China’s Military Emphasizing Research of System-based Superior Warfare: How to Fight Using Informationized Warfare? Analysis of Nine Typical Combat Styles



System-based superior warfare is a system-based warfare in information warfare. It is not limited to a specific combat style, but a “combination punch” or a group of combat styles composed of multiple combat styles and tactics. It emphasizes that according to the changes in combat missions, combat opponents and battlefield situations, as long as it is conducive to forming relative advantages and achieving system victory, any appropriate combat means and styles can be flexibly used to form combat advantages. In the specific implementation of system-based superior warfare, these specific combat styles and action tactics can be organized and implemented separately as part of joint full-domain operations, and more emphasis is placed on “combination punches”, multiple strategies, and overall victory.
In order to better understand its core connotation, this article lists nine typical combat styles, including overall deterrence warfare, electromagnetic interference warfare, network attack warfare, cognitive control and interference warfare, and analyzes them.

System concentration warfare – a “combination punch” that flexibly uses a variety of combat styles. Author: Academic Plus Senior Observer Dong Zhou
The main content and keywords of this article

  1. Overall deterrence warfare: emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence; the implementation of overall deterrence warfare should have three major elements; strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare: the key to competing for information advantage; in terms of combined means and methods, information empowerment is achieved through “connection + sharing”; an effective method to crack unmanned cluster warfare
  3. Network attack warfare: mainly soft killing, combining soft and hard, focusing on breaking the network and reducing energy
  4. Cognitive control and interference warfare: control the cognitive right of situational awareness, compete for information advantage; control the right to command and decision-making, compete for decision-making advantage; control the “brain” right, and seize the brain control advantage
  5. Agile mobile warfare: high-efficiency and rapid decision-making; high-efficiency formation of a favorable combat situation; high-efficiency and instant aggregation of combat forces; agile mobile warfare is an innovative development of traditional mobile warfare
  6. Swarm autonomous warfare: conducive to forming a system advantage to suppress the enemy; conducive to enhancing combat effectiveness; conducive to trapping the enemy in combat difficulties
  7. Precision point killing war: achieve high efficiency and cost-effectiveness in operations; hitting key node targets is an important option; large-scale system support is a basic condition; it is inseparable from accurate intelligence support
  8. Supply chain disruption war: the supply guarantee chain has a huge impact on the overall operation; the focus of attack is the key node of the enemy’s supply guarantee chain; the key is to choose the right time to use tactics
  9. System destruction and paralysis war: the combat goal is to make the enemy’s combat system disordered; hit the key nodes of the combat system with a heavy punch; implement a soft attack on the enemy’s combat system

For learning reference only, welcome to communicate and correct! The views of the article do not represent the position of this organization
The concept of operation is first proposed as a new combat style. Innovative combat style is the core content of the development of combat concepts. It can be said that system-based optimization warfare is a general term for a series of specific tactics. The following nine typical combat styles constitute the combat method system of system-based optimization warfare. They are: First, overall deterrence warfare, actively organizing static power demonstrations and deterrence actions in the system-based superiority warfare, striving to win the battle without fighting or with a small battle; second, electromagnetic interference warfare, using a variety of combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for electromagnetic spectrum advantages, seize information control, and thus win the initiative in combat; third, network attack warfare, using a variety of means such as soft strikes and hard destruction to break the enemy’s command network, intelligence network, communication network, and logistics supply network, and disrupt the enemy’s command and support; fourth, cognitive control and interference warfare. Through information attacks, public opinion attacks, and brain attacks, control advantages are formed in cognitive space; fifth, agile mobile warfare. Rapidly adjust the deployment of troops and weapons, quickly gather capabilities on the battlefield, and seize combat opportunities; sixth, swarm autonomous warfare. Widely use unmanned combat means such as “swarms”, “wolf packs”, and “fish schools” to autonomously organize actions and distributed attacks to achieve human-machine joint victory; seventh, precision point killing warfare. Accurately obtain intelligence, implement multi-domain precision strikes, strive to hit one point to shake the overall situation, and maximize combat effectiveness; Eighth, supply chain disruption warfare. Organize elite forces to attack the enemy’s logistics and equipment supply chain, supply lines and supply bases, and destroy the enemy’s loss of supply and withdrawal from the battle; Ninth, system destruction and paralysis warfare. Comprehensively adopt a variety of means such as breaking the network, training, and hitting nodes to interfere with, delay, destroy or even paralyze the effective operation of the enemy’s combat system and weaken the function of the enemy’s combat system.

  1. Overall deterrence warfare
    Overall deterrence warfare refers to actively organizing static power displays and deterrence actions in system-based superior warfare, striving to defeat the enemy without fighting or fighting a small battle. Sun Tzu said: “To defeat the enemy without fighting is the best of the best.” Deterrence and war are two main forms of military activities. Deterrence is mainly to show determination and will to potential opponents by showing strength or threatening to use strong strength to deter the opponent’s actions. It can be said that the overall deterrence warfare in the system-based superior warfare is an important means or tactics to achieve “stopping” the enemy’s troops without fighting. Clausewitz emphasized that the first rule of strategy is to be as strong as possible, first of all, strong in general, and then strong in key parts. Modern warfare is a confrontation between systems. The overall deterrence war under the informationized local war requires not only the traditional deterrence means and capabilities of land, sea, air and space, but also new deterrence means and capabilities such as space deterrence, electromagnetic deterrence, and network deterrence, and more importantly, the overall deterrence that demonstrates the overall strength of the country. In particular, with the rapid development of advanced technologies such as information technology, the scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution, and military revolution are accelerating integration, and the coupling relationship between strategic competitiveness, social productivity, and military combat effectiveness is closer. Winning the informationized war is more of a contest of national will and national overall strength. If you want to contain the war, you must first deter your opponent from the overall strength.
    1.1 Emphasize multi-domain joint deterrence
    Deterrence means usually include nuclear deterrence and conventional deterrence. In the system-based superiority war, the overall deterrence war is implemented, aiming to comprehensively use the conventional deterrence means of the land, sea, air, space, and power grid in the whole domain to achieve the purpose of deterrence. In particular, with the application of information network technology and space and directed energy technology in the military, space, network, and electromagnetic weapons have become new means of deterrence. Space deterrence mainly uses rapid response electromagnetic orbital weapons, space-ground networked anti-navigation and positioning service systems, large elliptical orbit laser weapons, high-power microwave weapons and other equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s space targets, forming an “interference and blocking” deterrence against the enemy’s space information. Network deterrence mainly uses cyberspace situational awareness and attack equipment to threaten and attack the opponent’s military network and other key information infrastructure to achieve deterrence against the enemy. Electromagnetic deterrence mainly uses electromagnetic spectrum combat systems to threaten and attack enemy detection, navigation, communication and other informationized weapon equipment systems to achieve deafening and blinding deterrence against the enemy. 1.2 Three elements should be possessed in the implementation of overall deterrence warfare
    To implement overall deterrence warfare and achieve the expected deterrence effect, three elements are usually required: one is strength. The deterrent party must have reliable capabilities or strength that make the opponent feel daunted and fearful; the second is determination and will. The deterrent party must dare to use this capability when necessary; the third is clear information transmission. The deterrent party must accurately and effectively let the other party know its action capability and determination.
    Historically, there are three main changes in the criteria for judging deterrence strength: first, active military strength; second, comprehensive national strength or war potential; third, the total number of main combat weapons and equipment. For a long period of history, the number of troops was deterrence, and the strength of military strength directly depended on the size of the active army, the number of important weapons and equipment, and non-material factors such as military training and organization morale. After the 20th century, with the expansion of the scale of war, deterrence strength is no longer limited to the number of troops and important weapons and equipment, but is determined by the country’s war potential, including economic strength, scientific and technological strength, energy resources, and even population size, etc. The overall deterrence war in the system-based superiority war, the formation of its deterrence strength is mainly based on the network information system, and the joint full-domain deterrence capability formed under the integration of the system.
    1.3 Strong overall strength is the core of achieving effective deterrence
    The development of information technology and its extensive penetration and application in the military field have provided favorable conditions for building overall strength and achieving overall deterrence. System-based superior warfare is supported by the network information system and makes full use of the penetration and connectivity of information technology. It not only integrates various combat forces, combat elements, and combat units into an organic whole to achieve military system combat advantages, but also connects and integrates various fields related to war and national mobilization, such as national politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, transportation, and energy, into the national war mobilization system, gathers various forces and resources to form an overall force, realizes the emergence effect of system capabilities, and shows the overall strength advantage. It forms a powerful invisible deterrent of unity and common hatred of the enemy, and creates a situation where the enemy “has power but cannot act” and “can act but has no effect”, which plays a role in containing and winning the war.
    In the overall deterrence war, the scope of national war mobilization will be wider, not limited to a certain direction or region, but throughout the country and even relevant regions of the world; the mobilization time will be faster, and the mobilization and action information can be quickly transmitted to everyone and every node at the first time by using the network and information system; the action coordination and collaboration will be more consistent, and the forces distributed in various regions can act in a unified manner almost at the same time based on the same situation and the same order, greatly improving the efficiency of action coordination; the resource utilization will be more sufficient, and various war resources based on the network can quickly realize the transition from peace to war and from military to civilian, and realize the integrated and precise guarantee of the front and rear.
  2. Electromagnetic interference warfare
    Electromagnetic interference warfare refers to the flexible use of various combat means and action styles such as electronic reconnaissance, attack and defense to disrupt, prevent and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic capabilities, actively compete for the advantage of the electromagnetic spectrum, seize the right to control information, and then win the initiative in combat.
    2.1 The key to competing for information advantage Local information warfare is highly dependent on the electromagnetic spectrum, and the control and counter-control of electromagnetic space have become the focus of competing for the right to control information. Organizing and implementing electromagnetic interference warfare is mainly to destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum and protect one’s own side from destruction. The electromagnetic spectrum is the main carrier for transmitting information. Using electromagnetic means to disrupt and destroy the enemy’s electromagnetic spectrum will effectively reduce the enemy’s information combat capability, and enable the enemy to ensure the rapid and effective flow of information in the scenario where the enemy has the right to control information, and drive the command flow, action flow, material flow, and energy flow through the information flow, thereby gaining the dominance and initiative of the operation.
    2.2 The basic focus is to disable and invalidate the enemy’s combat system. The implementation of electromagnetic interference warfare in the system-based superior warfare is mainly aimed at the enemy’s dependence on electromagnetic space. At the same time, in order to ensure the effective use of electromagnetic space by the enemy, various electronic reconnaissance, interference, attack, defense and support forces are organized to interfere with and attack the enemy’s communication network, radar network, computer network and command center, communication hub, radar station, computer network node, global navigation positioning system, space-ground integrated Internet and other space link systems, and other various frequency-using weapons and equipment, block and destroy their communication and data transmission, and destroy the “connection” and “sharing” structural center of gravity of the enemy’s combat system, and provide support for the seizure of information control and electromagnetic control from the root, thereby weakening the enemy’s command and control capabilities and disabling the enemy’s entire combat system.
    2.3 Effective tactics to crack unmanned swarm warfare
    Unmanned autonomous swarm warfare such as “bee swarm”, “wolf pack” and “fish pack” is an important feature of information-based local warfare with intelligent characteristics. There are a large number of various unmanned autonomous clusters, with various types and complex characteristics, and each individual can complement each other and replace each other to play a role. It will be very difficult to intercept and destroy the entire unmanned cluster. However, from a technical perspective, in order to achieve effective coordination in unmanned combat clusters, each individual must share and interact with each other. Once the communication coordination between unmanned clusters is interfered with, it will be impossible to share battlefield situation and information, and it will be difficult to coordinate actions with each other, and it will be difficult to play its due combat effectiveness. This provides an opportunity for the other party to implement communication interception and electromagnetic interference. Therefore, the implementation of electromagnetic spectrum warfare, interference and attack on the information and communication network of unmanned clusters, and destruction of their information sharing and interaction will make it impossible for each individual in the unmanned cluster to achieve effective coordination, thereby losing combat capability.
  3. Network attack warfare
    Network attack warfare refers to the comprehensive use of network and computer technologies and other effective means to conduct military confrontation actions around the control of information and information networks. It is a major combat style for cyberspace operations and the struggle for network control. Its main combat operations include both soft killing and hard destruction, mainly soft and hard. Among them, soft kill is mainly network attack, that is, the comprehensive use of blocking attack, virus attack and other means to block and attack the enemy’s information network, command system, weapon platform, etc., making it difficult for the enemy’s network, command information system, etc. to operate effectively or even paralyzed; hard destruction mainly uses precision firepower strikes, high-energy microwaves, electromagnetic pulses and anti-radiation attacks to paralyze the enemy’s information network physical facilities and destroy the enemy’s combat and weapon equipment entities.
    The focus is on breaking the network and reducing the ability to fail. Organizing network attack in the system concentration war is to target the weaknesses of the opponent’s military information network, take advantage of the system, organize various network attack forces, and continuously implement soft kill and hard destruction actions against the enemy’s combat command network, reconnaissance intelligence network, communication network and even logistics supply network throughout the combat process, destroy the enemy’s network system, and make the enemy’s combat system function decline or even disabled as a whole. Mainly against the enemy’s basic information network, intelligence network, command network, support network and other core targets, implement a series of combat operations such as network and electricity coordinated attack, deception confusion, link blocking, takeover and control, so that the enemy’s intelligent combat network system is disabled and ineffective, and achieve a key victory in paralyzing the enemy system.
  1. Cognitive control and disturbance warfare
    Cognitive control and disturbance warfare refers to the interference, destruction or control of enemy thinking and cognition through information attack, public opinion attack and brain attack in the system-based superiority warfare, so that the enemy cannot make correct judgments and decisions, thereby forming a control advantage over the enemy in the cognitive space.
    The cognitive domain, that is, the human thinking space and consciousness space, is a field that has a key impact on combat decisions and judgments. The development of information technology, especially artificial intelligence technology, and its wide application in the military field have expanded the competition of war from physical space and information space to cognitive space, making cognitive space a new combat domain. With the development of information and intelligent technology and their extensive and in-depth application in the military field, human-machine intelligence tends to merge, making the status of cognition in intelligent warfare operations more prominent, and the cognitive field has gradually become an important battlefield. Controlling cognitive rights has become a key factor in future battlefield control rights. Fighting for cognitive control rights has become an important combat style for winning in informationized local wars with intelligent characteristics.
    4.1 Controlling situational awareness and cognitive rights and fighting for information advantages
    In the system-based superiority warfare, information flow drives material flow and energy flow, and information advantage determines decision advantage. The rapid and accurate recognition of intelligence information and battlefield situation has an important impact on gaining command and decision-making advantages. Therefore, in order to organize and implement system-based optimization, we must make full use of intelligent technology and big data technology to analyze massive intelligence information data.



