasive and authoritative, and have the guiding value of influencing cognition and behavior.

(III) Evidence is the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has winning value

As the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the winning value of evidence should not be underestimated. First, the effective use of evidence can minimize the deviation in factual characterization of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. By sorting out and integrating evidence materials, making clear logical connections between scattered and multi-perspective evidence, constructing a chain of evidence that is favorable to us and pointing to clear factual characterization, we can accurately associate and interpret objective facts. Preventing cognitive bias and passive public opinion caused by unclear and inaccurate factual characterization can improve the accuracy and clarity of fact identification. Secondly, the effective use of evidence can minimize the strategic decision-making cost of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As the saying goes, words are not enough. Without the effective support of evidence, public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain will be separated from the objective basis for the generation of combat effectiveness and become a complete self-talk. Its strategic decision-making efficiency will inevitably decrease and the decision-making cost will inevitably soar. Third, the effective use of evidence can minimize the legal risk of public opinion in the cognitive domain. The main sources of legal risks in the cognitive domain of public opinion are the deviation of values, the lack of legitimacy, and the indifference of humanitarianism… In this regard, through scenario pre-setting, targeted evidence lists, active storage of evidence materials, and reasonable and rational construction of the use of evidence, we can achieve a certain degree of risk warning, risk avoidance, and risk resolution.

2. Accurately grasping the three major shifts of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain is the key to the effective use of evidence

Compared with the physical and information domains, evidence in the cognitive domain presents distinct characteristics in the public opinion war. In terms of the purpose of proof, it guarantees the realization of policy and strategic goals and serves the political intention of the public opinion war in the cognitive domain; in terms of the means of proof, truth and falsehood are often intertwined, creating many situations where the truth and falsehood are unclear; in terms of the content of proof, it must be able to clearly, conclusively and promptly prove the justice and legality of our actions and the meaninglessness and illegality of the enemy. It is mainly reflected in three changes.

1. Shifting from “restoring the truth” to “influencing cognition” and highlighting cognitive attributes with goal orientation

In the public opinion war under the cognitive domain, the fundamental purpose of evidence has shifted from “approaching the truth, restoring facts, and promoting objective scene reconstruction” to “influencing the cognition of the target audience and realizing national security interests”. From the initial objective basis for reflecting the battlefield situation to the powerful weapon of public opinion war under the cognitive domain, it is neither simply an objective fact to be proved nor just a material and means to prove facts. Evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain must have a clear position. Before proving, it is necessary to first clarify whose point of view is proved? Whose facts are proved? Whose interests are protected? It is absolutely impossible to be value-free without its basic position. Evidence serves political purposes and strategic intentions, guides the target audience to move towards the established cognitive goals, and accepts, identifies, and shapes the corresponding argumentation conclusions. Its collection and use are all determined by strategic determination, combat intentions, and battlefield situation. Whether it is true or false, good or bad, it must serve the overall strategic situation and needs to be judged in combination with combat effectiveness.

2. Shifting from “raw collection” to “scientific compilation” to assist cognitive decision-making with intelligent means

Cognition is the process of actively processing information, including three links: information input, processing and output. Corresponding to the evidence action of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is to collect evidence, analyze and compile evidence, and make decisions and use evidence. It must be recognized that the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the digital era is essentially a strategic action to manipulate information and shape cognition in the public opinion field, and the quality requirements of evidence materials are more stringent. If there is insufficient understanding of evidence, and evidence collection is simply regarded as taking photos and recording scenes, it is far from meeting the requirements of the new digital cognitive domain public opinion battlefield environment. It must be assisted by intelligent means and transformed into scientific evidence collection, analysis and compilation. Scientific evidence can, to a certain extent, get rid of human dependence on experience consciousness, eliminate the ambiguity, fragmentation and one-sidedness of human cognition under certain conditions, and assist cognitive domain combat commanders to make more accurate command decisions. In reality, there is indeed a phenomenon that the evidence is true, but the cognition generated is false. Only through a series of intelligent compilation work such as collection, classification, compilation, comparison, verification, reasoning, judgment, and integration of evidence information perceived across the entire domain, and using the scientific presentation of evidence to influence cognition in a targeted manner, can the process of evidence information fusion and command decision-making results be made corresponding and unified, making accurate decision-making the key to winning the war of public opinion in the cognitive domain.

3. Shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance” to prove quality and improve cognitive effectiveness

In the cognitive domain, it is far from enough to simply record objective phenomena as evidence in the public opinion war. It also needs to have special guidance and appeal in order to form a strong communication power and influence, aiming to stimulate certain emotions of the target audience and trigger specific cognition. It is necessary to shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance”. Only by awakening the empathy experience of the target audience through sophisticated and appropriate evidence presentation can the expected proof effect be produced. For example, a bloody knife cannot directly support or oppose any proposition by itself. Unless someone perceives the knife, forms a feeling state, and associates it with other evidence, it can produce a proof effect. Therefore, the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be perceptible. Whether it is true evidence or false evidence, these evidences are not responsible for restoring the truth of the facts, nor are they used only to prove the legality or illegality of a certain action or behavior. They are intended to shock the target audience with thoughts and generate emotional waves, and play cognitive effects such as shaking the morale of the army, inspiring morale, gaining support from many people, inspiring sympathy, guiding public opinion, and breaking the enemy’s spirit, ensuring that the reason can be said and spread. Otherwise, no matter how good the proof logic is, its effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the lack of communication and appeal, and it may even be ineffective in the fierce cognitive game.

3. Innovative evidence in the three ways of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is the path to effective use of evidence

In the public opinion war in the cognitive domain, evidence is sometimes an offensive weapon, sometimes a means of deterrence, and sometimes a tool for bargaining… How to cleverly deploy troops and gain the initiative on this battlefield? It is necessary to judge the situation, deeply study the techniques, present accurately, and implement them purposefully, systematically, and strategically. According to the logical order of evidence participation from weak to strong, the understanding of evidence from shallow to deep, and the evidence tactics from passive to active, there are three ways to use evidence: objective, directional, and strategic.

1. Attaching importance to the objective use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

Evidence has incomparable persuasiveness, and public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must attach importance to speaking with evidence. The most basic approach is to solidly promote the objective collection and use of evidence. First, it is necessary to discover and extract evidence from a large amount of materials to preliminarily solve the problem of evidence admissibility. Secondly, the evidence collected must withstand the test and judgment of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to solve the problem of evidence availability. The basic logical line of evidence collection and use is: objectively obtain evidence materials – based on the acquired evidence materials, sort out, match, integrate, and analyze which existing evidence materials can prove objective facts that have an impact on cognition – solve the problem of “what can be proved”. If objective evidence collection is not done well, it is easy for the enemy to take it out of context, generalize, and even confuse right and wrong. On the one hand, through the objective presentation of original evidence, the illegality and provocation of the other party’s behavior are exposed, the legitimacy and justice of our actions are explained, the truth of the incident is intuitively and powerfully clarified, and the psychological defense of the other party is effectively disintegrated, the other party’s fighting will is shaken, and a strong psychological offensive and deterrence effect is formed; on the other hand, it effectively boosts our military morale, inspires fighting spirit, and enhances psychological protection in the cognitive battlefield. In short, we must strive to objectively make good use of “real evidence that can gain the initiative” and expose “false evidence in the hands of evidence dealers.”

2. Strengthening the guiding use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

It is necessary to fully realize that the probative value of evidence needs to be realized through interpretation, which leaves sufficient space for guiding the collection and use of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. On the basis of the objective collection and use of evidence, through more proactive reverse thinking, another logical line of evidence collection and use can be found: first clarify what facts need to be proved in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain – then consider how to compile and interpret the existing evidence materials in a biased manner according to the demand orientation – solve the problem of “how to interpret and use the evidence materials”. Under the demand-oriented role, by actively presetting the facts to be proved, consciously do a good job of evidence association and effectiveness interpretation. It can be said that the process of compiling objective original evidence is the process of evidence interpretation. Scattered evidence materials, after being fully interpreted and compiled with subjective intentions, will form a closed evidence chain with directionality. These directional evidence products guide the audience from “seeing” evidence to “understanding” evidence, which is a weapon that can influence the generation of combat effectiveness in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. In fact, the party with a stronger ability to interpret evidence selfishly is often more able to dominate the development of the battle.

