(受權發布)中華人民共和國生物安全法

(Authorized to Publish) Biosafety Law of the People’s Republic of China

Modern English:

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, October 17th

Biosafety Law of the People’s Republic of China
(Adopted at the 22nd Meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress on October 17, 2020)

table of Contents

Chapter One   General Provisions

Chapter Two: Biosafety Risk Prevention and Control System

Chapter III: Prevention and Control of Major New Emergent Infectious Diseases, Animal and Plant Epidemics

Chapter Four: Biotechnology Research, Development and Application Safety

Chapter 5: Biosafety of Pathogenic Microorganism Laboratory

Chapter VI: Human Genetic Resources and Biological Resources Security

Chapter 7: Preventing Bioterrorism and Biological Weapons Threats

Chapter 8: Biosafety Capacity Building

Chapter 9 Legal Liability

Chapter 10 Supplementary Provisions

Chapter One   General Provisions

Article 1 “In order to maintain national security, prevent and respond to biosecurity risks, protect people’s lives and health, protect biological resources and the ecological environment, promote the healthy development of biotechnology, promote the construction of a community with a shared future for mankind, and realize the harmonious coexistence of man and nature, this law is formulated.

Article 2 “Biosecurity” as used in this law means that the state effectively prevents and responds to the threats of dangerous biological factors and related factors. Biotechnology can develop stably and healthily. People’s lives and health and ecosystems are relatively in a state of no danger and no threats. The field has the ability to maintain national security and sustainable development.

This law applies to the following activities:

(1) Preventing and controlling major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics;

(2) Research, development and application of biotechnology;

(3) Biosafety management of pathogenic microorganism laboratories;

(4) Safety management of human genetic resources and biological resources;

(5) Prevent the invasion of alien species and protect biodiversity;

(6) Dealing with microbial resistance;

(7) Preventing bioterrorism attacks and defending against the threat of biological weapons;

(8) Other activities related to biosafety.

Article 3: Biosecurity is an important part of national security. Maintaining biosecurity should implement the overall national security concept, coordinate development and security, and adhere to the principles of people-oriented, risk prevention, classified management, and coordination.

Article 4: Persist in the leadership of the Communist Party of China in national biosafety work, establish and improve the national biosafety leadership system, strengthen the construction of the national biosafety risk prevention and control and governance system, and improve the national biosafety governance capabilities.

Article 5: The state encourages innovation in biotechnology, strengthens the construction of biosafety infrastructure and biotechnology personnel, supports the development of the bioindustry, promotes the level of biotechnology with innovation, and enhances the ability to guarantee biosafety.

Article 6: The state strengthens international cooperation in the field of biosafety, fulfills the obligations stipulated in the international treaties that the People’s Republic of China has concluded or participated in, supports participation in biotechnology exchanges and cooperation and international rescue of biosafety incidents, and actively participates in the research and formulation of international biosafety regulations, Promote the improvement of global biosafety governance.

Article 7 People’s governments at all levels and their relevant departments shall strengthen the publicity and popularization of biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge, guide grassroots mass autonomous organizations and social organizations to carry out biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge publicity, and promote biosafety in the whole society Raising awareness.

Relevant scientific research institutions, medical institutions, and other enterprises and institutions shall incorporate biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge into the content of education and training, and strengthen the cultivation of biosafety awareness and ethical awareness of students and practitioners.

The news media should carry out public welfare propaganda of biosafety laws and regulations and biosafety knowledge, conduct public opinion supervision on biosafety violations, and enhance the public’s awareness of social responsibility for maintaining biosafety.

Article 8: No unit or individual may endanger biological safety.

Any unit or individual has the right to report acts endangering biosafety; the department receiving the report shall deal with it in a timely manner in accordance with the law.

Article 9: People’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall commend and reward units and individuals that have made outstanding contributions to biosafety work in accordance with national regulations.

Chapter Two: Biosafety Risk Prevention and Control System

Article 10: The central national security leadership agency is responsible for the decision-making and coordination of national biosecurity work, researching, formulating and guiding the implementation of the national biosecurity strategy and related major guidelines and policies, coordinating major issues and important tasks of national biosecurity, and establishing national biosecurity Work coordination mechanism.

Provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government have established biosafety work coordination mechanisms to organize, coordinate, and supervise and promote biosafety-related work within their administrative regions.

Article 11: The national biosafety work coordination mechanism is composed of the competent departments of the State Council for health, agriculture and rural areas, science and technology, foreign affairs and other relevant military agencies, analyzes and judges the national biosafety situation, organizes, coordinates, and supervises and promotes national biosafety related work. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism establishes an office to be responsible for the daily work of the coordination mechanism.

The member units of the National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism and other relevant departments of the State Council are responsible for biosafety-related work according to the division of responsibilities.

Article 12: The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism shall establish an expert committee to provide decision-making consultation for the research, policy formulation and implementation of the national biosafety strategy.

Relevant departments of the State Council organize the establishment of biosafety technical consultation expert committees in related fields and industries to provide technical support such as consultation, evaluation, and demonstration for biosafety work.

Article 13: Local people’s governments at all levels are responsible for the biosafety work within their administrative areas.

Relevant departments of local people’s governments at or above the county level are responsible for biosafety-related work according to the division of responsibilities.

The grassroots mass autonomous organizations shall assist the local people’s government and relevant departments in the prevention and control of biosafety risks, emergency response, publicity and education, etc.

Relevant units and individuals shall cooperate in the prevention and control of biosafety risks and emergency response.

Article 14: The state establishes a biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes the establishment of a national biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system to improve biosafety risk identification and analysis capabilities.

Article 15: The State establishes a biosafety risk investigation and assessment system. The national biosafety work coordination mechanism should regularly organize and conduct biosafety risk surveys and assessments based on risk monitoring data, materials and other information.

Under any of the following circumstances, relevant departments shall promptly conduct biosafety risk investigation and assessment, and take necessary risk prevention and control measures in accordance with the law:

(1) It is found that there may be a biosafety risk through risk monitoring or receiving a report;

(2) In order to determine the key areas and key projects for supervision and management, formulate and adjust biosafety-related directories or lists;

(3) The occurrence of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics and other incidents that endanger biological safety;

(4) Other situations that need to be investigated and evaluated.

Article 16: The state establishes a biosafety information sharing system. The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes the establishment of a unified national biosafety information platform. Relevant departments should submit biosafety data, materials and other information to the national biosafety information platform to realize information sharing.

Article 17: The state establishes a biosafety information release system. Major biosafety information such as the overall national biosafety situation, major biosafety risk warning information, major biosafety incidents and their investigation and processing information, will be released by the member units of the National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism according to the division of responsibilities; other biosafety information will be released by relevant departments of the State Council And local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments in accordance with their duties and powers.

No unit or individual may fabricate or disseminate false biosafety information.

Article 18: The state establishes a biosafety list and inventory system. According to the needs of biosafety work, the State Council and its relevant departments formulate and publish lists or lists of materials, equipment, technologies, activities, important biological resource data, infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases, and invasive alien species that involve biosafety, and adjust them dynamically .

Article 19: The state establishes a biosafety standard system. The standardization department of the State Council and other relevant departments of the State Council shall formulate and improve relevant standards in the field of biosafety in accordance with the division of responsibilities.

The National Biosafety Work Coordination Mechanism organizes relevant departments to strengthen the coordination and connection of biosafety standards in different fields, and establish and improve a biosafety standard system.

Article 20: The state establishes a biosafety review system. For major events and activities in the biological field that affect or may affect national security, relevant departments of the State Council shall conduct a biosafety review to effectively prevent and resolve biosafety risks.

Article 21: The state establishes an orderly and efficient biosafety emergency system with unified leadership, coordination and linkage.

Relevant departments of the State Council shall organize the formulation of emergency plans for biosafety incidents in related fields and industries, and carry out emergency drills, emergency handling, emergency rescue and post-event recovery in accordance with the emergency plans and unified deployment.

Local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall formulate, organize, guide and supervise relevant enterprises and institutions to formulate emergency plans for biosafety incidents, strengthen emergency preparedness, personnel training and emergency drills, and carry out emergency response to biosafety incidents, emergency rescue and after-events Restoration and other work.

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, in accordance with the order of the Central Military Commission, participate in the emergency response and rescue of biosecurity incidents in accordance with the law.

Article 22: The state establishes a system for investigating and tracing the source of biosafety incidents. In the event of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, and unexplained biosafety incidents, the national biosafety work coordination mechanism should organize investigation and traceability, determine the nature of the incident, comprehensively evaluate the impact of the incident, and provide opinions and suggestions.

Article 23: The state establishes a national entry system for animals and plants, animal and plant products, and high-risk biological factors that enter the country for the first time or resume entry after a suspension.

People, transportation vehicles, containers, goods, articles, packaging, and ballast water discharge of ships entering and leaving the country shall meet the requirements of my country’s biosafety management.

The customs shall deal with the discovered inbound, outbound and transit biosafety risks in accordance with the law. Persons, means of transportation, goods, articles, etc. that have been assessed as high risk of biosafety shall enter the country through designated frontier ports and adopt strict risk prevention and control measures.

Article 24: The state establishes a system for responding to major overseas biosecurity incidents. In the event of a major biosafety incident abroad, the customs shall adopt emergency biosafety prevention and control measures in accordance with the law, strengthen document verification, increase the proportion of inspections, and suspend the entry of relevant personnel, means of transport, goods, and articles. When necessary, with the consent of the State Council, measures such as temporary closure of relevant ports and blockade of relevant borders may be adopted.

Article 25: Relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level shall carry out biosafety supervision and inspection work in accordance with the law, and the units and individuals inspected shall cooperate, truthfully explain the situation, provide information, and shall not refuse or obstruct.

Supervision and inspection work involving high professional and technical requirements and difficult law enforcement operations should involve biosafety professional and technical personnel.

Article 26: Relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level may take the following measures in accordance with the law to implement biosafety supervision and inspection:

(1) Enter the inspected unit, location, or place suspected of committing biosafety violations to conduct on-site monitoring, survey, inspection or verification;

(2) Get information from relevant units and individuals;

(3) Consult and copy relevant documents, data, files, records, vouchers, etc.;

(4) Sealing up places and facilities suspected of committing biosafety violations;

(5) Detain tools, equipment and related items suspected of committing biosafety violations;

(6) Other measures stipulated by laws and regulations.

Biosafety illegal information of relevant entities and individuals shall be included in the national credit information sharing platform in accordance with the law.

Chapter III: Prevention and Control of Major New Emergent Infectious Diseases, Animal and Plant Epidemics

Article 27 The competent departments of the State Council for health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, customs, and ecological environment shall establish a network of newly emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, entry and exit quarantine, and biotechnology environmental safety monitoring networks, and organize the layout of monitoring sites, Establish and improve the monitoring information reporting system, carry out active monitoring and pathogen detection, and incorporate it into the national biosafety risk monitoring and early warning system.

Article 28 Disease prevention and control agencies, animal disease prevention and control agencies, and plant disease and insect pest prevention and control agencies (hereinafter collectively referred to as professional agencies) shall carry out active monitoring of infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases and diseases of unknown origin that are included in the monitoring scope, collecting, Analyze and report monitoring information to predict the occurrence and prevalence of emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases.

Relevant departments of the State Council, local people’s governments at or above the county level, and their relevant departments shall issue early warnings in a timely manner based on forecasts and duties and powers, and take corresponding prevention and control measures.

Article 29: Any unit or individual discovering infectious diseases or animal or plant diseases shall promptly report to medical institutions, relevant professional institutions or departments.

Medical institutions, professional institutions and their staff shall report infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases or cluster diseases of unknown cause in a timely manner and adopt protective measures.

If a report is required in accordance with the law, no unit or individual shall conceal, misrepresent, postpone the report, or omit the report, or instruct others to conceal, misrepresent, or postpone the report, or hinder others from reporting.

Article 30: The state establishes a joint prevention and control mechanism for major newly emerging infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics.

In the event of a major new outbreak of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, timely control measures shall be taken in accordance with relevant laws and regulations and emergency plans; the competent departments of health, agriculture, rural areas, and forestry and grassland under the State Council shall immediately organize epidemic consultations, discussion, and judgment, The conclusions of the research are reported to the central national security leadership agency and the State Council, and other member units of the National Biosecurity Work Coordination Mechanism and other relevant departments of the State Council are notified.

In the occurrence of major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics, local people’s governments at all levels shall perform the responsibilities of epidemic prevention and control in their respective administrative areas, strengthen organization and leadership, carry out group prevention and control, medical treatment, and mobilize and encourage social forces in an orderly manner Participate in epidemic prevention and control work.

Article 31 The State strengthens the construction of the joint prevention and control capacity of infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics at borders and ports, and establishes an international cooperation network for the prevention and control of infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics to detect and control major emerging and sudden infectious diseases and animal and plant epidemics as early as possible .

Article 32: The state protects wild animals, strengthens animal epidemic prevention, and prevents the spread of animal-borne infectious diseases.

Article 33: The State strengthens the management of the use and residues of antimicrobial drugs and other antimicrobial drugs, and supports basic research and scientific and technological breakthroughs in response to microbial resistance.

The health authorities of the people’s governments at or above the county level shall strengthen the guidance and supervision of the rational use of drugs by medical institutions, and take measures to prevent the unreasonable use of antimicrobial drugs. The agricultural, rural and forestry and grassland administrative departments of the people’s governments at or above the county level shall strengthen the guidance and supervision of the rational use of drugs in agricultural production, take measures to prevent the unreasonable use of antimicrobial drugs, and reduce the residues in the agricultural production environment.

The State Council’s health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, ecological environment and other competent departments and drug supervision and administration departments shall assess the harm of antimicrobial drug residues to human health and the environment according to the division of responsibilities, and establish an antimicrobial pollutant index evaluation system.

Chapter Four: Biotechnology Research, Development and Application Safety

Article 34 The State strengthens the safety management of biotechnology research, development, and application activities, and prohibits engaging in biotechnology research, development, and application activities that endanger public health, damage biological resources, destroy ecosystems and biodiversity, and other activities that endanger biosafety .

Engaged in biotechnology research and development

Development and application activities.

Engaging in biotechnology research, development and application activities shall comply with ethical principles.

Article 35 Units engaged in biotechnology research, development and application activities shall be responsible for the safety of their own biotechnology research, development and application, adopt biosafety risk prevention and control measures, and formulate biosafety training, follow-up inspections, regular reports, etc. System, strengthen process management.

Article 36: The State implements classified management of biotechnology research and development activities. According to the degree of risk of harm to public health, industrial agriculture, ecological environment, etc., biotechnology research and development activities are divided into three categories: high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk.

The risk classification standards and directories of biotechnology research and development activities are formulated, adjusted and published by the competent departments of the State Council for science and technology, health, agriculture and rural areas in accordance with the division of responsibilities, and in conjunction with other relevant departments of the State Council.

Article 37: Engaging in biotechnology research and development activities shall abide by the national biotechnology research and development safety management regulations.

To engage in biotechnology research and development activities, one should judge the risk categories, pay close attention to changes in risks, and take timely response measures.

Article 38: Engaging in high-risk and medium-risk biotechnology research and development activities shall be conducted by a legal person organization established in accordance with the law within the territory of my country, and approval or filing shall be obtained in accordance with the law.

To engage in high-risk and medium-risk biotechnology research and development activities, risk assessment should be conducted, risk prevention and control plans and biosafety incident emergency plans should be formulated to reduce the risk of the implementation of research and development activities.

Article 39: The State implements retrospective management of important equipment and special biological factors involved in biological safety. The purchase or introduction of important equipment and special biological factors included in the control list shall be registered to ensure traceability and be reported to the relevant department of the State Council for the record.

Individuals are not allowed to purchase or possess important equipment and special biological factors that are included in the control list.

Article 40 “Clinical research on new biomedical technologies shall pass ethical review and be carried out in medical institutions with corresponding conditions; for human clinical research operations, it shall be carried out by health professionals who meet the corresponding conditions.

Article 41: Relevant departments of the State Council shall follow up and evaluate biotechnology application activities in accordance with the law, and if they find that there are biosafety risks, they shall take effective remedial and control measures in a timely manner.

Chapter 5: Biosafety of Pathogenic Microorganism Laboratory

Article 42: The State shall strengthen the management of the biosafety of pathogenic microorganism laboratories and formulate uniform laboratory biosafety standards. The pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall meet the national standards and requirements of biosafety.

To engage in pathogenic microorganism experiment activities, it is necessary to strictly abide by relevant national standards, laboratory technical specifications, and operating procedures, and take safety precautions.

Article 43: The State implements classified management of pathogenic microorganisms according to the infectivity of pathogenic microorganisms and the degree of harm to humans and animals after infection or groups.

Those engaged in the collection, preservation, and transportation of samples of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic microorganisms shall have the corresponding conditions and comply with the biosafety management regulations. The specific measures shall be formulated by the health, agricultural and rural administration departments of the State Council.

Article 44: The establishment of a pathogenic microbiology laboratory shall be approved or filed in accordance with the law.

Individuals shall not establish pathogenic microorganism laboratories or engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities.

Article 45: The State implements hierarchical management of pathogenic microorganism laboratories in accordance with the level of biological safety protection against pathogenic microorganisms.

The experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms shall be carried out in laboratories of the corresponding level. Low-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories shall not engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities that should be conducted in high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories as stipulated in the National Pathogenic Microorganism Catalog.

Article 46 High-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories engaged in experimental activities of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic pathogens shall be approved by the health or agricultural and rural authorities of the people’s government at or above the provincial level, and the conditions of the experimental activities shall be approved. Department report.

For pathogenic microorganisms that have not been discovered or declared to be eliminated in my country, no relevant experimental activities shall be allowed without approval.

Article 47  The pathogenic microbiology laboratory shall take measures to strengthen the management of experimental animals, prevent the escape of experimental animals, and treat the experimental animals after use in a harmless manner in accordance with national regulations, so as to realize the traceability of experimental animals. It is forbidden to introduce used experimental animals into the market.

The pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall strengthen the management of waste from experimental activities, dispose of waste water, waste gas and other wastes in accordance with the law, and adopt measures to prevent pollution.

Article 48 The establishment unit of the pathogenic microorganism laboratory is responsible for the biosafety management of the laboratory, formulates a scientific and strict management system, regularly inspects the implementation of relevant biosafety regulations, and conducts laboratory facilities, equipment, materials, etc. Check, maintain and update to ensure that it meets national standards.

The legal representative and the person in charge of the laboratory establishing the pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall be responsible for the biological safety of the laboratory.

Article 49: The establishment of a pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall establish and improve a safety protection system and adopt safety protection measures to ensure the safety of the laboratory and its pathogenic microorganisms.

The state strengthens the security of high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories. High-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories shall accept the supervision and guidance of the relevant laboratory safety and security work of public security organs and other departments, and strictly prevent the leakage, loss, theft and robbing of highly pathogenic microorganisms.

The state establishes a high-level pathogenic microbial laboratory personnel entry review system. Personnel entering a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall be approved by the person in charge of the laboratory. Those that may affect the biosafety of the laboratory shall not be approved; for those approved to enter, safety measures shall be taken.

Article 50: The establishment of a pathogenic microorganism laboratory shall formulate emergency plans for biosafety incidents, and organize personnel training and emergency drills on a regular basis. Where highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms are leaked, lost, stolen, robbed, or other biosafety risks, timely control measures shall be taken in accordance with the provisions of the emergency plan, and reports shall be made in accordance with national regulations.

Article 51: The people’s government at the provincial level where the pathogenic microbiology laboratory is located and its health authority shall strengthen the allocation of medical resources for infectious diseases at the laboratory location, and improve the medical treatment and treatment capabilities for infectious diseases.

Article 52: The enterprise’s biosafety management of production workshops involving pathogenic microorganism operations shall be carried out in accordance with the regulations of the relevant pathogenic microorganism laboratory and other biosafety management regulations.

The construction and management of biosafety laboratories involving the operation of biological toxins, plant pests and other biological factors shall be implemented in accordance with the regulations of the relevant pathogenic microorganism laboratories.

Chapter VI: Human Genetic Resources and Biological Resources Security

Article 53: The state strengthens the management and supervision of the collection, preservation, utilization, and external provision of human genetic resources and biological resources in our country to ensure the safety of human genetic resources and biological resources.

The country has sovereignty over my country’s human genetic resources and biological resources.

Article 54: The State conducts surveys of human genetic resources and biological resources.

The competent department of science and technology of the State Council organizes the investigation of human genetic resources in my country, and formulates the declaration and registration methods for human genetic resources of important genetic families and specific regions.

The competent departments of the State Council for science and technology, natural resources, ecological environment, health, agriculture and rural areas, forestry and grassland, and traditional Chinese medicine, according to the division of responsibilities, organize biological resource surveys and formulate important biological resource declaration and registration methods.

Article 55: The collection, preservation, utilization, and external provision of my country’s human genetic resources shall conform to ethical principles and shall not endanger public health, national security and social public interests.

Article 56 The following activities shall be approved by the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council:

(1) Collecting human genetic resources of important genetic families in my country, specific regions, or the types and quantities of human genetic resources specified by the competent department of science and technology under the State Council;

(2) Preserving my country’s human genetic resources;

(3) Utilizing my country’s human genetic resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation;

(4) Transporting, mailing, and carrying out of my country’s human genetic resources materials.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not include the collection and preservation of human genetic resources and related activities for the purposes of clinical diagnosis and treatment, blood collection and supply services, investigation and punishment of illegal crimes, doping testing, and funerals.

In order to obtain the marketing authorization of relevant drugs and medical devices in my country, the use of human genetic resources in clinical trial institutions to carry out international cooperative clinical trials without involving the export of human genetic resources does not require approval; however, the intended use should be used before the clinical trials The types, quantities and uses of the human genetic resources shall be filed with the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council.

Overseas organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them shall not collect or preserve my country’s human genetic resources within the territory of my country, or provide my country’s human genetic resources abroad.

Article 57: Where the information on human genetic resources of our country is provided or open for use to overseas organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them, they shall report to the competent department of science and technology under the State Council in advance and submit a backup of the information.

Article 58 “The collection, preservation, utilization, and transportation of rare, endangered, endemic species and genetic resources such as individuals, organs, tissues, cells, genes, etc., that can be used for regeneration or reproduction and passage out of our country shall comply with relevant laws and regulations.

Foreign organizations, individuals, and institutions established or actually controlled by them shall obtain approval in accordance with the law to obtain and utilize my country’s biological resources.

Article 59: The use of my country’s biological resources for international scientific research cooperation shall be approved in accordance with the law.

The use of my country’s human genetic resources and biological resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation should ensure that the Chinese unit and its researchers participate in the research in the whole process and substantively, and share relevant rights and interests in accordance with the law.

Article 60: The state strengthens the prevention and response to the invasion of alien species and protects biodiversity. The agricultural and rural authorities of the State Council, in conjunction with other relevant departments of the State Council, formulate lists of invasive alien species and management measures.

Relevant departments of the State Council strengthen the investigation, monitoring, early warning, control, evaluation, removal, and ecological restoration of invasive alien species in accordance with the division of responsibilities.

No unit or individual may introduce, release or discard alien species without approval.

Chapter 7: Preventing Bioterrorism and Biological Weapons Threats

Article 61: The state shall take all necessary measures to prevent the threat of bioterrorism and biological weapons.

It is prohibited to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire, store, possess and use biological weapons.

It is prohibited to instigate, fund, assist others to develop, manufacture or otherwise acquire biological weapons in any way.

Article 62: Relevant departments of the State Council shall formulate, modify, and publish lists of organisms, biotoxins, equipment or technologies that can be used in bioterrorism activities and the manufacture of biological weapons, strengthen supervision and control, and prevent their use in the manufacture of biological weapons or terrorist purposes .

Article 63: Relevant departments of the State Council and relevant military agencies shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, strengthen the control of the entry and exit, import and export, acquisition, manufacture, and transfer of organisms, biotoxins, equipment or technology that can be used in bioterrorism activities and the manufacture of biological weapons. The monitoring and investigation of activities such as release and release, and take necessary preventive and disposal measures.

Article 64: Relevant departments of the State Council, provincial people’s governments and their relevant departments are responsible for organizing the rescue and placement of personnel after bioterrorism attacks and biological weapons attacks, environmental disinfection, ecological restoration, safety monitoring, and social order restoration.

The relevant departments of the State Council, the provincial people’s governments and their relevant departments shall effectively guide public opinion to scientifically and accurately report on bioterrorism attacks and biological weapon attacks, and timely release information on evacuation, transfer and emergency evacuation, and deal with pollution during emergency response and recovery. Long-term environmental monitoring and health monitoring are carried out in the area and personnel.

Article 65: The State organizes and conducts investigations on biological weapons left over from war in our country and their harmful results and potential impacts.

The state organizes the construction of facilities for storing and processing biological weapons left over from war to ensure the safe disposal of biological weapons left over from war.

Chapter 8: Biosafety Capacity Building

Article 66: The State shall formulate a biosafety development plan, strengthen the construction of biosafety capabilities, and improve the ability and level of responding to biosafety incidents.

People’s governments at or above the county level shall support the development of biosafety undertakings, and according to the division of powers, include the relevant expenditures for supporting the development of the following biosafety undertakings into the government budget:

(1) Construction and operation of the monitoring network;

(2) Reserves of emergency response and prevention and control materials;

(3) Construction and operation of key infrastructure;

(4) Research and development of key technologies and products;

(5) Investigation and preservation of human genetic resources and biological resources;

(6) Other important biosafety undertakings stipulated by laws and regulations.

Article 67 The State takes measures to support biosafety technology research, strengthens biosafety risk prevention and management technology research, integrates superior strengths and resources, establishes a multidisciplinary and multisectoral collaborative innovation joint research mechanism, and promotes the core and key technologies of biosafety. The output, transformation and application of major defense products will improve the scientific and technological guarantee capabilities of biosafety.

Article 68: The State shall make overall arrangements for the construction of national biosafety infrastructure. According to the division of responsibilities, the relevant departments of the State Council will speed up the construction of a biosafety national strategic resource platform for biological information, human genetic resource preservation, bacterial (viral) species preservation, animal and plant genetic resource preservation, high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratories, etc., and establish a shared utilization mechanism , To provide strategic guarantee and support for biosafety technological innovation.

Article 69: Relevant departments of the State Council shall, in accordance with the division of responsibilities, strengthen the training of basic biological scientific research personnel and professional technical personnel in the biological field, and promote the construction of basic biological sciences and scientific research.

Practitioners in important positions in the national biosafety infrastructure shall have qualified qualifications, and relevant information shall be filed with the relevant departments of the State Council and receive on-the-job training.

Article 70: The state strengthens material reserves for the prevention and control of major emerging infectious diseases, animal and plant epidemics and other biological safety risks.

The state strengthens the research, development and technical reserves of materials such as biosafety emergency medicines and equipment. The relevant departments of the State Council shall implement relevant measures for the research, development and technical reserve of materials such as biosafety emergency medicines and equipment according to the division of responsibilities.

The relevant departments of the State Council and local people’s governments at or above the county level and their relevant departments shall guarantee the production, supply and deployment of medical rescue equipment, medicines, medical devices and other materials required for emergency response to biosafety incidents; the competent department of transportation shall organize and coordinate in a timely manner Transport business units give priority to delivery.

Article 71: The State shall provide effective protective measures and medical security for personnel engaged in high-risk biosafety work such as experimental activities of highly pathogenic pathogenic microorganisms and on-site disposal of biosafety incidents.

Chapter 9 Legal Liability

Article 72: In violation of the provisions of this law, personnel who perform biosafety management duties abuse their powers, neglect their duties, engage in malpractices for personal gain or commit other illegal acts in biosafety work, and shall be punished in accordance with the law.

Article 73 In violation of the provisions of this law, medical institutions, professional institutions or their staff conceal, lie, postpone, or omit reporting, instruct others to conceal, lie, postpone reporting, or prevent others from reporting infectious diseases, animal and plant diseases Or cluster diseases of unknown cause, people at or above the county level

, Give sanctions according to law, and can suspend practice activities for a certain period of time according to law until the relevant practice certificate is revoked.

Violation of the provisions of this law by fabricating or disseminating false biosafety information constitutes a violation of public security management, the public security organ shall impose public security management penalties in accordance with the law.

Article 74 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and engages in biotechnology research, development, and application activities prohibited by the state shall be ordered by the health, science and technology, agricultural and rural authorities of the people’s government at or above the county level to stop the illegal activities and confiscate them. Illegal gains, technical materials, tools, equipment, raw materials and other items used for illegal acts shall be fined not less than 1 million yuan but not more than 10 million yuan; if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, more than ten times the illegal gains shall be imposed. A fine of less than ten times, and it is possible to prohibit the relevant biotechnology research, development and application activities within a certain period of time according to law, and to revoke relevant licenses; for the legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons, Penalties shall be imposed in accordance with the law, and a fine of 100,000 yuan up to 200,000 yuan shall be imposed, the corresponding biotechnology research, development and application activities shall be prohibited from ten years to life, and the relevant practice certificates shall be revoked in accordance with the law.

Article 75 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and engages in biotechnology research and development activities that fails to comply with the national biotechnology research and development safety management regulations shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to make corrections and give warnings, and may be dealt with concurrently. A fine of not less than 20,000 yuan but not more than 200,000 yuan; if it refuses to make corrections or causes serious consequences, it shall be ordered to stop research and development activities, and a fine of not less than 200,000 yuan but not more than 2 million yuan shall be imposed.

Article 76 Violation of the provisions of this law by engaging in experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms and failing to conduct experimental activities of pathogenic microorganisms at the corresponding level, or a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory engaged in experimental activities of highly pathogenic or suspected highly pathogenic microorganisms without approval According to the division of responsibilities, the health, agricultural and rural authorities of the local people’s government at or above the county level shall order to stop illegal activities, supervise the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms used in experimental activities or send them to the preservation institution, and give warnings; cause the spread and epidemic of infectious diseases Or if there are other serious consequences, the legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge, and other directly responsible persons shall be dismissed or expelled in accordance with the law.

Article 77 Anyone who, in violation of the provisions of this Law, introduces used experimental animals into the market shall be ordered to make corrections by the competent science and technology department of the people’s government at or above the county level, the illegal gains shall be confiscated, and the penalty shall be between RMB 200,000 and RMB 1 million. If the illegal income is more than 200,000 yuan, a fine of five to ten times the illegal income shall be imposed; if the circumstances are serious, the relevant permit shall be revoked by the issuing department.

Article 78 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and commits one of the following acts shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to make corrections, confiscate illegal gains, give a warning, and may also impose a penalty of more than 100,000 yuan and 1 million yuan. The following fines:

(1) The purchase or introduction of important equipment and special biological factors included in the control list have not been registered, or have not been reported to the relevant department of the State Council for the record;

(2) Individuals purchase or possess important equipment or special biological factors included in the control list;

(3) Individuals set up pathogenic microorganism laboratories or engage in pathogenic microorganism experimental activities;

(4) Enter a high-level pathogenic microorganism laboratory without the approval of the person in charge of the laboratory.