體系聚優戰――靈活運用多種作戰樣式的「組合拳」作者:學術plus高級觀察員 東週

1.1 強調多域聯合威懾
威懾手段通常包括核威懾和常規威懾。在體系聚優戰中,實施整體威懾戰,旨在綜合運用陸海空天電網全域常規威懾手段,以達成威懾目的。特別是隨著資訊網路技術及太空、定向能技術在軍事上的應用,太空、網路、電磁武器等成為新型威懾手段。太空威懾,主要以快速響應電磁軌道武器、天地網路化反導航定位服務系統、大橢圓軌道雷射武器、高功率微波武器等裝備,威脅攻擊對手空間目標,形成對敵空間資訊「幹擾阻斷」威懾。網路威懾,主要是以網路空間態勢感知和攻擊裝備,威脅攻擊對手軍事網路及其它關鍵資訊基礎設施,實現對敵威懾。電磁威懾,主要以電磁頻譜作戰系統,威脅攻擊敵探測、導航、通訊等資訊化武器裝備系統,實現對敵致聾致盲威懾。 1.2 實施整體嚇阻戰應具備三大要素
1.3 強大整體實力是實現有效威懾的核心
2.1 爭奪資訊優勢的關鍵資訊化局部戰爭高度依賴電磁頻譜,對電磁空間的控制與反控製成為爭奪制資訊權的焦點。組織實施電磁阻擾戰,主要是破壞敵方電磁頻譜,保護己方不受破壞。電磁頻譜是傳遞訊息的主要載體。使用電磁手段對敵方電磁頻譜實施阻擾破壞,將有效降低敵資訊作戰能力,並使己方在擁有製資訊權的場景下,保障資訊的快速有效流動,透過資訊流驅動指揮流、行動流、物質流、能量流,進而擁有作戰的主導權、主動權。
2.2 基本著眼點是使敵作戰體系失能失效體系聚優戰中實施電磁擾阻戰,主要是針對敵方對電磁空間的依賴,同時為確保己方對電磁空間的有效利用,組織各種電子偵察、幹擾、攻擊、防禦和支援力量,對敵通信網、雷達網、電腦網和指揮中心、通信樞紐、雷達站、電腦網路節點,全球導航定位系統、天地一體互聯網等空間鏈路系統,及其他各種用頻武器裝備,實施幹擾、攻擊,阻斷、破壞其通訊聯絡與資料傳輸,破壞敵作戰體系的「連結」與「共享」結構重心,從根源為奪取制資訊權、制電磁權提供支撐,進而削弱敵指揮控制能力,使敵整個作戰體系失能、失效。
2.3 破解無人集群作戰的有效戰法

4.1 控制態勢感知認知權,爭奪資訊優勢


People’s Liberation Army Looking ahead to the “Battlefield Metaverse”



Recently, the “metaverse” has become a hot topic of concern. On November 26 last year, this edition published an article titled “Unveiling the Veil of the Metaverse”, which mentioned the concept of the “battlefield metaverse”.

Simply put, the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet. It is a virtual world that is parallel and isomorphic to the real world, with main features such as multi-dimensionality, full sensory perception, virtual-real integration, and seamless interaction. The “battlefield metaverse” is the manifestation of the “metaverse” in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, more powerful simulation computing capabilities, more real-time and sophisticated interaction requirements, and more prominent battlefield time consistency, virtual-real integration, boundary security, decision-making intelligence, and performance fidelity.

Imagine a typical application scenario

We can preliminarily outline the outline of the “battlefield metaverse” by imagining a typical military training application scenario in the future:

An aircraft carrier fleet was cruising in a certain sea area. Suddenly, in the fleet command room, a virtual AI staff officer projected a virtual figure through the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal, making a clear voice to convey the upper level’s combat readiness inspection instructions.

The fleet commander immediately issued an “exercise combat alert” command to the fleet according to the plan. The fleet’s combat command and control system began to automatically receive combat missions and battlefield situations sent by the “Battlefield Metaverse” terminal. Except for the personnel on duty at the bridge of each ship in the fleet who continued to cruise and guard according to the scheduled route, all other personnel were transferred to the combat scene set by the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

On the flight deck of an aircraft carrier, all deck workers immediately put on enhanced terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” after hearing the “combat alert”. Depending on the login user ID, the corresponding virtual information in the “Battlefield Metaverse” is seamlessly superimposed on the workers’ field of vision, supporting the deck workers to complete relevant practical operations in the real world.

Under the unified command of the flight deck commander, all deck operators perform virtual and real integrated deck operations for various types of carrier-based aircraft in accordance with combat mission requirements and carrier-based aircraft take-off procedures, including refueling, bomb loading, towing, safety inspection, ejection, recovery, and ammunition emergency disposal.

In the flight briefing room, all pilots of various types of carrier-based aircraft participating in this mission have put on the immersive terminals of the “Battlefield Metaverse” and entered the cockpit of the virtual world, waiting for their carrier-based aircraft to complete take-off preparations.

In the cockpit of the virtual carrier-based fighter, an AI assistant with the same configuration as the actual carrier-based aircraft is confirming the status of the aircraft with the pilot and planning the upcoming combat operations according to the combat mission received. During the combat mission, the virtual carrier-based fighter can equivalently feedback the situation information of the enemy and our own reconnaissance, electronic interference, combat damage, etc., providing real-time information for the pilot to make decisions and take actions…

It can be seen from the above typical application scenarios that the “battlefield metaverse” requires a large number of revolutionary breakthroughs in key technologies as its basic support, including VR/AR/MR technology, digital twin technology, cloud computing technology, blockchain technology, high-speed network technology, AI technology, etc.