3. Strategic Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare under the Design Cognitive Domain

The ultimate target of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is cognitive ability, and the dominant factor for winning the battle will naturally shift to cognition. Therefore, the high-skilled use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be achieved with the help of the systematic vision and strategic thinking of strategists. The logical line of evidence collection and use here is: consider evidence as an indispensable key element of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and incorporate it into the overall strategic planning link – preset a list of key evidence according to different scenarios – actively create conditions to obtain key evidence – solve the problem of “how to achieve the strategic intention and combat determination of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain from the evidence level”. Under special conditions, even through sophisticated arrangements, with active and proactive “creative design” to lay out the fog of evidence, prompt the enemy to reveal its shortcomings, expose its weaknesses, and make actions and reactions that are beneficial to us, forming a complete and conclusive chain of evidence, so as to achieve the purpose of releasing special information, propaganda against the enemy’s mind, political and diplomatic hints, etc., consume the enemy’s cognitive ability, disrupt its thinking, interfere with its judgment, and hinder its actions. In particular, we must develop an awareness of strategies and tactics in the game of evidence in the context of cognitive domain public opinion warfare, select, choose, combine, assemble, switch among various types of evidence… flexibly deploy and skillfully present them, give full play to the potential of evidence use, contain, curb, and counter enemy actions, and expand our own space for action. The key to applying evidence well lies in one’s heart.

(Author’s unit: Political Science Academy of National Defense University)

中國軍事資料來源:

在認知域下輿論戰的作戰鏈上,證據的採集與運用是有重大價值的基礎環節,也是目前各級認知域建設準備的重要發力點。結合認知域下輿論戰的特殊背景來研究證據,準確掌握其特徵規律,不斷深研謀略用法,提高認知域下輿論戰證據的有效運用,對我軍打好未來認知域下輿論戰主動仗具有重要藉鏡意義。

關鍵字:認知域;輿論戰;證據

隨著現代資訊化戰場物理域、資訊域和認知域三大作戰維度的形成,認知域作戰在未來智慧化混合戰爭背景下越來越受到關注。認知域作戰指透過特殊手段直接作用於大腦認知,以影響其情緒、動機、判斷和行為,甚至達成控制大腦目的的一種作戰樣式。大腦作為認知載體,或將成為未來戰爭主戰場,制腦權即將成為認知域作戰的關鍵所在,是戰爭制權的最高層次。從這個意義上講,認知域作戰是為實現國家安全戰略目的,透過影響目標受眾認知來影響其決策和行為的認知對抗行動。此間,證據已然成為影響認知的重要因素,證據賽局是規劃實施認知域下輿論戰必須重視的基礎環節。依照法學界普遍的共識,證據是指依照訴訟規則認定事件事實的依據。本文所指的輿論戰證據由此引申而來。可見,只有更精準及時掌握證據、更穩妥適當地運用證據,才能更有效地摧毀敵方認知、鞏固己方認知、塑造中立力量認知,為認知域下輿論戰的全面勝利提供有效支撐。

一、深刻認識證據在認知域下輿論戰中的三大價值,是證據有效運用的前提

資訊是認知域下輿論戰的基本「彈藥」。證據作為彈藥之一,具有巨大價值,可從以下三個維度來檢視。

(一)證據是認知域下輿論戰不可或缺的認知武器,具有鬥爭價值

檢視認知域下輿論戰的證據,就是要從認知層面來探究輿論戰事實認定的本質。認知域以人腦為主要作戰空間。證據,作為某種「過去事實」留下的痕跡,不管人們能否發現,它們無疑都是存在的。但某些證據在某些時候被特別提出和強調,其目的必然是為了佐證某些事實、迎合某些觀點、影響某些態度,其實就是論證主體自身認知塑造、觀點呈現和價值傳播的過程。借助當代認知證據主義(Epistemic Evidentialism)的認知證成理論,論證信念態度與認知證成之間存在著不可忽視的邏輯聯繫:信念態度在認識論上的合理程度,取決於相信者當時所擁有的證據的品質。可以說,認知域下輿論戰的證據價值與資訊化認知作戰的武器脈絡高度契合,高品質的證據能夠高品質影響認知,是不可或缺不可取代的鬥爭武器。這種“證明的根據”,在認知域下輿論戰中,既是打擊、改變敵方認知,做好認知攻擊的長矛利劍;也是引導、鞏固己方認知,做好認知防護的堅固盾牌。

(二)證據是認知域下輿論戰價值引導的證明根據,具有導向價值

真實性是事實的本質特性,卻不是證據的本質特性。證據不等同於客觀事實。可以說,沒有假的事實,卻有假的證據。依據證據法則,以證據證明的事實,是一種可能性的事實,不一定具有必然性。它所產生的結果,有可能是“錯誤”的結果,但這種所謂的“錯誤”,在法律程序上仍然是一種正當化的結果。準確地說,它雖然是錯的,但卻是正當的。基於這種辯證的邏輯,認知域下輿論戰認可的證據事實,本身並不等同於客觀事實,其證據事實與客觀事實之間可以存在差異。證據可能是真是假,也可能半真半假,它追求的並不是絕對真實正確的結果,而是一種能夠影響認知的「正當化」結果。透過這些以證據方式呈現出來的認知要素,因為有「正當化」標籤,更具說服力和權威性,具有影響認知和行為的導向價值。

(三)證據是認知域下輿論戰完成特殊使命的基礎,具有致勝價值

作為認知域下輿論戰完成特殊使命的基礎,證據的致勝價值不容小覷。首先,證據的有效運用能夠使認知域下輿論戰在事實定性上偏差最小化。透過對證據素材進行梳理整合,對零散的、多重視角下的證據做明確的邏輯性關聯,構設於我有利的證據鏈和指向明確的事實定性,藉此對客觀事實進行精確性關聯與有效性解讀。防止因事實定性不明、不準造成的認知偏差和輿論被動,能夠提高事實認定的準確性和清晰度。其次,證據的有效運用能使認知域下輿論戰的策略決策成本最小化。所謂口說無憑,脫離了證據的有效支撐,認知域下輿論戰就脫離了戰鬥力生成的客觀基礎,淪為徹頭徹尾的自說自話,其戰略決策效率必將降低,決策成本必將飆升。第三,證據的有效運用能夠使認知域輿論法理風險最小化。認知域輿論法理風險的主要來源是價值觀的背離、合法性的缺失、人道主義的漠視……對此,透過情境預設,有的放矢地列出證據清單,積極儲備證據素材,做好證據運用的合情合理化構建,就能夠實現一定程度的風險預警、風險規避和風險化解。

二、準確掌握證據在認知域下輿論戰中的三大轉向,是證據有效運用的關鍵

相對於物理域、資訊域環境下,證據在認知域下輿論戰呈現鮮明的個性特徵。在證明目的上,保障政略與戰略目標實現,服從服務於認知域下輿論戰的政治意圖;在證明手段上,往往真偽交織,製造許多真真假假、真偽不明的情況;在證明內容上,要能明晰、確鑿、及時地證明我方行動的正義、合法和敵人的無義、非法。主要體現在三個轉變。

(一)從“還原真相”轉向“影響認知”,以目標導向凸顯認知屬性

認知域下輿論戰,證據的根本目的從「接近真相、還原事實、促進客觀情境再現」轉向了「影響目標受眾認知,實現國家安全利益」。從最初反映戰場情況的客觀根據,到認知域下輿論戰的強大武器,它既不單純是用來證明的客觀事實,也不僅僅是用來證明事實的材料和手段。認知域下輿論戰的證據必然是帶有鮮明立場的。證明前先要明確證明誰的觀點?佐證誰的事實?維護誰的利益?絕不可能脫離其基本立場而價值無涉,證據以服務政治目的和戰略意圖為己任,引導目標受眾向既定認知目標邁進,接受、認同、塑造相應的論證結論。其採集與運用,都是由戰略決心、作戰意圖、戰場態勢來決定的,到底是真是假,是好是壞,都必須服從服務於戰略大局,需要結合作戰效果加以評判。

(二)從「原始採集」轉向“科學整編”,以智慧手段輔助認知決策

認知是對資訊進行積極加工的過程,包括資訊輸入、加工和輸出三個環節。對應到認知域下輿論戰的證據行動中,就是收取採集證據、研判整編證據和決策運用證據。必須體認到,數位時代認知域下輿論戰,實質是在輿論場上進行資訊處理與認知塑造的戰略行動,對證據素材的品質要求更嚴苛。如果對證據認識不足,把取證簡單看作為是拍照錄影、記錄現場,已經遠遠不能適應新的數位化認知域輿論戰場環境的要求了。必須以智慧手段為輔助,向科學的證據蒐集、研判整編轉化。科學的證據,可以在一定程度上擺脫人類對經驗意識的依賴,消除人在一定條件下認知的模糊性、零散性和片面性,輔助認知域作戰指揮員進行更精準的指揮決策。現實中確實存在證據為真,但產生的認知卻為假的現象。只有透過對全局感知的證據資訊進行收集、分類、彙編、對比、驗證、推理、判斷、整合等一系列智能整編工作,以證據的科學呈現來定向影響認知,才能將證據信息融合的過程和指揮決策結果相對應、統一,使精準決策成為認知域下輿論戰制勝的關鍵。