Article 79 Anyone who, in violation of the provisions of this law, collects and preserves China’s human genetic resources or uses China’s human genetic resources to carry out international scientific research cooperation shall be ordered by the State Council’s science and technology department to stop illegal activities and confiscate illegal gains and illegal activities. The collection and preservation of human genetic resources shall also be fined between 500,000 yuan and 5 million yuan, and if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, a fine of 5 times to 10 times the illegal gains shall be imposed; if the circumstances are serious, The legal representative, the main person in charge, the directly responsible person in charge and other directly responsible persons shall be punished in accordance with the law, and shall be prohibited from engaging in corresponding activities within five years.

Article 80: In violation of the provisions of this Law, foreign organizations, individuals and institutions established or actually controlled by them collect and preserve human genetic resources in my country, or provide human genetic resources in my country abroad, shall be ordered to stop by the department in charge of science and technology under the State Council. For illegal acts, confiscate illegal income and illegally collected and preserved human genetic resources, and impose a fine of 1 million yuan to 10 million yuan; if the illegal gains are more than 1 million yuan, the illegal gains shall be imposed 10 times more than 20 times. Fines below times.

Article 81 Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and introduces alien species without approval shall be confiscated by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level in accordance with the division of responsibilities, and impose a penalty of 50,000 yuan to 250,000 yuan. Fine.

Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and releases or discards alien species without approval shall be ordered by the relevant departments of the people’s government at or above the county level according to the division of responsibilities to capture, retrieve, release or discard the alien species within a time limit, and impose a penalty of 10,000 yuan to 50,000 yuan. Fines below RMB yuan.

Article 82: Anyone who violates the provisions of this law and constitutes a crime shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with the law; those who cause personal, property or other damage shall bear civil responsibility in accordance with the law.

Article 83: For biosafety violations that violate the provisions of this law, this law does not provide for legal responsibilities, and other relevant laws and administrative regulations have provisions in accordance with those provisions.

Article 84: Foreign organizations or individuals who enter the country through transportation, mailing, carrying dangerous biological factors, or otherwise endanger my country’s biological safety, shall be investigated for legal responsibility in accordance with the law and may take other necessary measures.

Chapter 10 Supplementary Provisions

Article 85 The meaning of the following terms in this law:

(1) Biological factors refer to animals, plants, microorganisms, biological toxins and other biologically active substances.

(2) A major emerging and sudden infectious disease refers to an infectious disease that has appeared in my country for the first time or has been declared eliminated and reoccurs, or occurs suddenly, causing or likely to cause serious damage to public health and life safety, causing social panic, and affecting social stability. .

(3) Major new sudden animal epidemics refer to the recurrence of animal epidemics that have occurred in my country for the first time or have been declared to be eliminated, or latent animal epidemics with high morbidity and mortality have suddenly occurred and spread rapidly, giving the breeding industry production safety Circumstances that cause serious threats, hazards, and may cause harm to public health and life safety.

(4) A major new outbreak of plant epidemics refers to fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, nematodes, weeds, rodents, mollusks, etc. that have severely harmed plants that have occurred in my country for the first time or have already been announced to be eliminated, or cause pests and diseases again, or A situation where local pests suddenly occur on a large scale and spread rapidly, causing serious damage to crops, forests and other plants.

(5) The research, development and application of biotechnology refers to the activities of scientific research, technological development and application that are engaged in the understanding, transformation, synthesis, and utilization of biology through scientific and engineering principles.

(6) Pathogenic microorganisms refer to microorganisms that can invade humans and animals and cause infections and even infectious diseases, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, rickettsia, parasites, etc.

(7) Plant pests refer to organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, insects, nematodes, weeds, rodents, mollusks, etc. that can cause harm to crops, forest trees and other plants.

(8) Human genetic resources, including human genetic resource materials and information on human genetic resources. Human genetic resource materials refer to organs, tissues, cells and other genetic materials that contain human genomes, genes, and other genetic materials. Human genetic resource information refers to information such as data generated by using human genetic resource materials.

(9) Microbial resistance refers to the development of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs, resulting in the inability of antimicrobial drugs to effectively control microbial infections.

(10) Biological weapons refer to microbial agents, other biological agents, and biological toxins produced by any source or any method that are not legitimately required for prevention, protection or other peaceful purposes; Biological toxins are used in weapons, equipment or delivery vehicles designed for hostile purposes or armed conflicts.

(11) Bioterrorism refers to the deliberate use of pathogenic microorganisms, biological toxins, etc. to carry out attacks, damage human or animal and plant health, cause social panic, and attempt to achieve specific political goals.

Article 86: If biosafety information is a state secret, it shall be managed in accordance with the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Keeping State Secrets” and other relevant state secrets regulations.

Article 87: The biosecurity activities of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army and the Chinese People’s Armed Police Force shall be separately prescribed by the Central Military Commission in accordance with the principles stipulated in this law.

Article 88: This law shall come into force on April 15, 2021.

Mandarin Chinese:

新華社北京10月17日電

中華人民共和國生物安全法
(2020年10月17日第十三屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第二十二次會議通過)

目錄

第一章 總則

第二章 生物安全風險防控體制

第三章 防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情

第四章 生物技術研究、開發與應用安全

第五章 病原微生物實驗室生物安全

第六章 人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全

第七章 防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅

第八章 生物安全能力建設

第九章 法律責任

第十章 附則

第一章 總則

第一條 為了維護國家安全,防範和應對生物安全風險,保障人民生命健康,保護生物資源和生態環境,促進生物技術健康發展,推動構建人類命運共同體,實現人與自然和諧共生,制定本法。

第二條本法所稱生物安全,是指國家有效防範和應對危險生物因子及相關因素威脅,生物技術能夠穩定健康發展,人民生命健康和生態系統相對處於沒有危險和不受威脅的狀態,生物領域具備維護國家安全和持續發展的能力。

從事下列活動,適用本法:

(一)防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情;

(二)生物技術研究、開發與應用;

(三)病原微生物實驗室生物安全管理;

(四)人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全管理;

(五)防範外來物種入侵與保護生物多樣性;

(六)應對微生物耐藥;

(七)防範生物恐怖襲擊與防禦生物武器威脅;

(八)其他與生物安全相關的活動。

第三條 生物安全是國家安全的重要組成部分。維護生物安全應當貫徹總體國家安全觀,統籌發展和安全,堅持以人為本、風險預防、分類管理、協同配合的原則。

第四條 堅持中國共產黨對國家生物安全工作的領導,建立健全國家生物安全領導體制,加強國家生物安全風險防控和治理體系建設,提高國家生物安全治理能力。

第五條 國家鼓勵生物科技創新,加強生物安全基礎設施和生物科技人才隊伍建設,支持生物產業發展,以創新驅動提升生物科技水平,增強生物安全保障能力。

第六條國家加強生物安全領域的國際合作,履行中華人民共和國締結或者參加的國際條約規定的義務,支持參與生物科技交流合作與生物安全事件國際救援,積極參與生物安全國際規則的研究與製定,推動完善全球生物安全治理。

第七條各級人民政府及其有關部門應當加強生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識宣傳普及工作,引導基層群眾性自治組織、社會組織開展生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識宣傳,促進全社會生物安全意識的提升。

相關科研院校、醫療機構以及其他企業事業單位應當將生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識納入教育培訓內容,加強學生、從業人員生物安全意識和倫理意識的培養。

新聞媒體應當開展生物安全法律法規和生物安全知識公益宣傳,對生物安全違法行為進行輿論監督,增強公眾維護生物安全的社會責任意識。

第八條 任何單位和個人不得危害生物安全。

任何單位和個人有權舉報危害生物安全的行為;接到舉報的部門應當及時依法處理。

第九條 對在生物安全工作中做出突出貢獻的單位和個人,縣級以上人民政府及其有關部門按照國家規定予以表彰和獎勵。

第二章 生物安全風險防控體制

第十條中央國家安全領導機構負責國家生物安全工作的決策和議事協調,研究制定、指導實施國家生物安全戰略和有關重大方針政策,統籌協調國家生物安全的重大事項和重要工作,建立國家生物安全工作協調機制。

省、自治區、直轄市建立生物安全工作協調機制,組織協調、督促推進本行政區域內生物安全相關工作。

第十一條 國家生物安全工作協調機制由國務院衛生健康、農業農村、科學技術、外交等主管部門和有關軍事機關組成,分析研判國家生物安全形勢,組織協調、督促推進國家生物安全相關工作。國家生物安全工作協調機制設立辦公室,負責協調機制的日常工作。

國家生物安全工作協調機製成員單位和國務院其他有關部門根據職責分工,負責生物安全相關工作。

第十二條 國家生物安全工作協調機制設立專家委員會,為國家生物安全戰略研究、政策制定及實施提供決策諮詢。

國務院有關部門組織建立相關領域、行業的生物安全技術諮詢專家委員會,為生物安全工作提供諮詢、評估、論證等技術支撐。

第十三條 地方各級人民政府對本行政區域內生物安全工作負責。

縣級以上地方人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,負責生物安全相關工作。

基層群眾性自治組織應當協助地方人民政府以及有關部門做好生物安全風險防控、應急處置和宣傳教育等工作。

有關單位和個人應當配合做好生物安全風險防控和應急處置等工作。

第十四條 國家建立生物安全風險監測預警制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制組織建立國家生物安全風險監測預警體系,提高生物安全風險識別和分析能力。

第十五條 國家建立生物安全風險調查評估制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制應當根據風險監測的數據、資料等信息,定期組織開展生物安全風險調查評估。

有下列情形之一的,有關部門應當及時開展生物安全風險調查評估,依法採取必要的風險防控措施:

(一)通過風險監測或者接到舉報發現可能存在生物安全風險;

(二)為確定監督管理的重點領域、重點項目,制定、調整生物安全相關名錄或者清單;

(三)發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情等危害生物安全的事件;

(四)需要調查評估的其他情形。

第十六條 國家建立生物安全信息共享制度。國家生物安全工作協調機制組織建立統一的國家生物安全信息平台,有關部門應當將生物安全數據、資料等信息匯交國家生物安全信息平台,實現信息共享。

第十七條 國家建立生物安全信息發布製度。國家生物安全總體情況、重大生物安全風險警示信息、重大生物安全事件及其調查處理信息等重大生物安全信息,由國家生物安全工作協調機製成員單位根據職責分工發布;其他生物安全信息由國務院有關部門和縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門根據職責權限發布。

任何單位和個人不得編造、散佈虛假的生物安全信息。

第十八條 國家建立生物安全名錄和清單制度。國務院及其有關部門根據生物安全工作需要,對涉及生物安全的材料、設備、技術、活動、重要生物資源數據、傳染病、動植物疫病、外來入侵物種等製定、公佈名錄或者清單,並動態調整。

第十九條 國家建立生物安全標準制度。國務院標準化主管部門和國務院其他有關部門根據職責分工,制定和完善生物安全領域相關標準。

國家生物安全工作協調機制組織有關部門加強不同領域生物安全標準的協調和銜接,建立和完善生物安全標準體系。

第二十條 國家建立生物安全審查制度。對影響或者可能影響國家安全的生物領域重大事項和活動,由國務院有關部門進行生物安全審查,有效防範和化解生物安全風險。

第二十一條 國家建立統一領導、協同聯動、有序高效的生物安全應急制度。

國務院有關部門應當組織製定相關領域、行業生物安全事件應急預案,根據應急預案和統一部署開展應急演練、應急處置、應急救援和事後恢復等工作。

縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當制定並組織、指導和督促相關企業事業單位制定生物安全事件應急預案,加強應急準備、人員培訓和應急演練,開展生物安全事件應急處置、應急救援和事後恢復等工作。

中國人民解放軍、中國人民武裝警察部隊按照中央軍事委員會的命令,依法參加生物安全事件應急處置和應急救援工作。

第二十二條 國家建立生物安全事件調查溯源製度。發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情和不明原因的生物安全事件,國家生物安全工作協調機制應當組織開展調查溯源,確定事件性質,全面評估事件影響,提出意見建議。

第二十三條 國家建立首次進境或者暫停後恢復進境的動植物、動植物產品、高風險生物因子國家准入制度。

進出境的人員、運輸工具、集裝箱、貨物、物品、包裝物和國際航行船舶壓艙水排放等應當符合我國生物安全管理要求。

海關對發現的進出境和過境生物安全風險,應當依法處置。經評估為生物安全高風險的人員、運輸工具、貨物、物品等,應當從指定的國境口岸進境,並採取嚴格的風險防控措施。

第二十四條 國家建立境外重大生物安全事件應對製度。境外發生重大生物安全事件的,海關依法採取生物安全緊急防控措施,加強證件核驗,提高查驗比例,暫停相關人員、運輸工具、貨物、物品等進境。必要時經國務院同意,可以採取暫時關閉有關口岸、封鎖有關國境等措施。

第二十五條 縣級以上人民政府有關部門應當依法開展生物安全監督檢查工作,被檢查單位和個人應當配合,如實說明情況,提供資料,不得拒絕、阻撓。

涉及專業技術要求較高、執法業務難度較大的監督檢查工作,應當有生物安全專業技術人員參加。

第二十六條 縣級以上人民政府有關部門實施生物安全監督檢查,可以依法採取下列措施:

(一)進入被檢查單位、地點或者涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的場所進行現場監測、勘查、檢查或者核查;

(二)向有關單位和個人了解情況;

(三)查閱、複製有關文件、資料、檔案、記錄、憑證等;

(四)查封涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的場所、設施;

(五)扣押涉嫌實施生物安全違法行為的工具、設備以及相關物品;

(六)法律法規規定的其他措施。

有關單位和個人的生物安全違法信息應當依法納入全國信用信息共享平台。

第三章 防控重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情

第二十七條國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、海關、生態環境主管部門應當建立新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情、進出境檢疫、生物技術環境安全監測網絡,組織監測站點佈局、建設,完善監測信息報告系統,開展主動監測和病原檢測,並納入國家生物安全風險監測預警體系。

第二十八條疾病預防控制機構、動物疫病預防控制機構、植物病蟲害預防控制機構(以下統稱專業機構)應當對傳染病、動植物疫病和列入監測範圍的不明原因疾病開展主動監測,收集、分析、報告監測信息,預測新發突發傳染病、動植物疫病的發生、流行趨勢。

國務院有關部門、縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當根據預測和職責權限及時發布預警,並採取相應的防控措施。

第二十九條 任何單位和個人發現傳染病、動植物疫病的,應當及時向醫療機構、有關專業機構或者部門報告。

醫療機構、專業機構及其工作人員發現傳染病、動植物疫病或者不明原因的聚集性疾病的,應當及時報告,並採取保護性措施。

依法應當報告的,任何單位和個人不得瞞報、謊報、緩報、漏報,不得授意他人瞞報、謊報、緩報,不得阻礙他人報告。

第三十條 國家建立重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情聯防聯控機制。

發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情,應當依照有關法律法規和應急預案的規定及時採取控制措施;國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原主管部門應當立即組織疫情會商研判,將會商研判結論向中央國家安全領導機構和國務院報告,並通報國家生物安全工作協調機制其他成員單位和國務院其他有關部門。

發生重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情,地方各級人民政府統一履行本行政區域內疫情防控職責,加強組織領導,開展群防群控、醫療救治,動員和鼓勵社會力量依法有序參與疫情防控工作。

第三十一條國家加強國境、口岸傳染病和動植物疫情聯合防控能力建設,建立傳染病、動植物疫情防控國際合作網絡,儘早發現、控制重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情。

第三十二條 國家保護野生動物,加強動物防疫,防止動物源性傳染病傳播。

第三十三條 國家加強對抗生素藥物等抗微生物藥物使用和殘留的管理,支持應對微生物耐藥的基礎研究和科技攻關。

縣級以上人民政府衛生健康主管部門應當加強對醫療機構合理用藥的指導和監督,採取措施防止抗微生物藥物的不合理使用。縣級以上人民政府農業農村、林業草原主管部門應當加強對農業生產中合理用藥的指導和監督,採取措施防止抗微生物藥物的不合理使用,降低在農業生產環境中的殘留。

國務院衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、生態環境等主管部門和藥品監督管理部門應當根據職責分工,評估抗微生物藥物殘留對人體健康、環境的危害,建立抗微生物藥物污染物指標評價體系。

第四章 生物技術研究、開發與應用安全

第三十四條國家加強對生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的安全管理,禁止從事危及公眾健康、損害生物資源、破壞生態系統和生物多樣性等危害生物安全的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動。

從事生物技術研究、開

發與應用活動。

從事生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,應當符合倫理原則。

第三十五條從事生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的單位應當對本單位生物技術研究、開發與應用的安全負責,採取生物安全風險防控措施,制定生物安全培訓、跟踪檢查、定期報告等工作制度,強化過程管理。

第三十六條 國家對生物技術研究、開發活動實行分類管理。根據對公眾健康、工業農業、生態環境等造成危害的風險程度,將生物技術研究、開發活動分為高風險、中風險、低風險三類。

生物技術研究、開發活動風險分類標準及名錄由國務院科學技術、衛生健康、農業農村等主管部門根據職責分工,會同國務院其他有關部門製定、調整併公佈。

第三十七條 從事生物技術研究、開發活動,應當遵守國家生物技術研究開發安全管理規範。

從事生物技術研究、開發活動,應當進行風險類別判斷,密切關注風險變化,及時採取應對措施。

第三十八條 從事高風險、中風險生物技術研究、開發活動,應當由在我國境內依法成立的法人組織進行,並依法取得批准或者進行備案。

從事高風險、中風險生物技術研究、開發活動,應當進行風險評估,制定風險防控計劃和生物安全事件應急預案,降低研究、開發活動實施的風險。

第三十九條 國家對涉及生物安全的重要設備和特殊生物因子實行追溯管理。購買或者引進列入管控清單的重要設備和特殊生物因子,應當進行登記,確保可追溯,並報國務院有關部門備案。

個人不得購買或者持有列入管控清單的重要設備和特殊生物因子。

第四十條 從事生物醫學新技術臨床研究,應當通過倫理審查,並在具備相應條件的醫療機構內進行;進行人體臨床研究操作的,應當由符合相應條件的衛生專業技術人員執行。

第四十一條 國務院有關部門依法對生物技術應用活動進行跟踪評估,發現存在生物安全風險的,應當及時採取有效補救和管控措施。

第五章 病原微生物實驗室生物安全

第四十二條 國家加強對病原微生物實驗室生物安全的管理,制定統一的實驗室生物安全標準。病原微生物實驗室應當符合生物安全國家標準和要求。

從事病原微生物實驗活動,應當嚴格遵守有關國家標準和實驗室技術規範、操作規程,採取安全防範措施。

第四十三條 國家根據病原微生物的傳染性、感染後對人和動物的個體或者群體的危害程度,對病原微生物實行分類管理。

從事高致病性或者疑似高致病性病原微生物樣本採集、保藏、運輸活動,應當具備相應條件,符合生物安全管理規範。具體辦法由國務院衛生健康、農業農村主管部門製定。

第四十四條 設立病原微生物實驗室,應當依法取得批准或者進行備案。

個人不得設立病原微生物實驗室或者從事病原微生物實驗活動。

第四十五條 國家根據對病原微生物的生物安全防護水平,對病原微生物實驗室實行分等級管理。

從事病原微生物實驗活動應當在相應等級的實驗室進行。低等級病原微生物實驗室不得從事國家病原微生物目錄規定應當在高等級病原微生物實驗室進行的病原微生物實驗活動。

第四十六條高等級病原微生物實驗室從事高致病性或者疑似高致病性病原微生物實驗活動,應當經省級以上人民政府衛生健康或者農業農村主管部門批准,並將實驗活動情況向批准部門報告。

對我國尚未發現或者已經宣布消滅的病原微生物,未經批准不得從事相關實驗活動。

第四十七條 病原微生物實驗室應當採取措施,加強對實驗動物的管理,防止實驗動物逃逸,對使用後的實驗動物按照國家規定進行無害化處理,實現實驗動物可追溯。禁止將使用後的實驗動物流入市場。

病原微生物實驗室應當加強對實驗活動廢棄物的管理,依法對廢水、廢氣以及其他廢棄物進行處置,採取措施防止污染。

第四十八條病原微生物實驗室的設立單位負責實驗室的生物安全管理,制定科學、嚴格的管理制度,定期對有關生物安全規定的落實情況進行檢查,對實驗室設施、設備、材料等進行檢查、維護和更新,確保其符合國家標準。

病原微生物實驗室設立單位的法定代表人和實驗室負責人對實驗室的生物安全負責。

第四十九條 病原微生物實驗室的設立單位應當建立和完善安全保衛制度,採取安全保衛措施,保障實驗室及其病原微生物的安全。

國家加強對高等級病原微生物實驗室的安全保衛。高等級病原微生物實驗室應當接受公安機關等部門有關實驗室安全保衛工作的監督指導,嚴防高致病性病原微生物洩漏、丟失和被盜、被搶。

國家建立高等級病原微生物實驗室人員進入審核制度。進入高等級病原微生物實驗室的人員應當經實驗室負責人批准。對可能影響實驗室生物安全的,不予批准;對批准進入的,應當採取安全保障措施。

第五十條 病原微生物實驗室的設立單位應當制定生物安全事件應急預案,定期組織開展人員培訓和應急演練。發生高致病性病原微生物洩漏、丟失和被盜、被搶或者其他生物安全風險的,應當按照應急預案的規定及時採取控制措施,並按照國家規定報告。

第五十一條 病原微生物實驗室所在地省級人民政府及其衛生健康主管部門應當加強實驗室所在地感染性疾病醫療資源配置,提高感染性疾病醫療救治能力。

第五十二條 企業對涉及病原微生物操作的生產車間的生物安全管理,依照有關病原微生物實驗室的規定和其他生物安全管理規范進行。

涉及生物毒素、植物有害生物及其他生物因子操作的生物安全實驗室的建設和管理,參照有關病原微生物實驗室的規定執行。

第六章 人類遺傳資源與生物資源安全

第五十三條 國家加強對我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源採集、保藏、利用、對外提供等活動的管理和監督,保障人類遺傳資源和生物資源安全。

國家對我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源享有主權。

第五十四條 國家開展人類遺傳資源和生物資源調查。

國務院科學技術主管部門組織開展我國人類遺傳資源調查,制定重要遺傳家系和特定地區人類遺傳資源申報登記辦法。

國務院科學技術、自然資源、生態環境、衛生健康、農業農村、林業草原、中醫藥主管部門根據職責分工,組織開展生物資源調查,制定重要生物資源申報登記辦法。

第五十五條 採集、保藏、利用、對外提供我國人類遺傳資源,應當符合倫理原則,不得危害公眾健康、國家安全和社會公共利益。

第五十六條 從事下列活動,應當經國務院科學技術主管部門批准:

(一)採集我國重要遺傳家系、特定地區人類遺傳資源或者採集國務院科學技術主管部門規定的種類、數量的人類遺傳資源;

(二)保藏我國人類遺傳資源;

(三)利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際科學研究合作;

(四)將我國人類遺傳資源材料運送、郵寄、攜帶出境。

前款規定不包括以臨床診療、採供血服務、查處違法犯罪、興奮劑檢測和殯葬等為目的採集、保藏人類遺傳資源及開展的相關活動。

為了取得相關藥品和醫療器械在我國上市許可,在臨床試驗機構利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際合作臨床試驗、不涉及人類遺傳資源出境的,不需要批准;但是,在開展臨床試驗前應當將擬使用的人類遺傳資源種類、數量及用途向國務院科學技術主管部門備案。

境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構不得在我國境內採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源,不得向境外提供我國人類遺傳資源。

第五十七條 將我國人類遺傳資源信息向境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構提供或者開放使用的,應當向國務院科學技術主管部門事先報告並提交信息備份。

第五十八條 採集、保藏、利用、運輸出境我國珍貴、瀕危、特有物種及其可用於再生或者繁殖傳代的個體、器官、組織、細胞、基因等遺傳資源,應當遵守有關法律法規。

境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構獲取和利用我國生物資源,應當依法取得批准。

第五十九條 利用我國生物資源開展國際科學研究合作,應當依法取得批准。

利用我國人類遺傳資源和生物資源開展國際科學研究合作,應當保證中方單位及其研究人員全過程、實質性地參與研究,依法分享相關權益。

第六十條 國家加強對外來物種入侵的防範和應對,保護生物多樣性。國務院農業農村主管部門會同國務院其他有關部門製定外來入侵物種名錄和管理辦法。

國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加強對外來入侵物種的調查、監測、預警、控制、評估、清除以及生態修復等工作。

任何單位和個人未經批准,不得擅自引進、釋放或者丟棄外來物種。

第七章 防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅

第六十一條 國家採取一切必要措施防範生物恐怖與生物武器威脅。

禁止開發、製造或者以其他方式獲取、儲存、持有和使用生物武器。

禁止以任何方式唆使、資助、協助他人開發、製造或者以其他方式獲取生物武器。

第六十二條國務院有關部門製定、修改、公佈可被用於生物恐怖活動、製造生物武器的生物體、生物毒素、設備或者技術清單,加強監管,防止其被用於製造生物武器或者恐怖目的。

第六十三條國務院有關部門和有關軍事機關根據職責分工,加強對可被用於生物恐怖活動、製造生物武器的生物體、生物毒素、設備或者技術進出境、進出口、獲取、製造、轉移和投放等活動的監測、調查,採取必要的防範和處置措施。

第六十四條 國務院有關部門、省級人民政府及其有關部門負責組織遭受生物恐怖襲擊、生物武器攻擊後的人員救治與安置、環境消毒、生態修復、安全監測和社會秩序恢復等工作。

國務院有關部門、省級人民政府及其有關部門應當有效引導社會輿論科學、準確報導生物恐怖襲擊和生物武器攻擊事件,及時發布疏散、轉移和緊急避難等信息,對應急處置與恢復過程中遭受污染的區域和人員進行長期環境監測和健康監測。

第六十五條 國家組織開展對我國境內戰爭遺留生物武器及其危害結果、潛在影響的調查。

國家組織建設存放和處理戰爭遺留生物武器設施,保障對戰爭遺留生物武器的安全處置。

第八章 生物安全能力建設

第六十六條 國家製定生物安全事業發展規劃,加強生物安全能力建設,提高應對生物安全事件的能力和水平。

縣級以上人民政府應當支持生物安全事業發展,按照事權劃分,將支持下列生物安全事業發展的相關支出列入政府預算:

(一)監測網絡的構建和運行;

(二)應急處置和防控物資的儲備;

(三)關鍵基礎設施的建設和運行;

(四)關鍵技術和產品的研究、開發;

(五)人類遺傳資源和生物資源的調查、保藏;

(六)法律法規規定的其他重要生物安全事業。

第六十七條國家採取措施支持生物安全科技研究,加強生物安全風險防禦與管控技術研究,整合優勢力量和資源,建立多學科、多部門協同創新的聯合攻關機制,推動生物安全核心關鍵技術和重大防禦產品的成果產出與轉化應用,提高生物安全的科技保障能力。

第六十八條 國家統籌佈局全國生物安全基礎設施建設。國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加快建設生物信息、人類遺傳資源保藏、菌(毒)種保藏、動植物遺傳資源保藏、高等級病原微生物實驗室等方面的生物安全國家戰略資源平台,建立共享利用機制,為生物安全科技創新提供戰略保障和支撐。

第六十九條 國務院有關部門根據職責分工,加強生物基礎科學研究人才和生物領域專業技術人才培養,推動生物基礎科學學科建設和科學研究。

國家生物安全基礎設施重要崗位的從業人員應當具備符合要求的資格,相關信息應當向國務院有關部門備案,並接受崗位培訓。

第七十條 國家加強重大新發突發傳染病、動植物疫情等生物安全風險防控的物資儲備。

國家加強生物安全應急藥品、裝備等物資的研究、開發和技術儲備。國務院有關部門根據職責分工,落實生物安全應急藥品、裝備等物資研究、開發和技術儲備的相關措施。

國務院有關部門和縣級以上地方人民政府及其有關部門應當保障生物安全事件應急處置所需的醫療救護設備、救治藥品、醫療器械等物資的生產、供應和調配;交通運輸主管部門應當及時組織協調運輸經營單位優先運送。

第七十一條 國家對從事高致病性病原微生物實驗活動、生物安全事件現場處置等高風險生物安全工作的人員,提供有效的防護措施和醫療保障。

第九章 法律責任

第七十二條 違反本法規定,履行生物安全管理職責的工作人員在生物安全工作中濫用職權、玩忽職守、徇私舞弊或者有其他違法行為的,依法給予處分。

第七十三條違反本法規定,醫療機構、專業機構或者其工作人員瞞報、謊報、緩報、漏報,授意他人瞞報、謊報、緩報,或者阻礙他人報告傳染病、動植物疫病或者不明原因的聚集性疾病的,由縣級以上人民

,依法給予處分,並可以依法暫停一定期限的執業活動直至吊銷相關執業證書。

違反本法規定,編造、散佈虛假的生物安全信息,構成違反治安管理行為的,由公安機關依法給予治安管理處罰。

第七十四條違反本法規定,從事國家禁止的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動的,由縣級以上人民政府衛生健康、科學技術、農業農村主管部門根據職責分工,責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得、技術資料和用於違法行為的工具、設備、原材料等物品,處一百萬元以上一千萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在一百萬元以上的,處違法所得十倍以上二十倍以下的罰款,並可以依法禁止一定期限內從事相應的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,吊銷相關許可證件;對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員,依法給予處分,處十萬元以上二十萬元以下的罰款,十年直至終身禁止從事相應的生物技術研究、開發與應用活動,依法吊銷相關執業證書。

第七十五條違反本法規定,從事生物技術研究、開發活動未遵守國家生物技術研究開發安全管理規範的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令改正,給予警告,可以並處二萬元以上二十萬元以下的罰款;拒不改正或者造成嚴重後果的,責令停止研究、開發活動,並處二十萬元以上二百萬元以下的罰款。

第七十六條違反本法規定,從事病原微生物實驗活動未在相應等級的實驗室進行,或者高等級病原微生物實驗室未經批准從事高致病性、疑似高致病性病原微生物實驗活動的,由縣級以上地方人民政府衛生健康、農業農村主管部門根據職責分工,責令停止違法行為,監督其將用於實驗活動的病原微生物銷毀或者送交保藏機構,給予警告;造成傳染病傳播、流行或者其他嚴重後果的,對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員依法給予撤職、開除處分。

第七十七條違反本法規定,將使用後的實驗動物流入市場的,由縣級以上人民政府科學技術主管部門責令改正,沒收違法所得,並處二十萬元以上一百萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在二十萬元以上的,並處違法所得五倍以上十倍以下的罰款;情節嚴重的,由發證部門吊銷相關許可證件。

第七十八條違反本法規定,有下列行為之一的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令改正,沒收違法所得,給予警告,可以並處十萬元以上一百萬元以下的罰款:

(一)購買或者引進列入管控清單的重要設備、特殊生物因子未進行登記,或者未報國務院有關部門備案;

(二)個人購買或者持有列入管控清單的重要設備或者特殊生物因子;

(三)個人設立病原微生物實驗室或者從事病原微生物實驗活動;

(四)未經實驗室負責人批准進入高等級病原微生物實驗室。

第七十九條違反本法規定,未經批准,採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源或者利用我國人類遺傳資源開展國際科學研究合作的,由國務院科學技術主管部門責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得和違法採集、保藏的人類遺傳資源,並處五十萬元以上五百萬元以下的罰款,違法所得在一百萬元以上的,並處違法所得五倍以上十倍以下的罰款;情節嚴重的,對法定代表人、主要負責人、直接負責的主管人員和其他直接責任人員,依法給予處分,五年內禁止從事相應活動。