Construction requires many basic conditions

Compared with the “metaverse” that is open to the public and reconstructs the network ecology, the “battlefield metaverse” needs to be developed based on the actual topological structure of the military network and the construction results of various military information systems, and has higher requirements on key technical indicators. Specifically, the construction of the “battlefield metaverse” should have at least the following basic conditions:

– Independent network communication links. The “Battlefield Metaverse” is an independent form built on the military high-speed network architecture and infrastructure, which is significantly different from the design concept of the “Metaverse” global access. Users of the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to verify and log in through a secure military network node in a relatively fixed place or area. The remote wireless network link is not open to the outside world and has the ability to resist communication interference and network attacks.

——Strict identity authentication mechanism. All individual users accessing the “Battlefield Metaverse” are required to be military personnel who have passed confidentiality review and military scientific research personnel with confidentiality qualifications. The authentication information of all types of users cannot be tampered with, fabricated, or misused in the “Battlefield Metaverse”. All user operations will be recorded in detail in the “Battlefield Metaverse” to facilitate tracking and analysis by the operation and maintenance security department, and any illegal users and operations will have no chance to take advantage.

——Diverse user access capabilities. Users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” can be divided into individual users, equipment users, and system users according to their types. Among them, individual users are organic individuals who directly enter the “Battlefield Metaverse” activities; equipment users and system users are key digital equipment and information systems that need to access the “Battlefield Metaverse”, and their operators or maintenance personnel participate in the activities in the “Battlefield Metaverse” in an indirect way through operational control behaviors in the real world.

——Clear command, coordination and interaction relationship. Different from the high degree of freedom of ordinary users in the “metaverse”, all types of users in different locations in the “battlefield metaverse” participate in specific activities, play designated roles or undertake major tasks, which are uniformly planned, deployed and coordinated by the only event organizer. Before each activity is launched, the event organizer determines the user identification, command relationship, coordination relationship, information interaction permissions, etc. of the participants based on the elements required to achieve the goal.

——Immersive real-time interaction capabilities. Individual users who access the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to log in through a human-computer interaction terminal and achieve real-time interaction with the “Battlefield Metaverse” and other users in the real world. In addition to having basic immersive interaction and time-based functions, terminal devices also need to enhance the user’s operational freedom and sensitivity, so that users can operate and use a variety of weapons, equipment and information systems in the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

——Powerful AI individuals. Similar to the “metaverse”, AI individuals with intelligence and autonomous behavior capabilities will act as permanent residents in the “battlefield metaverse”. They can play the role of virtual red team, blue team, and third-party entities to participate in combat, training and test tasks, and can also play the role of instructors, examiners, staff, system operation and maintenance personnel, etc., to assist individual users in making decisions and taking actions.

——Realistic performance simulation capability. All weapons, equipment and information systems mapped into the “Battlefield Metaverse” need to have functional performance and consistent operation methods equivalent to those in the real world. Through signal-level simulation models and performance algorithms, simulation of reconnaissance detection effectiveness, electronic countermeasure effectiveness, firepower strike effectiveness and comprehensive protection effectiveness can be achieved, ensuring that the experience accumulated by individual users in the “Battlefield Metaverse” can guide actual combat operations.

——Flexible scenario generation capability. The “Battlefield Metaverse” needs to set a battlefield area for each activity, including the geographical environment, electromagnetic environment, meteorological environment, and hydrological environment of the area. Its scenario data is required to be more real and accurate, and requires institutions with relevant qualifications to build and maintain it step by step.

Application, bringing significant benefits in multiple fields

In the future, the “metaverse” may first be applied to areas such as online social networking, online games, and online economy, becoming the starting point for the virtualization of human society.

After the “Battlefield Metaverse” is built, it will have a huge impact on the application fields of education, training, testing, research, etc. of the troops, greatly change the original methods of organizing and implementing activities, significantly improve the comprehensive benefits of various military activities, and effectively stimulate the innovation capabilities of military personnel and scientific researchers.

In the field of education, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can play an important role in centralized education in colleges and universities, in-service distance education, etc. The teachers and students can interact and communicate with each other freely in different locations, which is conducive to creating a harmonious and relaxed teaching atmosphere. On the one hand, the teachers can use more powerful teaching content to demonstrate their teaching ability and achieve more vivid teaching effects; on the other hand, the students can recognize and understand the problems more intuitively, effectively improving their personal interest in self-study and subjective initiative.

In the field of training, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can fully meet the requirements of actual combat training in the context of large-scale combat. Participants at all levels can play the roles of their current positions or proposed positions, and repeatedly receive training and assessments in a larger, more confrontational, and longer-lasting environment. While honing combat skills, honing tactical coordination, and forging combat will, they can apply the accumulated simulated combat experience to actual combat operations. The evaluation of training effects will also be more quantitative and intuitive, which is more conducive to selecting talents.

In the field of testing, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a practical background and large-scale test scenarios with equivalent simulation capabilities for the design and demonstration of new weapons and equipment, weapons and equipment performance testing, weapons and equipment compatibility testing, and weapon system combat effectiveness testing. It can bring virtual and real equipment into a peer environment to operate together, and fully grasp the various states and parameter changes of the equipment, thereby effectively solving practical problems such as limited test times, simple test links, low complexity of the test background, and difficulty in building a combat system.

In the field of research, the “Battlefield Metaverse” can provide a public platform for remote simulation and verification for the use of new equipment and innovation of tactics. On the basis of coordinating expert resources from various regions and centrally calling simulation computing power, virtual AI is used to play the combat forces of all parties, conduct uninterrupted simulation calculations, obtain massive data samples, and mine and analyze knowledge and conclusions that meet the research objectives. During the research process, researchers can also communicate and collaborate with relevant experts, intervene in real time and improve the simulation elements to ensure that the research results can stand the test of actual troops.

From the perspective of system architecture and functional characteristics, although the “Battlefield Metaverse” cannot directly affect actual combat operations, it can serve as a backup for wartime command and communication networks. When the command and communication network is paralyzed by enemy network attacks or key nodes are damaged by attacks, combat troops can try to access the communication link of the “Battlefield Metaverse” to ensure the most basic combat command and information exchange.

The above picture is a schematic diagram of the “Battlefield Metaverse”.

Gaosong System



簡單地說,「元宇宙」將是下一代網路的終極形態,是與現實世界平行同構的一個虛擬世界,具備多維度、全感官、虛實融合、無縫互動等主要特徵。 “戰場元宇宙”,則是“元宇宙”在軍事領域的表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求,更突出的戰場時統一致性、虛實一體性、邊界安全性、決策智能性、效能逼真性。












——獨立的網路通訊鏈路。 「戰場元宇宙」是建立在軍用高速網路架構和基礎設施上的獨立形態,與「元宇宙」全球隨遇接入的設計理念有明顯差異。 「戰場元宇宙」的使用者需要在相對固定的場所或區域,透過安全的軍用網路節點進行驗證登入。遠端無線網路連結不對外開放,並具備抵禦通訊幹擾和網路攻擊能力。







——靈活的場景生成能力。 「戰場元宇宙」需要針對每次活動,設定戰場區域,包括該區域地理環境、電磁環境、氣象環境和水文環境等。其情境資料需求更真實且準確,需要具備相關資格的機構進行逐步建置與持續維護。










高 嵩制


Chinese Military Training and the Metaverse: Challenges & Opportunities Coexist



 In the field of military training, the basic technology of the Metaverse has long been used as a virtual resource by the military to varying degrees. It must be acknowledged that the value and potential of the Metaverse in military training is immeasurable and is the focus of current and future military competition. However, due to the immaturity of the development of Metaverse-related technologies and their application in military training, the bright prospects are accompanied by potential risks.

1. The past and present of the military training metaverse
 The metaverse relies on a technology group with virtual reality technology as its core. In its early form in the military field, it is also called virtual simulation or simulated Internet. It can be said that virtual simulation training is very close to today’s concept of the metaverse and is the primary form of the military training metaverse. From ancient times to the present, the progress that has brought great influence in the field of science and technology is generally for winning wars or maintaining combat effectiveness. As the leading technology of the third scientific and technological revolution, the metaverse is used for military training in different forms of basic metaverses in the global military field.
      The US military began to deploy the “Military Metaverse” plan very early. In 1978, Jack Thorpe, a captain of the US Air Force, proposed the idea of ​​a military simulator network in his paper, hoping to establish a distributed or networked military modeling system to facilitate training. In 1983, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US Department of Defense developed the Virtual Battlefield Network Simulator (SIMNET Simulator), which uses computers to generate virtual battlefields, simulate the situation of fighting between the two sides, and summarize errors and failures. Replacing field exercises in this way saves costs to a certain extent and improves the effectiveness of training. Although the SIMNET simulator, as the earliest version, was still at a lower level of battlefield simulation, it pioneered distributed or networked modeling and simulation. By the end of the 1980s, the project reached its peak, and eventually more than 200 simulated interconnected tank and aircraft simulators based on local area networks and wide area networks were formed across the United States and across Europe, and used for large-scale training and exercises. The distributed interactive simulation (DIS) protocol developed at that time is still in use today, and through more advanced high-level architectures, different military simulations can be linked to provide a richer collective training or mission preparation experience. It can be said that the SIMNET simulator project directly or indirectly promoted the development of many key technologies of the current metaverse. Today, the US military is very interested in the metaverse that has sprung up like mushrooms after rain. The newly established military branch, the United States Space Force (USSF), wants to create a military-specific metaverse for collaborative operations, training, and mission execution. Its chief technology officer, Lisa Costa, declared: “Soldiers cannot go to space in person. The only way they can experience their own combat territory is through visual data display. The virtual reality environment will provide them with situational awareness and understand their options in order to make decisions.”
       In recent years, virtual reality and augmented reality technologies of the metaverse have been incorporated into the regular military training of the US military. In 2014, the BlueShark project developed by the Office of Naval Research and the Institute for Creative Technologies at the University of Southern California allowed soldiers to collaborate in a virtual environment to conduct driving technology training; in 2018, the US Army and Microsoft cooperated to develop an integrated visual enhancement system IVAS for soldiers to conduct regular training; in 2020, the US Navy launched the Avengers Project to conduct flight course training through virtual reality, artificial intelligence and biometric technology; in 2021, Boeing created a military aircraft training system that enables maintenance personnel to use AR technology for related simulated maintenance drills; on May 10, 2022, two US fighter pilots took a jet and completed a high-altitude prototype metaverse experiment over the California desert. Refueling operations were performed using a virtual tanker through a specially designed augmented reality display connected to a computer system that displayed a glowing image of a virtual refueling aircraft.