(三)從“客觀呈現”轉向“情感共振”,以證明品質提升認知效能

認知域下輿論戰證據,僅作為客觀現象的簡單記錄是遠遠不夠的,還需要具有特殊的引導性、感染力,以便形成較強的傳播力和影響力,意在激發目標受眾的某種情感、引發特定認知,要從「客觀呈現」轉向「情感共振」。只有透過精巧適度的證據呈現來喚醒目標受眾的同理心體驗,才能產生預期的證明效果。例如,一把帶血的刀,其本身並不能直接支持或反對任何命題,除非有人感知到了這把刀,形成了感覺狀態,並將其與其他證據相關聯,才能產生證明效力。所以,認知域下輿論戰的證據必須是要能夠感知的。無論是真證據或假證據,這些證據不以還原事實真相為己任,也並非僅用來證明某行動或行為的合法性或非法性,其意在使目標受眾受到思想衝擊、產生情感波瀾,起到如動搖軍心、激勵士氣、得道多助、激發同情、引導輿論、破敵銳氣等認知效果,確保有理說得出、說了傳得開。否則再好的證明邏輯也會因傳播力、感染力的缺失,導致證明效果大打折扣,甚至在激烈的認知賽局中無法產生效能。

三、創新證據在認知域下輿論戰的三種用法,是證據有效運用的路徑

認知域下輿論戰,證據有時是進攻的武器、有時是嚇阻的手段、有時是博弈的工具……如何巧妙地在這片沙場上排兵布陣、贏取主動?必須審時度勢、深研技法、精準呈現,有目的、有計畫、有策略、成系統地實施。依照證據參與度由弱到強、對證據認識由淺入深、證據戰法由被動到主動的邏輯順序,有客觀性、導向性、謀略性三種運用證據的方式。

(一)重視認知域下輿論戰證據的客觀性運用

證據有著不可比擬的說服力,認知域下輿論戰必須重視用證據說話。最基礎的做法是紮實推進證據的客觀性採集與運用。首先,需要在海量素材中發現並提取證據,初步解決證據可採性的問題。其次,採到的證據要經得起認知域下輿論戰實踐檢驗和評判,解決證據可用性的問題。基礎的證據採、用的邏輯線是:客觀取得證據素材—基於取得的證據素材,梳理、配對、整合,分析現有證據素材能夠證明哪些是對認知產生影響的客觀事實—解決「能夠證明什麼」的問題。客觀取證做不好,就容易被敵方斷章取義,以偏概全,甚至混淆是非。一方面,透過原始證據的客觀呈現,揭露對方行為的非法性、挑釁性,闡釋我方行動的合法性、正義性,直觀有力地澄清事件真相,有效瓦解對方心理防線、動搖對方戰鬥意志,形成強大的心理攻勢與嚇阻效能;另一方面,有效提振我方軍心士氣、激發戰鬥精神,增強認知戰場的心理防護。總之,要力求在客觀上用好“能夠贏取主動的真證據”,揭露“證據販子手裡的假證據”。

(二)加強認知域下輿論戰證據的導向運用

要充分認識到,證據的證明價值需要透過解讀來實現,這給認知域下輿論戰的取證、用證留下了充分的引導空間。在證據的客觀性採集與運用基礎上,透過更主動的逆向思考,可以發現另外一條證據採、用的邏輯線路:先釐清在認知域下輿論戰中需要證明哪些事實—再根據需求指向,考慮如何對既有證據材料進行傾向性整編和解讀—解決「如何闡釋、利用證據素材」的問題。在需求導向作用下,透過主動預設想要證明的事實,有意識做好證據關聯和有效性解讀。可以說,客觀性原始證據整編的過程就是證據闡釋解讀的過程。零散的證據素材,經過注入主觀意圖的充分解讀和整編組合,就會形成帶有指向性的閉合證據鏈。這些導向證據產品引導受眾從「看見」證據到「看懂」證據,就是能夠影響認知域下輿論戰戰鬥力生成的武器。事實上,對證據利己性解讀能力較強的一方,往往更能主導戰局發展。

(三)設計認知域下輿論戰證據的謀略性運用

認知域下輿論戰最終打擊的目標是認知能力,作戰制勝的主導要素會自然地向認知轉移。因此,證據在認知域下輿論戰的高技巧運用,必須藉助戰略家的系統眼光和謀略思維來實現。這裡證據採、用的邏輯線是:把證據視為認知域下輿論戰不可或缺的關鍵要素納入整體策略規劃環節—依據不同場景預設關鍵證據清單—主動製造條件來取得關鍵證據—解決「如何從證據層面實現認知域輿論戰的戰略意圖和作戰決心」的問題。在特殊條件下,甚至可以透過精巧的安排,以積極主動的「創意設計」佈設證據迷霧,促使敵方自揭其短,暴露弱點,做出於我有利的動作反應,形成完整確鑿的證據鏈條,以達成特殊訊息釋放、對敵攻心宣傳、政治外交暗示等目的,消耗敵方認知能力,打亂其思維、幹擾其判斷、阻礙其行動。特別要形成認知域輿論戰背景下的證據博弈謀略戰法意識,在各類證據間選擇、取捨、組合、拼搭、切換……靈活投放、巧妙呈現,充分發揮證據運用的潛能,牽制、遏止、反制敵方行動,拓展己方行動空間,可謂運用之妙,存乎一心。

(作者單位:國防大學政治學院)

中國軍事資料來源: http://www.81.cn/rmjz_203219/jsjz/2022nd3q_239302/bktg_239303/1016888.html

Chinese Military Analysis of Japan’s Space and Cyberspace Deterrence Strategy

中國對日本太空和網路空間威懾戰略的軍事分析

現代英語:

The development of new military forces is changing the style of warfare. After years of development, space (also known as outer space) and cyberspace (hereinafter referred to as cyberspace) forces have transformed from conceptual forces to real forces. How to use these two new forces has become a key research topic for major powers in the world. In March 2024, the Security Research Group of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation of Japan released a research report entitled “War 3.0: Fundamental Changes in War” (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”), which explored how to use space and cyberspace to achieve strategic deterrence from the perspective of maintaining Japan’s national security. It also proposed a typical scenario of cyberspace confrontation against the background of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, showing Japan’s thinking on the use of combat forces in emerging fields. The main contents are summarized as follows for readers.

1

War 3.0 is coming

The report believes that during the Cold War, the boundaries between civilians, the state and the military were clear, and the economic dependence between the two sides was low. This was the era of War 1.0. After the Cold War, globalization accelerated, and in 2001, the era of the war on terror began. The main body of the confrontation became state and non-state actors, which was the era of War 2.0. Around 2010, the confrontation between major powers reappeared. Due to the high degree of economic globalization, “war” occurred more in dimensions other than military. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine shows that in modern warfare, other means are becoming as important as military means. At the same time, commercial companies are also more involved in the research and development and use of emerging military technologies, and the government’s control over military power has been weakened. Since then, a new concept can be used to describe modern warfare, namely War 3.0.

As long as war occurs in the context of globalization, the characteristics of War 3.0 will appear. In the era of War 3.0, the target of deterrence is mainly state actors, but the specific form of conflict may be similar to hybrid warfare or conventional warfare. When formulating deterrence strategies in the space and cyberspace domains, both types of conflict should be taken into account. It is necessary to recognize that emerging domain capabilities are multipliers of traditional capabilities. The significance of competing for control in emerging domains lies in enhancing one’s own physical forces such as land, sea, and air forces or weakening the physical forces of opponents.

The report points out that using emerging field forces to carry out attacks can cause no tangible physical damage, is conducive to conflict management, and is the best tool for gray zone operations. Japan currently faces two main problems. One is that the emerging field forces owned by law enforcement agencies are not in line with mission requirements. The other is that it needs to consider how to use emerging field forces to achieve effective conflict management.