第八十條違反本法規定,境外組織、個人及其設立或者實際控制的機構在我國境內採集、保藏我國人類遺傳資源,或者向境外提供我國人類遺傳資源的,由國務院科學技術主管部門責令停止違法行為,沒收違法所得和違法採集、保藏的人類遺傳資源,並處一百萬元以上一千萬元以下的罰款;違法所得在一百萬元以上的,並處違法所得十倍以上二十倍以下的罰款。

第八十一條違反本法規定,未經批准,擅自引進外來物種的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,沒收引進的外來物種,並處五萬元以上二十五萬元以下的罰款。

違反本法規定,未經批准,擅自釋放或者丟棄外來物種的,由縣級以上人民政府有關部門根據職責分工,責令限期捕回、找回釋放或者丟棄的外來物種,處一萬元以上五萬元以下的罰款。

第八十二條 違反本法規定,構成犯罪的,依法追究刑事責任;造成人身、財產或者其他損害的,依法承擔民事責任。

第八十三條 違反本法規定的生物安全違法行為,本法未規定法律責任,其他有關法律、行政法規有規定的,依照其規定。

第八十四條 境外組織或者個人通過運輸、郵寄、攜帶危險生物因子入境或者以其他方式危害我國生物安全的,依法追究法律責任,並可以採取其他必要措施。

第十章 附則

第八十五條 本法下列術語的含義:

(一)生物因子,是指動物、植物、微生物、生物毒素及其他生物活性物質。

(二)重大新發突發傳染病,是指我國境內首次出現或者已經宣布消滅再次發生,或者突然發生,造成或者可能造成公眾健康和生命安全嚴重損害,引起社會恐慌,影響社會穩定的傳染病。

(三)重大新發突發動物疫情,是指我國境內首次發生或者已經宣布消滅的動物疫病再次發生,或者發病率、死亡率較高的潛伏動物疫病突然發生並迅速傳播,給養殖業生產安全造成嚴重威脅、危害,以及可能對公眾健康和生命安全造成危害的情形。

(四)重大新發突發植物疫情,是指我國境內首次發生或者已經宣布消滅的嚴重危害植物的真菌、細菌、病毒、昆蟲、線蟲、雜草、害鼠、軟體動物等再次引發病蟲害,或者本地有害生物突然大範圍發生並迅速傳播,對農作物、林木等植物造成嚴重危害的情形。

(五)生物技術研究、開發與應用,是指通過科學和工程原理認識、改造、合成、利用生物而從事的科學研究、技術開發與應用等活動。

(六)病原微生物,是指可以侵犯人、動物引起感染甚至傳染病的微生物,包括病毒、細菌、真菌、立克次體、寄生蟲等。

(七)植物有害生物,是指能夠對農作物、林木等植物造成危害的真菌、細菌、病毒、昆蟲、線蟲、雜草、害鼠、軟體動物等生物。

(八)人類遺傳資源,包括人類遺傳資源材料和人類遺傳資源信息。人類遺傳資源材料是指含有人體基因組、基因等遺傳物質的器官、組織、細胞等遺傳材料。人類遺傳資源信息是指利用人類遺傳資源材料產生的數據等信息資料。

(九)微生物耐藥,是指微生物對抗微生物藥物產生抗性,導致抗微生物藥物不能有效控制微生物的感染。

(十)生物武器,是指類型和數量不屬於預防、保護或者其他和平用途所正當需要的、任何來源或者任何方法產生的微生物劑、其他生物劑以及生物毒素;也包括為將上述生物劑、生物毒素使用於敵對目的或者武裝衝突而設計的武器、設備或者運載工具。

(十一)生物恐怖,是指故意使用致病性微生物、生物毒素等實施襲擊,損害人類或者動植物健康,引起社會恐慌,企圖達到特定政治目的的行為。

第八十六條 生物安全信息屬於國家秘密的,應當依照《中華人民共和國保守國家秘密法》和國家其他有關保密規定實施保密管理。

第八十七條 中國人民解放軍、中國人民武裝警察部隊的生物安全活動,由中央軍事委員會依照本法規定的原則另行規定。

第八十八條 本法自2021年4月15日起施行

Official Referring url: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2020-10/18/content_5552108.htm

中國軍事生物安全:國防戰略制高點

Chinese Military Bio-Defense : Achieve the Commanding Heights of Military Dominance

Original title: Biosecurity: the commanding heights of national defense strategy
The frequent occurrence of serious “biological incidents” worldwide has enabled national defense to break through the boundaries of land, sea, air, space, and electricity, and expand into the category of “biological territory.” “Biological territory” is the range of biological security protection and biological threat defense capabilities that a country should have in order to protect life resources and related rights and interests. The security of “biological territory” is closely related to the core national interests and is an important part of national security. It is increasingly being valued by governments of various countries. Many countries have incorporated biosecurity into their national strategies as the commanding heights of the game between national defense and military affairs. As our country is undergoing a transitional period of economic development and a period of prominent social contradictions, it is more necessary to deeply understand the global biosafety situation from the strategic height of national security, fully learn from advanced biosafety management experience, build a new type of biological threat defense system, and ensure the realization of the goal of a prosperous country and a strong military. convoy.

  1. The global biosecurity situation is severe, and my country is facing serious biological threats

With the increasing complexity of the international situation, biosafety issues caused by geo-environment and interest disputes have become more prominent. To maintain national security and social stability, it is necessary to firmly establish the awareness of “biological territory” and earnestly recognize the biological threats facing.

The global biosecurity situation is very severe. The global biosecurity situation presents the characteristics of affecting internationalization, extreme hazards, and complicated development. The United Nations “Convention on the Prohibition of Biological Weapons” is difficult to implement. The research and development of biological weapons has been repeatedly banned, and the threat of biological warfare still exists; pathogens are infected across species and spread across regions, resulting in the continuous emergence of new and emerging infectious diseases; caused by natural disasters and human factors Public health emergencies emerge in an endless stream; environmental pollution, invasion of alien species, etc. have caused serious damage to the ecological environment, and the loss of genetic resources has occurred from time to time. These have become major biosafety issues that all countries in the world are facing.

The characteristics of new biological threats have changed significantly. Affected by factors such as the ongoing international political struggle, high-tech weapons and equipment, and deliberate man-made actions, the characteristics of new biological threats have changed significantly. In the future, the main manifestation of biological threats may be sudden human, animal, and plant epidemics, which are difficult to distinguish from naturally occurring infectious disease epidemics or public health emergencies; pathogens may tend to be low-fatality, high-pathogenicity, easy to spread, and difficult. The characteristics of retrospective; the means of implementation may be the synthesis and release of new pathogens to create a suspicious epidemic; the scope of harm not only points to life and health, but also focuses on threatening society and the government to achieve political, economic, and military goals.

The types of biosecurity threats in our country have increased. As a rapidly developing emerging economy in the world today, my country is at the center of the world’s complex structure, the vortex of the game of great powers, and faces many biological threats. The risk of some countries or organizations using pathogens to implement biological threats continues to increase, becoming a major challenge to national security. Major new outbreaks of infectious diseases, food-borne diseases, and increased animal diseases have seriously endangered people’s health. Genomics, synthetic biotechnology applications, and biological laboratory leak accidents, there are potential risks. The invasion of alien species has accelerated the rate of species extinction, the loss of genetic diversity, and the increasing trend of environmental damage. According to the People’s Daily on October 25, 2013, almost all ecosystems in my country have been invaded, and 544 alien invasive organisms have been confirmed, of which more than 100 occur in large areas and are seriously harmful.

  1. The status of biosafety is important, and my country’s ability to defend against biological threats urgently needs to be strengthened

my country needs to strengthen the awareness of “biological defense”, learn from international advanced biosafety management experience, and make up for the lack of biological threat defense capabilities as soon as possible.

Biosecurity is an important guarantee for the country’s core interests. If a country has a biosafety problem, it will seriously affect people’s health, economic operations, social order, national security, and political stability. For example, in the 2001 anthrax incident in the United States, although there were only 22 patients and 5 deaths, more than 30,000 people received preventive treatment alone, and the economic loss caused cannot be estimated. The First World War was caused by an outbreak of infectious diseases, which had an important impact on the outcome of the war between the two warring parties. Therefore, doing a good job in the defense of biological threats involves core interests such as national security and must be strengthened.

Biosecurity is an important pillar of national strategic goals. Many countries have incorporated biosecurity into their national security strategies, established a biodefense system based on military-related institutions, and actively seized the strategic commanding heights from the perspective of national defense and military affairs. The United States has successively formulated and promulgated the Biological Shield Plan, Biological Monitoring Plan and Biological Sensing Plan, and deployed a series of projects with obvious national defense and military intentions around these three plans, playing an important role in biological counter-terrorism and epidemic management; Germany Defining infectious diseases as a national security threat; Britain, Australia and other countries have also incorporated security and defense departments into their public health systems. These are enough to prove the important position of biosafety in national strategic deployment.

my country’s biological threat defense capability needs to be strengthened urgently. Our party and government pay close attention to the issue of biosafety, and propose to accelerate the development of biosafety technology, build an advanced national security and public safety system, and effectively prevent biological threats to people’s lives and the ecological environment. At present, my country has gradually established scientific and technological support platforms such as the State Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microorganism Biosafety, the National Engineering and Technology Research Center for Bioprotective Equipment, and has incorporated military disease prevention and control institutions into the construction of the national public health system, and has established a preliminary biological threat defense. The system plays an important role in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases such as atypical pneumonia and highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. However, compared with the advanced biosafety management experience of developed countries, my country still has many weak links in the areas of biological threat monitoring and early warning, emergency response and scientific and technological support. It is urgently needed from strategic planning research, organizational management system, scientific and technological research, and publicity. Strengthen construction in areas such as education and training.

  1. Biosecurity involves a wide range of areas, and there is an urgent need to build a new type of biological threat defense system

There are many departments involved in biosecurity in my country, and it is urgent to take deepening reform as an opportunity to strengthen the national will, formulate strategic plans, and build a new type of biological threat defense system featuring unified command, complementary military and local forces, coordination of departments, and participation of the whole people.

Establish an authoritative and efficient biological threat defense organization and management system. Break up the fragmented biosafety management pattern, establish authoritative biosafety management institutions at all levels of government, and implement unified leadership, coordination and command. Strengthen the special status and important role of the military in national biological threat defense, give full play to the obvious advantages of the military’s high concentration and unity, strong scientific and technological strength, and quick emergency response. With the relevant professional forces of the military as the main body, build a united connection between peacetime and warfare. Integrate the development of the national biological threat defense system and emergency response network, establish a joint military-civilian consultation and judgment mechanism, and a multi-department joint handling division and coordination mechanism, and strengthen the construction of corresponding laws and regulations.

Establish a scientific and technological support system for defense against biological threats that are complementary to the military and the ground. In accordance with the principle of “military and local alliances and complementary advantages,” we will build a scientific and technological support system for biological threat defense, and make up for deficiencies on the basis of understanding the current status of my country’s biological threat defense capability system to improve the overall level. In view of the global biosecurity situation and the biological threats that my country may face in the future, systematically demonstrate the scientific and technological needs of biological threat defense, forward-looking deployment of major national and military biological threat defense projects, focusing on monitoring and early warning, emergency response, basic research, etc. to increase technology Support efforts and strengthen countermeasure research in the safety management and control of dual-use biological products.

Establish a multi-layered biological threat defense education and training system. Incorporate biosafety knowledge into the national defense education system, establish an education and training system with military medical scientific research and military disease prevention and control institutions as the backbone, and rely on corresponding national institutions to carry out biosafety publicity and education through various forms, so that governments at all levels, All sectors of society fully understand the importance of biosafety. The military must always play its role as an “outpost”, keep track of global biosecurity trends, focus on anti-biological warfare and anti-biological terrorism, in-depth study and judgment of the ever-changing biological threats facing our country, and resolutely defend the country’s “biological territory” “Safety.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

原標題:生物安全:國防戰略制高點
世界範圍內頻發的嚴重“生物事件”,使得國防已經突破陸、海、空、天、電的疆界,拓展至“生物疆域”範疇。 “生物疆域”是一個國家為了保護生命資源以及與之相關的權益空間,應該具備的生物安全保護和生物威脅防禦實力的範圍。 “生物疆域”安全與國家核心利益密切相關,是國家安全的重要組成部分,越來越受到各國政府的高度重視,許多國家把生物安全納入國家戰略,作為國防和軍事博弈的製高點。我國正值經濟發展轉型期和社會矛盾凸顯期,更需從國家安全的戰略高度深刻認識全球生物安全形勢,充分借鑒先進生物安全管理經驗,構建新型生物威脅防禦體系,為實現富國強軍目標保駕護航。

一、全球生物安全形勢嚴峻,我國面臨嚴重生物威脅

隨著國際形勢日趨複雜,由地緣環境、利益爭端等引發的生物安全問題愈加突出。維護國家安全和社會穩定,需要牢固樹立“生物疆域”意識,切實認清面臨的生物威脅。

全球生物安全形勢非常嚴峻。全球生物安全形勢呈現影響國際化、危害極端化、發展複雜化的特點。聯合國《禁止生物武器公約》有令難行,生物武器研發屢禁不止,生物戰的威脅仍然存在;病原體跨物種感染、跨地域傳播,造成新發突發傳染病不斷出現;由自然災害、人為因素造成的突發公共衛生事件層出不窮;環境污染、外來物種入侵等造成嚴重生態環境破壞,基因資源流失現象時有發生。這些均成為世界各國共同面對的重大生物安全問題。

新型生物威脅特點明顯變化。受國際政治鬥爭持續進行、武器裝備高新技術化、人為故意行動等因素的影響,新型生物威脅的特點發生明顯變化。未來生物威脅主要表現形式可能是突發的人或動、植物疫情,與自然發生的傳染病疫情或突發公共衛生事件很難分清;病原體可能趨於低致死、高致病、易傳播、難追溯的特性;實施手段可能是合成和施放新病原體製造可疑疫情等;危害範圍不僅指向生命健康,而且重在威脅社會和政府,以達成政治、經濟、軍事目的。

我國生物安全威脅種類增多。我國作為當今世界快速發展的新興經濟體,處於世界複雜格局的中心、大國博弈的漩渦,面臨多種生物威脅。一些國家或組織利用病原體實施生物威脅的風險不斷增加,成為國家安全面臨的重大挑戰。重大新發突發傳染病疫情、食源性疾病、動物疫病增加等問題,嚴重危害人民健康。基因組學、合成生物技術應用,以及生物實驗室洩漏事故,存在著潛在風險。外來物種入侵造成物種滅絕速度加快、遺傳多樣性喪失、生態環境破壞趨勢不斷加劇。據2013年10月25日《人民日報》消息,我國幾乎所有生態系統均遭入侵,已確認544種外來入侵生物,其中大面積發生、危害嚴重的達100多種。

二、生物安全地位重要,我國生物威脅防禦能力急需加強

我國需要強化“生物國防”意識,借鑒國際先進的生物安全管理經驗,盡快彌補生物威脅防禦能力的不足。

生物安全是國家核心利益的重要保證。一個國家如果出現生物安全問題,將會嚴重影響到民眾健康、經濟運行、社會秩序、國家安全和政局穩定。例如,2001年美國炭疽事件,雖然只有22例患者、5例死亡,但僅接受預防性治療的就達3萬多人,對經濟造成的損失無法估計。第一次世界大戰曾因傳染病暴發流行,對交戰雙方的戰爭勝負產生了重要影響。因此,做好生物威脅防禦工作,涉及國家安全等核心利益,必須加強。

生物安全是國家戰略目標的重要支柱。許多國家把生物安全納入國家安全戰略,建立以軍隊相關機構為主的生物防禦體系,並從國防和軍事角度積極搶占戰略制高點。美國先後製訂頒布了生物盾牌計劃、生物監測計劃和生物傳感計劃,並圍繞這三個計劃部署了一系列明顯具有國防和軍事意圖的項目任務,在生物反恐和疫情處置中發揮重要作用;德國將傳染病定性為國家安全威脅;英國、澳大利亞等國也分別把安全、國防等部門納入公共衛生體系。這些足以證明生物安全在國家戰略部署中的重要地位。

我國生物威脅防禦能力建設急需加強。我們黨和政府密切關註生物安全問題,提出要加快發展生物安全技術,構建先進國家安全和公共安全體系,有效防範對人民生活和生態環境的生物威脅。目前,我國逐步建立了病原微生物生物安全國家重點實驗室、國家生物防護裝備工程技術研究中心等科技支撐平台,並把軍隊疾病預防控制機構納入國家公共衛生體系建設,已經構建了初步的生物威脅防禦體系,在非典型肺炎、高致病性H5N1禽流感等重大傳染病疫情防控中發揮重要作用。然而,與發達國家先進的生物安全管理經驗相比,我國在生物威脅監測預警、應急處置和科技支撐等方面仍然存在不少薄弱環節,急需從戰略規劃研究、組織管理體制、科學技術研究、宣傳教育培訓等方面加強建設。

三、生物安全涉及面廣,急需構建新型生物威脅防禦體系

我國生物安全涉及部門較多,急需以深化改革為契機,強化國家意志,制訂戰略規劃,構建統一指揮、軍地互補、部門協同、全民參與的新型生物威脅防禦體系。

建立權威高效的生物威脅防禦組織管理體系。打通條塊分割的生物安全管理格局,在各級政府建立權威的生物安全管理機構,實施統一領導、協調和指揮。強化軍隊在國家生物威脅防禦中的特殊地位和重要作用,發揮軍隊高度集中統一、科技實力較強、應急反應較快的明顯優勢,以軍隊相關專業力量為主體,構建平戰一體銜接、軍地融合發展的國家生物威脅防禦體系和應急反應網絡,建立軍地聯席的會商研判機制,以及多部門聯合處置的分工協調機制,同時加強相應的法規制度建設。

建立軍地互補的生物威脅防禦科技支撐體系。按照“軍地聯合、優勢互補”的原則,構建生物威脅防禦科技支撐體系,在摸清我國生物威脅防禦能力體系建設現狀的基礎上進行補缺配套,提高整體水平。針對全球生物安全形勢以及我國未來可能面臨的生物威脅,系統論證生物威脅防禦的科技需求,前瞻部署國家和軍隊生物威脅防禦重大科技專項,重點在監測預警、應急處置、基礎研究等方面加大科技支撐力度,在生物兩用品安全管控方面加強對策研究。

建立多元分層的生物威脅防禦教育培訓體系。把生物安全知識納入國防教育體系,建立以軍事醫學科研和軍隊疾病預防控制機構為骨幹,以國家相應機構為依託的教育培訓體系,通過多種形式,開展生物安全宣傳教育,使各級政府、社會各界充分認識生物安全的重要性。軍隊要始終發揮好“前哨”的作用,時刻追踪全球的生物安全動態,重點從反生物戰、反生物恐怖的角度,深入研判我國面臨的、不斷變化的生物威脅,堅決捍衛國家的“生物疆域”安全。

Original referring Communist Party of China link: http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2014/0101/c40531-23995992.html

圖解十八大報告之九:“國防和軍隊現代化建設”

Graphic illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: “National Defense and Military Modernization”

【編者按】:在黨的十八大開幕式上,胡錦濤代表第十七屆中央委員會向大會作了題為《堅定不移沿著中國特色社會主義道路前進,為全面建成小康社會而奮鬥》的報告。

黨的十八大報告旗幟鮮明、思想深刻、求真務實、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新觀點、新部署和新要求,例如“兩個加快”、“三個自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一體”……為了能讓廣大網友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大報告中的要點及精華,本網特從十八大報告的十二部分中擷取了典型“關鍵詞”,每天一期,連續推出,供網友學習參考。

键词:富国 军民融合式发展。十八大报告提出“走中国特色军民融合式发展路子,坚持富国和强军相统一”, 明确了建设巩固国防和强大军队是我国现代化建设的战略任务。同时也进一步明确了国防和军队建设在中国特色社会主义事业总体布局中的地位,指引国防和军队建设步入着力提升国家战略能力、与国家经济社会建设同步发展的轨道。

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高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Key words: “Prosperous country and strong military-civilian integrated development” . The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward “taking the path of military-civilian integration with Chinese characteristics, and insisting on the unity of rich country and strong military”, and it is clear that building and consolidating national defense and a strong military is a strategic task for China’s modernization drive. At the same time, it has further clarified the status of national defense and army building in the overall layout of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics, and guided national defense and army building on the track of focusing on improving national strategic capabilities and developing in sync with the country’s economic and social construction.

□  Related news:

HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Illustrated one of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Five in One of Scientific Development

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Three Adhere to Three Advocate the Rule of Virtue

Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

【编者按】:在党的十八大开幕式上,胡锦涛代表第十七届中央委员会向大会作了题为《坚定不移沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进,为全面建成小康社会而奋斗》的报告。

党的十八大报告旗帜鲜明、思想深刻、求真务实、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新观点、新部署和新要求,例如“两个加快”、“三个自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一体”……为了能让广大网友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大报告中的要点及精华,本网特从十八大报告的十二部分中撷取了典型“关键词”,每天一期,连续推出,供网友学习参考。

键词:高度关注三个空安全。党的十八大报告强调要高度关注海洋、太空、网络空间安全,这对我们加强军事战略指导、维护国家安全提出了新的要求。海洋是国际交往的大通道和人类可持续发展的战略资源宝库,当今世界正在兴起新一轮海洋开发浪潮;太空是国际战略竞争新的制高点,太空军事优势对现代战争进程和结局具有决定性影响;网络空间是信息时代的基本标志,正在成为影响国家安全和发展的新兴战略领域,成为渗透、影响甚至决定其他作战空间的重要作战空间。我们要充分认清海洋、太空、网络空间安全形势,加强海洋、太空、网络空间安全问题研究,抓好相关力量和手段建设,为维护国家利益提供有力的战略支撑。

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高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Keywords: Highly concerned about the safety of the “three spaces” . The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasized the need to pay close attention to the security of oceans, space, and cyberspace, which puts forward new requirements for us to strengthen military strategic guidance and maintain national security. The ocean is a major channel for international exchanges and a treasure house of strategic resources for the sustainable development of mankind. A new wave of ocean development is emerging in the world today; space is the new commanding height of international strategic competition, and space military advantages have a decisive influence on the process and outcome of modern warfare; Cyberspace is the basic symbol of the information age. It is becoming an emerging strategic area that affects national security and development, and an important combat space that penetrates, influences, and even determines other combat spaces. We must fully understand the security situation of oceans, space, and cyberspace, strengthen research on ocean, space, and cyberspace security issues, and do a good job in building related forces and methods to provide strong strategic support for safeguarding national interests.

□  Related news:

HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Illustrated one of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Five in One of Scientific Development

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Three Adhere to Three Advocate the Rule of Virtue

Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

【编者按】:在党的十八大开幕式上,胡锦涛代表第十七届中央委员会向大会作了题为《坚定不移沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进,为全面建成小康社会而奋斗》的报告。

党的十八大报告旗帜鲜明、思想深刻、求真务实、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新观点、新部署和新要求,例如“两个加快”、“三个自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一体”……为了能让广大网友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大报告中的要点及精华,本网特从十八大报告的十二部分中撷取了典型“关键词”,每天一期,连续推出,供网友学习参考。

键词:两大核心坚持。一是坚决听从党中央的指挥,这是我党历来的重要思想。二是国防和军队现代化。现代化是军队建设的中心任务。随着时代条件和战争形态加速演变,信息化已经成为军队现代化的本质规定性。正是基于对军队现代化时代内涵的准确把握,党的十八大报告提出要坚定不移把信息化作为军队现代化建设发展方向,推动信息化建设加速发展。

键词:现代化建设。我们必须看到,与国家安全和发展需求相比,国防和军队现代化水平还存在较大差距。国防和军队建设的主要矛盾,仍然是现代化水平与打赢信息化条件下局部战争的要求不相适应、军事能力与履行新世纪新阶段我军历史使命的要求不相适应。十八大报告中这一重要论断体现了党中央对国家安全环境新特点新趋势的深刻把握,体现了国防建设必须坚持以国家核心安全需求为导向的内在逻辑和基本规律,也反映了全党全军全国各族人民对新形势下国防和军队建设的新期待。

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高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Keywords: “persistence” at the two cores . The first is to resolutely obey the instructions of the Party Central Committee. This is an important thought of our Party. The second is the modernization of national defense and the army. Modernization is the central task of army building. With the accelerating evolution of the conditions of the times and the forms of warfare, informatization has become the essential requirement of military modernization. It is precisely based on an accurate grasp of the connotation of the era of military modernization that the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposes to unswervingly regard informatization as the development direction of military modernization and promote the accelerated development of informatization.

Keywords: modernization . We must be aware that there is still a big gap in the level of national defense and military modernization compared with national security and development needs. The main contradiction between national defense and army building is still the incompatibility of the modernization level with the requirements of winning local wars under the conditions of informationization, and the incompatibility of military capabilities with the requirements of fulfilling our military’s historical mission in the new century and new stage. This important conclusion in the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China reflects the Party Central Committee’s profound grasp of the new characteristics and trends of the national security environment, the internal logic and basic laws that must be guided by the country’s core security needs in national defense construction, and also reflects the entire party’s The people of all ethnic groups throughout the army have new expectations for national defense and army building under the new situation.

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HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

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Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

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Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

Original Communist Party of China url: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2012/1227/c164113-20027402-3.html

了解習近平對“軍民融合”的關注

Understanding Xi Jinping’s focus on “military-civilian integration”

中共中央政治局1月22日召開會議,決定設立中央軍民融合發展委員會,由習近平任主任。中央軍民融合發展委員會是中央層面軍民融合發展重大問題的決策和議事協調機構,統一領導軍民融合深度發展,向中央政治局、中央政治局常務委員會負責。

習主席高度重視經濟建設和國防建設融合發展的問題。這些年,習近平反復在多個場合提到“軍民融合”。2015年3月12日,習近平在出席十二屆全國人大三次會議解放軍代表團全體會議時強調“把軍民融合發展上升為國家戰略”。去年3月25日和10月19日,習近平在出席中共中央政治局會議和在北京參觀第二屆軍民融合發展高技術成果展時,又分別強調軍民融合是“一項利國利軍利民的大戰略”“關乎國家安全和發展全局”。這充分體現了習主席對軍民融合的深謀遠慮和強烈憂患。

當今時代,國防建設和經濟建設的關系更為深刻復雜,特別是技術方面,軍事技術和民用技術兩者的通用性越來越強。從美國的高科技發展史可以看出,從計算機、通信網絡、航空航天、核工業,到先進制造業等各個領域,都和它的軍事工業有聯系。據統計,85%的現代軍事核心技術同時也是民用關鍵技術;80%以上的民用關鍵技術被直接運用于軍事目的。美國前國防部長佩里估計,利用民用高技術開發軍品及擴大采用民品,每年可節省大約300億美元的國防開支,而且還可精減20%以上的采辦人員,同時可以利用國防經濟和軍用技術帶動和促進民用經濟技術發展。他甚至認為,美國軍事變革的重要方面就是把民用技術運用到軍事領域,是一場資源配置方式的根本變革。美國每隔10年左右就推出一個軍民兩用技術發展計劃,依靠這些計劃,美國高新技術產業相繼涌現,始終保持超前于世界其他國家一至兩代的領先地位。俄羅斯一度繼承蘇聯“軍民分離”的國防經濟管理體制,普京上任後對軍事工業實行全面改革,大力推進軍民融合,發展軍民兩用技術,軍民融合式發展取得顯著成效。由此可見,當前走軍民融合式發展路子,已成為符合時代潮流的、世界大多數國家的一致政策取向。

進入21世紀新階段,隨著信息時代的到來,戰爭形態正從機械化戰爭向信息化戰爭轉變。從信息化條件下作戰特點來看,交戰雙方往往會為了實現其戰略企圖,在短時間內聚合戰爭能量對對方施以毀滅性打擊,作戰具有爆發突然、持續時間短、作戰節奏快的特點,更加強調初戰決勝。在此背景下,戰爭潛力向戰爭實力的轉換能力、平時向戰時的轉換能力更加重要。從我軍的實際情況看,目前仍處于機械化、信息化復合發展的特定歷史階段,制約發展的體制性障礙和結構性矛盾還比較多,特別是國防科技自主創新能力較弱,武器裝備與世界水平還有較大的差距。因此,緊緊抓住信息化這一主要矛盾,在一些關鍵項目和環節上實行重點突破,搶佔軍事信息技術的制高點,以局部躍升推動和促進軍隊的現代化整體建設,是我軍現代化發展途徑的科學抉擇。而另一方面的事實是,目前我國許多科技型企業,特別是在IT領域的企業,已經具備相當高的甚至比國防工業中同領域企業更強的實力,信息化技術和產業的領軍大部分在民用高科技企業,而且這種趨勢仍然在發展。這充分說明,抓住國家經濟快速發展與建設現代化軍隊的歷史機遇,走軍民融合式發展之路,建立起高效調動與轉化國家整體力量的國防動員體系,才能做到有備無患、戰則能保,為軍隊始終掌握戰爭主動權提供強大的力量支撐。

當前,軍隊的改革已進入深水區,軍隊與社會經濟系統的融合是否緊密,是否具有高效的國民經濟動員能力,在很大程度上影響著軍隊戰斗力的生成與釋放。我們正逐步走軍民融合式發展的路子,在更廣範圍、更高層次、更深程度上推進軍民融合,逐步形成了在重大基礎設施、海洋、空天、信息等關鍵領域軍民深度融合發展的大格局,建立了軍民融合的武器裝備科研生產體系、軍隊人才培養體系、軍隊保障體系。正是在這個基礎上,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央,繼承我們黨幾十年探索的實踐經驗和寶貴成果,更加明確地把走中國特色軍民融合式發展與實現中華民族偉大復興緊密聯系在一起,深刻指出要進一步做好軍民融合式發展這篇大文章。

習近平高度重視“軍民融合”說明,推動國防建設和經濟建設良性互動,確保在全面建成小康社會進程中實現富國和強軍的統一,是實現強國夢強軍夢的必由之路,對于提高我軍能打仗、打勝仗,有效維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,具有極其重要的現實意義。

同時,也引出了一系列戰略話題︰我國軍民融合深度發展面臨哪些問題?軍民融合深度發展如何才能契合世界各地富國強軍戰略?……

由解放軍報社長征出版社出版的《富國強軍——軍民融合深度發展》,著眼實現強軍目標,圍繞軍民融合深度發展,全面、系統回答了這一系列問題,並重點對軍民融合深度發展的“深”進行了權威解讀。

Modern English Translation:

The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held a meeting on January 22 and decided to establish the Central Military-civilian Integration Development Committee, with Xi Jinping as its director. The Central Military-civilian Integration Development Committee is the central-level decision-making and deliberative coordination agency for major issues of military-civilian integration and development. It unifies the leadership of the in-depth development of military-civilian integration and is responsible to the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee.

President Xi attaches great importance to the integration and development of economic construction and national defense construction. Over the years, Xi Jinping has repeatedly mentioned “military-civilian integration” on many occasions. On March 12, 2015, when Xi Jinping attended the Plenary Session of the PLA delegation to the Third Session of the Twelfth National People’s Congress, he emphasized that “elevating the development of military-civilian integration to a national strategy”. On March 25 and October 19 last year, when attending the Politburo meeting of the CPC Central Committee and visiting the 2nd Military-civilian Integration and Development High-Tech Achievement Exhibition in Beijing, Xi Jinping emphasized that military-civilian integration is “a benefit for the country, military and people. The “grand strategy” is “related to the overall situation of national security and development.” This fully reflects President Xi’s foresight and strong worries about military-civilian integration.