 (I) The US military uses virtual reality technology for military training on a large scale
 . At the same time, Russia is also a leader in the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embeddedness. For example, the Sound M universal virtual training system is a universal virtual training equipment for combat personnel of surface-to-air missile weapon systems. The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a special virtual training vehicle, which can complete battlefield simulation training while searching for targets and conducting weapon operations.

 (II) The Tor M1 surface-to-air missile system is also equipped with a dedicated virtual training vehicle.
 In addition, other countries have also begun to explore the combination of metaverse technology and military training. The British Army has been committed to studying the use of extended reality technology, which can put more than 30 soldiers in the same virtual training scene. The British Ministry of Defense’s “Single Synthetic Environment” has used this technology in soldier training. In South Korea, a developer and supplier of a military training simulator called “Optimus Prime” completed the development of the DEIMOS military training system based on metaverse technology in 2019 and applied it to the training of the armed forces. The system can create various environments for professional military training, including precision shooting training, tactical behavior training and observation training.

       2. The inherent advantages of the metaverse in military training Military training
is a commonplace in the military, specifically referring to the military theory and related professional knowledge education, combat skills training and military operations exercises conducted by the armed forces and other trainees. The continuous innovation of technologies such as artificial intelligence and virtual reality has accelerated the trend of intelligentization in future wars. Single actual combat exercises in traditional forms will be difficult to meet the combat requirements under the new situation. As a huge group of new technologies, the metaverse plays an increasingly important role in military training. If training is an important support for combat effectiveness, then the primary use of the metaverse in military training is as an important “enabler” for simulation training.       Immersive experience can improve the effectiveness of battlefield environment simulation. As a practical science, military training is centered on experience and the key to training is immersion. The virtual space created by the metaverse makes people feel a “common sense of embodied presence”, allowing trainees to fully immerse themselves in the virtual space and experience a war close to reality. Battlefield environment simulation uses virtual reality technology to process battlefield element data such as battlefield terrain, battlefield personnel, weapons and equipment through computer systems, and finally creates a realistic three-dimensional battlefield environment. Soldiers are immersed in digital environments such as deserts, mountains or plateaus. Each environment has different tactics, techniques and procedures, and soldiers can constantly practice tasks. Even if the soldiers are not in the actual battlefield environment, this technology is enough to restore the authenticity of the environment. More importantly, through battlefield simulation training, not only can soldiers become familiar with the battlefield environment and obtain information to the greatest extent, but they can also improve their ability to observe things from multiple angles and solve emergencies. The US military has developed a virtual reality system called a laser sand table, which can identify and convert photos and videos sent back by satellites, and turn them into realistic three-dimensional maps, presenting the battlefield environment thousands of miles away to commanders. Before the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the US military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes, including battlefield conditions, personnel appearances, etc., in order to allow soldiers to adapt to the environment in advance and improve their combat capabilities.

 (II) On the eve of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. military used virtual reality technology to create real war scenes
. Open interconnection better supports synthetic training. The various parts of the Metaverse ecosystem can be interconnected and operated, and information can be transmitted across platforms and across the world (between virtual worlds or between the virtual world and the real world) without hindrance. Synthetic training uses the open interconnection advantage of Metaverse technology to supplement actual combat training. According to statistics, since 2015, the number of non-combat deaths in the U.S. military has exceeded the number of deaths in actual military operations each year, and many of the deaths in non-combat operations are caused by conventional military training. Therefore, the U.S. Army has begun to use Metaverse to carry out synthetic training in an attempt to establish a virtual synthetic training environment (STE) to reduce casualties in training. From urban warfare to mountain warfare, the “synthetic training environment” integrates “real-time, virtual and constructive training environments into a single synthetic training environment, and provides training functions to ground, transport and air platforms and command posts where needed.” Practice has proved that the synthetic training environment built by the metaverse, with the help of multi-sensory simulation and restoration, can help soldiers break through the limitations of theoretical learning and cognition, and improve the quality and ability of team combat coordination, injury treatment and safe evacuation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US military stationed in Kuwait conducted synthetic training on Iraq’s urban conditions, which enhanced the soldiers’ urban combat capabilities while minimizing casualties in actual combat. The
      imaginative space stimulates innovation in military training thinking to the greatest extent. War exercises have been valued by military strategists since ancient times. During the Warring States Period, Mozi and Gongshu Ban’s deduction games of “untying belts to make a city” and “wooden pieces to make weapons” rehearsed the real situation on the battlefield, thus avoiding fighting between the two armies. In the deep scene era opened by the future metaverse, the military system will become highly intelligent, and the two sides of the war may be able to conduct war deductions in the battlefield metaverse, and even compete in the virtual world. Based on the information obtained in the virtual world, the two sides of the deduction capture and predict the changes in the battlefield through thinking processes such as association, reasoning and logical judgment, which is not only conducive to learning more war laws, but also can exercise the soldiers’ logical deduction ability. In the Gulf War of 1991, the U.S. military conducted war games based on the training level of the troops, the possible course of the war, and the time required for actual combat before implementing Operation Desert Storm. Practice has proved that the U.S. military used the problems found in this war game to transform the combat concept into an actual action plan and ultimately won. This also fully demonstrates that the real battlefield is full of uncertainties, so it is necessary to be fully prepared through continuous war exercises. Undoubtedly, it is almost impossible for the enemy and us to conduct coordinated deductions in the real world, but if the deployment of the enemy and us can be made public to a certain extent by their respective satellites, air and ground reconnaissance equipment, then at a certain time point, between two or more parties about to break out a military crisis, it is expected that the deployment of troops in the metaverse can be carried out first, and the actual military conflict can be resolved.
      The application of metaverse technology in military training can not only avoid accidental casualties during training, but also allow a single or many trainees to complete training tasks in different virtual environments without leaving home and without actual contact. And this kind of non-contact training plays a more obvious role in the regular form of the new crown epidemic.
       3. Potential risks of the metaverse in military training
Although the metaverse provides technical support for military training to a large extent, it should never be simply understood as a training program or considered as a means of conducting training. Even if the metaverse technology brings convenience and innovation to military training, the technology itself and its accompanying challenges and uncertainties cannot be ignored.
      The development of metaverse technology may cause security issues. The metaverse is a huge technology group. Its system architecture, core algorithms and immersive technology are still in a stage of continuous development. The supporting industry, value consensus, management standards, etc. have not yet been reached. In general, the metaverse is still a new thing, and its application in military training is even more so. Although the use of virtual training systems can reduce casualties to a certain extent, it is worth thinking about whether such training can be truly used in combat sites. It is still an unknown. And whether the technology is safe enough in operation is also an urgent problem to be solved. James Crowley of Virtual City Training Experts pointed out that computer power may be the most influential part of it. Unless the delay can be reduced to a level that does not make people uncomfortable and feels real, and unless the movement and communication data between different people can be stored in different simulators, it will not be able to provide practical training tools. At the same time, another challenge is the security issue of mutual contact between the armies of different countries in the open virtual world of the Metaverse.
      Virtual training environments are prone to cognitive illusions. Military training in the Metaverse world is the result of a contest between human intelligence and technology. War simulations and military training conducted in a virtual environment can have a powerful deterrent effect on future wars, just like “nuclear weapons”. Although it makes up for the limited senses of people at the physiological level, it also brings psychological cognitive illusions to trainees. Taking unmanned combat military training as an example, long-term combat training under a virtual system will cause the operator to have a gaming mentality. Because the audiovisual senses are out of touch with the real battlefield situation, they are alienated from the real people and society, and have a numb mentality towards the behavior of depriving others of their lives. With the continuous maturity of Metaverse technology, the interaction between the virtual world and the real world will become closer and closer, forming a mixed world that is difficult to distinguish between the real and the virtual. By then, it will not only cause a distinction dilemma for the cognitive psychology of soldiers, but also a major challenge for future military training. The
      “decentralization” of the Metaverse deviates from the traditional military training structure. In the world of the metaverse, all parties involved are virtual entities with equal status after computer processing and digitization. They can act autonomously in the metaverse, so they pursue “decentralization”. However, the traditional military training organizational structure is highly centralized and hierarchical management from top to bottom, which is contrary to the value needs of the metaverse. The US military has made a lot of efforts in pursuing “decentralized” operations, such as the “network-centric warfare” proposed in the 1990s, and the current distributed lethality and mosaic warfare. However, the traditional military training structure and thinking inertia are still obstacles to “decentralization”, and this situation is common in the armies of various countries.
     Yuval Noah Harari said in “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” that humans conquer the world by relying on the ability of fiction and imagination. The metaverse gives us the ability to fiction and imagine, and at the same time, the uncertainty of the metaverse in the field of military training also increases the element of fear. Therefore, we must pay attention to innovative scientific and technological theories, develop cutting-edge metaverse technologies, continuously stimulate the potential of the military training metaverse, and at the same time improve relevant laws, regulations and moral and ethical regulations to make advance preparations for winning future intelligent wars.


美軍很早就開始部署「軍事元宇宙」計畫。 1978年,美空軍上尉傑克·索普在自己的論文中提出了軍事模擬器網路的構想,希望建立一個分散式或網路化的軍事建模系統方便訓練。 1983年美國防部高級研究計畫局(DARPA),開發了虛擬戰場網路模擬器(SIMNET模擬器),以電腦生成虛擬戰場,模擬雙方交戰的情形進行推演,總結錯誤和失敗。用這樣的方式取代實地演習,一定程度上節省了成本,也提高了訓練的效果。雖然SIMNET模擬器作為最早的版本仍處於較低階的戰場仿真,但卻開闢了分散式或網路化建模仿真的先河。到了20世紀80年代末,該計畫達到頂峰,最終落地形成200多個遍布美國、橫跨歐洲,基於區域網路和廣域網路的模擬互聯坦克和飛機模擬器,並用於大規模訓練與演習。而當時開發的分散式互動式模擬(DIS)協議,至今仍在使用,並且透過更先進的高階體系結構,可以連結不同的軍事模擬,以提供更豐富的集體訓練或任務準備體驗。可以說SIMNET模擬器專案直接或間接推動了當前元宇宙的許多關鍵技術的發展。時至今日,美軍對如雨後春筍般崛起的元宇宙興趣正濃,新成立的軍種——美國太空部隊(USSF)欲打造軍事專用元宇宙,用於協同作戰、訓練、執行任務。其技術主管利薩·科斯塔宣稱:「軍人們並不能親自上太空,他們體驗自身作戰疆域的唯一途徑就是視覺數據顯示,虛擬現實環境會為他們提供態勢感知,並了解自己的選項,以便做出決策。
近年來,元宇宙的虛擬實境和擴增實境技術已納入美軍的常規軍事訓練。 2014年,南加州大學海軍研究辦公室和創意技術研究所開發的BlueShark項目,讓士兵在虛擬環境中協作配合,進行駕駛技術訓練;2018年,美陸軍與微軟合作開發了一款集成視覺增強系統IVAS ,供士兵進行常規訓練;2020年,美海軍又推出了復仇者計劃,透過虛擬現實、人工智慧以及生物識別技術,開展飛行課程培訓;2021年,波音公司打造了一個軍用飛機培訓系統,使維修人員利用AR技術進行相關模擬維修演練;2022年5月10日,兩名美軍戰鬥機飛行員乘坐噴射機,在加州沙漠上空完成了一次高空原型元宇宙實驗。透過特製的擴增實境顯示器,連接到一個虛擬加油飛機發光影像的電腦系統,使用虛擬加油機進行了加油操作。