2

Strategic Deterrence in Emerging Fields

The report uses traditional deterrence theory for analysis and concludes that space and cyberspace have five common characteristics: difficult situational awareness, high defense difficulty, low attack threshold, mixed actors, and lack of international codes of conduct. Easy to attack and difficult to defend are the common characteristics of these two fields, so it is difficult to achieve effective strategic deterrence. In this regard, action should be taken in four aspects: First, improve situational awareness capabilities so that when problems occur, the cause of the failure can be quickly determined, the attacker can be identified, and the damage effect can be evaluated when counterattacked. Second, improve resilience to ensure that the loss of some functions will not cause the entire system to become disabled. Third, strengthen offensive capabilities, which can be used to attack in a certain field, or to use means in other fields to conduct cross-domain attacks. Fourth, achieve arms control cooperation between countries and build trust, formulate codes of conduct, etc.

3

Strengthening deterrence in air and space

1. The connotation of air and space control continues to be enriched

The report believes that the air and space can control the entire battlefield. In order to compete for air and space dominance, various types of equipment are constantly updated, combat systems are becoming more and more complex, and the scope of operations is becoming wider and wider. In combat, both sides often focus on the “find, locate, track, decide, engage, and assess (Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess, F2T2EA)” full kill chain, and simultaneously confront in emerging fields such as space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space, which greatly expands the connotation of traditional dominance. In future high-end wars, the side with a higher level of space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space capabilities may have an overwhelming advantage in overall combat capabilities.

2. How to exert the deterrent function of space power

The report emphasizes that space systems play an important role in intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), communications, positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), missile warning, environmental monitoring, etc., and also provide increasingly important support for the use of nuclear and conventional forces. In order to form a strong space deterrence, first, we must possess and demonstrate the corresponding capabilities, mainly the resilience, defense, counter-retaliation and situational awareness capabilities of the space system. Second, we must show the enemy our determination to use retaliatory capabilities. Third, we must form a cross-domain deterrence to ensure the security of the entire space system. In addition, systems in other fields such as land, sea and air must be able to supplement some of the functions of the space system. In the face of enemy attacks on our satellites, we must retaliate not only from space, but also through land, sea, air and cyberspace.

As space systems play an increasingly important role in Japan’s national defense, we will further enhance our deterrence against hostile offensive actions. While improving the resilience of space assets, we will attach great importance to the effective use of commercial space services.

3. How to enhance the deterrent effect of Japan’s aerospace power

The report points out that Japan should attach importance to cross-domain coordination of sea, land, air and space forces, especially to strengthen cooperation with the United States. It is necessary to closely monitor the surrounding airspace, use aircraft to perform denial missions when the situation escalates, and take active defense measures to prevent missile attacks. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of Self-Defense Force bases and realize the mutual use of air bases between Japan and the United States. Japan is surrounded by the sea, and it is necessary to attach importance to developing the ability to use air means to strike maritime targets to ensure the security of the homeland.

Faced with the vast Indo-Pacific region, it is difficult for Japan to accurately grasp the regional situation by relying solely on its own aerospace power. It is necessary to share intelligence information through multilateral cooperation and build a Common Operational Picture (COP) in the Indo-Pacific region to accurately and comprehensively grasp the regional situation and have a deterrent effect on potential enemies. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation with countries other than the United States, especially Australia. Japan, the United States and Australia should establish joint ammunition and fuel depots in their respective countries. In the field of space, Japan will expand cooperation in hosting payloads. If it can cooperate with European countries, then future attacks on Japanese satellites can be regarded as attacks on multiple countries. It is becoming increasingly important to make full use of the power of allies and use their aerospace power to achieve deterrence goals.

4

Strengthening Deterrence in Cyberspace

1. Characteristics of Cyberspace Operations

The report believes that cyberspace has an increasing impact on the course of war, and cyberspace combat capabilities can even deter the occurrence of an entire conflict. Cyberspace security plays an important role in protecting various systems from cyber attacks, ensuring that confidential information is not leaked, and ensuring the normal operation of other systems such as critical infrastructure. It is also of great significance for cognitive domain protection.

There are two main characteristics of cyberspace at present. First, the boundary between military and civilian is blurred. The potential of military application of Internet is constantly emerging. In the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the artillery combat management system (GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA) used by Ukraine is to send data through drones and smartphones to determine the target location and launch attacks, which is very effective. Second, the security concept based on closed system is outdated. Even with physical isolation, it is impossible to completely prevent attacks. Cyberspace is easy to attack but difficult to defend, and the offense and defense are asymmetric. In addition, cyberspace operations can control the rhythm of conflict escalation in a low-intensity form, and can also be upgraded to a powerful weapon with high-intensity offensiveness after the official outbreak of military conflict.

2. Developing emerging technologies to enhance cyber warfare capabilities

The report points out that the development of emerging technologies will continue to change the rules of warfare, and the Japanese Ministry of Defense has begun to study the use of cloud computing to build a basic computing environment. It plans to build a diversified network environment, use Starlink satellites and 5G networks to provide Internet services, and consider enabling the new Internet communication protocol QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connection). The first quantum computer has been developed, and related research on anti-quantum cryptography has been carried out. At the same time, it also pays close attention to the specific ways of combining artificial intelligence with cyber warfare.

3. Ways to strengthen cyber deterrence

The report emphasizes that the development of artificial intelligence technology and the adjustment of the network component supply chain are two uncertain factors. Japan should focus on improving its cyber warfare capabilities from the following aspects: (1) vigorously promote intelligence information sharing; (2) build active defense systems; (3) introduce zero trust and risk management frameworks; (4) establish the ability to attack adversary networks; (5) accelerate legislation in the field of cybersecurity; (6) expand the scale of talent training and increase support for commercial enterprises. By carrying out the above work, Japan can achieve early detection and response to cyber attacks. Even if it encounters a cyber attack, it can be discovered, processed and recovered at an early stage to ensure the resilience of the system to continue to operate. In addition, when Japan is attacked, it should coordinate actions with the US military. In peacetime, joint training should be strengthened so that it can carry out joint operations with the Cyber ​​Mission Force (CMF) composed of relevant forces of the US Cyber ​​Command.

Responsible for directing, coordinating and conducting cyber operations

5

Conception of cyberspace combat scenarios

The report describes a basic scenario of cyber warfare between the Red and Blue sides, with the Taiwan Strait incident as the background, and puts forward the following important viewpoints: First, when the Blue side has an absolute advantage, the Blue side should focus on taking defensive actions to achieve deterrence. When the forces of the two sides tend to be balanced, the Blue side should actively take offensive actions to seize the initiative. Second, the Blue side can launch cyber attacks around the Red side’s observation, adjustment, decision-making, and action (OODA) links to weaken the Red side’s military capabilities, especially its maritime and landing combat capabilities, and carry out “anti-military cyber attack missions.” When necessary, strike the Red side’s social infrastructure to weaken its overall strength. At the same time, take cyber attacks to induce and divide public opinion, weaken the Red side’s willingness to take action, and carry out “anti-value cyber attack missions.” Third, in the anti-military cyber attack mission, the Blue side can attack the Red side’s aircraft, and can also take measures such as data pollution, deception cloud, and communication network interruption to attack the Red side’s command and control system. In the action of attacking the civilian network system, cyber attacks can be carried out on key entities of railway and ship operations in the Red coastal areas and key infrastructure such as the power grid in coastal metropolises that support social and economic systems. There are also options for attacking Red Team financial systems, media servers, and water and gas supply networks.

In order to deal with possible cyber attacks from the Red side in the event of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, Japan should do the following: First, adopt an active defense strategy, require commercial operators to share information with the government, and introduce artificial intelligence to improve cyber situational awareness and network resilience. Second, introduce a large-scale data forensics platform to identify the authenticity of massive image data and counter false information. Third, give priority to countermeasures against domestic cyber attacks, effectively defend the networks of defense, government departments, law enforcement agencies and private enterprises through various active cyber defense measures, and deal with cognitive domain actions against the Japanese public.

6

Conclusion

The report proposed the concept of War 3.0 and launched a series of discussions on achieving cyberspace and space deterrence. While suggesting strengthening its own relevant capacity building, it repeatedly emphasized the need to strengthen cooperation with the United States, especially with countries related to the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) and AUKUS. With Japan’s application to join AUKUS on April 25, 2024, the Asia-Pacific version of the “mini-NATO” alliance has taken shape, and regional peace and stability will be severely impacted.

Disclaimer: This article is reprinted from Military High-Tech Online, the original author is Shi Honglin. The content of the article is the original author’s personal opinion. This public account is translated/reprinted only for sharing and conveying different opinions. If you have any objections, please contact us!