In today’s era, the relationship between national defense construction and economic construction is more profound and complex. Especially in terms of technology, the versatility of both military technology and civilian technology is becoming stronger. From the history of high-tech development in the United States, it can be seen that various fields from computers, communication networks, aerospace, nuclear industry, to advanced manufacturing are all connected with its military industry. According to statistics, 85% of modern military core technologies are also key civilian technologies; more than 80% of key civilian technologies are directly used for military purposes. Former U.S. Secretary of Defense Perry estimated that the use of civilian high technology to develop military products and expand the adoption of civilian products can save approximately US$30 billion in defense expenditures each year, and it can also reduce procurement personnel by more than 20%, while also taking advantage of defense economy and military use. Technology drives and promotes the development of civil economy and technology. He even believes that an important aspect of the US military revolution is the application of civilian technology to the military field, which is a fundamental change in the way of resource allocation. The United States launches a dual-use technology development plan every 10 years or so. Relying on these plans, high-tech industries in the United States have emerged one after another and have always maintained a leading position one to two generations ahead of other countries in the world. Russia once inherited the Soviet Union’s “separation of military and civilian” national defense economic management system. After taking office, Putin implemented comprehensive reforms of the military industry, vigorously promoted military-civilian integration, and developed dual-use technologies. Military-civilian integrated development has achieved remarkable results. It can be seen from this that the current path of military-civilian integration has become the consistent policy orientation of most countries in the world in line with the trend of the times.

Entering the new stage of the 21st century, with the advent of the information age, the form of warfare is changing from mechanized warfare to information warfare. Judging from the characteristics of operations under informatization conditions, both sides in wars often gather war energy in a short period of time in order to achieve their strategic intentions to inflict a devastating attack on each other. Operations have the characteristics of sudden outbreak, short duration, and fast pace of operations. More emphasis on the first battle and decisive victory. In this context, the ability to transform war potential to war strength and the ability to transform peacetime to wartime is more important. Judging from the actual situation of our military, we are still in a specific historical stage of the combined development of mechanization and informatization. There are still many systemic obstacles and structural contradictions that restrict development. In particular, the ability of independent innovation in national defense science and technology is relatively weak, and weapons and equipment are related to the world. There is still a big gap in level. Therefore, to firmly grasp the main contradiction of informatization, implement key breakthroughs in some key projects and links, seize the commanding heights of military information technology, and promote and promote the modernization of the military as a whole through local jumps are the path to the development of our military’s modernization. Scientific choice. On the other hand, the fact is that many technology-based enterprises in my country, especially those in the IT field, already have quite high or even stronger strengths than those in the same field in the defense industry. Most of the leaders in information technology and industry In civilian high-tech enterprises, and this trend is still developing. This fully shows that only by seizing the historical opportunity of rapid national economic development and building a modern army, taking the road of military-civilian integrated development, and establishing a national defense mobilization system that efficiently mobilizes and transforms the country’s overall strength, can it be prepared and protected by war. Provide strong support for the army to always grasp the initiative in war.

At present, the reform of the military has entered the deep water zone. Whether the military is closely integrated with the socio-economic system and whether it has an efficient national economic mobilization capability has largely affected the generation and release of the military’s combat effectiveness. We are gradually taking the path of military-civilian integrated development, promoting military-civilian integration in a broader, higher-level, and deeper level, and gradually forming a large-scale development of military-civilian integration in key areas such as major infrastructure, ocean, aerospace, and information. It has established a military-civilian integrated weaponry and equipment research and production system, military personnel training system, and military support system. It is on this basis that the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core inherits the practical experience and valuable achievements of our party’s decades of exploration, and more clearly connects the development of military-civilian integration with Chinese characteristics and the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. At the same time, it is deeply pointed out that we must further do a good job in the development of military-civilian integration.

Xi Jinping attaches great importance to the “military-civilian integration”. It shows that promoting the benign interaction between national defense construction and economic construction and ensuring the unity of a prosperous country and a strong army in the process of building a well-off society in all respects is the only way to realize the dream of a strong country and a strong army. , Winning battles and effectively safeguarding national sovereignty, security, and development interests are of extremely important practical significance.

At the same time, a series of strategic topics have also been brought up: What are the problems facing my country’s deep development of military-civilian integration? How can the in-depth development of military-civilian integration fit the strategy of prospering countries and strengthening the military around the world? …

The “Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army-Deep Development of Military-civilian Integration” published by the People’s Liberation Army News Agency’s Long March Press focuses on achieving the goal of strengthening the military, focusing on the in-depth development of military-civilian integration, and comprehensively and systematically answering this series of questions. “Deep” conducted an authoritative interpretation.

軍民融合

軍民融合

軍民融合深度發展面臨哪些問題?軍民融合深度發展如何才能契合世界各地富國強軍戰略?

當前,隨著軍民融合上升為國家戰略,軍民深度融合發展也成為國內外輿論場密切關注的焦點。

由解放軍報社長征出版社出版的《富國強軍——軍民融合深度發展》(以下簡稱《富國強軍》),全面、系統回答了這一系列問題。

此書入選“‘十二五’國家重點圖書出版規劃項目”“慶祝新中國成立65周年主題出版項目”“國家出版基金項目”等重要主題出版項目,是解放軍報社長征出版社和國防大學專家團隊精心打造的“強軍夢系列叢書”之一。作者陳昱澍、李善東先後多次參與國家和軍隊重點科研課題,榮獲多項國家和軍隊獎項,發表的數十篇前沿軍事理論論文大多引起廣泛關注。此書將他倆一系列研究成果精華融會貫通,一經推出,就引起積極反響。

《富國強軍》,從全新視角,客觀分析了新形勢下軍民融合式發展的時代價值;系統闡述了軍民深度融合發展在實現中國夢、強軍夢中的戰略地位;全面論述了在新的歷史條下軍民深度融合的新特點、新趨勢,描述了我國軍民融合發展的成效和現狀;探索提出了推進軍民深度融合發展的途徑和方法。其中,重點對軍民融合深度發展的“深”進行了權威解讀——

深在軍民一體推進。軍民融合發展則國家興盛。本書明確提出,一體推進,是軍民融合式發展的總體思路。其實質就是將傳統的軍民分割形成的社會總資源轉換成軍民雙向互動的高效資源,實現國防建設和經濟建設資源的最優配置,最大限度地提升國家的綜合國力,進而實現富國和強軍的統一。

深在鑄造利劍。建立軍民融合式武器裝備科研生產體系是大勢所趨。本書明確提出,深化武器裝備科研生產軍民融合發展,應堅持市場化導向,著眼形成“開放、競爭、共享”的發展格局,通過關鍵領域、關鍵環節的改革強固武器裝備科研生產軍民融合式市場基礎,努力將武器裝備建設深深根植于國家大工業基礎之中,吸引更多優勢資源向武器裝備科研生產領域集聚。

深在提高綜合效益。軍隊能打勝仗,作戰保障是關鍵。本書明確提出,要實現綜合高效的軍民融合,必須建立軍民融合式軍隊人才培養體系、軍民融合式軍隊保障體系、軍民融合式國防動員體系,完善系統配套的軍民融合式發展的基本保障。

《富國強軍》適應了全媒體時代受眾的審美情趣。本書觀點新穎、內容飽滿、前瞻性強,總體體現了“專家視野+基層口吻解讀+案例索引”的概念,適應了全媒體時代受眾的審美情趣。

全書依托十八大報告關于“加快推進國防和軍隊現代化”的重要論述、習主席有關涉及國防和軍隊的重要講話精神,從歷史和現實的角度,在表現形式上有三個明顯特殊——

視角獨特。全書注重用新視角發掘“產品”。即站在受眾的角度思考問題,變“我怎麼看”為“受眾怎樣看”,用“第三只眼”審視作品,千方百計發掘受眾喜愛的“產品”。

善講故事。全書注重通過講故事來強化有效傳播。注意用基層官兵喜聞樂見的口吻,通過案例牽引,客觀講述軍民融合深度發展的故事,並做到了理論語言生活化、政治語言知識化,在講故事中說道理,在說道理時講故事;善用網言網語講故事,將網言網語融入生動的故事中,在故事中營造網絡語言氛圍;變“我說你听”的居高臨下為“為您服務”的俯身貼近,平視敘述,娓娓道來。

呈現新穎。全書注重用新呈現方式做深閱讀話題。通過有視角沖擊力的圖片和插圖,適應了讀圖時代特點,強化了主題,豐富了內容;通過活用圖表、分類、概括、標注、提示等新的呈現方式,使高深嚴肅的軍事話題變得輕快起來;通過通俗易懂的闡述、案例解讀和用新大白話“翻譯”等,使強國強軍的重要話題變得生動起來,便于廣大讀者,尤其是有利于部隊基層官兵學習掌握其精髓。

Modern English Translation:

What are the problems facing the deep development of military-civilian integration? How can the in-depth development of military-civilian integration fit the strategy of prospering the country and strengthening the military around the world?

At present, as military-civilian integration has become a national strategy, the development of deep military-civilian integration has also become the focus of close attention in public opinion at home and abroad.

“Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army—Deep Development of Military-civilian Integration” (hereinafter referred to as “Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army”) published by the People’s Liberation Army News Changzheng Press has comprehensively and systematically answered this series of questions.

This book was selected into the “Twelfth Five-Year” National Key Book Publishing Planning Project”, “Thematic Publishing Project to Celebrate the 65th Anniversary of the Founding of New China”, “National Publishing Fund Project” and other important thematic publishing projects. It is an expert team from the People’s Liberation Army Newspaper Long March Press and National Defense University One of the carefully created “Strong Army Dream Series”. Authors Chen Yushu and Li Shandong have participated in many national and military key scientific research projects and won many national and military awards. Most of the dozens of cutting-edge military theory papers published have attracted widespread attention. This book integrates the essence of their series of research results, and once it was published, it aroused positive responses.

“Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army” objectively analyzes the value of the era of military-civilian integrated development under the new situation from a new perspective; systematically expounds the strategic position of military-civilian deep integrated development in realizing the Chinese dream and strengthening the military; comprehensively discussing the new history The new characteristics and new trends of deep military-civilian integration under the regulations describe the effectiveness and current situation of my country’s military-civilian integration development; the exploration puts forward ways and methods to promote the development of deep military-civilian integration. Among them, it focuses on the authoritative interpretation of the “deep” of the deep development of military-civilian integration——

Deep in the integration of military and civilian advancement. The development of military-civilian integration will prosper the country. This book clearly states that integrated advancement is the overall idea of ​​military-civilian integrated development. Its essence is to convert the total social resources formed by the traditional military-civilian division into highly efficient resources for military-civilian two-way interaction, to achieve the optimal allocation of resources for national defense and economic construction, to maximize the country’s comprehensive national strength, and to achieve a prosperous country and a strong military. Unite.

Deep in casting a sword. The establishment of a military-civilian integrated weaponry and equipment scientific research and production system is the general trend. This book clearly states that to deepen the development of military-civilian integration of weapons and equipment research and production, we should adhere to the market-oriented orientation, focus on forming an “open, competitive, and shared” development pattern, and strengthen the military-civilian integrated market foundation for weapons and equipment research and production through reforms in key areas and key links. , And strive to deeply root the construction of weapons and equipment in the country’s large-scale industrial foundation, and attract more advantageous resources to gather in the field of weapons and equipment research and production.

Deeply improving the overall benefits. For the army to win battles, combat security is the key. The book clearly states that to achieve comprehensive and efficient military-civilian integration, it is necessary to establish a military-civilian integrated military personnel training system, a military-civilian integrated military support system, and a military-civilian integrated national defense mobilization system, and perfect the basic guarantee for the system’s supporting military-civilian integrated development.

“Enriching the Country and Strengthening the Army” adapts to the aesthetic taste of the audience in the all-media era. This book has novel viewpoints, full content, and strong forward-looking. It generally embodies the concept of “experts’ vision + grassroots tone interpretation + case index” and adapts to the aesthetic taste of audiences in the all-media era.

The whole book relies on the important exposition of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on “Accelerating the Modernization of National Defense and the Army” and the spirit of Chairman Xi’s important speech concerning national defense and the military. From the perspective of history and reality, there are three obvious special manifestations:

Unique perspective. The book focuses on discovering “products” with new perspectives. That is to think about the problem from the perspective of the audience, change “how do I see” to “how the audience sees”, examine the work with the “third eye”, and do everything possible to discover the “product” that the audience loves.

Tell stories well. The book focuses on strengthening effective communication through storytelling. Pay attention to using the tone that grassroots officers and soldiers like to hear, and use cases to objectively tell the story of the in-depth development of military-civilian integration, and achieve the realization of theoretical language life, political language knowledge, reason in storytelling, and storytelling when reasoning; Internet language and Internet language tell stories, integrate Internet language and Internet language into vivid stories, and create an atmosphere of Internet language in the story; change from “I say you listen” to “serving for you” leaning close and narrating directly, Whispered.

Presenting novelty. The book focuses on using new presentation methods to do deep reading topics. Through visually impactful pictures and illustrations, it adapts to the characteristics of the picture-reading era, strengthens the theme, and enriches the content; through the use of new presentation methods such as charts, classification, generalization, annotations, and prompts, advanced and serious military topics become Get up lightly; through easy-to-understand explanations, case interpretations, and “translation” in the new vernacular, the important topics of strengthening the country and the army become vivid, which is convenient for readers, especially for the grassroots officers and soldiers of the army to learn and master its essence.

Original Referring Chinese MOD URL: http://www.mod.gov.cn/big5/jmsd/2017-02/04/content_4771493_3.htm

習近平主席:民用軍事融合行動提高戰鬥力

President Xi Jinping: Civil Military Fusion Operations Enhancing Combat Effectiveness

編者按

中國軍民融合計劃

軍民融合式發展,是提高民兵預備役部隊非戰爭軍事行動能力的最有效途徑。要實現全方位、寬領域、大縱深的融合,必須強化融合意識、加大融合力度、拓展融合渠道,堅持以任務為牽引,以實戰需求為目標。陝西某預備役團將當地各類資源納入戰備儲備體系,實現即徵即用,隨時能遂行雙應任務,使軍地形成了借勢發展、借船行舟、借梯上樓的良好格局;湖南懷化軍分區把加強民兵預備役部隊建設,作為各級黨委、政府和軍事機關的共同責任,為提升民兵預備役部隊非戰爭軍事行動能力提供了可靠支撐。他們的經驗值得借鑒。

陝西某預備役團發揮軍民融合優勢提升部隊戰鬥力

整合資源,向實戰化步步緊逼

■薑山 王莉

中國軍民融合計劃

初春的黃土高原某地域,一片寂靜。突然,一架“敵”機呼嘯而來,陣地上數門防空火砲迅速捕捉目標,吐出道道火舌,短短30秒,目標灰飛煙滅。上演這精彩一幕的,是陝西某預備役團。然而幾年前,該團的戰鬥力還是麻繩拴豆腐——提不起來。如此明顯的進步從哪裡來?團領導一語中的:“軍民融合讓部隊戰鬥力提升駛入了快車道!”

精細管理,夯實戰鬥力基礎

3月初,結合年度整組工作,該團28名營以上預備役軍官進行個人述職,並接受現役、預備役黨委委員及地方組織部門人員的現場提問和評議。最終,5人因評議結果不合格,被列入調整出隊名單。該團政委胡楊告訴筆者:“‘真刀真槍’的考評,能夠激勵預備役軍官履職盡責,為部隊建設加油使勁。”

前幾年,該團就協調地方制訂了《預備役軍官管理細則》等相關規定,然而由於缺乏具體措施,操作難度大,導致部分預備役軍官參加軍事活動積極性不高,召之難來的現象時有發生。 2015年,該團黨委與延安市委組織部、人事局、財政局等部門聯合出台《預備役軍官軍地聯合考評實施辦法》,將熟悉軍地作戰協調、服務戰鬥保障等6大類25個方面內容,納入預備役軍官地方年度績效考評體系,明確要求各單位在調整崗位、選人用人時,優先使用在軍事訓練、完成急難險重任務中表現突出的預備役軍官,對不遵守部隊紀律、訓練消極應付、成績不達標的個人取消評選先進的資格。

部隊意見進入地方決策,消除了預備役軍官干好幹壞“上級不清楚”“使用不參照”等問題,從根本上調動了預備役軍官參訓的積極性。 1月初,該團組織預備役軍官集訓,來自6個縣區的預備役軍官全部按時參加,無一請假。

確保預備役官兵與部隊日常信息互通,是實現“訓在平時、育在平時、管在平時”的前提條件。該團與地方高校共同研製開發《預備役官兵信息管理系統》,對預備役官兵進行網上政治教育、隨機點名抽查、軍地聯合講評;預備役官兵也可通過該系統向部隊反映自己的情況,為軍地雙方信息互通提供了平台。

為實現軍地優勢互補,促進軍地融合建設,他們還把加強軍事訓練與促進企業生產有機結合起來。編組在某公司的汽車連,不但定期分批對預備役人員進行駕駛技能、維修技能等方面的專業培訓,還針對運輸過程中可能發生的失火、爆炸、破壞等意外情況,在預備役官兵中開展滅火、防爆處突等技戰術課目的訓練,確保一經拉動,立即執行任務。

摸清底數,催生戰鬥力提升

提起去年團隊接受上級整建制戰備考核拉動演練的一幕,團長張棟面露尷尬之色。當時部隊集結,該團徵召預編在某駕校的15台重型運輸車,對方卻以教學任務重為由不予調撥。無奈,團裡只得向市交通局尋求幫助,導致集結時間比預定晚了2個小時。

有裝備卻不能為我所用,出現這樣的問題,雖在意料之外,卻在情理之中。一方面,預編裝備在地方經濟建設快速發展中加快了“退役”週期,另一方面,地方單位新增的科技含量高、技術性能好的新型軍民通用裝備,不能及時進入預編序列。團黨委會上,黨委“一班人”達成一致:必須著眼戰時保障需求整合軍地資源,讓地方高新裝備納編進程和地方經濟建設速度同步,打牢充足完備、對接實戰的裝備保障基礎。

為此,團隊依據《國防動員法》《加強預備役部隊建設的意見》和《預備役部(分)隊戰備工作規定》等法規制度,修訂《裝備物資管理規定》,完善各類裝備保障方案,實現通用裝備物資的儲備、徵用等法規化。與預編單位簽訂《預編裝備責任書》,確保平時能夠保障訓練和應急使用,戰時能夠緊急徵用,遂行作戰任務,實現了裝備資源管理的製度化。他們還對全市範圍內的主要裝備維修機構、科研單位、生產廠家進行調查摸底,與30餘家企業單位簽訂近百種《裝備物資儲備協議》,明確各方的責任義務,摸清了裝備底數。

通過市國動委宏觀調控,該團在延安市6個縣區分級分層建起車炮庫、戰備物資器材庫,實行抗洪搶險、森林滅火、防爆維穩等分隊裝備物資預儲,大幅縮短了部隊快速反應時間。

該團從解放軍邊防學院、延安大學等軍地院校和科研院所請來電子、信息和網絡專家,與全團官兵攜手攻關,建立起“預徵裝備信息數據庫”,實現了預編裝備由“靜態管理”到“動態管理”的轉變,一批跨行政區域大中型企業和事業單位的通信設備、運輸車輛和工程機械等最新軍民通用裝備,在經過嚴格的性能檢測後被預編進來。

自我加壓,立起戰鬥力標準

凜冽的西北風中,一場信息化條件下的實戰化演練在黃土高原展開。 “藍軍”利用衛星偵察、電磁干擾等手段,頻頻擾亂“紅軍”行動計劃;“紅軍”陣營處變不驚,迅速啟用備用通信網,同時開啟反干擾設備,破解“藍軍”的不間斷打擊……在此次演練中擔負網絡保障任務的,是該團依托延安大學信息學院組建的網絡戰分隊。近年來,該團融合軍地資源推動部隊實戰化訓練,取得了顯著成效。

為了打牢戰鬥力生成基礎,他們藉助當地各高校和訓練機構的教學優勢,組織預備役人員進行小專業知識集訓、士官升級培訓;借助新裝備廠家和修理機構的技術優勢,為部隊組織技術人員和修理骨幹培訓;借助現役部隊的人才、裝備、設施優勢,對雷達、標圖、無人機等複雜專業和小兵種專業官兵開展針對性訓練,先後培養了70餘名雷達專業尖子、120餘名標圖能手、30餘名無人機操作駕駛骨幹……

同時,他們依托編兵單位,針對預備役官兵不同的工作崗位,開展多種形式的崗位練兵活動。去年以來,該團先後依托地方國動委、應急辦組織應急指揮演練,與三大通信運營公司進行應急通信演練,與交通、醫療、民政等部門聯合進行應急保障演練,促進了軍地聯合指揮、通信和保障能力的提高。

Modern English Translation:

Editor’s note

Military-civilian integrated development is the most effective way to improve the non-war military operations capabilities of the militia and reserve forces. To achieve omni-directional, wide-ranging, and large-depth integration, it is necessary to strengthen the awareness of integration, increase integration efforts, expand integration channels, adhere to task-driven, and actual combat needs as the goal. A reserve regiment in Shaanxi incorporated various local resources into the combat readiness reserve system, realizing that it can be used immediately upon requisition, and can perform dual-response tasks at any time, so that the military and the military have formed a good pattern of development, borrowing boats and boats, and borrowing ladders to go upstairs; Huaihua, Hunan Military sub-regions regard strengthening the construction of militia reserve forces as the joint responsibility of party committees, governments, and military agencies at all levels, and provide reliable support for enhancing the non-war military operations capabilities of militia reserve forces. Their experience is worth learning.

A reserve regiment in Shaanxi takes advantage of military-civilian integration to enhance its combat effectiveness

Integrate resources and press harder for actual combat

■ Jiang Shan Wang Li

A certain area of ​​the Loess Plateau in early spring was silent. Suddenly, an “enemy” aircraft roared in, and several anti-aircraft guns on the position quickly captured the target, spitting out flames. In just 30 seconds, the target was wiped out. This wonderful scene was staged by a reserve team in Shaanxi. However, a few years ago, the combat effectiveness of the regiment was still tied to tofu with twine—it couldn’t be mentioned. Where does such obvious progress come from? In the words of the regiment leader: “Military-civilian integration has improved the combat effectiveness of the troops and entered the fast lane!”

Fine management to consolidate the foundation of combat effectiveness

At the beginning of March, combined with the annual work of the entire group, the regiment’s 28 reserve officers and above battalion conducted personal reports, and accepted on-site questions and comments from members of the active and reserve party committees and local organization departments. In the end, five people were included in the list of adjustments due to unqualified evaluation results. Hu Yang, the political commissar of the regiment, told the author: “The evaluation of the’real swords and guns’ can inspire reserve officers to perform their duties and work hard for army building.”

In the past few years, the regiment coordinated with the local authorities to formulate the “Regulations for the Management of Reserve Officers” and other relevant regulations. However, due to the lack of specific measures and the difficulty of operation, some reserve officers are not highly motivated to participate in military activities, and sometimes it is difficult to recruit. occur. In 2015, the party committee of the regiment, the Organization Department of the Yan’an Municipal Party Committee, the Bureau of Personnel, the Bureau of Finance and other departments jointly issued the “Implementation Measures for the Joint Evaluation of Reserve Officers and Military Areas”, which will be familiar with the contents of 6 categories and 25 aspects such as military and local combat coordination and service combat support. , Incorporated into the local annual performance appraisal system for reserve officers, and clearly requires that all units prioritize the use of reserve officers who have outstanding performance in military training and completing urgent, difficult, dangerous and heavy tasks when adjusting positions, selecting and appointing personnel, and responding passively to non-compliance with military discipline and training , Individuals who fail to meet the standard will be disqualified for advanced selection.

The opinions of the troops entered the local decision-making process, eliminating the problems of “unclear superiors” and “non-reference” for reserve officers, and fundamentally aroused the enthusiasm of reserve officers to participate in training. In early January, the regiment organized a training camp for reserve officers. All reserve officers from six counties and districts participated on time, and none of them asked for leave.

Ensuring the daily information exchange between reserve officers and troops is a prerequisite for achieving “training in peacetime, education in peacetime, and management in peacetime.” The regiment and local colleges and universities jointly developed the “Reserve Officers and Soldiers Information Management System” to conduct online political education, random roll-calling, and joint military and civilian commentary on reserve officers and soldiers; reserve officers and soldiers can also use the system to report their own situation to the military and serve The information exchange between the two parties provides a platform.

In order to realize the complementary advantages of the military and the land and promote the integration of the military and the land, they also organically combined the strengthening of military training with the promotion of enterprise production. The automobile company grouped in a certain company not only provides professional training in driving skills and maintenance skills for reserve personnel in batches on a regular basis, but also conducts fire fighting among reserve officers and soldiers in response to accidents such as fire, explosion, and damage that may occur during transportation. The training of technical and tactical courses such as explosion-proof and sudden-disruption, to ensure that the task is performed immediately once it is pulled.

Find out the bottom line, promote combat effectiveness

Speaking of last year’s team accepting the superior reorganization system combat readiness assessment to pull the drill, the team leader Zhang Dong showed embarrassment. At that time, the army was assembled and the regiment recruited 15 heavy transport vehicles pre-programmed in a driving school, but the other party refused to transfer them because of the heavy teaching task. Reluctantly, the group had to seek help from the Municipal Transportation Bureau, causing the assembly time to be 2 hours later than scheduled.

I have the equipment but I can’t use it for me. Although such a problem appears unexpected, it is reasonable. On the one hand, pre-programmed equipment has accelerated the “retirement” cycle in the rapid development of local economic construction. On the other hand, new military-civilian general equipment with high technological content and good technical performance added by local units cannot enter the pre-programmed sequence in time. At the regiment party committee, the “group of people” of the party committee reached an agreement: it is necessary to integrate military and military resources based on the needs of wartime support, so that the process of local high-tech equipment acquisition and the speed of local economic construction can be synchronized, and a sufficient, complete, and actual combat equipment support foundation must be laid .

To this end, the team revised the “Regulations on the Management of Equipment and Materials” in accordance with the “National Defense Mobilization Law,” “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of Reserve Forces”, and “Regulations on the Preparation of the Reserve Department (Sub) Teams”, and revised the “Regulations on the Management of Equipment and Materials” to improve various equipment support plans to achieve Regulations on the reserve and requisition of general equipment and materials. Sign the “Pre-compiled Equipment Responsibility Letter” with the pre-compiled unit to ensure that it can guarantee training and emergency use in peacetime, and can be requisitioned urgently in wartime, and carry out combat tasks, realizing the institutionalization of equipment resource management. They also investigated the main equipment maintenance organizations, scientific research units, and manufacturers in the city, and signed nearly one hundred “equipment material reserve agreements” with more than 30 enterprises, clarified the responsibilities and obligations of all parties, and figured out the equipment base. .

Through the macro-control of the Municipal State Movement Committee, the regiment has built a car and artillery warehouse and a war-preparation material warehouse in 6 counties and districts of Yan’an City. It has implemented pre-storage of equipment and materials for units such as flood fighting and rescue, forest fire fighting, explosion protection and stability maintenance. Quick reaction time of troops.

The regiment invited electronics, information, and network experts from military academies and scientific research institutes such as the People’s Liberation Army Frontier Defense Academy, Yan’an University, etc., worked hand in hand with the entire regiment’s officers and soldiers to tackle key problems, established a “pre-commissioned equipment information database”, and realized pre-compiled equipment From “static management” to “dynamic management”, a batch of the latest general-purpose military and civilian equipment such as communications equipment, transportation vehicles and construction machinery for large and medium-sized enterprises and institutions across administrative regions have been pre-programmed after strict performance testing.

Self-pressurize and set up the standard of combat effectiveness

In the harsh northwest wind, an actual combat exercise under the conditions of information technology was launched on the Loess Plateau. The “Blue Army” used satellite reconnaissance, electromagnetic interference and other means to frequently disrupt the “Red Army” action plan; the “Red Army” camp became calm and quickly activated the backup communication network, and at the same time turned on anti-jamming equipment to crack the “Blue Army”‘s continuous attack… In this exercise, it is the network warfare detachment formed by the regiment based on the School of Information of Yan’an University that is responsible for the network security task. In recent years, the regiment has integrated military and land resources to promote the actual combat training of troops, and has achieved remarkable results.

In order to lay a solid foundation for combat effectiveness, they used the teaching advantages of local universities and training institutions to organize reserve personnel to conduct small professional knowledge training and non-commissioned officer upgrade training; use the technical advantages of new equipment manufacturers and repair organizations to organize technical personnel and repairs for the troops Key training: Taking advantage of the talents, equipment, and facilities of the active army, we carried out targeted training for officers and soldiers in complex professions such as radar, mapping, drones, and small arms, and successively trained more than 70 top radar professionals and more than 120 mapping experts , More than 30 key drone operators…

At the same time, they rely on military formation units to carry out various forms of on-the-job training activities for the different positions of reserve officers and soldiers. Since last year, the regiment has successively organized emergency command drills based on the local State Mobility Commission and the Emergency Management Office, conducted emergency communications drills with the three major communications operating companies, and conducted emergency support drills with the transportation, medical, and civil affairs departments, which promoted joint military and civilian command. , Communication and support capabilities.

湖南省懷化軍分區協調軍地強力推進深度融合發展

瞄準戰場,讓潛力變成戰鬥力

■徐小平 湯金平

3月初,湖南省懷化軍分區對所屬民兵預備役組織整頓進行驗收,由軍分區、駐軍司令部、市政府督查室組成的聯合督導組,令編兵單位領導耳目一新,又倍感緊張。檢查現場,軍分區負責人員編制核實,駐軍負責各專業隊伍經訓率、專業對口率核查,市政府督查室針對問題下達整改時限,並當場進行績效評分。

軍分區司令員向型楚滿懷信心地說,瞄準戰場推進軍民深度融合,就是要依據戰時民兵預備役擔負的支援保障任務編實隊伍,協調地方黨委政府按軍事需求抓落實,駐軍單位按作戰行動要求進行驗收,這樣才能真正把動員潛力變成實實在在的戰鬥力。

雙重履職,務軍興武變得更主動

2月16日,春節長假後上班第3天,分管武裝工作的懷化市常務副市長楊親鵬得知個別縣、市領導對民兵整組工作落實不力,當即責成相關人員以市政府的名義下發通知,召開民兵整組再動員、再部署大會,分會場就設在各縣、市政府會議室。

近年來,該軍分區和所屬人武部黨委主動擔當,積極作為,為駐地黨委政府提建議、當參謀,把民兵預備役發展融入轄區內經濟社會發展大局,帶動地方黨委、政府樹牢了“一盤棋、一家人、一體化”的軍民融合深度發展理念。

市委、市政府把部隊建設納入目標績效和領導履職“雙重”考核已形成新常態;市縣兩級每次召開常委會、政府常務會前,都要詢問軍分區、人武部是否有關於武裝工作的議題上會研究;當地高速路網建設主動為部隊預留3個出入口供戰時所需;新建的2萬平方米的地下商貿城改寫了市人防平均面積不夠的缺陷……曾經的“大利大融、小利小融、無利不融”現像一去不返。

拆除“圍牆”,共贏發展成為新常態

去年初,軍分區協調駐軍單位和地方召開研討會,共同探討融合發展之策。與會領導一致認為,推進軍民融合深度發展,必須打開“大門”,拆掉“圍牆”,徹底改變自我封閉、自成體系的軍地建設思維模式,實現富民與強軍目標相統一。

該軍分區走出“就分區抓分區,就武裝抓武裝”的思想誤區,採取“請進來、走出去”的方式,與地方共享共用部分軍事設施,增強軍地互動、軍地交流、軍民往來,鞏固深化軍政軍民關係。民兵預備役組織調整、專業分隊訓練、年度軍事考核、規模演練,駐軍單位指派督導組參加,現場指導評估,提出改進意見。地方各編兵單位打破機制壁壘、人才壁壘、競爭壁壘,集合軍地科技資源優勢,實現效益最大化,為部隊和國防建設注入了新活力。

今年2月,鶴城區按要求組建民兵搶修分隊,軍事科參謀彭毅前往汽修企業協調。幾位企業負責人聽說要組建民兵隊伍,非常痛快地答應了,令他大呼意外。他深有感觸地說,以往到組建單位協調編組民兵開展訓練,單位領導總是找各種理由推辭,如今全市上下強化國防觀念,政府出面搞協調、抓落實,人武部再不用唱“獨角戲”了!