想像性空間最大程度激發軍事訓練思維創新。戰爭演習自古就受到兵家重視,戰國時期墨子和公輸班「解帶為城」「木片為械」的推演遊戲將戰場上的真實情況演練出來,從而避免了兩軍交戰。在未來元宇宙開啟的深度場景時代,軍事體系將走向高度智慧化,作戰雙方或許能在戰場元宇宙進行戰爭推演,甚至在虛擬世界一決高下。推演雙方根據虛擬世界獲取的信息,透過聯想、推理和邏輯判斷等思維過程,對戰場風雲變化進行捕捉和預判,不僅有利於習得更多戰爭規律,還能夠鍛鍊士兵的邏輯推演能力。 1991年的海灣戰爭中,美軍就在實施「沙漠風暴」行動前,根據部隊的訓練水準和可能的戰爭進程,以及實際作戰所需時間進行了兵棋推演。實踐證明,美軍借助這次兵棋推演發現的問題,將作戰設想轉化為實際行動方案,最終取得勝利。這也充分說明了真實的戰場充滿了種種不確定性,因此需要透過不斷進行戰爭演習來做好充分準備。毋庸置疑,敵我雙方在現實世界中進行協同推演幾乎是不可能的,但若敵我雙方的兵力部署可以被各自的衛星、空中和地面偵查設備進行一定程度的公開,那麼在某個時間節點,在即將爆發軍事危機的雙方或多方之間,先在元宇宙中進行排兵布陣,可以化解現實的軍事衝突則有望實現。


Chinese Military Analysis on the Application of Metaverse in Military Communication



Abstract: Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technologies, will become the key to future media content production and cognitive advantage. Looking forward to the development prospects of Metaverse, this article explains the concept of Metaverse and analyzes its development prospects, key technologies and practical applications, aiming to provide reference for the application of Metaverse in the field of military communication.

Keywords: Metaverse; Military Communication; Development Prospects

The Metaverse has become a hot topic that people are competing to talk about, and has been selected as one of the “Top Ten Internet Terms of 2021”. Globally renowned Internet companies from Facebook to ByteDance are all planning the Metaverse. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was called a “public opinion war” and “cognitive war” with various means by domestic and foreign public opinion experts. Some experts even exclaimed that cognitive domain warfare in the form of the Metaverse has begun. The Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technology, will become the key to future media content production and gaining cognitive advantages. Exploring the application of the Metaverse in the field of military communication has become an important topic in the era of omnimedia.

1. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects

Metaverse was born in the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. The Metaverse described in the novel is a virtual shared space parallel to the real world. According to relevant information, as early as 1990, Qian Xuesen had a vision of virtual reality and Metaverse, and gave it a very meaningful name – “Spirit Realm”. Four years later, Qian Xuesen specifically mentioned: “Spirit Realm technology is another technological revolution after the computer technology revolution. It will trigger a series of changes that will shock the world and must be a major event in human history.” Qian Xuesen had already foreseen that Metaverse-related technologies would bring profound changes to human society.

From originating from science fiction to entering reality, the industry has not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the metaverse. According to the research of relevant experts, the essential characteristics of the metaverse are two: virtual-real integration and immersive experience. Virtual-real integration means that the boundary between the digital world and the physical world gradually disappears, and the economy, life, assets and identity of the two worlds are fully integrated. Immersive experience means that people’s two-dimensional audio-visual experience of the Internet is expanded into a three-dimensional, immersive, full-sensory experience. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects.

The Metaverse is the next generation of the Internet. Looking back at the development of the Internet, from PC Internet to mobile Internet, the sense of immersion when using the Internet has gradually increased, and the distance between virtual and reality has gradually shortened. Under this trend, the Metaverse, where both immersion and participation have reached their peak, may be the “ultimate form” of the Internet. Regarding the future development of the Metaverse, some experts predict that: in terms of hardware terminals, with the portable development of wearable devices such as VR/AR glasses, their popularity will increase significantly, and people will gradually adapt to and accept the larger visual range and more natural interaction methods brought by new devices; in terms of content ecology and application scenarios, explosive Metaverse content will continue to emerge, and application scenarios will gradually expand. In the Metaverse, user experience has achieved an improvement and transformation from “online” to “presence”, thus entering the “scenario era”.

The metaverse is a new type of holographic medium. With the development of media technology, the presentation of media content has evolved from one-dimensional, two-dimensional to multi-dimensional. The emergence of the metaverse is another revolution in communication media after radio, television, and the Internet. From the perspective of user experience, the metaverse not only expands the user’s experience space, but also brings an immersive experience of “you are not just watching the content, you are in it as a whole”. From the perspective of media products, a large number of “we are on the scene” news media products will appear in the metaverse. The media products of the metaverse will achieve the advancement of news content with immersive narratives. For example, major sudden incident reports, large-scale live events, news documentaries, etc., can make the complete news scene into a digital scene of the metaverse, allowing the audience to enter the scene from various perspectives for experience. From the perspective of communication methods, there are currently four main modes of information communication: mass communication, network communication, social communication, and intelligent communication. The arrival of the new media of the metaverse will enrich the means of information communication in the era of intelligent communication, and “holographic communication” will become possible.

The metaverse is the future battlefield of cognitive domain warfare. The essence of communication media is the communication platform and channel, which is the material basis and main weapon of cognitive narrative in cognitive domain warfare. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was reported to the world in countless “first-person perspectives”. Both Russia and Ukraine spoke out on online media and social platforms to compete for the dominance of international communication cognitive narrative. As a new type of holographic medium, the metaverse transmits cognition in a full-dimensional, full-system and immersive way. It can shape people’s thinking and cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly, and has immeasurable application value in cognitive warfare. In addition, the metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenarios, where cognitive warfare can be efficiently promoted and presented in a panoramic manner.

2. A Preliminary Study on the Application of Metaverse in the Field of Military Communication

Like other new technologies, the metaverse was quickly applied to the field of military communication. The PLA News and Communication Center made a bold attempt and launched the “Holographic Military Newspaper” during the National People’s Congress for three consecutive years. It used technologies such as extended reality and digital construction to show a newspaper full of futuristic atmosphere: you can wear VR glasses to experience the “Holographic Military Newspaper” immersively, or you can watch it through your mobile phone. The “Holographic Military Newspaper” is the first of its kind in the domestic newspaper publishing industry and has been selected as an innovative case of deep integration and development of China’s newspaper industry. During the 2021 National People’s Congress, the center also launched the military media intelligent cartoon virtual person “Xiaojun”, which realized the same-screen interaction between 3D cartoons and real people. In 2022, the center and the Art Department of the PLA Culture and Art Center jointly launched the “2022 Metaverse Military Camp Network Spring Festival Gala”, which used metaverse technology to build a virtual space and interactive platform. Netizens and audiences can enter the three-dimensional virtual space by avatars, visit the performance site, and choose their favorite seats to watch the Spring Festival Gala. They can also interact with the audience around them through language and gestures. Some netizens commented: “It’s so shocking! The literary and artistic light cavalry team expressed it in the form of the metaverse, which shows the advancement of technology!” In addition, the center’s network department also took the lead in launching the public welfare NFT digital collection “Stars Accompany Me to Guard the Border”.

At present, the military-related authoritative media is organizing a team to promote the preliminary research and design of the Metaverse Editorial Department. Looking at the development process from traditional news editorial departments to intelligent editorial departments, combined with the advanced technology and future development of the Metaverse, experts have proposed the concept of “Metaverse Editorial Department”, that is, “Metaverse Editorial Department” enables editors and reporters at multiple locations to efficiently complete planning, interviews, editing, publishing and other tasks “face to face” in the same virtual space, the same chain of command, and the same work system. This will be the evolution of the news editorial department in the future. Each editor and reporter has his or her own virtual workspace. When there is a need for a meeting discussion, they can instantly travel to the virtual conference room for “face-to-face” communication.

3. Thoughts on how to win the cognitive war in the metaverse

A major feature of the 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict is the deep involvement of social media. Mobile Internet has become the main source of information related to this conflict. As mentioned earlier, the special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects. How to win the cognitive war in the metaverse urgently requires us to think forward-lookingly.

Strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse. As a pioneering and innovative frontier field, the metaverse has huge initial R&D costs and requires long-term and continuous high investment to achieve the docking and unification of massive standards and specifications and the connection and interaction of ultra-large-scale users. This also leads to the inherent monopoly gene of the metaverse. At present, American companies such as Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, with the support of their governments and military, have deeply laid out the metaverse, and are very likely to become the technology monopolist and ruler of the future metaverse, just like the current situation of the Internet. In this Russia-Ukraine conflict, these technology giants “one-sidedly” pointed their spearheads at Russia, restricted or even banned Russia from using its technology products, and provided support for the United States to impose comprehensive sanctions. This warns us that in order not to be constrained in technology in the future, we should concentrate the superior forces of the military and the local area, aim at the metaverse technology, work together to tackle key problems, and strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse.

Develop a metaverse platform that adapts to cognitive warfare. Developing a metaverse platform that is autonomous, controllable, has a wide coverage, and has a great influence is the key to winning in the cognitive domain battlefield in the future. Back to the Russia-Ukraine conflict, in order to suppress Russia from public opinion, American social platforms such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, at the instruction of the US officials, directly restricted the exposure of Russian media. It can be said that they have taken advantage of the platform at the cognitive warfare level. This requires us to actively think about the future form of military communication platforms, develop metaverse platforms that adapt to cognitive warfare, and strive to create explosive products. For example, launching a metaverse version of the military’s new media platform.