Reprinted from Military High-Tech Online

Author: Shi Honglin

Introduction to the Institute

The International Institute of Technology and Economics (IITE) was established in November 1985. It is a non-profit research institution affiliated to the Development Research Center of the State Council. Its main functions are to study major policy, strategic and forward-looking issues in my country’s economic, scientific and technological social development, track and analyze the development trends of world science and technology and economy, and provide decision-making consulting services to the central government and relevant ministries. “Global Technology Map” is the official WeChat account of the International Institute of Technology and Economics, dedicated to delivering cutting-edge technology information and technological innovation insights to the public.

Address: Block A, Building 20, Xiaonanzhuang, Haidian District, Beijing

Tel: 010-82635522

繁體中文國語:

新領域軍事力量的發展正在改變戰爭樣式,其中太空(也稱為外層空間)和網路空間(以下簡稱網空)力量經過多年的發展,已由概念力量轉變為現實力量。如何利用這兩種新質力量,已成為世界各主要強國重點研究的內容。 2024年3月日本笹川和平財團安全研究小組發布研究報告《戰爭3.0:戰爭的根本變化》(以下簡稱《報告》),從維護日本國家安全的角度出發,探討如何利用太空和網空實現戰略威懾等問題,並以台海突發事件為背景,提出了一個網空對抗的典型場景,展示了日本在運用新興領域作戰力量上的思考。現將其主要內容整理如下,以颯讀者。

01

戰爭3.0時代到來

《報告》認為,在冷戰時期,平民、國家和軍隊之間的界線很清晰,對峙雙方經濟依賴度較低,此時是戰爭1.0時代。冷戰後全球化加速發展,2001年進入反恐戰爭時代,對抗的主體變成國家與非國家行為體,此時是戰爭2.0時代。 2010年前後大國對抗再次出現,由於經濟全球化發展程度較高,「戰爭」較多發生在軍事以外的維度。俄烏衝突顯示在現代戰爭中,其他手段正變得與軍事手段同等重要。同時,商業公司也更參與新興軍事技術的研發和使用,政府對軍事力量的控製程度受到了削弱。自此可以用一個新的概念來描述現代戰爭,即戰爭3.0。

只要戰爭在全球化背景下發生,就會出現戰爭3.0所包含的特徵。進入戰爭3.0時代,威懾的目標主要是國家行為體,但具體衝突形式可能類似混合戰爭,也可能是常規戰爭。在製定太空和網空領域威懾戰略時,要同時考慮這兩類衝突形式。要體認到新興領域能力是傳統能力的倍增器,爭奪新興領域制權的意義,在於提升己方陸、海、空軍等實體力量或削弱對手的實體力量。

《報告》指出,運用新興領域力量實施攻擊,可以不造成有形的物理破壞,有利於管控衝突,是在灰色地帶行動的最佳工具。日本當前主要面臨兩個問題,一是執法機構擁有的新興領域力量和任務需求不相適應。二是需要考慮具體如何運用新興領域力量,以達到衝突的有效管控。

02

新興領域的戰略威懾

《報告》利用傳統威懾理論進行分析,得出太空和網空具有五個共同特徵:態勢感知難、防禦難度大、攻擊門檻低、行動主體混雜、缺乏國際行為準則。易攻難守是這兩個領域的共同特點,因此較難實現有效的戰略威懾。對此,應從四個方面採取行動:一是提高態勢感知能力,以便在出現問題後,能夠迅速確定故障原因,識別攻擊者,並在反擊時評估毀傷效果。二是提升復原力,確保喪失部分功能不會導致整個系統失能。三是強化進攻能力,可在某一領域進行攻擊,也可利用其他領域手段進行跨域攻擊。四是實現國家間軍備控制合作並建立信任,制定行為準則等。

03

加強空中和太空的威懾

(一)空天制權的內涵不斷豐富

《報告》認為,空中和太空可以瞰整個戰場,為爭奪空天制權,各類裝備不斷更新,作戰系統越來越複雜,作戰範圍也越來越寬廣。在作戰中,雙方往往會圍繞「發現、定位、追蹤、決策、交戰、評估(Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess,F2T2EA)」全殺傷鏈各環節,在太空、網空、電磁空間等新興領域同時進行對抗,大大拓展了傳統制權的內涵。在未來高端戰爭中,利用太空、網空和電磁空間能力水準較高的一方,可能會在整體作戰能力上擁有壓倒性的優勢。
(二)如何發揮太空力量的嚇阻功能

《報告》強調,太空系統在情報收集、監視和偵察(Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance,ISR),通信,定位、導航和授時(Positioning, Navigation and Timing, PNT),導彈預警,環境監測等方面發揮著重要作用,也為使用核武力量和常規力量提供越來越重要的支持。為了形成強大的太空威懾,一要擁有並展現對應能力,主要是太空系統的復原力、防禦力、反制報復能力以及態勢感知能力。二要向敵方展示使用報復能力的決心。三要形成跨域威懾以確保太空全系統安全。此外,陸海空等其他領域系統要能補充太空系統的部分功能,面對敵方對己方衛星的攻擊,不僅要從太空報復,還要透過陸海空和網空進行報復。

由於太空系統在日本國防中的作用越來越大,所以要進一步提升對敵對進攻行為的威懾。在提升太空資產復原力的同時,要高度重視商業太空服務的有效運用。

(三)如何增強日本空天肌力嚇阻效果

《報告》指出,日本應重視海陸空天力量的跨域協同,特別是加強與美國的合作。若要緊密監視週邊空域,在局勢升級時使用飛機執行拒止任務,採取主動防禦措施,防止遭遇飛彈攻擊。要加強自衛隊基地建設,實現日美兩國空軍基地的互相使用。日本四面環海,要重視發展使用空中手段打擊海上目標的能力,以確保本土安全。

面對廣袤的印太地區,日本僅靠自身的空天力量,難以準確掌握區域態勢,要透過多邊合作分享情報訊息,建構印太地區通用作戰態勢圖(Common Operational Picture, COP),以精準全面地掌握地區態勢,對潛在敵人產生嚇阻效果。要加強與美國以外的國家,特別是澳洲的合作。日本、美國和澳洲應在各自國家建立聯合彈藥和燃料庫。在太空領域,日本將拓展託管有效載荷合作,如能和歐洲國家合作,那麼未來攻擊日本衛星的行為,將可以被視為對多個國家的攻擊。要充分借助盟友力量,利用其空天力量達成威懾目的,這一點正變得越來越重要。

04

加強網空的威懾

(一)網空作戰的特點

《報告》認為,網空對戰爭進程的影響越來越大,而網空作戰能力甚至可以嚇阻整個衝突的發生。網空安全對於保護自身各類系統免受網路攻擊、確保機密資訊不會外洩、確保關鍵基礎設施等其他系統正常運作發揮重要作用,對於認知域防護也有著十分重大的意義。

目前網空主要有兩個特點,一是軍民界線模糊。網路的軍事應用潛力不斷顯現,在俄烏衝突中,烏克蘭使用的砲兵作戰管理系統(GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA),就是透過無人機和智慧型手機,發送資料確定目標位置並發動攻擊,且非常有效。二是基於封閉系統的安全觀念已經過時。即便是進行物理隔離,也不可能完全防止被攻擊,網空易攻難守,攻防呈現不對稱特徵。此外,網空作戰既可以低強度形式控制衝突升級的節奏,也可以在正式爆發軍事衝突後,升級為具有高強度攻擊性的強大武器。
(二)發展新興科技提升網路戰能力

《報告》指出,新興技術的發展將持續改變作戰規則,日本防衛省已開始研究使用雲端運算建構基本運算環境。計畫建置多樣化網路環境,使用「星鏈」衛星和5G網路提供網路服務,考慮啟用新的網路通訊協定QUIC(Quick UDP Internet Connection)。已研發首台量子計算機,並進行反量子密碼的相關研究。同時,也高度關注人工智慧與網路戰結合的具體方式。

(三)強化網空威懾的辦法

《報告》強調,人工智慧技術的發展和網路部件供應鏈的調整是兩個不確定的影響因素。日本應著重從以下幾點提升網路戰能力:(1)大力促進情報資訊共享;(2)建構主動防禦系統;(3)引入零信任和風險管理框架;(4)建立攻擊對手網路的能力; (5)加速網路安全領域立法;(6)擴大人才培育規模,增加對商業企業的支持。透過進行以上工作,日本可以實現提前發現和應對網路攻擊。即使遭遇網路攻擊,也可在早期階段發現、處理和恢復,確保系統繼續運作的彈性。此外,當日本受到攻擊時,要與美軍協調行動。平時要加強聯合訓練,以便能夠與由美國網路司令部相關部隊組成網路任務部隊(The Cyber​​ Mission Force, CMF)實施聯合行動。
負責指導、協調和執行網路行動