不講“感情”,依法融合實現制度化

軍民融合深度發展,離不開完善的製度機制。近年來,懷化市軍地雙方始終圍繞健全機製做工作。

軍分區黨委堅持黨管武裝製度,推動應急指揮進入政府應急管理體制,建立聯席會議、請示報告、協調督導等製度,走開應急指揮體系一體化建設的路子;軍地雙方圍繞軍民融合工作的管理體制、工作機制、機構關係、對象範圍、程序方式、和法律責任等核心內容,制訂《關於進一步推進軍民深度融合發展的意見》,破除制約軍民深度融合思想觀念上、政策體制上的障礙;建立以市委、市政府督查室為主、軍分區與駐軍單位機關為輔的軍民融合督導巡視機構,對民兵預備役整組、徵兵工作、軍事訓練等各個階段性工作進行巡視督導,促進軍地各級強化強軍興武觀念;把軍民融合發展納入市、縣黨管武裝績效考評和黨政領導政績考核內容,考核分值佔績效分值的7.6%。

軍分區政委陳雲龍告訴記者,嚴格落實績效考核,驅動軍民融合發展車輪,實現軍民融合深度發展。

Modern English Translation:

The Huaihua Military Sub-district in Hunan Province coordinated the military and the military to vigorously promote deep integrated development

Aiming at the battlefield, turning potential into combat effectiveness

■Xu Xiaoping Tang Jinping

At the beginning of March, the Huaihua Military Division of Hunan Province checked and accepted the organization and rectification of the militia reserve. The joint supervision team composed of the military division, the garrison headquarters, and the municipal government inspection office made the leaders of the military organization refreshed and nervous. At the inspection site, the military divisions are responsible for the staffing verification, the garrison is responsible for the verification of the training rate and professional counterpart rate of each professional team, and the municipal government inspection office issues a rectification time limit for the problem and conducts performance evaluation on the spot.

Commander Xiang Xingchu of the military division said with confidence that aiming at the battlefield to promote deep military-civilian integration is to organize teams based on the support and support tasks undertaken by the wartime militia reserve, coordinate local party committees and governments to implement military requirements, and garrison units operate according to combat operations. Acceptance is required, so that the mobilization potential can be truly turned into real combat effectiveness.

Double performance of duties, the military becomes more active

On February 16th, on the third day of work after the long Spring Festival holiday, Yang Qinpeng, the executive deputy mayor of Huaihua City, in charge of armed work, learned that individual county and city leaders had failed to implement the work of the militia group, and immediately instructed relevant personnel to issue it in the name of the city government. It was notified that the militia group re-mobilization and redeployment meeting was held, and the branch venues were set up in the conference rooms of the county and city governments.

In recent years, the subdistricts of the army and the Party Committee of the People’s Armed Forces Department have taken the initiative and acted actively, advising the resident party committee and government, serving as a staff member, integrating the development of the militia reserve into the overall economic and social development of the area under its jurisdiction, and spurring the local party committees and governments to establish a “game of chess,” The in-depth development concept of military-civilian integration of “one family, integration”.

The municipal party committee and the municipal government have incorporated the military construction into the target performance and leadership performance “dual” assessment has become a new normal; each time the municipal and county levels hold standing committees and government executive meetings, they must ask whether the military divisions and the Ministry of Human Resources and Armed Forces have any questions about armed forces. The topic of work will be studied; the construction of the local expressway network actively reserves 3 entrances and exits for the troops for wartime needs; the newly built 20,000 square meter underground trade city rewrites the defect that the average area of ​​the city’s civil air defense is insufficient… The phenomenon of “big profit and big financial, small profit and small financial, no profit but no financial” will never return.

Demolition of the “wall”, win-win development becomes the new normal

At the beginning of last year, the military divisions coordinated the garrison units and localities to hold a seminar to jointly discuss strategies for integrated development. The leaders at the meeting agreed that to promote the in-depth development of military-civilian integration, it is necessary to open the “door”, tear down the “wall”, completely change the self-enclosed and self-contained thinking mode of military construction, and achieve the unity of enriching the people and strengthening the military.

The military division has gone out of the ideological misunderstanding of “grasping the division by division, and grabbing the armed forces”, adopting the method of “inviting in and going out”, sharing some military facilities with the locality, enhancing military-to-military interaction, military-to-military exchanges, and military-civilian exchanges. Consolidate and deepen military-political military-civilian relations. The militia reserve organization adjustments, professional unit training, annual military assessments, and scale drills, the garrison units appoint a supervision team to participate, conduct on-site evaluations, and put forward suggestions for improvement. Local military formations break through barriers to mechanisms, talents, and competition, and combine military and civilian scientific and technological resource advantages to maximize benefits and inject new vitality into the construction of the army and national defense.

In February this year, Hecheng District organized a militia emergency repair unit as required, and Peng Yi, a military staff officer, went to the auto repair company to coordinate. Several business leaders heard that the militia team was to be formed, and they agreed very happily, which surprised him. He said with deep feeling that in the past, when the unit was organized to coordinate and organize militias to carry out training, unit leaders always found various reasons to refuse. Now the whole city strengthens the concept of national defense, the government has come forward to coordinate and implement, and the Ministry of Human Resources and Armed Forces no longer has to perform “one-man shows.” Up!

Do not talk about “feelings”, and achieve institutionalization through integration according to law

The in-depth development of military-civilian integration is inseparable from a sound institutional mechanism. In recent years, the military and civilian sides of Huaihua City have been working on a sound mechanism.

The party committee of the military sub-region adheres to the system of party management and armed forces, promotes emergency command into the government emergency management system, establishes joint meetings, request reports, coordinated supervision and other systems, and takes the road of integrated construction of the emergency command system; both military and civilian sides manage the work of military-civilian integration The core content of the system, working mechanism, institutional relationship, scope of objects, procedures and methods, and legal responsibilities, etc., formulate the “Opinions on Further Promoting the Development of Deep Military-civilian Integration” to remove the ideological, conceptual, and policy system barriers that restrict the deep integration of military and civilian; The military-civilian integration supervision and inspection organization, mainly composed of the municipal party committee and municipal government inspection offices, and supplemented by military sub-regions and garrison units, conducts inspections and supervision of all phases of the work of the militia reserve, conscription, military training, etc. Strengthen the concept of strengthening the army and rejuvenating the military; incorporate the development of military-civilian integration into the performance evaluation of city and county party management and armed forces and the performance evaluation of party and government leaders. The evaluation score accounts for 7.6% of the performance score.

Chen Yunlong, political commissar of the military division, told reporters that strict implementation of performance appraisal will drive the development of military-civilian integration and achieve deep development of military-civilian integration.

Original Chinese Military URL: http://www.mod.gov.cn/power/2016-03/15/content_4646679_2.htm

中國軍事現代化目標, “捍衛”, “接續”, “競爭”, “未來”

On October 29, the Communiqué of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee was announced. In the section “Accelerating the modernization of national defense and the armed forces , and realizing the unity of a prosperous country and a strong armed forces”, the most striking statement is “to comprehensively strengthen military training and preparations, improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure that the year 2027 Realize the goal of building the army for a century.”

In the National Day military parade in 2017, three flag groups of the party flag and the national flag passed through Tiananmen Square for the first time. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

On the basis of the “two centenary” goals we are familiar with, the “100 years of the founding of the party” and the “100 years of the founding of the nation”, this plenary session put forward the “100-year goal of the army.” This is the first time that the army, based on obeying and serving the direction of the party and the country, combined with the characteristics and laws of its own development, put forward the goal that the people’s army should achieve when it is established a century ago. This goal is based on understanding and responding to special and complex environments, and is also a guide for the development of military construction.

On the road of the people’s army courageously advancing, the establishment of the goal of the army’s centennial struggle has undoubtedly set up an exciting spiritual battle banner. The author combined the personal accumulated information and learning experience to extract 4 key words to understand this goal, and discuss with everyone.

Modern Mandarin Chinese:

10月29日,十九屆五中全會公報公佈。在“加快國防和軍隊現代化,實現富國和強軍相統一”部分,最引人注目的表述就是“全面加強練兵備戰,提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力,確保二〇二七年實現建軍百年奮鬥目標。”

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

2017年國慶閱兵,首次出現黨旗國旗軍旗3個旗組通過天安門廣場。 (圖/新華社)

在我們熟知的“建黨一百年”、“建國一百年”這“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標基礎上,此次全會提出“建軍百年奮鬥目標”。這是軍隊在服從服務於黨和國家前進方向的基礎上,首次結合自身發展的特點規律,提出到人民軍隊建立一百年時應該達到的目標。這一目標,是基於對特殊複雜環境的把握和應對,也是對軍隊建設發展的引領。

在人民軍隊奮勇前進的道路上,建軍百年奮鬥目標的確立,無疑又立起了一面令人振奮的精神戰旗。筆者結合個人積累的資料和學習體悟,提煉出理解這一目標的4個關鍵詞,與大家一同討論。

1. “Defend”

The goal of the army’s centennial struggle is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests . And back to August 1, 2017, in the Army 90 anniversary of the relevant expression is “people’s army must firmly uphold the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and the socialist system, Kennedy decided to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests , Resolutely maintain regional and world peace.” From the “maintenance” used many times before to the “defense” proposed in the plenary communiqué, although it is only a difference of two words, it has a profound meaning and a strong practical orientation.

On October 31, the People’s Daily published “A Far-reaching and Pragmatic Era-Sidelights on the Fifth Plenary Session of the Nineteenth Central Committee of the Party”, which stated: “General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out,’We are increasingly aware of “Safety is the prerequisite for development, and development is the guarantee of safety.” The proposed draft set up a special chapter to make strategic arrangements for overall development and safety, which he personally planned and finalized.”

In the past two years, we have been particularly deeply impressed by the nervousness of raging smoke and frequent alarms, and the sense of crisis that is very likely to wipe out guns. The frequency and intensity of interference and intrusion by the US and Western forces on China are increasing. In addition to the frequent intrusion of US naval vessels and aircraft into the sea and airspace near China’s South Island and reefs, and approaching China’s territorial waters and airspace for reconnaissance, warships of Canada, France, Australia and other countries They were all sailing across the Taiwan Strait, and the demonstrations meant even more pressure testing. The activities of “Taiwan independence” forces have become more rampant. Recently, they have purchased “harpoons” and other offensive weapons from the United States for four consecutive times, and have frequently colluded with Western forces in an attempt to seek independence through the “epidemic”. In the west, India’s adventurous moves have not subsided, and the confrontation in places such as Pangong Lake still has the possibility of intensifying.

It is precisely in response to the increasingly complex national security environment that the goal of the army’s century-old struggle has been proposed to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. This also means that by 2027, the People’s Army’s strategic capabilities will have been greatly improved, and it will be able to promptly, effectively and resolutely combat all actions that endanger our sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure that every inch of our territory is indispensable. All foreign interventions have failed.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

10月份,解放军飞机连续27次到台湾上空“打卡”,创造了新的记录。(图/台媒)

这方面,最新的例证是10月29日下午,在国防部新闻发布会上,有记者提及距离台湾只有500公里的浙江衢州机场出现中国第五代隐身战机歼-20,随后解放军又在东南沿海地区部署了东风-17导弹,有消息称解放军之所以部署这些武器装备是为了震慑“台独”分子,那么到底是否如此呢?

国防部发言人吴谦大校表示,关于武器装备的具体部署,由于事关军事机密,恕无可奉告。但是解放军有足够的能力保卫祖国国家安全以及领土完整,并直接挫败任何形式的“台独”分裂行为。不行动并不是没有能力,不言语并不是没有信心,相反能力始终都在,意志坚定不移。

王若愚:建军百年奋斗目标——一面令人振奋的精神战旗

东风17在台海一线前推部署。(图/新华社)

可以预见,在今后的军事斗争准备中,类似歼-20、东风-17之类的“大国重器”向边境边防一线部署、向最接近可能爆发冲突的前沿推进,将会变得更多、更普遍。而这些军事部署,也必将不断增加“捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益的战略能力”。

此外,知名军事专家、凤凰卫视评论员宋忠平表示,此次提出“捍卫发展利益”是一个重要变化。这是因为过去中国用兵都是在国土范围之内,在近海、近岸,现在加上了发展利益,就表明中国未来不仅要为自身的和平发展维护好安全稳定的外部环境,还将会增加在海外用兵的机会,以维护中国在海外日益增长的利益。

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

In October, the PLA planes “checked in” over Taiwan 27 consecutive times, setting a new record. (Photo/Taiwan Media)

In this regard, the latest example is that on the afternoon of October 29, at a press conference of the Ministry of National Defense, a reporter mentioned that China’s fifth-generation stealth fighter J-20 appeared at Zhejiang Quzhou Airport, which is only 500 kilometers away from Taiwan, and the PLA was in the southeast. Dongfeng-17 missiles have been deployed in coastal areas. It is reported that the PLA deployed these weapons and equipment to deter “Taiwan independence” elements. Is that true?

The spokesperson of the Ministry of National Defense, Colonel Wu Qian, said that there is no comment on the specific deployment of weapons and equipment due to military secrets. However, the People’s Liberation Army is capable of defending the national security and territorial integrity of the motherland, and directly defeating any form of “Taiwan independence” separatist behavior. Inaction does not mean lack of ability, and silent does not mean lack of confidence. On the contrary, the ability is always there and the will is unwavering.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

Dongfeng 17 is deployed on the front line of the Taiwan Strait. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

It is foreseeable that in the future preparations for military struggles, “big power weapons” such as the J-20 and Dongfeng-17 will be deployed to the front line of border defense and advance to the front line closest to the possible conflict. More common. And these military deployments will surely increase “strategic capabilities to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests.”

In addition, Song Zhongping, a well-known military expert and commentator on Phoenix Satellite TV, said that the proposal to “defend development interests” is an important change. This is because in the past, China’s military use was within the boundaries of the country, in offshore and inshore areas. Now that development benefits are added, it shows that China will not only maintain a safe and stable external environment for its own peaceful development in the future, but will also increase it. Opportunities to use troops overseas to safeguard China’s growing interests overseas.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

In October, the PLA planes “checked in” over Taiwan 27 consecutive times, setting a new record. (Photo/Taiwan Media)

In this regard, the latest example is that on the afternoon of October 29, at a press conference of the Ministry of National Defense, a reporter mentioned that China’s fifth-generation stealth fighter J-20 appeared at Zhejiang Quzhou Airport, which is only 500 kilometers away from Taiwan, and the PLA was in the southeast. Dongfeng-17 missiles have been deployed in coastal areas. It is reported that the PLA deployed these weapons and equipment to deter “Taiwan independence” elements. Is that true?

The spokesperson of the Ministry of National Defense, Colonel Wu Qian, said that there is no comment on the specific deployment of weapons and equipment due to military secrets. However, the People’s Liberation Army is capable of defending the national security and territorial integrity of the motherland, and directly defeating any form of “Taiwan independence” separatist behavior. Inaction does not mean lack of ability, and silent does not mean lack of confidence. On the contrary, the ability is always there and the will is unwavering.

Dongfeng 17 is deployed on the front line of the Taiwan Strait. (Photo/Xinhua News Agency)

It is foreseeable that in the future preparations for military struggles, “big power weapons” such as the J-20 and Dongfeng-17 will be deployed to the front line of border defense and advance to the front line closest to the possible conflict. More common. And these military deployments will surely increase “strategic capabilities to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests.”

In addition, Song Zhongping, a well-known military expert and commentator on Phoenix Satellite TV, said that the proposal to “defend development interests” is an important change. This is because in the past, China’s military use was within the boundaries of the country, in offshore and inshore areas. Now that development benefits are added, it shows that China will not only maintain a safe and stable external environment for its own peaceful development in the future, but will also increase it. Opportunities to use troops overseas to safeguard China’s growing interests overseas.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

1.“捍衛”

建軍百年奮鬥目標,其內涵寓意就是提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。而回到2017年8月1日,在建軍90週年紀念大會上,相關的表述則是“人民軍隊要堅決維護中國共產黨領導和我國社會主義制度,堅決維護國家主權、安全、發展利益,堅決維護地區和世界和平”。從此前多次使用的“維護”,到這次全會公報提出的“捍衛”,雖然只是兩字之別,但是有著深刻的寓意,以及強烈的現實指向性。

10月31日,人民日報刊發《高遠務實的時代擘畫——黨的十九屆五中全會側記》,其中有這樣的表述:“習近平總書記指出,’我們越來越深刻地認識到,安全是發展的前提,發展是安全的保障。’建議稿設置專章對統籌發展和安全作出戰略部署,也是他親自謀劃和敲定的。”

這兩年,我們尤其感受深刻的,就是那種狼煙四起、警報頻響的緊張感,有那種極有可能擦槍走火的危機感。美西方軍隊對我干涉、侵擾的頻度和烈度都在上升,除了美軍艦艇、飛機頻頻闖入我南海島礁附近海空域、抵近我領海領空進行偵察,加拿大、法國、澳大利亞等國的軍艦都在過航台灣海峽,示威試壓的意味更濃。 “台獨”勢力活動更加猖獗,近期連續4次向美國購買“魚叉”等進攻性武器,頻繁勾結西方勢力,妄圖以“疫”謀獨。而在西部,印度的冒險盲動並沒有消退,在班公湖等地的對峙依然存在加劇的可能性。

正是因應日趨複雜的國家安全環境,建軍百年奮鬥目標提出,提高捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。這也就意味著,到2027年的時候,人民軍隊的戰略能力得到了很大的提高,能夠及時、有效、堅決地打擊一切危害我主權、安全和發展利益的行為,保證領土一寸都少不了,外來干涉都遭遇失敗的下場。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

10月份,解放軍飛機連續27次到台灣上空“打卡”,創造了新的記錄。 (圖/台媒)

這方面,最新的例證是10月29日下午,在國防部新聞發布會上,有記者提及距離台灣只有500公里的浙江衢州機場出現中國第五代隱身戰機殲-20,隨後解放軍又在東南沿海地區部署了東風-17導彈,有消息稱解放軍之所以部署這​​些武器裝備是為了震懾“台獨”分子,那麼到底是否如此呢?

國防部發言人吳謙大校表示,關於武器裝備的具體部署,由於事關軍事機密,恕無可奉告。但是解放軍有足夠的能力保衛祖國國家安全以及領土完整,並直接挫敗任何形式的“台獨”分裂行為。不行動並不是沒有能力,不言語並不是沒有信心,相反能力始終都在,意志堅定不移。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

東風17在台海一線前推部署。 (圖/新華社)

可以預見,在今後的軍事鬥爭準備中,類似殲-20、東風-17之類的“大國重器”向邊境邊防一線部署、向最接近可能爆發衝突的前沿推進,將會變得更多、更普遍。而這些軍事部署,也必將不斷增加“捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力”。

此外,知名軍事專家、鳳凰衛視評論員宋忠平表示,此次提出“捍衛發展利益”是一個重要變化。這是因為過去中國用兵都是在國土範圍之內,在近海、近岸,現在加上了發展利益,就表明中國未來不僅要為自身的和平發展維護好安全穩定的外部環境,還將會增加在海外用兵的機會,以維護中國在海外日益增長的利益

2. “Connect”

The formulation of medium and long-term development plans is an important experience of the Chinese Communist Party in governing the country. Earlier, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China carried out a plan for the modernization of national defense and the armed forces, and proposed that “in accordance with the national modernization process, we should comprehensively promote the modernization of military theory, the modernization of military organization, the modernization of military personnel, and the modernization of weapons and equipment. Realize the modernization of national defense and the army, and build the people’s army into a world-class army by the middle of this century.” This time, we put forward the goal of building the army in 2027, which has clarified three important time nodes in 2027, 2035, and 2050, so that the short, medium and long-term development goals can be continued, and a clearer path to a strong army can be formed.

Since the birth of the Nanchang Uprising in 1927, our army has been armed with millet and rifles for a long time. It is an army that has nothing to do with modernization. Chairman Mao once recalled, “Our army, first of all guerrillas, will be more regular in the future, and now it is better, but strictly speaking, it is still far from modernization.”

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea greatly promoted the modernization of national defense and the army. (Data map)

In the process of our army’s exploration of modernization, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea was an important milestone. On October 23, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out at the meeting to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Chinese People’s Volunteers’ mission to resist U.S. aggression and aid Korea. “After this war, the People’s Army learned about war in the war. Experience has realized the transition from a single service to a combined army of various services and arms, which has greatly promoted the modernization of national defense and the army.” Among them, the Volunteer Army insisted on fighting in Shangganling, which was the pinnacle of the combat effectiveness of the world army in the 1950s.

Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, our army has been streamlined and reorganized many times, gradually transforming from a single army to a modern army composed of various services and arms. After the reform and opening up, based on a new judgment on the international strategic situation, Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward the general goal of building a powerful, modernized and regularized revolutionary army. During the period from mid-1985 to the end of 1987, under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, our army carried out a “millions of disarmament.” After many reforms since then, our army has continued to move in the direction of “strengthening, synthesis, and efficiency.”

In 2015, our army was disarmed by 300,000 people, and a new round of reforms was gradually carried out in the areas of leadership and command system, scale structure and force formation, and military policy systems. In 2017, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China further clarified the connotation of the modernization of national defense and the military, including the modernization of military theory, the modernization of military organization, the modernization of military personnel, and the modernization of weapons and equipment.

Putting forward the goal of the century-old military struggle this time is actually a further exploration of the direction and development path of our military’s modernization, and a further clarification of the modernization development goal. Song Zhongping believes that by 2027, our army will become a modernized army.

2.“接續”

制定中長期發展規劃,是中國共產黨治國理政的一條重要經驗。此前,十九大對國防和軍隊現代化進行了規劃,提出“同國家現代化進程相一致,全面推進軍事理論現代化、軍隊組織形態現代化、軍事人員現代化、武器裝備現代化,力爭到二〇三五年基本實現國防和軍隊現代化,到本世紀中葉把人民軍隊全面建成世界一流軍隊”。這次提出2027年建軍百年奮鬥目標,由此明確了2027、2035、2050年三個重要的時間節點,讓短、中、長期發展目標得以接續,連接形成一條更加清晰的強軍路徑。

從1927年南昌起義誕生,我軍在很長時間內都是一支靠著小米加步槍武裝起來的“土得掉渣的軍隊”,是基本與現代化無緣的軍隊。毛主席曾回憶說,“我們的軍隊,首先是游擊隊,以後比較正規一些,現在更好一些,但嚴格說來,距現代化還差很遠”。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

抗美援朝戰爭極大促進了國防和軍隊現代化。 (資料圖)

在我軍探索現代化的進程中,抗美援朝戰爭是一個重要的里程碑。 10月23日,習近平總書記在紀念中國人民志願軍抗美援朝出國作戰70週年大會上指出,“經此一戰,人民軍隊在戰爭中學習戰爭,愈戰愈勇,越打越強,取得了重要軍事經驗,實現了由單一軍種向諸軍兵種合成軍隊轉變,極大促進了國防和軍隊現代化。”這其中,志願軍堅守上甘嶺的作戰,堪稱20世紀50年代世界陸軍戰鬥力的巔峰。

建國以來,我軍通過多次精簡整編,逐步由單一陸軍向諸軍兵種合成的現代軍隊轉變。改革開放後,基於對國際戰略形勢的新判斷,鄧小平同志提出了建設一支強大的現代化正規化革命軍隊的總目標。 1985年中至1987年底期間,在鄧小平領導下,我軍進行“百萬大裁軍”。此後又經過多番改革,我軍朝著“精兵、合成、高效”的方向不斷邁進。

2015年,我軍裁軍30萬人,新一輪改革在領導指揮體制、規模結構和力量編成、軍事政策制度等領域逐步展開。 2017年,十九大進一步明確國防和軍隊的現代化的內涵,包括軍事理論現代化、軍隊組織形態現代化、軍事人員現代化、武器裝備現代化“四個現代化”。

這一次提出建軍百年奮鬥目標,實際上是對我軍現代化前進方向和發展道路的進一步探索,是對現代化發展目標的進一步明確。宋忠平認為,到2027年我軍將成為一支初步實現現代化的軍隊。

3. “Competition”

The centennial goal of the army’s founding was not only determined according to the phased characteristics of our army’s construction and development, but also in line with the trend of world military development. It is a reference and comprehensive grasp of the development goals of major military forces in the world.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

Schematic diagram of the concept of joint global command and control (Photo/U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command)

The various branches of the U.S. military regularly formulate and release development strategies in different areas to clarify long-term development goals. Among these goals, 2027 and 2028 are important time nodes. For example, the U.S. Army formulates a development strategy for 2028, proposing that the U.S. Army in 2028 will be prepared for deployment in joint, combined, multi-domain, and high-intensity conflicts at any time, any place, and facing any opponent. Win a decisive victory.

The U.S. Navy’s command for the development of C4ISR, the Space Warfare and Naval Warfare System Command, released its 2018-2027 strategic vision. The “2017 Marine Corps Aviation Plan” issued by the U.S. Marine Corps states that between 2017 and 2027, the Marine Corps will have most of the Navy’s fifth-generation aircraft.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

The “Pioneer” strategic-level hypersonic missile system is included in Russia’s development plan. The picture shows the “Pioneer” warhead design

The Russian military also clarified the construction and development goals for 2027. At the end of 2017, the military operations in Syria had just ended. President Putin signed the National Equipment Development Plan for 2018-2027. Russia will allocate more than 20 trillion rubles to equip the army, aerospace forces and navy, purchase new weapons, and The minimum goal of upgrading active combat equipment is to reach 70% of modern weapons and equipment by 2021.

The establishment of our army’s goal for the century-long struggle is actually aspiring to stand shoulder to shoulder with the armed forces of major powers such as the United States and Russia, which is conducive to facing difficulties and taking the initiative in the fierce international military competition. In this regard, we must know ourselves but also the enemy, aim at the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, and strive to find the key hub of innovation and breakthroughs, so as to achieve “curve overtaking”.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

3.“競爭”

建軍百年目標的提出,既是根據我軍建設發展的階段性特徵確定的,也是順應世界軍事發展潮流提出來的,是對世界主要軍事力量發展目標的參考借鑒和綜合把握。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

聯合全域指揮控制概念示意圖(圖/美國陸軍訓練與條令司令部)

美軍各軍兵種經常分領域制定和發布發展戰略,明確遠景發展目標。在這些目標中,2027、2028年是重要時間節點。比如,美國陸軍制定2028年發展戰略,提出2028年的美國陸軍將在聯合、合成、多域和高強度衝突中,在任何時間、任何地點,面對任何對手都能做好部署準備,作戰並贏得決定性勝利。

美海軍負責C4ISR發展的司令部——空間戰與海戰系統司令部發布了2018-2027戰略構想。美國海軍陸戰隊發布的《2017年海軍陸戰隊航空兵規劃》,提出在2017至2027年間,海軍陸戰隊將擁有海軍第5代飛機的大部分機型。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

“先鋒”戰略級高超聲速導彈系統列入了俄羅斯發展規劃。圖為“先鋒”彈頭設想圖

俄羅斯軍隊同樣明確了2027年的建設發展目標。 2017年底,剛剛結束在敘利亞的軍事行動,普京總統簽署了《2018—2027年國家裝備發展規劃》,俄將撥款20多萬億盧布用於裝備陸軍、空天軍和海軍,購買新式武器,以及升級現役作戰裝備,其最低目標是在2021年前使現代化武器裝備比例達到70%。

我軍確立建軍百年奮鬥目標,實際上是志在與美、俄等大國軍隊比肩,有利於在激烈的國際軍事競爭中迎難而上、佔據主動。這方面,要知己更要知彼,瞄準對手的長處和短板,努力找到創新突破的關鍵樞紐,從而實現“彎道超車”。

4. “Future”

What kind of modernization path will the People’s Army, which is heading for a century, take? The century-old goal of the army has given the answer, which is to take the road of mechanized, informatized and intelligent integrated development.

Prior to this, the military mentioned more about mechanization and informatization. For example, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that by 2020, “mechanization will be basically achieved, major progress will be made in information construction, and strategic capabilities will be greatly improved.” The first proposal of intelligentization was in the 22nd collective study of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee on July 31 this year, which requested “accelerate the integration of mechanization, informatization, and intelligentization.”

From the “two modernizations” of mechanization and informationization to the current “three modernizations”, this reveals the future development direction and focus of our military. In recent years, military intelligence has developed rapidly, and the rules of war are constantly changing. Some time ago, in the conflict between Serbia and Azerbaijan in the Naka region, the Turkish TB-2 medium-sized surveillance drone used by Azerbaijan almost ruled the battlefield, leaving a deep impression on people.

Wang Ruoyu: The goal of the army's centennial struggle-an exciting spiritual battle flag

During the Naqa War, drones were in the limelight

The U.S. military has invested heavily in intelligence and achieved outstanding results, while the Russian army put intelligence into actual combat during the Syrian war. In December 2015, the Russian army invested a robot combat company in the battle, including 6 “Platform-M” crawler combat robots, 4 “Secret Whisper” wheeled combat robots, 1 “Acacia” self-propelled artillery group, and An unmanned aerial vehicle and a set of “Andromeda-D” accusation system assisted the Syrian government forces in successfully capturing a high ground of “Islamic State” militants. In January 2018, the Russian army also shot down a swarm of 13 drones through a combination of electromagnetic attack and fire strike. These real war scenes all show us a possible scene of intelligent warfare in the future.

At present, the world’s military powers are vying to design intelligent warfare, study intelligent combat theory, build an intelligent army, and seize the commanding heights of military intelligence technology. If our military wants to catch up to the advanced level, it must focus on intelligence and strive to make breakthroughs.

Of course, Rome was not built in a day. To achieve intelligence, it must be based on existing conditions and foundations. Therefore, the goal of the army’s centennial struggle is “integrated development”, that is, intelligent construction based on the existing mechanization and information transformation that has not been completely completed.

This “three transformations” is not as uniform and even force as sprinkling pepper noodles, but has its own emphasis. On the one hand, it is the intelligent transformation of existing armed equipment and combat platforms, such as transforming old aircraft into unmanned aerial vehicles and upgrading main battle tanks and aircraft; on the other hand, it is vigorously researching intelligent weapons and equipment. , Generate new quality combat power.