We should speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. In addition to the traditional visible content types, content creation in the Metaverse era has also added a large amount of three-dimensional content, including panoramic shooting, digital twins of the real world, artificial construction of virtual space, and the display of virtual digital people. It is an issue that needs to be considered at present to speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. For example, the creation of digital history museums, the creation of heroic virtual people, the reproduction of classic battles, etc., can truly make history “perceptible” and make cultural relics “speaking”. In addition, the independent research and development of content creation tools is also critical.


摘 要:元宇宙作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。展望元宇宙發展前景,本文闡釋了元宇宙概念,並圍繞其發展圖景、關鍵技術和實踐應用進行闡釋分析,旨在為元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用提供借鑒參考。


元宇宙,目前成為人們競相談論的熱門話題,並入選了「2021年度十大網路用語」。從Facebook到位元組跳動等全球知名網路公司都在版面元宇宙。 2022年的俄烏衝突被國內外輿論戰專家稱作是一場手段多樣的“輿論戰”“認知戰”,有專家甚至驚呼元宇宙形態下的認知域作戰拉開了序幕。元宇宙,作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。探尋元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用,成為全媒體時代一門重要課題。


元宇宙(Metaverse),誕生於1992年的科幻小說《雪崩》。小說中所描述的元宇宙是一個平行於現實世界的虛擬共享空間。根據相關資料顯示,早在1990年,錢學森就對虛擬實境與元宇宙有過展望,並為其起了個頗有意境的名字—「靈境」。 4年後,錢學森特別提到:「靈境技術是繼電腦科技革命之後的另一場科技革命。它將引發一系列震撼全世界的變革,一定是人類歷史中的大事。」錢學森當時就已預見元宇宙相關技術將對人類社會帶來的深層變革。




元宇宙是認知域作戰的未來戰場。傳播媒介實質就是傳播平台和管道,是認知域作戰中認知敘事的物質基礎和主要武器。 2022年的俄烏衝突以無數「第一視角」的方式向全球報道,俄烏雙方都在網路媒體和社群平台發聲,爭奪國際傳播認知敘事主導權。元宇宙作為新型全像媒介,其傳導認知的方式是全維度、全系統和沈浸式的,能夠更全面、更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知,具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。另外,元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進和全景式呈現。


和其他新技術的產生一樣,元宇宙也很快被應用於軍事傳播領域。解放軍新聞傳播中心進行了大膽嘗試,連續3年在全國兩會期間推出的“全息軍報”,運用擴展現實、數字構建等技術,展示了一份充滿未來氣息的報紙:可以佩戴VR眼鏡沉浸式體驗“全息軍報”,也可以透過手機觀看。 「全像軍報」是國內報紙出版業的首創,入選了中國報業深度融合發展創新案例。 2021年全國兩會期間,該中心還推出軍媒智慧卡通虛擬人“小軍”,實現了3D卡通與現實人物的同屏互動。 2022年,該中心和解放軍文化藝術中心文藝部共同推出的“2022年元宇宙軍營網絡春晚”,利用元宇宙技術搭建虛擬空間和互動平台。網友觀眾化身虛擬人即可進入立體虛擬空間,參觀演出現場,並自行選擇喜好的座位觀看春晚,還可以跟著周圍的觀眾進行語言和手勢互動。有網友評價:「太震撼了!文藝輕騎以元宇宙的形式表現,真是科技在進步!」另外,該中心網絡部還率先推出了公益性NFT數字藏品《星星伴我守邊防》。









Metaverse-enabled military training is on the rise for China’s People’s Liberation Army



The metaverse is an artificial online virtual world that is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It is parallel to the real world, reacts to the real world, and integrates a variety of high technologies. These are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural laws of human understanding and transformation of the world, providing a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operation behavior, state, and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. Researching the application of the metaverse in the field of foreign military training and analyzing the opportunities and challenges that the metaverse brings to the field of military training have important theoretical and practical value in solving the key problems that need to be solved in military training in the intelligent era, promoting scientific and technological training, and promoting the innovative development of military training models.

Background of cognitive metaverse empowering military training

The scientific and technological revolution has given rise to a new ecosystem for military training. Driven by the new scientific and technological revolution and the industrial revolution, cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, and the Internet of Things are accelerating their development. Technology giants are laying out the metaverse, and human real life is migrating to the virtual world more rapidly. The metaverse integrates a variety of emerging technologies, thus generating new Internet applications and new social forms that integrate the virtual and the real. Perception technology supports the integration of the virtual and the real in the metaverse, “AI+” technology supports the social nature of the metaverse, data transmission technology supports the real-time nature of the metaverse, electronic game technology supports the diversity of the metaverse, digital twin technology supports the sustainability of the metaverse, and blockchain technology supports the security of the metaverse. The future metaverse, where virtuality and reality are highly interconnected, is born out of, parallel to, and independent of the real world. It integrates all elements such as the Internet, virtual reality, immersive experience, blockchain, and digital twins to build a new basic ecology for intelligent military training.

The evolution of war dominates the transformation and upgrading of military training. With the advent of the intelligent era, the war form is accelerating its evolution towards informationization and intelligence. The informationized warfare system with “information acquisition and utilization as the core” will gradually transition to an intelligent warfare system with “intelligent simulation and expansion as the core”. The trend of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned weapons and equipment is more obvious, and intelligent warfare has surfaced. At the same time, combat elements represented by artificial intelligence such as “AI, cloud, network, group, and terminal” and their diversified combinations have formed a new battlefield ecology. The metaverse has built a new battlefield space where virtual and real are integrated and parallel and interactive. The traditional war winning mechanism is being profoundly changed. The development and change of intelligent warfare has compulsorily driven the transformation and reshaping of the military’s thinking and concepts, requiring the acceleration of the transformation and upgrading of military training, paying more attention to the impact of technological development and changes on war, and using the “new engine” of training and war to run out of the “acceleration” of preparation.

Foreign militaries explore breakthroughs in military training models. In order to seize the strategic commanding heights of military intelligence, the world’s military powers attach great importance to the innovation of military training models, and some countries have begun to try to apply the metaverse and related technologies in military training. For example, the United States has successively released the “National Security Strategy”, “National Defense Strategy” and “Department of Defense Transformation Plan”, focusing on building an “all-round army” and forming a “full spectrum advantage”. At the same time, it has formulated the “Training Transformation Strategic Plan” and “Training Transformation Implementation Plan”, and proposed the concept of comprehensive training environment (STE), the core of which is immersive and integrated virtual training, which intends to integrate real-time, virtual, constructive and game environments into a comprehensive training environment. Russia also attaches great importance to the development of virtual training systems. Almost all of its advanced weapons and equipment are equipped with corresponding virtual training systems, and are developing in the direction of universalization and embedding. The United Kingdom, Germany, South Korea, etc. are also actively developing various professional military training virtual environments. Intelligent training supported by technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality and augmented reality is gradually becoming the mainstream of military training research in powerful countries.

Clarify the advantages of metaverse-enabled military training

Sprouting new concepts of military training. Only by leading opponents in thought can we gain the upper hand in action. The emergence of disruptive technologies will inevitably rewrite the current military training rules and systems, and will also innovate the existing military training thinking concepts. On the one hand, the metaverse has set off a hurricane-like “brainstorm”, and the training thinking led by “intelligence” will organically connect training with actual combat, and upgrade to intelligent military training thinking. On the other hand, new technologies and new means represented by the metaverse empower military training, strengthen the concept of winning by science and technology and intelligent driving, and greatly improve the scientific and technological content of military training, in order to control the initiative in future wars. The future metaverse will create more impossible possibilities by constructing a virtual battlefield space, designing wars and evolving wars.

Innovate new theories of military training. War is the area that needs innovation the most. Military training must adapt to the development of intelligent warfare, and theoretical innovation and training practice must be driven by two wheels. Training transformation will not happen automatically. It requires not only a sharp and profound foresight to grasp the general trend, but also a scientific and powerful solid theory to drive forward. On the one hand, by keeping up with the development of the times and starting from new concepts and new cognitions, we can build a scientific theoretical system for metaverse-enabled military training. On the other hand, by following the laws of combat-training coupling, we can establish an intelligent military training theory innovation model with the characteristics of the times, so that the metaverse can empower and improve the efficiency of promoting the iterative development of military training transformation.

Transform the new model of military training. The combat style determines the training mode. Intelligent warfare changes the “rules of the game”. Military training for the next war must adapt to the requirements of future wars by changing the training mode. The first is to be able to build an intelligent blue army with “both form and spirit”. With the help of optimized AI technology, powerful computing support, and realistic performance simulation, the Metaverse follows the evolutionary process of “knowing the enemy, imitating the enemy, surpassing the enemy, and defeating the enemy” to create an intelligent blue army with platform support and data empowerment, and carry out “real” confrontation training and effect evaluation in the Metaverse space. The second is to be able to carry out new domain and new quality combat training. The metaverse expands the practical application path with new domains and new types of combat forces as the leading elements, highlights the research and development of training methods and tactics that are compatible with advanced combat concepts and winning mechanisms, and creates new types of training such as unmanned and seamless human-machine collaboration, becoming a new point of combat power growth. Third, it can cultivate new military talents. At present, the educational metaverse has led the intelligent transformation of education. In the future, the military metaverse will accelerate the realization of intelligent interaction between people and equipment, deep integration between people and systems, and adaptive evolution between people and the environment, and promote the integrated development of “commanders” and “fighters” to “scientists” and “technicians”.

Reshape the new ecology of military training. The multi-dimensional perception, virtual-real integration, free creativity, and open development of the metaverse will make the future metaverse a fully immersive, time-transcending, self-creating and developing space. First, create a digital twin “battlefield metaverse”. The “battlefield metaverse” will be a typical manifestation of the metaverse in the military field, with stricter security and confidentiality standards, stronger simulation computing capabilities, and more real-time and detailed interaction requirements. Secondly, create a full-dimensional three-dimensional metaverse training environment. The metaverse uses technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality to create an immersive and complex scene environment; using powerful data and network support, it builds a full-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and the Internet. Furthermore, build a metaverse verification platform for weapons and equipment. The platform will have functions such as new weapon equipment design demonstration, weapon equipment performance test, weapon equipment compatibility test, and weapon system combat effectiveness test. In the future, the metaverse will greatly shorten the timeline of weapons and equipment from “weak intelligence” to “strong intelligence” and then to “super intelligence”, and realize the intelligent multiplication effect of weapons and equipment.