05

對網空作戰場景的構想

《報告》以台海突發事件為背景,描述了一個紅藍雙方網路戰的基本場景,提出了以下幾個重要觀點:一是當藍方擁有絕對優勢時,藍方應側重於採取防禦行動實現威懾。當雙方力量趨於平衡時,藍方則應積極採取攻擊行動以爭取主動權。二是藍方可以圍繞紅方觀察、調整、決策、行動(Observe Orient Decide Act, OODA)的各環節展開網絡攻擊,削弱紅方軍事能力,特別是海上作戰和登陸作戰能力,開展「反軍事網絡攻擊任務」。在必要時候打擊紅方社會基礎設施,削弱其整體實力。同時,採取網路攻擊誘導和分裂公眾輿論,削弱紅方採取行動的意願,進行「反價值網路攻擊任務」。第三是在反軍事網路攻擊任務中,藍方可以攻擊紅方飛機,還可以採取資料污染、欺騙雲以及通訊網路中斷等措施,攻擊紅方指控系統。在攻擊民用網路系統的行動中,可以對紅方沿海地區鐵路和船舶運營的關鍵實體以及支持社會和經濟系統的沿海大城市電網等關鍵基礎設施進行網路攻擊。還可以選擇攻擊紅方金融系統、媒體伺服器以及供水和天然氣供應網路。

為因應台海突發事件發生時紅方可能的網路攻擊,日本應做好以下幾點:一是採取主動防禦策略,要求商業業者要與政府分享訊息,引入人工智慧以提高網空態勢感知和網路彈性。二是引進大規模資料取證平台以辨識海量影像資料的真實性,反制假資訊。第三是優先採取針對本國網路攻擊的反制措施,透過各種積極網路防禦措施有效保衛防衛、政府部門、執法機構和私人企業的網絡,並處理針對日本公眾的認知域行動。
06

結語

該報告提出了戰爭3.0的概念,圍繞實現網空和太空威懾展開了一系列論述,在建議加強自身相關能力建設的同時,多次強調要加強與美國,特別是四方安全對話(Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, QUAD)和奧庫斯(AUKUS)相關國家的合作。隨著2024年4月25日日本申請加入“奧庫斯”,亞太版的“小北約”聯盟已現雛形,地區和平穩定將受到嚴重衝擊。

免責聲明:本文轉自軍事高科技在線,原作者史宏林。文章內容係原作者個人觀點,本公眾號編譯/轉載僅為分享、傳達不同觀點,如有任何異議,歡迎聯絡我們!

轉自丨軍事高科技在線

作者丨史宏林

研究所簡介

國際技術經濟研究所(IITE)成立於1985年11月,是隸屬於國務院發展研究中心的非營利研究機構,主要功能是研究我國經濟、科技社會發展中的重大政策性、策略性、前瞻性問題,追蹤分析世界科技、經濟發展態勢,為中央和相關部會提供決策諮詢服務。 「全球技術地圖」為國際技術經濟研究所官方微信帳號,致力於向大眾傳遞尖端技術資訊與科技創新洞見。

地址:北京市海淀區小南莊20號樓A座

中文原文來源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/J5UO0ID90514R8DE.html

Chinese Military Developing Winning Mechanisms of Cognitive Confrontation Warfare

中國軍隊發展認知對抗戰制勝機制

原版現代英語翻譯:

As an important form of modern warfare, cognitive warfare takes cognitive domain as its main combat field, strategy and technology application as its main combat means, and influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition as its combat purpose. It has a unique winning mechanism and operating rules. In-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is a basic project to grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and win modern cognitive warfare.

  The contemporary connotation of the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is based on the revolutionary development and widespread application of media technology in cognitive technology, is adapted to the practical requirements of integrated joint operations, and is in line with the characteristics of the era of the integrated development of mechanization, informatization, and intelligence. It has rich contemporary connotations.

  Win with knowledge. As a solid basis and powerful weapon for human beings to understand and transform the world, thinking and cognition fundamentally affect the quality of decision-making, influence strategies and tactics, restrict military morale, and determine the process and outcome of war. It is the most fundamental support and the deepest force of war confrontation. In other words, war confrontation is ultimately a game and confrontation of thinking and cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition means mastering the initiative in war to a large extent. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger cognitive control is the key to defeating a strong enemy. Finding ways to master cognitive control and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to obtain the greatest victory at the lowest cost, is an important mechanism and internal law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare.

  Technology is the key. A significant feature of modern cognitive warfare that is different from previous cognitive warfare is that the elements of strategy are gradually reduced and the role is gradually reduced, while the application of technology is more frequent and its role is more prominent. In particular, with the deep involvement of information technology and artificial intelligence, modern cognitive warfare pays more attention to the competition of technical hard power. The previous soul-stirring and mysterious strategic confrontation seems to be giving way to today’s head-on technical competition. Efforts to seek breakthroughs, master advantages, and take the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, brain control, blockchain, high-performance communications, and the metaverse have become the key focus of countries’ competitive development to gain cognitive advantages and defeat powerful enemies.

  Hidden is the best. A prominent feature of cognitive warfare is the hidden use of strategies, that is, through hidden methods and means such as information suppression, data confusion, hiding the truth and showing the false, and scenario construction, the opponent’s thinking and cognition are subtly influenced, controlled, and shaped. It can be said that “hidden” is the main color, main melody, and main channel. Hidden purpose, hidden means, and hidden actions run through all aspects of the entire process of cognitive attack and defense. In the cognitive perspective, whoever masters more advanced strategies, more flexible tactics, and more hidden tactics can more effectively act on the opponent in cognitive attack and defense confrontation, thus being in a higher cognitive dimension.

  Integration is the basis. If cognitive warfare lacks the support of specific military operations in the material domain, it will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring and defeating the enemy. Cognitive warfare should never be an isolated operation. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into the integrated joint combat chain, closely combining it with physical domain military operations, and closely integrating it with the entire combat system, can the military forces in different fields be closely combined, mutually supported, and organically integrated, and can the combat effectiveness be fully exerted.

  Practical requirements for the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of war determines the form and method of military force construction and application, and has a mandatory and stabilizing influence on war practice. The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare inherently regulates the form and method of cognitive warfare, and puts forward new requirements for the construction of cognitive warfare forces.

  Take the control of cognition as the core of winning cognitive warfare. Firmly grasp the key of the control of cognition, insist on the two-way efforts of wisdom and technology, strive to seize the commanding heights of thinking and cognition, and seize the control of cognitive operations. Deeply promote the innovation of the theory of control of cognition, integrate high-quality resources, increase funding, follow up and study typical cases of cognitive operations at home and abroad, conscientiously summarize practical experience in all aspects, and combine the specific reality of our army to form a theoretical system with contemporary, leading and unique characteristics as soon as possible; strengthen the basic construction of training facilities, equipment, venues, and talent teams, build a number of special training venues based on the existing comprehensive training grounds, and carry out base-based professional training; carry out the drills of the tactics of control of cognition, incorporate cognitive warfare into daily combat readiness training, into specific combat action plans, simulate important combat operations, imagine major combat targets, preset actual combat scenarios, and practice hard in an environment close to actual combat to form the actual combat capability of real combat, good attack and defense, and control and control.

  Take science and technology as the key to cognitive confrontation. Science and technology are core combat power, core cognitive power, and the core element of cognitive power. Strengthen the awareness of winning with science and technology, deeply understand the basic supporting role of science and technology as one of the two major means of modern cognitive warfare, “strategy + technology”, consciously put cognitive technology innovation in an important position in the strategy of strengthening the army with science and technology, and make efforts to carry out independent innovation in cognitive technology; grasp the breakthrough of core key technologies, focus on artificial intelligence, brain control technology, brain control technology, situational awareness technology, high-performance communication technology, metaverse and other basic technologies related to cognitive warfare, consolidate the scientific and technological foundation of cognitive attack and defense confrontation, and firmly grasp the destiny in our own hands; explore distinctive innovation paths, adapt to my country’s national conditions, military conditions and technical realities, explore innovation paths that suit us, form distinctive technical routes, strive to master asymmetric technologies, and achieve what you don’t have, what I have, what you have, what I have, and what you are better than, so as to form a “new trick” to defeat the enemy at critical moments.