To sum up, the goal of the army’s century-old struggle is to deal with complex environments, continue the struggle process, aim at the military frontier, and seize opportunities in the future. The planning and design will surely drive the development of our army with a new look, comprehensively improve its combat capabilities, and build a world-class army. The magnificent blueprint is running fast.

Reference materials: 1. People’s Daily editorials and commentators’ articles; 2. Hong Kong Wen Wei Po’s articles on the goal of a century-old military; 3. Chai Shan: “The Essence of Intelligent Warfare”; 4. Li Minghai, “Accelerating the Advancement of Military Intelligence” .

Original Mandarin Chinese:

4.“”

走向一百年的人民軍隊,將走出一條什麼樣的現代化路徑?建軍百年奮鬥目標給出了答案,那就是走開機械化信息化智能化融合發展的路子。

此前,軍隊提得多的是機械化、信息化。比如,十九大提出,到2020年“基本實現機械化,信息化建設取得重大進展,戰略能力有大的提升”。首次提出智能化,是在今年7月31日中央政治局第22次集體學習上,要求“加快機械化信息化智能化融合發展”。

從機械化信息化的“兩化”,到現在的“三化”,這揭示了未來我軍的發展方向和著力重點。這幾年,軍事智能化發展日新月異,正在不斷地改變戰爭規則。前段時間,塞爾維亞和阿塞拜疆在納卡地區爆發的衝突中,阿塞拜疆使用的土耳其TB-2中型察打一體無人機幾乎統治了戰場,給人留下了深刻的印象。

王若愚:建軍百年奮鬥目標——一面令人振奮的精神戰旗

納卡戰爭中,無人機大出風頭

美軍在智能化方面投入巨大、成績不凡,而俄羅斯軍隊在參加敘利亞戰爭期間,把智能化較好地投入實戰。 2015年12月,俄軍在戰鬥中投入了一個機器人作戰連,包括6部“平台-M”履帶式戰鬥機器人、4部“暗語”輪式戰鬥機器人、1個“洋槐”自行火砲群、數架無人機和一套“仙女座-D”指控系統,協助敘政府軍成功攻占“伊斯蘭國”武裝分子的一座高地。 2018年1月,俄軍還通過電磁攻擊和火力打擊相結合的方式,擊落了13架無人機組成的蜂群作戰。這些真實的戰爭場景,都為我們展示了未來智能化戰爭的一種可能場景。

當前,世界軍事強國都在爭相設計智能化戰爭,研究智能化作戰理論,打造智能化軍隊,搶占軍事智能技術制高點。我軍要想爭趕先進,就得在智能化方面抓緊投棋布子,努力取得突破。

當然,羅馬不是一天建成的,要想實現智能化,也要基於現有的條件和基礎。因此,建軍百年奮鬥目標提出的是“融合發展”,即在現有機械化和信息化改造尚未徹底完成的基礎上進行的智能化建設。

這“三化”並非像撒胡椒面一樣均勻、平均用力,而是各有側重。一方面,是對現有的武裝裝備和作戰平台進行智能化改造,比如把老舊飛機改造成為無人機,把主戰坦克、飛機進行升級;另一方面,是大力研究智能化的武器裝備,生成新質戰鬥力。

綜上所述,建軍百年奮鬥目標是應對複雜環境、接續奮鬥進程、瞄準軍事前沿、搶占未來先機的籌劃設計,必將帶動我軍發展面貌煥然一新,全面提高打仗本領,向著建設世界一流軍隊的宏偉藍圖極速奔跑。

參考資料:1.人民日報社論、評論員文章;2.香港文匯報有關建軍百年奮鬥目標的文章;3. 柴山:《智能化戰爭的製勝精髓》;4. 李明海《加速推進軍事智能化》 。

Referring URL from Chinese People’s Liberation Army: https://news.163.com/20/1102/08/

中國新型軍事網絡戰和信息化武器

China’s new military cyber warfare & information weapons

信息作战第1方队:信息制胜的“尖刀铁拳”

2019-10-2 09:37:33 Source: PLA Daily

  滚滚铁流之中,车辆上装着形状各异天线的信息作战第1方队,格外引人注目。这个方队由某部145名官兵组成,是一支维护国家安全的新型作战力量。方队领队为徐桂明少将、孟繁浩少将。

  作为信息作战模块的排头兵,方队官兵整齐列队、神采飞扬,首次在天安门广场接受习主席和祖国人民的检阅。

  此次受阅的信息侦测、数据干扰等信息作战车组,是我国自主研发的新一代信息作战装备,具有破击节点、瘫痪体系、出奇制胜的能力,可为掌握复杂电磁环境下战场主动权提供有效支撑,被称为无形战场的“信息尖兵”。

  这是一支历史悠久战功卓著的光荣部队。该部队前身在土地革命战争时期诞生成长,经受了炮火硝烟的洗礼和艰难困苦的考验,在捍卫国家主权安全和领土完整、维护社会安全稳定中,发挥了重要作用。

  这是一支在改革强军大潮中光荣诞生的新型作战力量。在习近平强军思想指引下,该部官兵以对历史和事业高度负责的精神推进转型重塑,坚持体系抓建促发展,形成各项工作齐头并进、相互促进的良好格局,部队全面建设取得新进步,能力建设实现新突破,正成为我军新质作战能力的重要增长点。

  这是一支以青年军官为主体的高技术部队。受阅官兵平均年龄28岁,干部占总人数的58%,其中20%具有硕士以上学历。在现代信息化战争中,他们所在的部队担负夺取战场制信息权的重要任务。该部党委着眼培育“四有”新时代革命军人,体系化推进人才队伍建设,确保各类人才学研有项目、升级有导师、实践有平台、成才有岗位、能力有提升,深度汇聚释放人才建设整体效能,努力打造高素质新型人才方阵。

  创新开路、技术制胜是这支部队的不懈追求。该部队党委提出“十个一流”标准,找准实践抓手,找准方法路径,一步一个脚印、一年一个台阶,推动部队建设实现新跨越。广大官兵牢牢把握自主创新战略基点,瞄准新兴前沿,强固优势能力,发展特色能力,培育新质能力,加速打造威慑制衡强敌的“尖刀铁拳”。

  调整改革后,这支部队从一起步就坚持抓规范、补短板、强特色、建窗口,着力加强基层建设,建强组织堡垒,强化服务保障,不断夯实部队建设和战斗力基础。着眼有效履行新时代使命任务,该部党委带头思战谋战、研战练战,重大保障任务完成出色,关键技术攻关成果丰硕,实战化训练迈出坚实步伐。他们瞄准“为指挥员服务、为作战部队服务、为战备训练服务”,探索走开高科技部队组训练兵新路子,确保随时能够拉得出、顶得上、打得赢。

  迈步改革强军新征程,该部官兵表示,将牢记统帅重托,牢记初心使命,以使命如山、时不我待、务求必成的信心决心,挺立时代潮头、自觉担当大任、锐意开拓进取,守好祖国的信息疆场,在伟大征程上再立新功。

Translation:

  Among the rolling irons, the information battled first party team with different antennas on the vehicle is particularly eye-catching. This team consists of 145 officers and men of a certain department and is a new type of combat force for national security. The team leader is Major General Xu Guiming and Major General Meng Fanhao.

  As the vanguard of the information warfare module, the officers and men of the party team lined up in a neat way, and they first accepted the review of President Xi and the people of the motherland in Tiananmen Square.

  The information combat vehicle group, such as information detection and data interference, which is read this time, is a new generation of information combat equipment independently researched and developed by China. It has the ability to break the node, the system, and the superior ability to win. It can master the battlefield initiative in complex electromagnetic environment. Providing effective support, known as the “information squad” of the invisible battlefield.

  This is a glorious army with a long history and outstanding achievements. The predecessor of the army was born and raised during the Agrarian Revolutionary War. It has withstood the baptism of hardships and the hardships and hardships. It has played an important role in safeguarding the sovereign security and territorial integrity of the country and safeguarding social security and stability.

  This is a new type of combat force that was gloriously born in the tide of reform and strong army. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s strong military ideology, officers and men of the ministry promoted transformation and reshaping in a spirit of high responsibility for history and career, adhered to the system of building and promoting development, and formed a good pattern in which all work went hand in hand and promoted each other. New breakthroughs in capacity building are becoming an important growth point for our military’s new capabilities.

  This is a high-tech force with young officers as the main body. The average age of the officers and men under review is 28 years old, and the cadres account for 58% of the total number, of which 20% have master’s degree or above. In the modern information warfare, their troops are responsible for the important task of capturing the right to information on the battlefield system. The party committee of the ministry focused on cultivating the “four-owned” revolutionary soldiers in the new era, systematically promoted the construction of the talent team, ensured that all kinds of talents had research projects, upgraded tutors, practiced platforms, talented positions, and improved capabilities, and deepened the release of talents. Overall efficiency, and strive to create a high-quality new talents square.

  Innovative openness and technological success are the unremitting pursuit of this unit. The party committee of the army put forward the “ten first-class” standards, find the right hands, find the path of the method, step by step, one step at a time, and promote the new leap in army building. The majority of officers and men firmly grasp the strategic base of independent innovation, aim at emerging frontiers, strengthen superiority, develop distinctive capabilities, foster new quality capabilities, and accelerate the creation of “smart knives” for deterrent checks and balances.

  After adjusting and reforming, this unit insisted on grasping norms, supplementing shortcomings, strengthening characteristics, and building windows from one step at a time, focusing on strengthening grassroots construction, building strong organizational fortresses, strengthening service guarantees, and constantly consolidating the foundation of force building and combat effectiveness. Focusing on the effective fulfillment of the mission of the new era, the party committee of the ministry took the lead in thinking and fighting, researching and fighting, and the major guarantee tasks were completed well, the key technical research results were fruitful, and the actual combat training took solid steps. They aim to “serve the commander, serve the combat troops, and provide training for combat readiness”, and explore the new way of training high-tech units to ensure that they can pull, win, and win at any time.

  Stepping forward to reform and strengthening the new army, the officers and men of the ministry said that they will bear in mind the command of the commander, bear in mind the mission of the heart, and the determination of confidence that the mission is like a mountain, time to wait, and must be fulfilled, stand up to the times, consciously take the responsibility, forge ahead, and keep the motherland. The information field, on the great journey to make new contributions.

信息作战第2方队:“电磁利剑”决胜无形战场

  伴着雄壮的阅兵进行曲,信息作战第2方队迎面驶来。

  作为一支重要的新型作战力量,这一方队代表着陆军部队的一柄电磁利剑。受阅装备为某型微波侦察干扰车、某型超短波侦察干扰车和某型区域拦阻式通信干扰系统,是我军新一代战术电子对抗装备体系的重要组成部分,集“侦、测、扰”为一体,具有较强的作战能力。

  方队受阅装备均为我国自主研发,搭载于第三代“猛士”系列底盘车型。这些新型电子对抗装备,能满足信息化条件下作战任务的快节奏、高精度、多协同、多战法需求。

  方队受阅官兵以陆军某电子对抗旅为主体抽组而成。该旅是一支诞生于特殊时期、肩负特殊使命的过硬部队。1978年,我国开启改革开放的大幕。就在同一年,作为该旅前身的某独立电子对抗营组建成立,并正式纳入部队编制序列。

  伴随着国家改革开放的伟大进程,40年来,该部队扭住练兵备战不放松,不断砥砺能打胜仗的“电抗利剑”,一代代电抗官兵先后历经8次调整改编,用青春与热血书写出辉煌篇章。

  1985年,该独立电子对抗营通信侦察干扰连受命火速出动,执行赴边疆作战任务。参战官兵进入作战配置地域,并在多个方向接替电子对抗阵地作战任务。因部队多次出击作战,瘫痪了敌主要指挥通信,有力支援了步兵分队的战斗行动,被誉为“制敌神兵”。1987年,参战部队召开庆功大会,通信侦察干扰连党支部被评为“战地模范党支部”。

  近年来,这支部队积极组织开展“搞清作战对手、摸准装备性能、研究战法训法”活动,常态开展挑应战、战斗体能、抗饥饿生存训练和实兵对抗演练,圆满完成了作战侦察和联合战役演习等多项任务。

  进入新时代,该部由战术级力量转变为战区所属的战役级力量。在习近平强军思想指引下,官兵积极投身强军实践,坚持聚力务战、潜心谋战、真练为战,蹄疾步稳推进部队转型建设,出色完成了各类比赛和演训任务。

  陆军“网电奇兵”竞赛金牌数第一,“网电力量”集训总评第一,某作战侦察任务中成果排名战区第一……一个个第一,续写出该旅新的辉煌荣誉,也凝聚成了“忠诚使命、创新图强、经略时空、决胜无形”的电磁利剑精神。

  前不久,一场复杂电磁环境下的拉动演练在西北某地域打响。演练中,该旅担负电子对抗任务,因电磁环境复杂,某型装备信号一直不稳定。维修技师、二级军士长刘加平手提工具箱,钻进装备操作间,只用了半个小时就让装备重新“耳聪目明”。演练中,该装备发挥了重要作用。

  近年来,该旅一直把人才队伍建设作为一项重要任务抓紧抓实,通过邀请军队院校、科研厂家的专家授课辅导,举办各类尖子骨干培训班,为单位培养了一批军事素养和专业技能双过硬的军队人才队伍。他们还举办一系列军事对抗赛,在单位形成了浓厚的比、学、赶、帮、超氛围。

  “向右——看!”当信息作战第2方队行至检阅台前时,伴着一声响亮的口令,方队将军领队李发义、杨小康举手敬礼。他们身后16台受阅装备整齐列队,装备天线直指苍穹,车辆乘载员手握钢枪、目视前方、雄姿勃发。

  这是一次光荣的受阅,也是一次豪迈的宣誓。走下阅兵场,信息作战第2方队官兵表示,他们将牢记使命重托,永葆受阅荣光,以使命如山、时不我待、务求必胜的信心决心,自觉担当大任、矢志奋发图强,瞄准未来信息化战场,锻造克敌制胜的电磁利剑。

Translation:

  With the majestic military parade, the 2nd Party of Information Operations came on the road.

  As an important new combat force, this team represents an electromagnetic sword for the Army. The equipment to be read is a type of microwave reconnaissance jamming vehicle, a type of ultrashort wave reconnaissance jamming vehicle and a certain type of regional jamming communication jamming system. It is an important part of our new generation of tactical electronic countermeasure equipment system, which integrates “detection, measurement and disturbance”. As one, it has strong combat capability.

  The team’s equipment for reading is independently developed by China and is installed in the third-generation “Warrior” series chassis models. These new electronic countermeasures equipment can meet the fast-paced, high-precision, multi-coordination and multi-warfare requirements of combat missions under informatized conditions.

  The party team was read and formed by an army electronic warfare brigade. The brigade is a good force born in a special period with a special mission. In 1978, China opened the curtain of reform and opening up. In the same year, an independent electronic confrontation battalion, which was the predecessor of the brigade, was formed and officially incorporated into the force preparation sequence.

  Along with the great process of national reform and opening up, in the past 40 years, the troops have been entangled in training and preparing for war. They have been unable to relax and continue to fight against the “reactance of sharp swords”. The generations of rebel officers and men have undergone eight adjustments and have been written with youth and blood. Brilliant chapter.

  In 1985, the independent electronic countermeasures battalion communication reconnaissance and interception was ordered to be dispatched to the frontier combat mission. The officers and men participating in the war entered the operational configuration area and took over the electronic confrontation position combat missions in multiple directions. Because the troops repeatedly attacked the battle, they smashed the enemy’s main command communication, and effectively supported the combat operations of the infantry detachment. They were hailed as “the enemy soldiers.” In 1987, the participating troops held a celebration meeting, and the communications and reconnaissance interfering party branch was awarded the “Battlefield Model Party Branch.”

  In recent years, this unit has actively organized the activities of “clearing the combat opponents, aligning the performance of the equipment, and studying the law of the warfare”. In the normal state, it carried out the challenge, the combat physical fitness, the anti-hunger survival training and the actual combat confrontation drill, and successfully completed the combat. Reconnaissance and joint campaign exercises and many other tasks.

  In the new era, the Ministry has been transformed from a tactical-level force to a battle-level force in the theater. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s strong military ideology, the officers and men actively participated in the practice of strengthening the army, insisted on coordinating the war, concentrating on the battle, and practicing the battle. The hoof steadily promoted the transformation and construction of the troops, and successfully completed various competitions and training tasks.

  The number of gold medals in the Army’s “Net-powered Raiders” competition was the first, and the “Network Power Volume” was the first in the total training. The results of a combat reconnaissance mission ranked first in the theater… one by one, and continued to write the new glorious honor of the brigade. It has become the spirit of the electromagnetic sword of “loyal mission, innovation, strong time and space, and indecision invisible”.

  Not long ago, a pull drill in a complex electromagnetic environment started in a certain area in the northwest. During the drill, the brigade was responsible for the electronic countermeasures. Due to the complex electromagnetic environment, the signal of a certain type of equipment has been unstable. The maintenance technician, the second-level sergeant Liu Jiaping’s portable toolbox, and the drilling equipment operation room, only took half an hour to re-equip the equipment. The equipment played an important role in the drill.

  In recent years, the brigade has always taken the construction of the talent team as an important task to grasp the reality. By inviting experts from military academies and scientific research institutes to provide tutoring, we have organized various top-level training courses for the military, and trained a group of military literacy and professional Skilled double-strong military talent team. They also held a series of military confrontation competitions, which formed a strong ratio, learning, rush, help, and super atmosphere in the unit.

  ”Right–Look!” When the 2nd Party of Information Operations went to the reviewing platform, accompanied by a loud password, the generals of the team, Li Fayi and Yang Xiaokang, raised their hands to salute. The 16 units behind them were neatly lined up, equipped with antennas pointing directly at the sky, and the vehicle carriers held steel guns, looking ahead and looking forward.

  This is a glorious reading and a heroic oath. Walking down the parade ground, the officers and men of the 2nd Party of Information Operations said that they will bear in mind the mission, trust and glory, and the determination of the mission to be as good as the mountains, to wait for the future, and to be determined to win, to take the initiative, take the initiative, and aim for the future informationization. The battlefield, forging the electromagnetic sword that defeated the enemy.

  在整齐划一的装备方阵中,一个方队身披数码迷彩,高擎通信天线,远远望去蔚为壮观。它就是信息作战第3方队——我军信息通信的一支拳头力量。

  这个方队的4个排面,由最新国产四型装备组成,车上形状各异的信号装置,生动展现了我军信息通信装备的发展与进步。方队领队为孙宝泰少将、景贤舫少将。

  这次受阅的四型装备是我国机动通信装备的最新成果,具有通信距离远、传输容量大、手段功能多、信息化程度高、抗干扰性能强等特点,对提升我军基于网络信息体系的联合作战、全域作战能力,有着十分重要的作用。

  未来战场信息制胜,高效可靠的指挥通联左右战争胜负。为战场打赢织就信息天网、传递制胜号令,通信兵就是信息化战场的排头兵。

  人民军队的通信兵诞生于南昌起义的隆隆炮火声中,以“一部半电台”起家,以简陋的通信装备,与优势之敌展开了高强度的电波较量。在反“围剿”、四渡赤水、百团大战、转战陕北、三大战役决战等革命战争中,通信兵屡建奇功。毛主席曾赞誉道:“你们是科学的千里眼顺风耳”。

  几十年来,我军通信兵从无到有、由小到大、由弱到强,从单一手段发展到多种手段、从单台单站发展到综合网系、从保障“中枢”发展到体系保障,信息通信力量已嵌入信息化战场的各个环节。

  养兵千日千日用,决胜千里千里通。不管是战争年代,还是和平时期,方队官兵所属的这支部队始终常备不懈。在人民群众遭遇特大自然灾害时,他们视灾情为命令,在第一时间建立起通信联络,为党中央、中央军委决策指挥救灾抢得先机。在历次阅兵、香港澳门回归、奥运会等重大活动中,他们精心组织、精心保障,出色完成了上级赋予的保障任务。

  2009年和2015年,这支部队两次在阅兵中精彩亮相。受阅官兵传承红色传令兵的光荣传统,在阅兵场上不断追求极致、超越自我,一次次用汗水浇灌出荣誉之花。

  驾驶1号基准车的丁玉森已是第3次参加阅兵。3次受阅3次驾驶1号车,他是整个方队的“引导员”。这个身材挺拔、目光坚毅,脸上洋溢着自信笑容的老兵说:“能够驾驶1号车,引导方队通过天安门,是我一生最荣耀的时刻……”

  10年之间3次受阅,丁玉森亲眼见证了我军信息通信力量的发展壮大。2009年国庆阅兵,通信兵方队只有两型受阅装备;2015年胜利日大阅兵,“指挥信息系统”方队展示了我军四型信通装备。“这次阅兵,我们方队列入信息作战模块,新一代信通战车性能更好、功能更全、科技含量更高,支撑作战能力更强……”丁玉森兴奋地告诉记者。

  装备在升级换代,人员素质也在不断提升。方队受阅的官兵90%以上拥有本科学历,均能操作2种以上信通装备,20%的官兵拥有执行大项任务经历。训练场上,这些信息化尖兵把体能和智能相结合,不断改进训练方法,发明训练辅助器材数十种,利用数据软件开展动态分析,在苦训、精训、巧训中向着完美无缺、毫厘不差的目标发起冲锋。

  新时代传令兵的“好样子”,既要留在阅兵场上,更要立起在未来战场上。面向战场、面向联合、面向体系,这支部队加快体系重塑、力量重组,职能任务进一步拓展,核心能力大大增强。

  他们不断构建完善空、天、地全域性动态信息网络,推进装备建设向数字化、集成化、多能化方向发展,已成为支撑联合作战、全域作战的“神经血脉”“耳目中枢”。

  近年来,他们先后完成海上维权、卫星发射、援建维和等重大通信指挥保障任务,机动通信力量还走出国门,参加了“东方-2018”“和平使命-2018”“和平友谊-2018”等重大联演任务。

  光荣受阅,使命在肩。伴随着隆隆的马达声,驶过阅兵场,驶向练兵场,官兵们正不断用实战标准锤炼打赢本领,向建设一支能打胜仗的新型作战力量的目标大步迈进。

Translation:

  In the neat and uniform equipment array, a square team wearing digital camouflage, high-tech communication antenna, is far from spectacular. It is the 3rd party of information warfare – a fist force of our military information communication.

  The four rows of this team consist of the latest domestic four-type equipment, and the signal devices of different shapes on the car vividly show the development and progress of our military information and communication equipment. The team leader is Major General Sun Baotai and Major General Jing Xianyu.

  The four types of equipment that I have read this time are the latest achievements of China’s mobile communication equipment. They have the characteristics of long communication distance, large transmission capacity, many means, high degree of information, and strong anti-interference performance. The joint operations and global combat capabilities play an important role.

  The future battlefield information will win, and the efficient and reliable command will lead the war to victory and defeat. For the battlefield to win and win the information Skynet, pass the winning command, the communications soldier is the vanguard of the informationized battlefield.

  The communications troops of the People’s Army were born in the rumble of gunfire in the Nanchang Uprising. They started with “a half-semi-radio” and launched a high-intensity wave contest with the superior enemy with simple communication equipment. In the anti-“encirclement and suppression”, the four crossings of Chishui, the Hundred Regiments, the war in northern Shaanxi, the three major battles and other decisive wars, the communications soldiers have repeatedly made great achievements. Chairman Mao once praised: “You are the eye of science.”

  For decades, our military communications troops have grown from scratch, from small to large, from weak to strong, from a single means to multiple means, from a single station to an integrated network, from the protection of the “central” to the system Assurance, information and communication forces have been embedded in all aspects of the informationization battlefield.

  Raising troops for thousands of days, and winning thousands of miles. Whether it is the war years or the peace period, this unit belonging to the officers and men of the square team has always been spared. When the people encountered a major natural disaster, they took the disaster as an order and established communication at the first time to seize the opportunity for the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to make decisions and command disaster relief. In the major events such as military parade, Hong Kong and Macao, and the Olympic Games, they organized and carefully safeguarded the outstanding tasks assigned by their superiors.

  In 2009 and 2015, this unit made two outstanding appearances during the military parade. The officers and men who passed through the army passed on the glorious tradition of the red passers-by. They constantly pursued the ultimate and surpassed themselves in the parade ground, and poured out the flowers of honor with sweat again and again.

  Ding Yusen, who is driving the No. 1 benchmark car, is the third time to participate in the military parade. He was driving the No. 1 car three times and was the “leader” of the entire team. This tall, straight-eyed, eager-eyed veteran with a confident smile on his face said: “It is the most glorious moment of my life to be able to drive the No. 1 car and lead the team through Tiananmen.”

  Three times in 10 years, Ding Yusen witnessed the development and growth of our military’s information and communication forces. In the National Day military parade in 2009, the communications team only had two types of reading equipment; in the 2015 Victory Day military parade, the “Command Information System” team showed our military four-type ICT equipment. “This military parade, we queued into the information warfare module, the new generation of ICT vehicles has better performance, more complete functions, higher technology content, and stronger support capabilities…” Ding Yusen told reporters excitedly.

  The equipment is upgraded and the quality of personnel is constantly improving. More than 90% of the officers and men who are read by the team have a bachelor’s degree, and can operate more than two types of ICT equipment. 20% of the officers and men have experience in performing large tasks. On the training ground, these information-oriented soldiers combined physical fitness with intelligence, continuously improved training methods, invented dozens of training aids, and used data software to carry out dynamic analysis. In hard training, intensive training, and skill training, they were perfect. A bad target initiates a charge.

  The “good look” of the new era of the commander will not only remain on the parade ground, but also stand on the battlefield in the future. Facing the battlefield, facing the joint, and facing the system, this unit accelerated the reshaping of the system, reorganized its strength, further expanded its functional tasks, and greatly enhanced its core capabilities.

  They continue to build and improve the global dynamic information network of air, space and land, and promote the development of equipment construction towards digitalization, integration and versatility. It has become the “neural blood” and “ear and eye center” supporting joint operations and global operations.

  In recent years, they have completed major communications command and support tasks such as maritime rights protection, satellite launch, aid construction and peacekeeping, and mobile communication forces have also left the country to participate in the “Oriental-2018”, “Peace Mission-2018”, “Peace Friendship-2018” and other major issues. Joint task.

  Gloriously read, the mission is on the shoulder. Along with the sound of the rumble of the motor, driving through the parade ground and heading to the training ground, the officers and men are constantly using the actual combat standards to temper their skills and make great strides toward building a new combat force capable of winning the battle.

Mandarin Chinese:

信息作战第4方队:观天测地火眼金睛

2019-10-2 09:40:37 Source: PLA Daily

向右——看!”伴着将军领队铿锵有力的口令,信息作战第4方队受阅人员和装备整齐列阵,气势磅礴地通过天安门广场。

  参阅的四型装备分别为气象水文观测车、地形勘测车、预报保障车和测绘导航信息服务车,均是首次亮相天安门阅兵场。方队作为战场信息作战的重要力量之一,可获取、处理各类战场数据信息,为打赢信息化条件下战争提供有力的支撑和保障。

  方队领队为邓洪勤少将、金锋少将。参阅官兵来自一支有着悠久历史的部队,红色基因深植于官兵血脉之中。1982年11月29日,中央军委授予该部“丈量世界屋脊的英雄测绘大队”荣誉称号。该部官兵锁定珠穆朗玛峰8848.13米的精确高程,创下了世界重力测量的最高点纪录。

  部队组建之初,一直在西藏雪域高原执行各类测绘任务。从唐古拉山到喜马拉雅山,他们攀陡崖、越冰川、爬雪山、蹚冰河,用双脚丈量山川大地,完成了西藏高原第一代军用地形图的测绘任务,填补了世界上最后一块无图区的空白。

  从罗布泊到阿尔泰山,从塔克拉玛干到喀喇昆仑山,广袤的西北大地也见证了测绘官兵的执着与顽强,见证了他们书写的无数测绘领域的传奇故事。

  为了将国土精确“复制”到图纸上,测绘兵必须“走到、测准”。高级工程师张民入伍38年,两进罗布泊、三入塔克拉玛干沙漠、四上阿尔泰山、五登喀喇昆仑山,用一双“铁脚板”丈量216万平方公里的广袤土地,徒步行程累计15万公里,翻越海拔4000米以上雪山100多座。

  信仰穿透岁月,精神代代传承。该部官兵把对党的忠诚融入事业,始终铭记“事业高于一切”“责任重于泰山”,把一流的标准融入任务;始终追求准确、精美、卓越的成果质量,把制胜的担当融入岗位。

  几十年来,该部番号多次改变,保障打赢的职责使命从未改变,驻地多次变换,矢志强军的初心始终不改。官兵们先后进行了大兴安岭原始森林、青藏高原和西北荒漠的测量,填补了我国2项技术空白区,破解了多个制约新型作战力量建设测绘保障难题,完成了多项非战争军事行动、国防科研试验等重大保障任务。

  几十年来,随着多型装备更新换代,稳定性、可靠性、精准性得到大幅提升,该部保障能力也不断提升。走上阅兵场的几型装备,正是该部装备体系跨越式发展的一个缩影。

  装备方队中基准车驾驶员杨飞说,装备只是“看得见”的部分,在装备背后,还有着更大的体系在支撑。从个体到平台,从平台到体系,测绘官兵不惧珠峰的寒风暴雪,不畏战场的枪林弹雨,能打胜仗的底气越来越足了。

  盛夏时节,一场联合实兵演习的号角吹响,该部依令派出力量支援某演练课目保障任务。此时的训练场上,地表温度高达50℃。该部前出分队坚持走在队伍前列,踏遍几十万平米训练场的每个战位,反复勘察演练场地、研究课目内容、设计战术动作。演习当天,随着指挥中心一声令下,一条条作战信息化作一道道无线电波,在前线后方高速流转,一幅立体透明的战场图景,生动地呈现在指挥员面前。

  演习完成后,“中军帐”的一位参谋竖起大拇指称赞他们:“有了你们的支援保障,我们就有了看穿战场的火眼金睛!”

  永葆受阅荣光,争取更大光荣。投身改革强军新时代,该部官兵将肩负起新的使命任务,用“铁心向党”的忠诚和“建功必定有我”的担当,在一次次的南征北战中,锻造信息化作战条件下的精兵劲旅,书写新的壮丽篇章。

Translation:

  ”Right–Look!” With the strong password of the generals, the information combat 4th team was read and equipped neatly, passing the Tiananmen Square.

  The four types of equipment referred to are meteorological hydrological observation vehicles, topographic survey vehicles, forecast support vehicles and surveying and mapping navigation information service vehicles, all of which were debuted at the Tiananmen Parade. As one of the important forces in the battlefield information warfare, the square team can acquire and process all kinds of battlefield data information, and provide strong support and guarantee for winning war under the conditions of informationization.

  The team leader is Major General Deng Hongqin and Major General Jin Feng. See the officers and men from a force with a long history, the red gene is deeply embedded in the blood of the officers and men. On November 29, 1982, the Central Military Commission awarded the Ministry of the “Hero Surveying and Mapping Brigade for Measuring the Roof of the World” honorary title. The officers and men of the department locked the precise elevation of Mount Everest at 8884.13 meters, setting a record for the highest point of gravity measurement in the world.