Grasp the key points of metaverse empowered military training

Focus on top-level design. From the perspective of the development of things, the metaverse, as a new thing, has yet to be verified to mature. Intelligent military training is also a complex, arduous and long-term system engineering, which requires strengthening strategic planning and top-level layout. We should pay close attention to the development and technological trends of the metaverse, scientifically formulate the development plan of the “training metaverse”, and give full play to the outstanding advantages of the metaverse in allowing trainees to immerse themselves in experiential training under the realistic background of the integration of intelligence, informatization, and mechanization, so that the metaverse can not only be a display platform for virtual technology, but also a practical platform for improving the effectiveness of military training.

Strengthen technology research and development. From a technical perspective, the metaverse re-integrates the existing technologies in the information and intelligent technology group, puts forward an overall innovative concept, and provides a comprehensive application scenario, thereby giving birth to new vitality. To accelerate the development of the “training metaverse”, we must speed up the research on basic software and hardware technologies such as algorithm engines and network communications, strengthen the research and development capabilities of core technologies such as artificial intelligence, digital twins, blockchain, and the Internet of Things, and at the same time strengthen the overall technical design and development of the metaverse, such as immersion, sociality, openness, collaboration, and decentralization.

Create training types. From the perspective of time and space, the metaverse may construct an extremely large virtual war space, reproduce the war environment, present the war process, and virtualize the future of war. An intelligent military training operation system based on the metaverse should be constructed, the military training thinking concept should be updated in a timely manner, and innovations in military training models, management guarantees, and legal mechanisms should be deepened. Construct a dynamic and high-level combat-oriented military training environment based on the metaverse to fully support strategic, campaign and tactical training and war games. At the same time, in the process of “intelligent adaptation” of military training, realize the expansion of wisdom and intelligent evolution towards the unknown space of military training with “innovation, openness, multiple iterations, and new intelligent ecology”.

Pay attention to risk prevention and control. From the perspective of safety and controllability, the concept and technology of the metaverse bring innovative opportunities for intelligent military training, but what cannot be ignored is the potential risks associated with the technology itself. The Metaverse is a huge technology complex, and its system architecture, key technologies, and application environment are still in the development and implementation stage. The supporting protection system, safety technology, and management standards will bring security risks. In addition, the integrated application of multiple emerging technologies during the construction process, as well as the complexity and confidentiality of the application process, will be unknown factors that will be the key prevention and risk challenges of the Metaverse in military training.











重塑軍事訓練新生態。元宇宙的多維感知性、虛實融合性、自由創造性、開放發展性等特點,使未來元宇宙將成為完全沉浸式的、超越時空的、自我創造發展的空間。首先,打造數字孿生的「戰場元宇宙」。 「戰場元宇宙」將是元宇宙在軍事領域的典型表現形態,具有更嚴格的安全保密標準、更強大的仿真計算能力、更實時的精細交互要求。其次,創造全維立體的元宇宙訓練環境。元宇宙運用虛擬現實、增強現實以及混合現實等技術,創造沉浸複雜的場景環境;利用強大的數據、網絡支撐,搭建起陸、海、空、天、電、網等全維空間。再者,建造武器裝備的元宇宙驗證平台。該平台將具備新型武器裝備設計論證、武器裝備性能試驗、武器裝備相容性試驗、武器系統體係作戰效能檢驗等功能。未來元宇宙將大幅縮短武器裝備從「弱智」到「強智」再到「超智」的時間軸,以實現武器裝備的智慧倍增效應。






來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:侯春牧 王勇 責任編輯:於雅倩 發布:2024-01-16


China’s Military Unveils the Metaverse



As if overnight, “metaverse” suddenly became a hot word, and related concepts formed many hot topics.

With the development of technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks, blockchain, and the iteration of terminal equipment, the construction and evolution of the “metaverse” may far exceed people’s expectations, and a new Internet form of multi-dimensional, full-sensory, immersive human-computer interaction will hopefully become a reality.

What is the Metaverse?

“Metaverse” is a term that comes from the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. In the novel, humans live in a virtual three-dimensional world through “Avatar” (digital virtual avatar), and the author calls this space “Metaverse”.

From science fiction to reality, people have not yet reached an absolute consensus on “what is the metaverse”. Due to the evolution of the times and technological changes, the “metaverse” is still an evolving concept. “There are a thousand Hamlets in the eyes of a thousand people”. Different participants are constantly enriching its definition in their own way, and the possibilities of the characteristics and forms of the “metaverse” are also constantly changing. However, we can explore a little through the existing presentation of the “metaverse”.

At present, “Metaverse” concept products are mainly concentrated in online games, VR/AR, social networking and other fields.

Online games are generally considered by the industry to be the most likely field to realize the “metaverse” because they have virtual scenes and players’ virtual avatars. Today, game functions have gone beyond the game itself, and the boundaries of games are expanding, and they are no longer just games.

A well-known singer held a virtual concert with his virtual image in the game “Fortnite”, which attracted more than 12 million players from all over the world to participate, breaking the boundary between entertainment and games; due to the impact of the epidemic, the University of California, Berkeley and the School of Animation and Digital Studies of Communication University of China coincidentally rebuilt their campuses in the sandbox game “Minecraft”. Students gathered together with virtual avatars to complete the “cloud graduation ceremony”, realizing the integration of virtual games and real social interactions.

The new generation of “VR social (virtual offline social)” has gradually developed and become popular. It is a fusion of offline social (face-to-face in reality) and online social (through social software such as WeChat). Some well-known VR social platforms provide a free community environment, which not only becomes a place for players’ online activities and virtual face-to-face gatherings, but also becomes a social and cultural phenomenon closely related to the current concept of “metaverse”.

The above-mentioned “metaverse slices” are all important explorations into the construction of the “metaverse”, and they explain in a variety of visible and tangible ways how the “metaverse” will change our real life.

In common research, the following consensus has been formed: “Metaverse” is a new type of Internet application and social form that integrates multiple new technologies and integrates virtual and real. It provides immersive experience based on extended reality technology, generates virtual and real scenes based on digital twins and 3D rendering technology, builds basic software and hardware services based on cloud computing, artificial intelligence and high-speed networks, and builds an economic system based on blockchain technology, closely integrating the virtual world with the real world in economic system, social system and identity system. At the same time, it allows each user to produce and edit content, and has complete self-driving and iteration capabilities.

The development direction of the “metaverse”

Today’s mobile Internet is actually still in a flat information interaction state, presented on mobile terminals through text, sound, pictures, and videos. Although news information, e-commerce, social chat, live video, etc. meet people’s needs for using the Internet, it is obviously impossible to achieve the effect of face-to-face communication and full sensory experience in real life through the mobile phone screen. With the development of society, people need more original and rich experience and interaction.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to move their daily lives from offline to online. This forced transformation has led to more thinking, discussion and attention on the “metaverse”. In particular, the core feature of the “metaverse” is the immersive experience, which can turn a plane into a three-dimensional, multi-dimensional, real-time interactive space, greatly enriching and restoring the real physical world and various human relationships. Therefore, people have high hopes for the “metaverse”.

Looking back at the development of information technology and media, humans have continuously changed the way they perceive the world, and later began to consciously transform and reshape the world. From the newspaper era, the radio and television era, to the Internet era, and the mobile Internet era, the tools and platforms under the concept of “metaverse” are becoming increasingly complete, and the path to the “metaverse” is gradually becoming clearer.

Since 2020, Internet giants in various countries have been closely deploying cutting-edge technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks and blockchain, and the door to the ultimate closed-loop ecosystem of the “metaverse” has been opened little by little. Today, when the “bonus” of mobile Internet users has peaked, many experts and scholars have stated that the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet.

Just as it was difficult to accurately predict the development of the Internet 20 years ago, people cannot accurately predict the future form of the “metaverse”. However, combined with the development trends of related industries today, we can see that: the Internet has changed human life and digitized communication between people, and the “metaverse” will digitize the relationship between people and society; the technologies related to the “metaverse” will show gradual development, single-point technological innovations will continue to appear and merge, and all aspects of the industry will move closer to the ultimate form of the “metaverse”; the “metaverse” will emerge with a large amount of user-generated content, and at the same time, the value of digital assets will be revealed.

In general, the “metaverse” will profoundly change the organization and operation of the existing society through the integration of the virtual and the real, form a new lifestyle with both virtual and real poles, give birth to a new social relationship that integrates online and offline, and give new vitality to the real economy from the virtual dimension.

The future physical “metaverse” will be similar to the scene described in the science fiction movie “Ready Player One”: one day in the future, people can switch identities anytime and anywhere, freely shuttle between the real world and the virtual world, and study, work, make friends, shop, travel, etc. in the “metaverse”. Through immersive experience, the virtual world will be closer to and integrated into the real world.

In this virtual world, there will be self-evolving content and economic systems that will always remain safe and stable to meet the social needs of individuals.

The mediating role of the “metaverse”

“Imagine the ‘metaverse’ as a physical Internet, where you are not just watching content, but you are fully immersed in it.” This is a vivid description. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, the content of these “metaverses” that allow “full immersion” is relatively scarce. It needs more content that can be independently written, self-iterated, and multi-dimensionally attract users to participate in the experience and even participate in the creation.

The “metaverse” is bound to become a brand-new platform for media content production. Content producers can transform the “small universe” into the “big universe” through rich content production. In the short term, the breakthrough of the “metaverse” is immersive content. With the development and penetration of the concept of “metaverse”, the integration of immersive virtual content (such as games, cartoons, etc.) and immersive physical content (such as media, social networking, film and television, etc.) will become higher and higher. In other words, the “metaverse” will play a greater role as a medium.

In September this year, Yu Guoming, a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication of Beijing Normal University, pointed out at the release conference of the “2020-2021 “Metaverse” Development Research Report”: “Today, the role of the media is generally to provide cognitive information, but the role of the media is completing a process from providing cognition to providing experience. The entire media and technology has undergone a huge transformation from cognitive development to experience. Once the goal of “Metaverse” is established, it will play a directional role in communication technology, communication forms, communication methods and even communication effects.” If the “Metaverse” is the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet, then it is a super media channel that will show the ultimate form of media convergence and provide the best immersive experience.