  Use strategy as the key to cognitive offense and defense. Although the importance of technical factors in modern cognitive warfare is increasing, the status and role of strategy are still irreplaceable. Focus on the word “hidden”, strengthen the special function of “strategy” as a smart strategy to surprise, unaware, confuse and mislead the opponent, formulate and implement targeted strategies and tactics according to the opponent’s strategic traditions, thinking habits, cultural attributes and weaknesses, and lead them without shadow, lure them into the invisible, and guide them without a trace; focus on the word “link”, deepen the research on the methods and strategies of strategy application under modern scientific and technological conditions, and comprehensively use modern technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence to empower and increase the efficiency of strategy application, and add the wings of science and technology to cognitive strategy; focus on the word “integration” to achieve results, deepen the research on the characteristics and laws of the combination of cognitive warfare soft power and physical domain military operations hard power, and explore the path of integrated application of military forces in multiple fields such as cognitive domain and physical domain.

  Coordinate and promote the comprehensive and scientific development of cognitive warfare

  To fight a cognitive proactive battle, we must follow the internal mechanisms that run through it, grasp the practical requirements contained therein, follow the ever-changing military practice, strengthen scientific thinking, adhere to problem-orientation, develop a forward-looking perspective, and strive to grasp the three relationships.

  Grasp the relationship between strategy and technology. “Strategy + technology” constitutes the main content of cognitive warfare methods and means. As a highly intelligent combat form and method, cognitive warfare is born with the inherent content of strategy with the most intelligent background. The flexible and flexible strategy game is the historical heritage and wonderful chapter of our army’s cognitive warfare. The process of the development and evolution of cognitive warfare is, to a certain extent, the process of mutual growth and mutual construction of strategy and technology. In this process, strategy is more colorful due to the blessing of technology, and technology is more powerful due to the use of strategy. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, we must not only carry forward the advantages of our army in using strategy, but also strengthen the application of technical means. More importantly, we must organically combine strategy with technology, and enhance the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive attack and defense through technical strategy and strategic use of technology.

  Grasp the relationship between soft and hard. Modern warfare usually divides the combat domain into physical domain, information domain, and cognitive domain according to the characteristics of material form. These three domains conduct each other and influence each other to form the field and soil of military confrontation. Among them, the cognitive domain and information domain show soft power, and the physical domain shows hard power. The two forces of soft and hard are unified in the vast space of the integration of the three domains of military game, and together constitute the basic power elements of cognitive offense and defense. Although cognitive warfare occurs in the cognitive field, its combat support is not only soft power. With the enhancement of the hard power of the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can be better implemented. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, it is necessary not only to strengthen the construction of cognitive warfare ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also to actively borrow power from the physical domain, and use the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to verify and strengthen thinking and cognition, and at the same time promote the materialization of cognitive results through verification and strengthening actions.

  Grasp the relationship between attack and defense. Cognition, in terms of its object, includes two sides of the same coin: “know yourself and shape your opponent”, which can also be succinctly summarized as “save yourself and destroy the enemy”. Among them, knowing and sticking to yourself, preventing and avoiding being influenced and shaped by the enemy is “defense”; weakening and depriving the enemy’s cognitive ability, knowing and shaping the opponent is “attack”. Cognitive warfare is an opposing unity of the two forces of offense and defense, which grows and declines and transforms into each other. The core of mastering the initiative of thinking and cognition and fighting the initiative of cognitive operations is to improve the ability of defense and counterattack, recognize the strengths and weaknesses, strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of the enemy and ourselves, stick to ourselves and attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and use our clarity to trap the enemy in confusion; the key is to accurately grasp the transition node between offense and defense, seize the enemy’s cognitive loopholes, concentrate forces to pursue and attack, paralyze its defense line, and seize its key points; the purpose is to master cognitive initiative. Whether it is attack or defense, they all end up occupying a favorable position in the cognitive game and winning. When to attack and when to defend, they must obey and unify this goal.

國語中文:

認知戰作為現代戰爭的重要作戰形式,以認知域為主要作戰領域,以謀略和技術運用為主要作戰手段,以影響和塑造對手的思維認知為作戰目的,具有獨特製勝機理和運行規律。深入研究認知戰制勝機理,是掌握思考認知主動、打贏現代認知戰的基礎工程。

認知戰制勝機理的時代內涵

認知戰制勝機理,以認知技術中媒介技術的革命性發展和廣泛應用為前提,與一體化聯合作戰的實踐要求相適應,與機械化資訊化智能化融合發展的時代特徵相契合,具有豐富時代內涵。

以知取勝。思維認知作為人類認識世界、改造世界的堅實憑藉、強大武器,根本上影響決策品質、左右戰略戰術、制約軍心士氣,決定戰爭的過程與結果,是戰爭對抗最根本的依托、最深層的力量。也就是說,戰爭對抗歸根究柢是思維認知的博弈與對抗,掌握了製認知權很大程度上就掌握了戰爭主動,喪失了製認知權就會在戰爭中處於被動挨打的境地。獲得更高、更強的製認知權是製勝強敵的關鍵。想辦法掌握制認知權進而奪取戰場綜合製權,從而以最小代價獲取最大勝利,是現代戰爭特別是認知戰的重要機理和內在規律。

以技為要。現代認知戰不同於以往認知戰的一個顯著特徵在於,謀略的成分逐漸減少、作用逐步降低,科技的應用更加頻繁、作用更加凸顯。特別是受資訊科技與人工智慧深度介入,現代認知戰更注重科技硬實力的比拼,以往蕩氣迴腸、玄妙無窮的謀略對抗,似乎正讓位於今天針尖對麥芒般硬碰硬的技術較量。努力在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、腦控、區塊鏈、高效能通聯、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、掌握優勢、佔據主動,成為各國贏得認知優勢、制勝強敵對對手競相發展的關鍵重點。

以隱為上。認知戰的一大突出特徵在於謀略的隱性使用,即透過資訊壓制、資料迷茫、隱真示假、情境建構等隱性方法手段,潛移默化地影響、左右和塑造對手的思維認知。可以說,「隱」是主色調、主旋律、主管道,隱形目的、隱性手段、隱藏行動,貫穿認知攻防的全過程各方面。認知視野下,誰掌握了更高超的戰略、更靈活的戰術、更隱蔽的戰法,誰就能在認知攻防對抗中更有效地作用於對手,從而處於更高的認知維度。

以融為基。認知戰如果缺乏物質域具體的軍事行動配合支撐,斷不會產生疑敵、惑敵、嚇敵、勝敵的良好效果。認知戰從來都不應該是孤立的作戰,只有將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈條,與物理域軍事行動緊密結合起來,與整個作戰體系緊密融為一體,做到不同領域的軍事力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能充分發揮作戰效能。

認知戰制勝機理的實踐要求

戰爭制勝機理決定軍事力量建設運用的形態和方式,對戰爭實踐具有強制規定性和穩定影響力。認知戰制勝機理內在規制認知戰形態和作戰方式,對認知作戰力量建構提出新的要求。

把製認知權當作制勝認知戰的核心。緊緊扭住制認知權這個要樞,堅持智謀、技術雙向發力,努力搶佔思維認知制高點,奪取認知作戰控制權。深入推進制認知權作戰理論創新,整合優質資源力量,加大經費投入力度,跟進研究國內外認知作戰典型戰例,認真總結各方面實踐經驗,結合我軍具體實際,儘早形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的理論體系;強化訓練設施、器材、場地、人才隊伍等基本建設,依托現有綜合訓練場打造若干特色訓練場所,進行基地化專業化訓練;紮實開展制認知權戰法演練,將認知戰納入日常戰備訓練,納入具體作戰行動計劃,模擬重要作戰行動,假想主要作戰對象,預設實戰場景,在近似實戰的環境中苦練精訓,形成真打實務、能攻善守、能控巧製的實戰能力。

把科學技術當作認知對抗的關鍵。科學技術是核心戰鬥力,也是核心認知力,更是製認知權的核心要素。強化科技制勝意識,深刻認識科學技術作為現代認知戰「謀略+技術」兩大手段之一的基礎支撐作用,自覺把認知技術創新放在科技強軍戰略的重要位置,下力搞好認知技術自主創新;抓好核心關鍵技術突破,著力在人工智慧、腦控技術、控腦技術、態勢感知技術、高性能通聯技術、元宇宙等與認知戰相關的基礎技術上下大功夫,夯實認知攻防對抗的科技基礎,把命運牢牢掌握在自己手中;探索特色創新路徑,適應我國國情軍情和技術實際,探索適合自己的創新路子,形成特色技術路線,努力掌握非對稱技術,做到你無我有、你有我優、你優我精,形成關鍵時刻克敵制勝的「一招鮮」。