  At the beginning of the formation of the troops, various surveying and mapping tasks have been carried out in the snowy plateau of Tibet. From the Tanggula Mountain to the Himalayas, they climbed steep cliffs, glaciers, snow-capped mountains, and glaciers. They measured the mountains and rivers with their feet and completed the mapping of the first generation of military topographic maps on the Tibetan Plateau, filling the last piece of the world without maps. The blank of the area.

  From Lop Nur to Altai Mountain, from Taklimakan to Karakorum Mountain, the vast northwestern land has also witnessed the persistence and tenacity of surveying and mapping officers and soldiers, and witnessed the legendary stories in the field of countless surveying and writing.

  In order to accurately “copy” the land to the drawings, the surveying and mapping personnel must “go to and measure.” Senior engineer Zhang Min enlisted in the army for 38 years, two into Lop Nur, three into the Taklimakan Desert, four on the Altai Mountains, and five in the Karakoram Mountains. With a pair of “iron feet” to measure 2.16 million square kilometers of vast land, the trekking trip totaled 150,000 kilometers. Over 4,000 meters above sea level, more than 100 snow-capped mountains.

  Faith penetrates the years and the spirit is passed down from generation to generation. The officers and men of the ministry have integrated the loyalty of the party into the cause, always bearing in mind that “the cause is above all else”, “the responsibility is more important than Taishan”, and the first-class standards are integrated into the task; always pursue the accuracy, exquisite and excellent quality of the results, and integrate the winning responsibility into the post. .

  Over the past few decades, the number of the Ministry has changed many times, and the mission of guaranteeing the win has never changed. The station has changed many times, and the initial heart of the company has never changed. The officers and men successively carried out the measurement of the Daxinganling primeval forest, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the northwest desert, filled two technical blank areas in China, and solved many problems that constrain the construction of new combat forces to build surveying and mapping, and completed a number of non-war military operations and national defense research. Major safeguard tasks such as tests.

  Over the past few decades, with the upgrading of multi-type equipment, the stability, reliability and accuracy have been greatly improved, and the guarantee capability of the Ministry has also been continuously improved. The several types of equipment that went on the parade ground were a microcosm of the leap-forward development of the equipment system of the Ministry.

  Yang Fei, the benchmark driver in the equipment team, said that the equipment is only a “visible” part, and behind the equipment, there is a bigger system to support. From the individual to the platform, from the platform to the system, the surveying and mapping officers and soldiers are not afraid of the cold storms of Mount Everest, and they are not afraid of the bullets and rains of the battlefield.

  In the midsummer season, the horn of a joint military exercise blew, and the ministry sent troops to support a drill to ensure the task. At this time on the training ground, the surface temperature is as high as 50 °C. The front team of the Ministry insisted on walking in the forefront of the team, stepping through every battle position in the hundreds of thousands of square meters of training grounds, and repeatedly surveying the training venues, researching the contents of the courses, and designing tactical actions. On the day of the exercise, with the command center’s command, a piece of combat information was turned into a radio wave, and a high-speed flow was carried out behind the front line. A three-dimensional transparent battlefield scene was vividly presented to the commander.

  After the exercise was completed, a staff member of the “Military Account” gave a thumbs up and praised them: “With your support and support, we have the eyes of the battlefield!”

  Always read the glory and strive for greater glory. In the new era of reform and strengthening the army, the officers and men of the Ministry will shoulder the new mission and task, using the loyalty of “Iron Heart to the Party” and the responsibility of “construction must have me”, forging information warfare in the Southern War Northern War. Under the conditions of the elite soldiers, write a new magnificent chapter.

美海军陆战队绘制新的信息战蓝图 US Marine Corps Blueprint for Information Warfare

 Forming an expeditionary force information group and stepping up the drill

    US Marine Corps draws a new information war blueprint

    US Marine Corps is conducting an amphibious landing exercise

    The US Marine Corps is currently developing a new information war blueprint, mainly to allow the Marine Corps Expeditionary Force Information Corps to form combat capabilities as soon as possible, and to provide field commanders with various types of information including networks, intelligence, and electronic warfare.

    The US Marine Corps formed an expeditionary force information group in July 2017, and then began to participate in various exercises, which is expected to form a full operational capability this year.

    Aiming at future amphibious operations

    After experiencing many wars such as Afghanistan and Iraq, the construction of the US Marine Corps has turned into a post-terrorism era. In September 2016, the US Marine Corps released the top-level operational concept document, “21st Century Expeditionary Force Operations,” which stated that information will become a weapon in the future operational environment. It is important to detect enemy signals and manage your own signals… The current structure, training and equipment of the troops are not enough to defeat the enemy. To this end, the document proposes to optimize the structure of the Marine Corps Airfield Task Force, using a variety of weapon combinations, including the use of information warfare in the sea, land, air, sky, electricity, network and other fields to achieve complementary, mobile combat missions. US Marine Corps Commander General Robert Neller stressed that any future battle will include information warfare and electromagnetic spectrum warfare. It is very important to combine traditional joint armed mobile warfare with information warfare. It is necessary to “discover enemy weaknesses and gaps.” Destroy their strength and try to break up their cohesiveness.”

    In several wars of terrorism in recent years, the US Marine Corps is the first-line ground force of the US military. Behind it is a strong support and support system, often under the obvious “I am weak and weak” combat conditions. Currently, the US Marine Corps is returning to the core mission of amphibious operations. Robert Neller pointed out that in the future, the US Marine Corps may be forced to deal with war conflicts without air superiority and global communication and information networks. Therefore, the US military needs to reinvigorate the concept of mobile operations as a way to defeat the enemy. At the same time, information and networks will also play an important role.

    Driven by the above ideas, the US Marine Corps proposes to integrate, integrate and utilize battlefield information resources including electronic warfare, C4ISR (ie, command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) and network electromagnetic space. In order to achieve the goal of transforming to information warfare, we will start from the multi-disciplinary planning, preparation reform, training exercises and other fields to enhance the information warfare capability of the Marine Corps expeditionary force including intelligence gathering and information processing.

    Form a full-time information unit

    The US Marine Corps was reorganized in the first half of 2017 to create a deputy commander responsible for information affairs, primarily to oversee all aspects of information warfare, including networking, electronic warfare, signal intelligence, and information operations. In July 2017, three expeditionary units of the US Marine Corps formed an information group. The Marine Corps Expeditionary Force is a large task force that includes command, ground, air, and logistics forces. The First Expeditionary Force was stationed in the Pendleton Barracks in California. The second expeditionary force at the Norfolk Barracks in Virginia and the third expeditionary force in Okinawa subsequently formed an information mission.

    The information group was restructured by the former headquarters of the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Forces to support the support mission. The resident remains unchanged. In addition to continuing to shoulder the tasks of command security, infrastructure, logistics, training and administrative support, The scope of the mission has been expanded to provide a series of information-based capabilities for the expeditionary forces to achieve rapid perception of threat environments, electromagnetic spectrum environments, and cyberspace environments, and to improve the information capabilities of the Marine Corps. Colonel Roberta Shay, the former commander of the First Expeditionary Force, said that the post-transformation mission was adjusted to provide information on cybersecurity, electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace operations and security breaches to the commander of the expeditionary force. Colonel David Owen, commander of the Second Expeditionary Force Information Corp., said that the “additional mission” would better coordinate with the support of the airspace task force in the information field.

    A headquarters group of the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Force has a total of 1,200 people. The restructured information group will add 150 posts, that is, recruiting members of the Marine Corps with network and electronic warfare experience, and adding one battalion to the establishment. The size of the six battalions is liaison camp, intelligence camp, radio camp, communications camp, law enforcement camp and logistics support camp. According to the schedule, the US Marine Corps Expeditionary Force Information Corps completed the recruitment and full formation of new professionals in FY 2018, and is expected to have full operational capability this year.

    Changing the amphibious battlefield situation

    The US Marine Corps will receive support from the national and military levels in intelligence and information operations during the war, and will also be supported by the information system within the Marine Corps. But these are all rear support, and the Expeditionary Forces Information Corps is directly involved in the Marine Corps operations, extending intelligence and information operations to the front line of the battlefield. Lieutenant General Robert Walsh, commander of the US Marine Corps Combat Development Command, believes that the rapid development of the Internet, wireless communications, and the widespread use of social media have changed the way the enemy uses information and also changed the operations of the US Marine Corps. the way. For example, the Marine Corps Information Corps invaded the target mobile phone on the battlefield, and then the intelligence personnel analyzed the extracted images, and then the electronic warfare personnel tried to use the handheld radio to prevent the enemy’s possible actions. This is one of the tasks of the Expeditionary Force Information Corps, or it will change the future amphibious battlefield situation.

    In order to speed up the formation of the expeditionary force information team and plan future information operations, the US Marine Corps is developing a new information war blueprint, which is expected to be completed this spring. The blueprint is a conceptual framework document that will be updated regularly to address the policies, standards, hardware and software facilities, technology, capabilities, etc. of the Marine Corps information warfare. A spokesperson for the US Marine Corps said that the current and future information environment is more complex than previous generations. Firepower alone is not enough to achieve operational objectives, and must be combined with information-related operational capabilities to win. The blueprint will refine the composition and capabilities of the Expeditionary Force Information Corps, particularly intelligence, information warfare, and electronic warfare capabilities.

    The Marine Expeditionary Force Information Corps also conducts drills to test and develop skills and coordinate and integrate with other forces through exercises. In August 2017, the Second Expeditionary Force Information Corps was formed to participate in a multi-country “large-scale exercise 17”. The first exercise provided support for the US Marine Corps in the information environment. From February to March 2018, the information unit held field exercises, which provided support for the combat troops for intelligence, information, and allegations, and improved the ability to integrate with the subordinate units through drills.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

组建远征部队信息团并抓紧进行演练

    美海军陆战队绘制新的信息战蓝图

    美海军陆战队在进行两栖登陆演练

    美国海军陆战队目前正在制定新的信息战蓝图,主要是尽快让海军陆战队远征部队信息团形成战斗力,为战地指挥官提供包括网络、情报、电子战等在内的各类信息。

    美国海军陆战队于2017年7月组建远征部队信息团,随后开始参加各类演练,预计今年形成完全作战能力。

    瞄准未来两栖作战

    在经历阿富汗、伊拉克等多场战争之后,美国海军陆战队的建设向后反恐时代转型。2016年9月,美国海军陆战队发布顶层作战构想文件《21世纪远征部队作战》,该文件指出,未来作战环境中,信息将成为一种武器。探测敌人的信号及管理自己的信号至关重要……部队当前的结构、训练和装备不足以克敌制胜。为此,该文件提出优化海军陆战队空地特遣部队的结构,利用多种武器组合,包括在海、陆、空、天、电、网等领域利用信息战实现互补,遂行机动作战任务。美国海军陆战队司令罗伯特·内勒上将强调,未来任何战斗都将包括信息作战和电磁频谱作战,将传统的联合武装机动作战和信息战相结合非常重要,要“发现敌人的弱点、差距,消灭他们的兵力,并尝试打散他们的凝聚力”。

    在近年的几场反恐战争中,美国海军陆战队是美军的一线地面部队,身后是强大的支援保障体系,常处于明显的“我强敌弱”的作战条件下。目前,美国海军陆战队正在回归两栖作战这一核心任务。罗伯特·内勒指出,未来,美国海军陆战队可能被迫在没有空中优势和全球通信、信息网络的情况下应对战争冲突,因此美军需要重振机动作战概念,并将其作为击败敌人的方式。同时,信息和网络也将起到重要作用。

    在上述构想的推动下,美国海军陆战队提出对包括电子战、C4ISR(即指挥、控制、通信、计算机、情报、监视与侦察)及网络电磁空间在内的战场信息资源进行整合、集成和利用,以达成向信息战转型的目标,从统筹规划、编制改革、训练演习等多领域入手,增强海军陆战队远征部队包括情报搜集、信息处理在内的信息战能力。

    组建专职信息部队

    美国海军陆战队在2017年上半年进行改组,增设专门负责信息事务的副司令,主要负责监督信息战的各个方面,包括网络、电子战、信号情报和信息行动。2017年7月,美国海军陆战队3个远征部队先后组建信息团。海军陆战队远征部队是包括指挥部、地面部队、空中部队及后勤部队的大型特遣部队。第一远征部队驻加利福尼亚州的彭德尔顿兵营,其率先组建信息团。驻弗吉尼亚州诺福克兵营的第二远征部队和驻冲绳的第三远征部队随后组建信息团。

    信息团由美国海军陆战队各远征部队负责支援保障任务的原总部团改制而成,驻地保持不变,除继续担负原有的指挥安全、基础设施、后勤、培训和行政支持等任务外,其任务范围扩大,为远征部队提供一系列基于信息的能力,实现对威胁环境、电磁频谱环境、网络空间环境的快速感知,提高海军陆战队信息作战能力。第一远征部队原总部团指挥官罗伯塔·谢伊上校表示,转制后的任务调整为向远征部队指挥官提供网络安全性、电磁频谱、网络空间作战与安全漏洞等相关信息。第二远征部队信息团指挥官大卫·欧文上校称,“额外的任务”将更好地协同支持空地特遣部队在信息领域的工作。

    美国海军陆战队远征部队的一个总部团原有1200人的编制,改制后的信息团将增加150个员额,即招募拥有网络及电子战经验的海军陆战队成员,在编制上新增1个营,达到6个营的规模,分别是联络营、情报营、无线电营、通信营、执法营和后勤支援营。根据时间安排,美国海军陆战队远征部队信息团在2018财年完成新增专业人员的招募及全部组建工作,预计今年将具备完全作战能力。

    改变两栖战场态势

    美国海军陆战队战时会得到国家、军队层面在情报、信息作战等方面的支援,也会得到陆战队建制内情报体系的支持。但这些都属于后方支援,远征部队信息团则直接伴随海军陆战队行动,将情报及信息作战前伸至战场一线。美国海军陆战队作战发展司令部司令罗伯特·沃尔什中将认为,互联网、无线通信的飞速发展以及社交媒体的广泛使用,改变了敌人使用信息的方式,同时也改变了美国海军陆战队作战的方式。比如,海军陆战队信息团在战场上对目标手机进行入侵,随后由情报人员对提取到的图像进行分析,再由电子战人员尝试利用手持电台阻止敌方可能的行动。这就是远征部队信息团的任务之一,或将改变未来两栖战场态势。

    为加快远征部队信息团战斗力生成及规划未来信息作战,美国海军陆战队正在制定新的信息战蓝图,预计在今年春季完成。蓝图是概念性的框架文件,将定期更新,主要阐述海军陆战队信息战的政策、标准、硬软件设施建设、技术、能力等。美国海军陆战队发言人对此表示,当前及未来信息环境比前几代更为复杂,单靠火力不足以实现作战目的,必须与信息相关的作战能力相结合才能取胜。蓝图将对远征部队信息团的组成及能力进行细化,特别是情报、信息战、电子战能力等。

    陆战队远征部队信息团还开展演练活动以测试和培养技能,并通过演习与其他部队进行协调和整合。2017年8月,第二远征部队信息团刚组建就参加了多国“大规模演习17”,首度演练为美国海军陆战队在信息环境下的作战提供支持。2018年2月至3月,这支信息部队举行野战演习,在演练中为作战部队进行情报、信息、指控方面的支持,并通过演练提高与下属部队的整合能力。

Referring url:
http://www.xinhuanet.com/mil/2019-01/02/

People’s Republic of China’s Practice of Network Power // 中華人民共和國網絡權力實踐

People’s Republic of China’s Practice of Network Power //

中華人民共和國網絡權力實踐

People’s Daily (April 19, 2018 01 edition)

In today’s world, the information technology revolution is changing with each passing day.

  In contemporary China, the development of the network business has advanced by leaps and bounds.

  From mobile payment everywhere to new high-level online transaction volume; from the nationwide e-government system to the booming big data industry… General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech on network security and informationization work published two years ago, China’s online letter With the rapid and healthy development of the business, the Internet has increasingly become an important driving force for national development, and the digital field has continuously achieved leap-forward development.

  

        Under the guidance of the strategic blueprint for the “two hundred years” struggle goal, China, which is opening a new era, is striding towards a new journey of network power.

  Looking ahead and judging the situation, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core points the way forward for building a network power

  In March 2018, the “Deepening the Party and State Institutional Reform Plan” issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China opened a new chapter in the national network letter business – the Central Cyber ​​Security and Informatization Leading Group was changed to the Central Cyber ​​Security and Informatization Committee, responsible for Top-level design, overall layout, overall coordination, overall promotion, and supervision and implementation of major work in this field.

  This is the far-sightedness of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core of the national network letter, and it is also the implementation of the important speech delivered by General Secretary Xi Jinping at the symposium on cybersecurity and informationization.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping has accurately grasped the general trend of the times, actively responded to the requirements of practice, deeply examined the major changes in the main social contradictions, and issued a series of important speeches on the development of the network business, clearly proposing the strategic thinking of the network power.

  ”To develop a network business, we must implement a people-centered development thinking.”

  ——According to the ups and downs of Internet technology changes, General Secretary Xi Jinping always puts the people at the highest position, clearly defining “to adapt to people’s expectations and needs, speed up the popularization of information services, reduce application costs, and provide them with affordable and affordable The well-used information service has enabled hundreds of millions of people to gain more sense of sharing Internet development results.”

  “Big data is a new stage in the development of information technology.”

  ——In the face of the information-based competitive environment that you chase after me, General Secretary Xi Jinping made a keen judgment to “understand the current status and trends of big data development and its impact on economic and social development, and analyze the achievements of China’s big data development and Problems exist to promote the implementation of the national big data strategy.”

  ”Building a community of cyberspace destiny.”

  ——Investigating the profound changes in the global Internet governance system, General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed “four principles” and “five points of proposition”, calling for “the Internet is invisible, but the people who use the Internet are tangible, and the Internet is the common home of mankind. It is the common responsibility of the international community to make this home more beautiful, cleaner and safer.

  ……

  New ideas lead new practices, and new strategies open up new journeys. Under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, a colorful network of powerful powers is slowly unfolding.

  One-point deployment, nine-point implementation, a series of new policies and new measures for the reform and development of the network letter business are turning into new achievements and new changes

  ”Party committees and governments at all levels should strengthen Internet thinking, be good at using the advantages of the Internet, and focus on integrating, sharing, facilitating, and security, promoting scientific decision-making in government, refining social governance, and improving the efficiency of public services. Perceive the social situation, open communication channels, assist decision-making and governance, and facilitate the masses to do things.

  On April 13, 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping made important instructions during the inspection of the Hainan Provincial Government Affairs Data Center, once again in order to speed up the development of big data and use information technology to point the way.

  Without informatization, there is no modernization.

  General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech on cybersecurity and informatization work has been published for two years. All localities and departments have kept pace with the times, pioneering and innovating, and introduced a series of new policies and new measures to promote the cause of major strategic opportunities in the network letter industry and usher in new Development, new leap.

  ——Continuously strengthen the top-level design, and the information development will add institutional guarantee.

  The Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy was published, which depicts the development of digital China’s construction in the next 10 years, and clearly sets a clear timetable and roadmap for the construction of a network power. The “13th Five-Year National Informationization Plan” was released. It is proposed to achieve significant results in the construction of digital China as the overall goal of China’s informatization development.

  In the past two years, the informatization development strategy, the national big data strategy, and the “Internet +” action plan have been frequently deployed, and the foundation of the network is solid.

  ——The infrastructure is more perfect, and the digital development paves the way.

  In 2017, the length of new optical cable lines in China was 7.05 million kilometers. The total length of national optical cable lines reached 37.47 million kilometers, an increase of 23.2% over the previous year; the number of Internet broadband access ports reached 779 million, an increase of 9.3%.

  The Action Plan for Promoting the Scale Deployment of the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) was issued and implemented, and the scale of IPv6 deployment was comprehensively improved. As of December 31, 2017, the total number of IPv6 address allocations in China was 23,430 (/32).

  In the past two years, the quality and coverage of mobile network services have continued to improve, and the development of next-generation Internet has shown great prospects.

  – Internet innovative social governance tools, e-government work into the fast lane.

  At the Taxation Hall of the State Taxation Bureau of Jinjiang City, Fujian Province, the financial manager Shi Jinxing received dozens of special value-added tax invoices through the self-service terminal. He felt that “it took a half-day to become a few minutes, and the government service became more and more convenient. Efficient.”

  Innovative services to benefit the people. The data shows that the current total number of government websites in the country is nearly 32,000; the new government media has become a new channel for communication between the public and the public.

  In December 2017, the Central Network Information Office and other departments jointly launched a two-year national e-government comprehensive pilot project in eight provinces including Beijing, Shanghai and Jiangsu to explore the development of e-government development experience that can be used for promotion, and more convenient and efficient e-government experience. Just around the corner.

  Take the matter at any time, make meritorious deeds from the capital, and profit from the power of all things.

  The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China formulated a blueprint for the development of a new era, and proposed to build a network power, digital China, and a smart society, promote the deep integration of the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence and the real economy, develop the digital economy, share the economy, and foster new growth. Point, form new kinetic energy.

  In Zhejiang, the digital economy, which is dominated by software services, Internet of Things, cloud computing, and big data, has exceeded 10 trillion yuan for three consecutive years. In Guizhou, where poverty alleviation is the main battlefield, big data has become one of the three development strategies. Its economic growth rate has been in the forefront of the country for seven consecutive years.

  A series of data and an item of results reflect a series of historical achievements and historic changes in the digital development of China in recent years.

  Let hundreds of millions of people gain more sense of sharing the Internet development achievements, and build a strong power for building a network power.

  At the end of each course, Zhang Fan, an online training teacher, will carefully review the “Magic Mirror System” analysis of the students’ class status and adjust and optimize the teaching plan accordingly.

  Through this system, the camera captures the classroom state, such as raising hands, practicing, listening to classes, speaking, etc., and even facial expression changes at any time. Through multi-dimensional measurement of data, a unique learning report for each student is generated.

  With the help of digital technology, the goal of “there is no education, teaching students in accordance with their aptitudes”, which is the sage of the past dynasties, is now entering an ordinary life.

  No longer just online shopping, sharing bicycles, today, digital technology represented by big data, cloud computing, artificial intelligence is increasingly infiltrating into every aspect of Chinese life: the construction of cancer big data portraits makes health dreams clearer; The guardian platform gives the minors a clearer cyberspace; the 5G “super speed” makes the screen “flashing” words become history…

  New products from the Internet have emerged, and digital technology has turned people’s imagined new life into reality. From the introduction of the network security law to the new stage of legal governance, to the digital economy, the “big artery” is more smooth… The world of the people of the world is more colorful because of the Internet, and the lives of the people are more abundant because of the Internet.

  Promoting the development of the Internet and making good use of the power of the Internet are the basic projects that promote social progress and enhance people’s well-being.

  Liuyu Village is located in the selenium-rich area of ​​southern Meizhou, Guangdong Province, and has a long history of growing tea. However, due to the remote location, poor traffic and information, the sales of tea has not been opened.

  Since the staying tea has been stationed in the Guangdong mobile e-commerce informationization poverty alleviation platform to achieve online sales, the problem of slow sales of tea has been solved. In the past year, the tea sold by the “Lingnan Life” platform has reached 6,000 kilograms, and the single-day sales order has reached a maximum of 1423.

  Statistics show that in 2017, China’s digital economy reached 27.2 trillion yuan, accounting for 32.9% of GDP; e-commerce and online retail continued to grow, e-commerce promoted the steady expansion of rural consumption, and rural consumer infrastructure such as logistics, telecommunications, and transportation. further improvement.

  ”Adhere to the people as the center”, digital development is constantly satisfying people’s yearning for a better life, and the people have more sense of gaining in sharing the development of the Internet.

  “The way of benefit, and the time.”

  In just over 20 years, starting from a network cable with a network speed of only 64 kilobits per second, China now has 700 million netizens and more than 4 million websites. It has built the world’s largest 4G network, and the scale of online retail transactions has jumped. The world’s first… a series of “great”, witnessed a slap in the face of a network power to the network power.

  In just two years, from the speed increase and decrease of the network to the implementation of the Cyber ​​Security Law, from the continuous hosting of the four World Internet Conferences to the Alibaba Cloud Data Center, which covers the major Internet markets in the world, a series of “big-handed” highlights China’s move to a network powerhouse. Determination and confidence.

  In December 2017, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized in the second collective study of the Political Bureau of the 19th Central Committee that “the situation will be judged, carefully planned, advanced, and proactive” “accelerate the construction of digital China and better serve China’s economic and social development and people. Life improvement.”

  The construction of digital China is an important measure to implement the internship General Secretary General Ping Ping’s strategic thinking on network power. It is an effective way to adhere to the people-centered development thinking and continuously enhance the people’s sense of acquisition. It is an inevitable requirement for seizing development opportunities and accelerating the modernization process.

  This is an urgent call for the new era, and it is a firm declaration of China in the new era.

  Under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, the development of China’s network information industry will surely take greater steps in the construction of a network powerhouse, and create a more awkward innovation for the Chinese dream of building a well-off society in an all-round way and realizing the great rejuvenation of the nation. power.

 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

當今世界,信息技術革命日新月異。

當代中國,網信事業發展突飛猛進。

從隨處可見的移動支付到屢創新高的網絡交易額;從覆蓋全國的電子政務系統到蓬勃發展的大數據產業……習近平總書記關於網絡安全和信息化工作重要講話發表兩年來,我國網信事業快速健康發展,互聯網日益成為國家發展重要驅動力,數字領域不斷實現跨越式發展。

在“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標的戰略藍圖指引下,開啟新時代的中國,正在闊步邁向網絡強國的新征程。

高瞻遠矚、審時度勢,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央為建設網絡強國指明前進方向

2018年3月,中共中央印發的《深化黨和國家機構改革方案》,揭開了國家網信事業的新篇章——中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組改為中央網絡安全和信息化委員會,負責這一領域重大工作的頂層設計、總體佈局、統籌協調、整體推進、督促落實。

這是以習近平同志為核心的黨中央對國家網信事業的深謀遠慮,也是對習近平總書記在網絡安全和信息化工作座談會上發表的重要講話的貫徹落實。

黨的十八大以來,習近平總書記準確把握時代大勢,積極回應實踐要求,深刻審視社會主要矛盾新變化,就網信事業發展發表一系列重要講話,鮮明提出了網絡強國的戰略思想。

“網信事業要發展,必須貫徹以人民為中心的發展思想。”

——順應風起雲湧的互聯網技術變革,習近平總書記始終把人民放在最高位置,明確“要適應人民期待和需求,加快信息化服務普及,降低應用成本,為老百姓提供用得上、用得起、用得好的信息服務,讓億萬人民在共享互聯網發展成果上有更多獲得感”。

“大數據是信息化發展的新階段。”

——面對你追我趕的信息化競爭環境,習近平總書記敏銳地作出判斷,要求“深入了解大數據發展現狀和趨勢及其對經濟社會發展的影響,分析我國大數據發展取得的成績和存在的問題,推動實施國家大數據戰略”。

“構建網絡空間命運共同體。”

——洞察全球互聯網治理體系的深刻變革,習近平總書記提出“四項原則”“五點主張”,呼籲“互聯網雖然是無形的,但運用互聯網的人們都是有形的,互聯網是人類的共同家園。讓這個家園更美麗、更乾淨、更安全,是國際社會的共同責任”。

……

新理念引領新實踐,新戰略開啟新征程。在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,一幅五彩斑斕的網絡強國畫卷正在徐徐展開。

一分部署、九分落實,一系列網信事業改革發展的新政策新舉措正在化為舉世矚目的新成就新變革

“各級黨委和政府要強化互聯網思維,善於利用互聯網優勢,著力在融合、共享、便民、安全上下功夫,推進政府決策科學化、社會治理精細化、公共服務高效化,用信息化手段更好感知社會態勢、暢通溝通渠道、輔助決策施政、方便群眾辦事,做到心中有數。”

2018年4月13日,習近平總書記在考察海南省政務數據中心時作出的重要指示,再一次為加快大數據發展、用好信息化手段指明方向。

沒有信息化就沒有現代化。

習近平總書記關於網絡安全和信息化工作重要講話發表兩年來,各地各部門與時俱進、開拓創新,出台一系列新政策、新舉措,推動網信事業抓住重大戰略機遇期,迎來新發展、新飛躍。

——持續加強頂層設計,信息化發展更添制度保障。

《國家信息化發展戰略綱要》出台,描繪了未來10年數字中國建設的發展圖景,為網絡強國建設標識出清晰的時間表和路線圖;《“十三五”國家信息化規劃》發布,明確提出將數字中國建設取得顯著成效作為我國信息化發展的總目標。

兩年間,信息化發展戰略、國家大數據戰略、“互聯網+”行動計劃等頻密部署,網絡強國基礎夯實。

——基礎設施更加完善,數字化發展鋪就前進道路。

2017年,我國新建光纜線路長度705萬公里,全國光纜線路總長度達3747萬公里,比上年增長23.2%;互聯網寬帶接入端口數量達到7.79億個,增長9.3%。

《推進互聯網協議第六版(IPv6)規模部署行動計劃》印發實施,IPv6規模化部署全面提升。截至2017年12月31日,我國IPv6地址分配總數為23430塊(/32)。

兩年間,移動網絡服務質量和覆蓋範圍持續提升,下一代互聯網發展展現美好前景。

——互聯網創新社會治理手段,電子政務工作駛入快車道。

在福建晉江市國稅局辦稅大廳,財務經理施金星通過自助終端機領取了數十份增值稅專用發票後,深感“原先要花半天的時間變成了幾分鐘,政府服務越來越便捷高效”。

創新服務,利企便民。數據顯示,目前全國政府網站運行總數近3.2萬家;政務新媒體成為溝通社情民意的新渠道。

2017年12月,中央網信辦等部門聯合在北京、上海、江蘇等8省份開展為期2年的國家電子政務綜合試點,探索形成可藉鑑推廣的電子政務發展經驗,更加方便高效的電子政務體驗指日可待。

隨時以舉事,因資而立功,用萬物之能而獲利其上。

黨的十九大製定了面向新時代的發展藍圖,提出要建設網絡強國、數字中國、智慧社會,推動互聯網、大數據、人工智能和實體經濟深度融合,發展數字經濟、共享經濟,培育新增長點、形成新動能。

在浙江,以軟件服務業、物聯網、雲計算、大數據等為主體的數字經濟規模連續3年超萬億元;在脫貧攻堅主戰場的貴州,大數據成為三大發展戰略支撐之一,其經濟增速已連續7年位居全國前列。

一串串數據、一項項成果,折射出近年來我國數字化發展的一系列歷史性成就、歷史性變革。

讓億萬人民在共享互聯網發展成果中有更多獲得感,為建設網絡強國凝聚磅礴力量

每次課程結束,在線培訓教師張帆都會仔細查看“魔鏡系統”對學生上課狀態的分析,並據此調整優化教學方案。

通過這一系統,攝像頭隨時捕捉學生上課時的舉手、練習、聽課、發言等課堂狀態,甚至面部表情的變化,通過多維度量化數據,生成專屬每一個學生的學習報告。

借助數字技術,“有教無類、因材施教”這一歷代先賢嚮往的目​​標如今正在走入尋常生活。

不再僅僅是網上購物、共享單車,如今,以大數據、雲計算、人工智能為代表的數字技術正日益滲透進中國人生活的方方面面:癌症大數據畫像的構建讓健康夢想更加清晰;“成長守護平台”給未成年人一片更為清朗的網絡空間;5G“超級網速”使屏幕閃現的“加載中”字樣成為歷史……

從互聯網催生的新產品新業態競相湧現,到數字技術將人們想像中的智能新生活變為現實;從出台網絡安全法開啟依法治網新階段,到數字經濟的“大動脈”更加通暢……億萬國人的世界因互聯網而更多彩,百姓的生活因互聯網而更豐富。

推動互聯網發展,用好互聯網的力量,是促進社會進步、增進人民福祉的基礎性工程。

留畬村位於廣東梅州南部的富硒地帶,種茶歷史悠久。但由於地理位置偏僻,交通和信息不暢,留畬茶的銷路一直沒有打開。

自從留畬茶進駐廣東移動電商信息化扶貧平台,實現在線銷售,茶葉滯銷難題迎刃而解。一年來,經“嶺南生活”平台售出的留畬茶多達6000餘斤,單日銷售訂單最高達1423單。

統計顯示,2017年,中國數字經濟規模達27.2萬億元,佔GDP比重達32.9%;電子商務、網絡零售持續增長,電商推動農村消費規模穩步擴大,物流、電信、交通等農村消費基礎設施進一步完善。

“堅持以人民為中心”,數字化發展正不斷滿足人民對美好生活的嚮往,百姓在共享互聯網發展成果上擁有了更多獲得感。

“凡益之道,與時偕行。”

短短20多年時間,從一條網速僅有64千比特每秒的網線出發,如今我國已經擁有7億網民、400多萬家網站,建成了全球最大的4G網絡,網絡零售交易額規模躍居世界第一……一連串的“了不起”,見證了一個網絡大國向網絡強國邁進的鏗鏘足音。

短短兩年間,從網絡提速降費到網絡安全法啟動實施,從連續主辦四屆世界互聯網大會到阿里雲數據中心基本覆蓋全球主要互聯網市場,一系列的“大手筆”,彰顯中國邁向網絡強國的決心與信心。

2017年12月,習近平總書記在十九屆中央政治局第二次集體學習時強調,“審時度勢、精心謀劃、超前佈局、力爭主動”“加快建設數字中國,更好服務我國經濟社會發展和人民生活改善”。

建設數字中國是貫徹落實習近平總書記關於網絡強國戰略思想的重要舉措,是堅持以人民為中心的發展思想、不斷增強人民獲得感的有效途徑,是搶抓發展機遇、加快現代化進程的必然要求。

這是新時代的迫切呼喚,更是新時代中國的堅定宣示。

在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,我國網信事業發展必將在網絡強國的建設中邁出更大步伐,為全面建成小康社會,實現民族偉大復興的中國夢凝聚更加澎湃的創新動力。

Referring URL: http://paper.people.com.cn/rmrb/html/2018-04/

Chinese General: If hostile forces invade my network sovereignty China can use military means to fight & hack back // 中國將軍:如果敵對勢力入侵我的網絡主權,中國可以用軍事手段進行反擊和反擊

Chinese General: If hostile forces invade my network sovereignty China can use military means to fight & hack back //

中國將軍:如果敵對勢力入侵我的網絡主權,中國可以用軍事手段進行反擊和反擊

(安卫平,北部战区副参谋长)

Original: “National Defense Reference”, No. 3, 2017

The cyberspace was born in the military field. For example, the first computer, the APA network and the GPS navigation system all originated from the military. Today, cyberspace security has been closely related to national security, and the military has once again become the protagonist of maintaining national cyberspace security. Whether facing normalized network penetration or large-scale cyberattacks, it is urgent for the military to move from guarding the “network camp gate” to guarding the “network country gate”, breaking through the traditional military missions and missions, and breaking through the traditional war preparation mode. With a new network of national defense thinking, the founding of the network era of the country’s strong shield.