把謀略運用作為認知攻防的密鑰。技術因素雖然在現代認知戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。著力在「隱」字上下功夫,強化「謀」作為智慧韜略之於對手出其不意、不知不覺、迷惑誤導的特殊功能,根據對手戰略傳統、思維習慣、文化屬性和短板弱項等,制定實施針對性策略戰術,引之於無影、誘之於無形、導之於無蹤;著力在「聯」字上做文章,深化現代科技條件下謀略運用方法策略研究,綜合運用網路資訊、人工智慧等現代科技為謀略運用賦能增效,為認知謀略插上科技的翅膀;著力在「融」字上見成效,深化認知戰軟力量與物理域軍事行動硬實力結合運用特質規律研究,探索認知域、物理域等多領域軍事力量融合運用路徑。

統籌推廣認知戰全面科學發展

打好認知主動仗,必須遵循貫穿其中的內在機理,把握其中蘊含的實踐要求,跟進日新月異的軍事實踐,強化科學思維,堅持問題導向,開拓前瞻性視野,著力把握好三種關係。

把握好謀與技的關係。 「謀略+技術」構成認知戰方法手段的主體內容。認知戰作為高度智慧化的作戰形態和方式,最具智慧底色的謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容,機動靈活的謀略博弈更是我軍認知作戰歷史傳承和精彩篇章。認知戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相長互構的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的祝福而更加多彩,科技因謀略的運用而更加強大。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,不僅要發揚我軍善用謀略的優長,還須強化技術手段的應用,更重要的是將施謀與用技有機結合起來,透過技術性施謀、謀略性用技強化認知攻防的綜合效能。

把握好軟與硬的關係。現代戰爭通常依物質形態特徵將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域、認知域,這三個域相互傳導影響共同構成軍事對抗的領域和土壤。其中,認知域和資訊域展現的是軟實力,物理域彰顯的是硬力量,軟硬兩種力量統一於軍事博弈三域合一的廣闊空間,共同構成認知攻防的基本力量元素。認知戰雖然發生在認知領域,但其作戰依托並非只有軟實力,在物理域硬力量增效強化下,認知形成往往能加速實現,認知實現也能更好地落實。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,不僅須加強認知戰本體力量建設,提高直接運用謀略和技術手段加強自我防護、幹預和影響對手思維認知的能力,而且應積極向物理域借力,藉由物理域軍事行動的傳導效應來印證和強化思考認知,同時透過印證和強化行動來推動認知成果的物化轉化。

把握好攻與防的關係。認知就其對象而言包括「認清自己、塑造對手」一體兩面,也可精要概括為「保存自己、消滅敵人」。其中認清和堅守自己,防止和避免被敵人影響塑造是為「防」;削弱和剝奪敵認知能力,認知和塑造對手是為「攻」。認知戰是攻防兩種力量此消彼長、相互轉化的對立統一體。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,核心是提升防守反擊能力,認清敵我強弱、長短、優劣,堅守自己並擊敵薄弱,以我之昭昭陷敵於昏昏沉沉;關鍵在於把準攻防轉換節點,抓住敵認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,癱瘓其防線、奪取其要地;目的是掌握認知主動,無論攻還是防都殊途同歸於在認知博弈中佔據有利位置並贏得勝利,什麼時候攻什麼時候防,都要服從並統一於此目標。

中國軍事原文來源:https://www.workercn.cn/c/2022-05-02/679888.shtml

Chinese Military Insight into the Evolution of Cognitive Warfare

中國軍事對認知戰演變的洞察

國語翻譯:

Cognition is the process by which people acquire, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually received attention from all countries. With the development of the scientific and technological revolution and the expansion of war practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerating evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming the basic driving force of the evolution of war. Technology changes the form of war and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become a sign of the maturity of cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies in cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, artificial intelligence, etc. will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Human beings are entering the era of universal communication. The global cyberspace is being highly linked. The network has become a combat space for comprehensive game between state actors and non-state actors. The contention and war of communication have become part of the high-intensity military action level. At present, major countries in the world have laid out the frontier of cognitive technology and carried out cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control the human brain network, information network and social network; through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, and clever calculation, they aim to maximize the control of people’s cognitive world and cognitive domain.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the intelligent era, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication is giving way to online communication. Various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large social platforms have become the main battlefield for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The space domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep earth, while the logic domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to the social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and anti-blockade, dominance and anti-domination around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare, and the struggle for international discourse control using information as ammunition has become the main way of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, the penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of small-scale war or even victory without fighting through comprehensive game means such as cognitive warfare. The offense and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released.

Cognitive advantage is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of action in war is the lifeblood of the military. From the cognitive dimension, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the freer the action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in war, commanders are beginning to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time, help commanders get rid of cognitive overload, and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantage will dominate decision-making advantage, and decision-making advantage will dominate action advantage. Cognitive advantage has four key indicators: stronger information acquisition ability, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling ability, and higher ability to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with data-driven intelligent communication as its new feature has been highly coordinated and integrated with traditional military operations. This virtual-real integrated combat style has stronger combat effectiveness than simple military operations, which has fundamentally changed the traditional combat methods. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become a fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the forefront of the game of winning wars. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power, and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-penetration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control in cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field. Concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion have appeared frequently in the field of foreign cognitive warfare research. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict domain” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theory innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars, cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation, and cognitive technology will accelerate the advancement of cognitive warfare to become an important “trigger point” for the intelligent military revolution. Since new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are in the process of accelerated incubation, perhaps future wars will present a surprising new situation.

繁體中文:

認知是人們獲得、加工及應用資訊和知識的過程。當前,認知域逐漸成為角逐的新戰場,認知戰也逐漸受到各國重視。隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的拓展,認知戰正呈現加速演變趨勢。

認知科技正成為戰爭演進的基本動力。科技改變戰爭形態,也改變認知戰方式。如果資訊網路的大規模普及,推動了資訊域成為作戰域,資料和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊域成熟的標誌,那麼認知科技的大規模應用,認知技術不斷迭代發展,將成為推動認知戰成熟的標誌。未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等方面技術,將折射出認知技術對社會認知對抗、軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。人類正進入全民傳播時代,全球網路空間正納入高度連動,網路已成為國家行為體和非國家行為體全面博弈的作戰空間,傳播之爭和傳播之戰已成為高烈度軍事行動層面的一部分。當前世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,開展認知技術競賽,透過建模和分析,謀求滲透控制人腦網絡、資訊網絡和社會網絡;透過深算、精算、妙算等,旨在最大限度把握人們的認知世界和認知域的控制權。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。智慧時代,人類溝通方式正發生複雜深刻變化。離線交流更多讓位於線上交流,各種新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地。因此,未來戰爭的作戰域將不斷拓展,空間域從陸海空天網向深空、深海、深地拓展,而邏輯域則從物理域向資訊域、認知域拓展。戰爭不再侷限於傳統戰爭的實體威脅,而是轉向大眾媒體、科技進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。圍繞傳播平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰爭奪的焦點,以資訊為彈藥進行國際話語控制權爭奪成為當今認知對抗的主要方式。在混合戰爭視角下,意識形態宣傳與灌輸、價值觀與文化的滲透、傳統的輿論心理與法律攻防與資訊網絡戰等,都成為認知戰的重要面向。混合戰爭可透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,實現小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的,而認知領域攻防將是一場不間斷的、常態化的鬥爭,作戰效能也將持續累積、逐步釋放。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的勝利優勢。戰爭行動自由是軍隊的命脈。從認知維度來看,對戰場環境、作戰對手認知越深,行動越自由,相對優勢就越大。但隨著戰爭中作戰資料指數級成長,指揮人員開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境,擁有資訊優勢並不等於擁有認知優勢。人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向,就是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮人員擺脫認知過載,快速形成認知優勢。在智慧化戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢主導行動優勢。認知優勢有4個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的突發事件處理能力和更高的開發應用新技術新知識的能力。例如,以數據驅動的智慧傳播為新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動已經高度協同與融合,這種虛實一體的作戰樣式具備了比單純軍事行動更強的作戰效能,使傳統作戰方式發生根本性改變。認知優勢的連動與疊加,將加速推進作戰效能轉化,成為戰爭制勝的根本優勢。

認知理論正成為打贏戰爭的博弈前線。認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。目前,認知空間的滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的爭奪激烈,認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念,已高頻度出現於國外認知戰研究領域。外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“交織的衝突領域”中的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點,認知理論已成為理論創新前沿領域,認知科技將加速推進認知戰成為智慧化軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。由於認知戰的新技術、新理論、新樣式正處於加速孵化之中,也許未來戰爭將會呈現出令人驚詬的全新景況。

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/29/content_32588.htm

中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research