From the “network camp door” to the “network country door”, the new era brings a new trend of military mission

Cyberspace is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, but also directly affects political, economic, cultural security and social development. It has also become the blood and link of modern battlefield joint operations. The Chinese military cannot be limited to maintaining the internal network security of the military camp. It must also actively adapt to the trend of the times and take the responsibility of the country that guards the “network country.” Network strong army is an important part of the construction of a network powerhouse. From the “network camp door” to the “network country door” is the inevitable trend of the development of the domestic and international situation in the information age.

Guarding the “network country door” is forced by the cyberspace security situation. As the first big Internet country, China’s security situation is not optimistic, and strategic opponents have never stopped preparing for our network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries are actively preparing for cyberspace, giving military functions through cyberspace security legislation, developing cyber warfare forces, developing cyber warfare weapons and equipment, and advancing war to the “fifth space” of mankind, especially in China. In the historical process of the rise, under the leadership of the Cold War mentality and the containment subversion strategy, Western countries have used network technology and communication methods to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyberattacks, seriously affecting China’s national security and social development, and China has gradually become The hardest hit by cybersecurity threats, the test sites for virus attacks, and the destinations of conscious penetration, national security faces enormous risks.

In the coming period, as a new emerging country, China’s conflicts of interest with other parties will intensify. Firmly promoting the network defense strategy and strengthening the operational preparation of cyberspace are the inevitable ways to actively strive for the dominance and discourse power of cyberspace, and also the rise of China. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the military must adapt to the characteristics of cyberspace characteristics, become the backbone and main force to resist network intrusion and network subversion, and safeguard national security and social stability.

Winning cyber warfare is the trend of new military revolution in the information age. As one of the most advanced productivity in the information age, network technology has made cyberspace warfare a leading factor in guiding the evolution of modern warfare and affecting the overall situation of war. In recent years, from the “seismic net” attack in Iran, the cyber warfare in the Russian-Georgian conflict, the large-scale obstruction of the Ukrainian power grid, and the cyberattack of the US military against IS, the huge role played by cyberspace in actual combat has gradually emerged, indicating that cyber warfare Has become an important style of future joint operations.

The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of the cyberspace command, the launch of cyberspace joint operations, the extensive expansion of cyber warfare forces, the maintenance of its cyberspace hegemony, and the formation of cyberspace control capabilities as a “third offset strategy”. “Absolute advantage is the most important competitive content.

Many countries in the world have followed suit, and the trend of militarization of cyberspace is obvious. The rigorous cyberspace military struggle situation requires the Chinese military to focus on the changes in the network battlefield space, adapt to the requirements of the information war era, and achieve the strong military goal of smashing and winning in cyberspace.

Effective network warfare is an intrinsic need to accelerate the construction of a network powerhouse. In the process of China’s development from a network power to a network power, it is inseparable from the strong cyberspace military power as a guarantee. The international competition in cyberspace is a comprehensive game of the country’s comprehensive strength. Among them, the quality of network military capacity building is directly related to national security and stability, and it is the core element of the entire national security field.

At present, the interests of countries in the world in the cyberspace are mutually infiltrated, and there is a situation in which you have me, I have you, cooperate with each other, and develop together. However, this kind of common development is not equal. The US and Western powers have taken advantage of the cyberspace dominance and have already achieved certain network warfare advantages, which has made my network development and interests subject to people. How can the military fulfill its mission of defending the earth in the construction of a network-strength country? The premise is to form a network environment that can contain the crisis and control the opponent’s network attack and defense capabilities and ensure peaceful development.

Therefore, the military needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective warfare, form a strategic check and balance ability that can “destroy each other” with the enemy, thereby enhancing strategic competitiveness, ending cyberspace aggression, and ensuring the smooth advancement of the network power strategy.

From “keeping the soil to the responsibility” to “protecting the net and defending the country”, the new situation requires the military to undertake new tasks.

The military is the main force and pillar of national security, and cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Law, which was enacted on July 1, 2015, stipulates: “Citizens of the People’s Republic of China, all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and institutions, and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security. And obligations.” The Cyber ​​Security Law, promulgated in November 2016, emphasizes the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

On the basis of the laws of these two countries, on December 27, 2016, the National Cyberspace Security Strategy (hereinafter referred to as the “Strategy”) was officially launched, providing overall guidance for creating a new pattern of network powers at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, further embodying the mission of the military in the process of building a network power.

With the national mission of protecting the network, the military must be a strong pillar to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. The first of the nine strategic tasks listed in the “Strategy” is “firmly defending the cyberspace sovereignty” and clearly proposes to “take all measures including economic, administrative, scientific, technological, legal, diplomatic, military, etc., and unswervingly maintain our network.” Space sovereignty.” It can be seen that the military must assume the military mission of using physical space and defend the national mission of the sovereign security and interests of virtual cyberspace.

Cyberspace sovereignty is the core interest of the state and an important component of national sovereignty. It indicates the independence, equal, self-defense and management power of the state in cyberspace. Once the hostile forces violated my cyberspace sovereignty, it would be equivalent to infringing on the national sovereignty of the physical space such as land, sea and air. China will have the right to take all measures including military means to give a firm response.

Internationally, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declaring that attacks on US network information facilities are equivalent to war acts, and the United States will take military strikes to retaliate. Military means are the means of safeguarding national sovereignty and play a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the military, air, sea and air military forces have been given the historical mission of protecting the cyberspace sovereignty. They must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace and effectively deter the hostile forces from cyber-damaging attempts.

In accordance with the era of the Internet, the military must be the ballast stone to defend national security. The second item of the “Strategy” mission emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, deter and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

In the era of information network, the military of all countries in the world has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become the main indicator for assessing the modernization of a country’s military. It is one of the main duties of the informationized military to carry out cyberspace missions and maintain national security.

Judging from the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant against the danger of the country being invaded, subverted, and divided in cyberspace in order to adapt to the national security strategy needs of building a well-off society in an all-round way. Highly alert to the reform caused by cyberspace. The danger of developing the overall situation is destroyed, and we are highly wary of the danger of interference and destruction in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Preventing problems before they occur requires the state to have the means to cope with and deal with these risks, and to have the powerful force to prevent, stop and legally punish cyberspace violations. Defending the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the military. The inherent mission and mission have determined that the Chinese military must assume the role of taking various measures in the cyberspace to safeguard the country’s political, economic, cultural security and social stability.

The strategic mission of both offensive and defensive, the military must be a strong backing to enhance the ability of cyberspace protection. The third and eighth items of the Nine Major Tasks in the Strategy clearly state that all necessary measures must be taken to protect key information infrastructure and its important data from attack and destruction, and that technology and management should be adhered to, protected and shocked; We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and adapts to the network power. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security. Among all the political, diplomatic, military, and scientific and technological capabilities of the country to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support for all capabilities, the fundamental guarantee for all capabilities, and the ultimate support for national security.

Therefore, the military must undertake the strategic task of strengthening the national cyberspace protection capability. In the real society, the military is the reassurance of safeguarding national security, and it should also become the security dependence and guarantee of the people in cyberspace. As an important part of the national cyberspace protection capability, the military must achieve both offensive and defensive capabilities and a unified warfare. It has the ability to resolutely safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in cyberspace, and effectively eliminate the various crises caused by cybersecurity threats. The turbulence of thoughts enables the people to truly feel that production and life are effectively protected and become the confidence of the people of the whole country in their confidence in the national network protection capabilities.

With the global responsibility of UNPROFOR, the military must be an important support for maintaining global cybersecurity. The last item of the “Strategy” mission clearly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace, support the United Nations in playing a leading role, promote the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, international anti-terrorism conventions on cyberspace, and improve the judicial assistance mechanism against cybercrime. International cooperation in the areas of policy and law, technological innovation, standards and regulations, emergency response, and protection of key information infrastructure.

Cyber ​​terrorism and cybercrime are new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation. They pose a huge threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of the government and the people. Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect cybersecurity and the power to fight cyber terrorism. Maintaining the security and stability of global cyberspace is in the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The military should become an important defender of global cyberspace security and an important force in combating global cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

The globalization and unbounded nature of the Internet determine the international demand for combating cyber terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The military should promote military cooperation in network governance between countries under the framework of the UN Security Council, and use the strategies and technologies of the network era to establish joint defense and joint defense. Mechanism to effectively safeguard the security of the national and world cyberspace.

From “field training” to “network preparation”, new areas require new preparations for the military

Under the new historical situation, cyberspace puts forward new requirements for the military training and preparation mode. It should adapt to the new characteristics of cyberspace and the new mission of the military to carry out innovative reforms on the traditional model, and take the goal of strengthening the country and strengthening the military as the overall plan, and strengthen macro-coordination. Focusing on the legal needs of military operations in cyberspace, it closely follows the natural attributes of the “military and civilian integration” of cyberspace, builds a network security attack and defense system that combines peacetime and warfare, and builds a network defense force of “military and land use”.

Legislation empowerment provides a legal basis for the military to carry out its functional mission. The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, attach great importance to the issue of network defense in cyber security legislation. The United States has successively issued a series of policies and regulations such as “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree”, “Network Space Action Strategy”, and has continuously deepened and standardized on how to protect national network security in the field of network defense.

At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties and responsibilities of the cyberspace military from the legal level. It should be based on the National Security Law and the Cyber ​​Security Law, and introduce the network defense law and related cyberspace military operational regulations, for the construction of the network defense field and the military. The action provides regulatory support and a program of action to make the military’s responsibilities and mission in cyberspace more specific and specific.

First, through network defense legislation to further define network sovereignty and network frontiers, clear the scope of the military’s responsibilities.

The second is to establish the operational authority of the military to defend the national cyberspace security through the construction of cyber warfare laws and regulations, and to distinguish military means against network intrusion and network destruction. Third, through the cyberspace international cooperation policy, the military will coordinate with other countries and civilian forces to combat international cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

The integration of military and civilian provides an innovative driving force for the construction of a network powerhouse. The integration of military and civilian is the main practice for the world powers to enhance the competitiveness of cyberspace. For the construction of China’s network powerhouses, building a military-civilian network security attack and defense system and developing a military-land dual-use defense information infrastructure is to inspire the innovation of military cyberspace combat capability. Source.

The first is to coordinate the military, civilian, and functional departments of the state, the military, and various levels of government, set up special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network forces, and build a network security attack and defense system that combines “military and civilian integration” and “peace and war.”

The second is to issue guidance on the in-depth development of cybersecurity military-civilian integration as soon as possible, and gradually carry out basic legal research and demonstration of military-civilian integration to guide the development of medium- and long-term military-civil integration.

Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and civilians will jointly build an information infrastructure covering the entire army of the whole country, and realize the unified construction and sharing of military and civilian.

The fourth is to establish an emergency response mechanism for military-civilian joints, increase the ability to train military authorities to control events, strengthen experts and emergency professional strength, and enhance the ability to quickly recover damaged networks or information systems.

Military-civilian joint training provides a practical environment for the generation of cyberspace military capabilities. The military-civilian sharing characteristics of cyberspace make military-civilian joint training an important means of military training in cyberspace around the world. The United States and NATO countries and other cyberspace joint military and civilian exercises have formed a series of, “network storm” and “network guards” and other exercises have attracted the participation of the government, enterprises, research institutions and even civilian hackers. Our military cyberspace military strength training also needs to attract a wide range of civil forces to participate.

First, do a good job in military and political cooperation, establish a military-civilian joint offensive and defensive drill mechanism, learn from the red-blue confrontation training methods in cyber warfare drills in developed countries such as the United States, actively build a “national network shooting range”, plan a series of joint exercises of the government and non-government organizations, and enhance the integration of military and civilian. The level of attack and defense of the network of the government and the people.

The second is to do a good job in military-enterprise cooperation, relying on net-based enterprises to set up a training field on the Internet, to promote the ability of the military and civilians to attack and defend, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

The third is to organize private network security companies and hacker talents, carry out network security competitions and other activities, and verify each other to jointly improve the level of network security protection technology and tactics.

The network reserve service provides a source of strength for building a powerful network army. As a backup supplement to the national defense force, reserve service has both military and civilian characteristics and is a powerful measure to realize the organic unification of cyberspace economic development and national defense construction.

First, it is led by the national security department, and overall planning is carried out according to national interests. A series of laws and regulations conducive to the construction of the network national defense reserve are introduced. From the top level, the main division of labor, promotion strategy, interest coordination, etc. of the military and civilian construction in the network defense reserve construction are solved. problem.

The second is to innovate the reserve organization and comprehensive coordination mechanism, and plan to integrate the reserve construction into all levels and fields of national network information development.

The third is to focus on the reform of the military and local management modes. Based on the management mechanisms of the provincial and municipal governments, the military, and local enterprises and institutions, establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly cultivate and use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, and establish a national network defense special talent. The database will include the construction of network militia and reserve forces into the scope of mobilization of the people’s armed forces. In normal times, they will be incorporated into the militia emergency detachment for training. In an emergency, select the capable personnel to participate in the non-war military operations missions, and the wartime will be recruited according to the requirements. To transform the national defense potential into national defense strength. 

Original Mandarin Chinese:

原載:《國防參考》2017年第3期

網絡空間誕生於軍事領域,如首台計算機、阿帕網和GPS導航系統等都源於軍方,時至今日,網絡空間安全已與國家安全息息相關,軍隊又再次成為維護國家網絡空間安全的主角,無論是面對常態化的網絡滲透,還是大規模的網絡攻擊,都迫切需要軍隊從守衛“網絡營門”走向守衛“網絡國門”,突破傳統的軍隊使命任務,突破傳統的應戰備戰模式,以全新的網絡國防思維,鑄造網絡時代國之堅盾。

從“網絡營門”到“網絡國門”,新時代帶來軍隊使命新趨勢

網絡空間不僅事關國家戰略利益維護,直接影響政治、經濟、文化安全和社會發展,也成為現代戰場聯合作戰的血脈和紐帶。中國軍隊不能局限於維護軍營內部網絡安全,更要主動適應時代趨勢,勇於承擔把守“網絡國門”的國家擔當。網絡強軍是網絡強國建設的重要一環,從“網絡營門”走向“網絡國門”是信息時代國內外形勢發展的必然趨勢。

守衛“網絡國門”是網絡空間安全形勢所迫。中國作為第一網絡大國,安全狀況不容樂觀,戰略對手從未停止對我網絡作戰準備。美、英、法等國積極備戰網絡空間,通過網絡空間安全立法賦予軍隊職能,發展網絡戰部隊,研發網絡戰武器裝備,將戰爭推進到了人類的“第五空間”,特別是在中國日益強大崛起的歷史進程中,西方國家在冷戰思維和遏制顛覆戰略的主導下,利用網絡技術手段和傳播方式實施不間斷的騷擾、顛覆和網絡攻擊行動,嚴重影響我國家安全與社會發展,中國逐漸成為網絡安全威脅的重災區、病毒攻擊的試驗場、意識滲透的目的地,國家安全面臨著巨大風險。

未來一段時期內,中國作為新興大國,與各方利益衝突還將加劇,堅定推進網絡國防戰略,加強網絡空間的作戰準備,是積極爭取網絡空間的主導權和話語權的必然途徑,也是中國崛起的必由之路。軍隊作為國家安全穩定的主要力量,必須適應網絡空間特點要求,成為抗擊網絡入侵、網絡顛覆的中堅和主力,維護國家安全和社會穩定。

打贏網絡戰爭是信息時代新軍事變革所趨。網絡技術作為信息時代最先進生產力之一,使得網絡空間作戰成為引導現代戰爭形態演變的主導因素,影響著戰爭全局。近年來,從伊朗“震網”攻擊、俄格衝突網絡戰、烏克蘭電網遭大規模阻癱以及美軍對IS的網絡攻擊,網絡空間在實戰中所展現出的巨大作用逐漸顯現,預示著網絡作戰已成為未來聯合作戰重要樣式。

美軍高度重視網絡空間軍備建設,成立網絡空間司令部,推出網絡空間聯合作戰條令,大幅度擴編網絡戰部隊,極力維護其在網絡空間霸權,把對網絡空間控制能力作為形成“第三次抵消戰略”絕對優勢最重要的競爭內容。

世界多國紛紛跟進,網絡空間軍事化趨勢明顯。嚴峻的網絡空間軍事鬥爭形勢要求中國軍隊著眼網絡戰場空間變化,適應信息化戰爭時代要求,實現在網絡空間能打仗、打勝仗的強軍目標。

有效網絡懾戰是加速網絡強國建設內在所需。在中國由網絡大國向網絡強國發展過程中,離不開強大的網絡空間軍事力量作為保障。網絡空間國際競爭表現為國家綜合實力的全面博弈,其中,網絡軍事能力建設的好壞,直接關係到國家安全與穩定,牽一發而動全身,是整個國家安全領域的核心要素。

當前,世界各國在網絡空間的利益互相滲透,出現“你中有我、我中有你,互相合作,共同發展”的局面。但是這種共同發展是不對等的,美國及西方強國利用網絡空間主導權,已經取得了一定的網絡懾戰優勢,使我網絡發展及利益受制於人。軍隊如何在網絡強國建設中完成守土有責的使命重托,前提就是要形成能夠遏制危機、懾控對手的網絡攻防能力,確保和平發展的網絡環境。

因此,軍隊需要確立有效懾戰的威懾戰略目標,形成能與敵“相互摧毀”的戰略制衡能力,從而增強戰略競爭力,懾止網絡空間侵略,保障網絡強國戰略順利推進。

從“守土有責”到“護網衛國”,新形勢要求軍隊承擔新任務

軍隊是保衛國家安全的主力和柱石,網絡空間也不例外。 2015年7月1日施行的《國家安全法》規定:“中華人民共和國公民、一切國家機關和武裝力量、各政黨和各人民團體、企業事業組織和其他社會組織,都有維護國家安全的責任和義務。”2016年11月頒布的《網絡安全法》強調了要維護網絡空間主權和國家安全。

在這兩個國家法律的基礎上,2016年12月27日,《國家網絡空間安全戰略》(下文簡稱《戰略》)正式出台,為在新的起點上開創網絡強國新格局提供了總體指導和基本遵循,明確提出了九大戰略任務,進一步體現了軍隊在建設網絡強國進程中的使命任務。

全力護網的國家使命,軍隊要做捍衛網絡空間主權的堅強柱石。 《戰略》中列出的九大戰略任務首項就是“堅定捍衛網絡空間主權”,明確提出要“採取包括經濟、行政、科技、法律、外交、軍事等一切措施,堅定不移地維護我國網絡空間主權”。可見,軍隊須承擔起運用實體空間的軍事手段,保衛虛擬網絡空間主權安全和利益的國家使命。

網絡空間主權是國家的核心利益,是國家主權的重要組成,表明國家在網絡空間所擁有的獨立權、平等權、自衛權和管理權。一旦敵對勢力侵犯了我網絡空間主權,就等同於侵犯了我陸海空等實體空間的國家主權,中國將有權利採取包括軍事手段在內的一切措施給予堅決回擊。

在國際上,美國早就提出網絡空間威懾戰略,宣告對美國網絡信息設施的攻擊等同於戰爭行為,美國會採取軍事打擊措施進行報復。軍事手段是維護國家主權的保底手段,在維護國家網絡空間安全中發揮著至關重要的作用。因此,陸海空天軍事力量理所應當地被賦予了保護網絡空間主權的歷史使命,必須憑藉強大的實體空間武力保衛網絡空間的國家利益,有力震懾敵對勢力的網絡破壞企圖。

依網衛國的時代擔當,軍隊要做保衛國家安全的壓艙石。 《戰略》任務的第二項著力強調要堅決維護國家安全,防範、制止和依法懲治任何利用網絡進行叛國、分裂國家、煽動叛亂、顛覆或者煽動顛覆人民民主專政政權的行為。

信息網絡時代,世界各國軍隊都已經成為網絡空間重要參與者,網絡空間能力水平成為評估一個國家軍隊現代化程度的主要指標,遂行網絡空間使命任務、維護國家安全成為信息化軍隊的主要職責之一。

從中國發展所處的歷史進程來看,要適應全面建成小康社會決勝階段的國家安全戰略需求,必須高度警惕國家在網絡空間被侵略、被顛覆、被分裂的危險,高度警惕由網絡空間引發改革發展大局被破壞的危險,高度警惕中國特色社會主義發展進程被干擾、破壞的危險。

防患於未然,要求國家必須具有應對和處置這些危險的手段措施,具有防範、制止和依法懲治網絡空間違法破壞行為的強大力量。保衛國家歷來是軍隊不可推卸的歷史責任,固有的使命任務決定了中國軍隊必須承擔起在網絡空間採取各種措施,維護國家政治、經濟、文化安全和社會穩定的時代擔當。

攻防兼備的戰略任務,軍隊要做提升網絡空間防護能力的堅強後盾。 《戰略》中九大任務的第三項和第八項明確提出,要採取一切必要措施保護關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據不受攻擊破壞,要堅持技術和管理並重、保護和震懾並舉;要建設與我國國際地位相稱、與網絡強國相適應的網絡空間防護力量,大力發展網絡安全防御手段,及時發現和抵禦網絡入侵,鑄造維護國家網絡安全的堅強後盾。在國家所有維護安全的政治、外交、軍事、科技能力中,軍事力量歷來是所有能力的基礎和支撐,是所有能力的根本保障,是國家安全的最終依托。

因此,軍隊必須承擔起提升國家網絡空間防護能力堅強後盾的戰略任務。現實社會中,軍隊是維護國家安全的定心丸,在網絡空間也同樣應成為人民群眾的安全依賴和保障。軍隊作為國家網絡空間防護能力生成的重要一環,必須做到攻防兼備、懾戰一體,有能力堅決維護國家和人民在網絡空間的利益和安全,能夠有效消除網絡安全威脅造成的各種危機和思想動盪,使人民能夠切實感受到生產生活得到有效保護,成為全國人民對國家網絡防護能力充滿信心的底氣所在。

聯防聯治的全球責任,軍隊要做維護全球網絡安全的重要支撐。 《戰略》任務最後一項明確提出要強化網絡空間國際合作,支持聯合國發揮主導作用,推動制定各方普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則、網絡空間國際反恐公約,健全打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,深化在政策法律、技術創新、標準規範、應急響應、關鍵信息基礎設施保護等領域的國際合作。

網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪是經過信息網絡發酵催化出的全球威脅新形態,對世界上所有國家的政治、經濟、軍事、文化安全都構成巨大威脅,僅僅依靠政府和民間的力量是不夠的,美國等西方國家紛紛賦予軍隊保護網絡安全的職責和打擊網絡恐怖主義的權限。維護全球網絡空間安全與穩定符合中國以及世界各國的根本利益,軍隊應成為全球網絡空間安全的重要維護者,成為打擊全球網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪的重要力量。

網絡的全球化、無界性決定了打擊網絡恐怖主義和跨國網絡犯罪的國際需求,軍隊應在聯合國安理會的框架下,推進國家間網絡治理軍事合作,利用網絡時代的戰略和技術,建立聯防聯治機制,切實維護國家和世界網絡空間安全。

從“沙場練兵”到“網絡備戰”,新領域需要軍隊備戰新舉措

在新的歷史形勢下,網絡空間對軍隊練兵備戰模式提出了全新的要求,應適應網絡空間新特點和軍隊新使命對傳統模式進行創新改革,以強國強軍目標為統攬,加強宏觀統籌,著眼網絡空間軍事行動的法理需求,緊扣網絡空間“軍民一體”的天然屬性,建設“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系,打造“軍地兩用”的網絡國防力量。

立法賦權,為軍隊遂行職能使命提供法理依據。世界各國尤其是西方發達國家在網絡安全立法上高度重視網絡國防問題。美國先後出台了《國家安全第16號總統令》《網絡空間行動戰略》等一系列政策法規,對如何在網絡國防領域保護國家網絡安全進行了不斷的深化規範。

當前,從法律層面釐清網絡空間軍隊的職責任務非常必要,應以《國家安全法》《網絡安全法》為依據,出台網絡國防法和有關網絡空間軍事作戰條令法規,為網絡國防領域建設和軍事行動提供法規支撐和行動綱領,使軍隊在網絡空間的職責和使命更加明確具體。

一是通過網絡國防立法進一步界定網絡主權和網絡邊疆,清晰軍隊的職責範圍。

二是通過網絡作戰法規建設,明確軍隊遂行保衛國家網絡空間安全的行動權限,區分應對網絡入侵、網絡破壞等行為的軍事手段。三是通過網絡空間國際合作政策,明確軍隊協同他國、民間力量等打擊國際網絡恐怖主義、網絡犯罪的職能任務。

軍民融合,為網絡強國建設提供創新動力。軍民融合是世界強國提升網絡空間競爭力的主要做法,對於中國網絡強國建設來說,構建軍民融合網絡安全攻防體系,開發軍地兩用的國防信息基礎設施,是激發軍隊網絡空間作戰能力創新的源泉。

一是統籌國家、軍隊和各級政府等軍民融合職能部門,設置專門的指揮協調機構,調動一切國家網絡力量,建設“軍民一體”“平戰結合”的網絡安全攻防體系。

二是盡快出台網絡安全軍民融合深度發展指導性意見,逐步展開軍民融合基本法律研究論證,指導中長期軍民融合發展。

三是依托國家現有公共移動通信網、光纖通信網及衛星系統,軍民共建覆蓋全國全軍的信息基礎設施,實現軍民統建、分管共享。

四是建立軍民聯合的應急響應機制,加大培訓軍地主管部門控制事態的能力,加強專家和應急專業力量,提升快速恢復受損網絡或信息系統的能力。

軍民聯訓,為網絡空間軍事能力生成提供實戰化環境。網絡空間的軍民共用特性使得軍民聯訓成為世界各國網絡空間軍事演訓的重要方式。美國及北約等國家的網絡空間軍民聯合演習已經形成系列化,“網絡風暴”“網絡衛士”等演練活動吸引了政府、企業、研究機構甚至民間黑客的廣泛參與。我軍網絡空間軍事力量訓練也需要廣泛吸引民間力量參與。

一是搞好軍政合作,建立軍民聯合攻防演練機制,借鑒美國等發達國家網絡戰演練中的紅藍對抗訓練方法,積極建設“國家網絡靶場”,策劃政府、民間機構系列聯合演習,提升軍民一體、官民一體的網絡攻防水平。

二是搞好軍企協作,在互聯網上依靠網信企業設置演練場區,促進軍民之間攻防能力磨合,共同提高防範未知風險能力。

三是組織民間網絡安全公司和黑客人才,開展網絡安全競賽等活動,互相印證,共同提高網絡安全防護技戰術水平。

網絡預備役,為建設強大網軍提供力量源泉。預備役作為國防力量的後備補充,兼有軍事和民用雙重特點,是實現網絡空間經濟發展與國防建設有機統一的有力舉措。

一是以國家安全部門為主導,依據國家利益進行統籌規劃,出台有利於網絡國防預備役建設的系列法規政策,從頂層上解決網絡國防預備役建設中軍民共建的主體分工、推進策略、利益協調等問題。

二是創新預備役組織領導體制和綜合協調機制,有計劃地把預備役建設融入國家網絡信息化發展的各個層面和各個領域。

三是著眼軍隊和地方兩頭管理模式改革,以各省市政府、軍隊和地方企事業單位的管理機制為依托,建立網絡國防預備役人才聯合培養使用機制,完善國家應急動員機制,建立國家網絡防禦專用人才數據庫,將網絡民兵和預備役部隊建設納入人民武裝動員的範圍,平時按規定編入民兵應急分隊進行訓練,急時挑選精干人員隨隊參加遂行非戰爭軍事行動任務,戰時按需要成建制徵召使用,使國防潛力轉變為國防實力。

Referring url: http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2017/0417/c1011-29215670.html

中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research