Theoretically, the best communication experience must be based on real scenes. For example, when watching a football game, the ideal situation is to watch it in person on the field. In the “metaverse”, with the development of display interaction, high-speed communication and computing technology, it will become a reality to construct a communication scene that is infinitely close to reality. Users can become “witnesses” and “on-site observers” of news events in a three-dimensional, multi-sensory reception situation.

Therefore, the “metaverse” media can achieve true “multimedia”, and various human senses such as vision, smell, hearing, taste, touch, etc. can play a role, and even fully unfold and cooperate with each other to achieve “immersive” media applications.

Today’s media content is constantly evolving and innovating, and its development trend seems to be moving closer to the concept of “metaverse”. Media content will no longer be limited to flat presentation methods such as TV, computer, and mobile phone screens. Media content production will consider holographic presentation more, pay attention to creating an on-site environment atmosphere, and make users feel immersive. Social interaction will no longer be limited to text messages and comments. Feelings can be expressed instantly with voice and body movements, and face-to-face communication can be virtualized on the spot.

Imagine if news reports could restore the war scene and create a “battlefield metaverse”, making people feel as if they were there and feel in real time the tremendous trauma that war has caused to human civilization. This shock would further stimulate human society’s desire and yearning for peace, and media content would have a stronger influence and dissemination power.































Chinese Military Considerations for the Effective Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare During Cognitive Domain Operations



 In the operational chain of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the collection and application of evidence is a fundamental link of great value, and is an important starting point for the preparation of cognitive domain construction at all levels. Combining the special background of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to study evidence, accurately grasp its characteristics and laws, continuously study strategies and usage, and improve the effective application of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is of great reference significance for our army to fight the proactive battle of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the future.

Keywords: cognitive domain; public opinion warfare; evidence

With the formation of the three major operational dimensions of the modern information battlefield, namely the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain, cognitive domain operations have received increasing attention in the context of future intelligent hybrid warfare. Cognitive domain operations refer to a type of operations that directly acts on the brain’s cognition through special means to influence its emotions, motivations, judgments and behaviors, and even achieve the purpose of controlling the brain. As a cognitive carrier, the brain may become the main battlefield of future wars, and the right to control the brain will soon become the key to cognitive domain operations and the highest level of war control. In this sense, cognitive domain operations are cognitive confrontation actions that influence the decision-making and behavior of the target audience by influencing their cognition in order to achieve the strategic goals of national security. In the meantime, evidence has become an important factor affecting cognition, and evidence game is a basic link that must be paid attention to in planning and implementing public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. According to the general consensus of the legal community, evidence refers to the basis for determining the facts of an event in accordance with the rules of litigation. The evidence of public opinion warfare referred to in this article is derived from this. It can be seen that only by grasping evidence more accurately and timely and using evidence more prudently and appropriately can we more effectively destroy the enemy’s cognition, consolidate our own cognition, and shape the cognition of neutral forces, and provide effective support for the comprehensive victory of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain.

1. A deep understanding of the three values ​​of evidence in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain is the prerequisite for the effective use of evidence

Information is the basic “ammunition” of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As one of the ammunition, evidence has great value and can be examined from the following three dimensions.

1. Evidence is an indispensable cognitive weapon in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain and has fighting value.

To examine the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is to explore the essence of fact-finding in public opinion warfare from the cognitive level. The cognitive domain takes the human brain as the main combat space. Evidence, as a trace left by a certain “past fact”, undoubtedly exists regardless of whether people can find it. However, some evidence is specially proposed and emphasized at certain times, and its purpose must be to prove certain facts, cater to certain views, and influence certain attitudes. In fact, it is the process of proving the subject’s own cognition shaping, viewpoint presentation and value dissemination. With the help of the cognitive justification theory of contemporary epistemic evidentialism, it is demonstrated that there is an unignorable logical connection between belief attitude and cognitive justification: the epistemological rationality of belief attitude depends on the quality of evidence possessed by the believer at that time. It can be said that the value of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is highly consistent with the weapon context of informationized cognitive warfare. High-quality evidence can influence cognition in a high-quality manner and is an indispensable and irreplaceable weapon of struggle. This “basis of proof” is not only a spear and a sharp sword to strike and change the enemy’s cognition and make cognitive attacks in the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, but also a solid shield to guide and consolidate one’s own cognition and make cognitive protection.

(II) Evidence is the basis for the value guidance of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has guiding value

Authenticity is the essential characteristic of facts, but not the essential characteristic of evidence. Evidence is not equivalent to objective facts. It can be said that there are no false facts, but there are false evidence. According to the rules of evidence law, facts proved by evidence are possible facts, not necessarily inevitable. The result it produces may be a “wrong” result, but this so-called “wrong” is still a legitimate result in legal procedures. To be precise, although it is wrong, it is legitimate. Based on this dialectical logic, the evidential facts recognized by public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain are not equivalent to objective facts in themselves, and there may be differences between the evidential facts and objective facts. Evidence may be true or false, or half true and half false. It does not pursue an absolutely true and correct result, but a “legitimate” result that can influence cognition. Through these cognitive elements presented in the form of evidence, because of the “legitimate” label, they are more persuasive and authoritative, and have the guiding value of influencing cognition and behavior.

(III) Evidence is the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has winning value

As the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the winning value of evidence should not be underestimated. First, the effective use of evidence can minimize the deviation in factual characterization of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. By sorting out and integrating evidence materials, making clear logical connections between scattered and multi-perspective evidence, constructing a chain of evidence that is favorable to us and pointing to clear factual characterization, we can accurately associate and interpret objective facts. Preventing cognitive bias and passive public opinion caused by unclear and inaccurate factual characterization can improve the accuracy and clarity of fact identification. Secondly, the effective use of evidence can minimize the strategic decision-making cost of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As the saying goes, words are not enough. Without the effective support of evidence, public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain will be separated from the objective basis for the generation of combat effectiveness and become a complete self-talk. Its strategic decision-making efficiency will inevitably decrease and the decision-making cost will inevitably soar. Third, the effective use of evidence can minimize the legal risk of public opinion in the cognitive domain. The main sources of legal risks in the cognitive domain of public opinion are the deviation of values, the lack of legitimacy, and the indifference of humanitarianism… In this regard, through scenario pre-setting, targeted evidence lists, active storage of evidence materials, and reasonable and rational construction of the use of evidence, we can achieve a certain degree of risk warning, risk avoidance, and risk resolution.

2. Accurately grasping the three major shifts of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain is the key to the effective use of evidence

Compared with the physical and information domains, evidence in the cognitive domain presents distinct characteristics in the public opinion war. In terms of the purpose of proof, it guarantees the realization of policy and strategic goals and serves the political intention of the public opinion war in the cognitive domain; in terms of the means of proof, truth and falsehood are often intertwined, creating many situations where the truth and falsehood are unclear; in terms of the content of proof, it must be able to clearly, conclusively and promptly prove the justice and legality of our actions and the meaninglessness and illegality of the enemy. It is mainly reflected in three changes.

1. Shifting from “restoring the truth” to “influencing cognition” and highlighting cognitive attributes with goal orientation

In the public opinion war under the cognitive domain, the fundamental purpose of evidence has shifted from “approaching the truth, restoring facts, and promoting objective scene reconstruction” to “influencing the cognition of the target audience and realizing national security interests”. From the initial objective basis for reflecting the battlefield situation to the powerful weapon of public opinion war under the cognitive domain, it is neither simply an objective fact to be proved nor just a material and means to prove facts. Evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain must have a clear position. Before proving, it is necessary to first clarify whose point of view is proved? Whose facts are proved? Whose interests are protected? It is absolutely impossible to be value-free without its basic position. Evidence serves political purposes and strategic intentions, guides the target audience to move towards the established cognitive goals, and accepts, identifies, and shapes the corresponding argumentation conclusions. Its collection and use are all determined by strategic determination, combat intentions, and battlefield situation. Whether it is true or false, good or bad, it must serve the overall strategic situation and needs to be judged in combination with combat effectiveness.

2. Shifting from “raw collection” to “scientific compilation” to assist cognitive decision-making with intelligent means

Cognition is the process of actively processing information, including three links: information input, processing and output. Corresponding to the evidence action of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is to collect evidence, analyze and compile evidence, and make decisions and use evidence. It must be recognized that the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the digital era is essentially a strategic action to manipulate information and shape cognition in the public opinion field, and the quality requirements of evidence materials are more stringent. If there is insufficient understanding of evidence, and evidence collection is simply regarded as taking photos and recording scenes, it is far from meeting the requirements of the new digital cognitive domain public opinion battlefield environment. It must be assisted by intelligent means and transformed into scientific evidence collection, analysis and compilation. Scientific evidence can, to a certain extent, get rid of human dependence on experience consciousness, eliminate the ambiguity, fragmentation and one-sidedness of human cognition under certain conditions, and assist cognitive domain combat commanders to make more accurate command decisions. In reality, there is indeed a phenomenon that the evidence is true, but the cognition generated is false. Only through a series of intelligent compilation work such as collection, classification, compilation, comparison, verification, reasoning, judgment, and integration of evidence information perceived across the entire domain, and using the scientific presentation of evidence to influence cognition in a targeted manner, can the process of evidence information fusion and command decision-making results be made corresponding and unified, making accurate decision-making the key to winning the war of public opinion in the cognitive domain.

3. Shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance” to prove quality and improve cognitive effectiveness

In the cognitive domain, it is far from enough to simply record objective phenomena as evidence in the public opinion war. It also needs to have special guidance and appeal in order to form a strong communication power and influence, aiming to stimulate certain emotions of the target audience and trigger specific cognition. It is necessary to shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance”. Only by awakening the empathy experience of the target audience through sophisticated and appropriate evidence presentation can the expected proof effect be produced. For example, a bloody knife cannot directly support or oppose any proposition by itself. Unless someone perceives the knife, forms a feeling state, and associates it with other evidence, it can produce a proof effect. Therefore, the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be perceptible. Whether it is true evidence or false evidence, these evidences are not responsible for restoring the truth of the facts, nor are they used only to prove the legality or illegality of a certain action or behavior. They are intended to shock the target audience with thoughts and generate emotional waves, and play cognitive effects such as shaking the morale of the army, inspiring morale, gaining support from many people, inspiring sympathy, guiding public opinion, and breaking the enemy’s spirit, ensuring that the reason can be said and spread. Otherwise, no matter how good the proof logic is, its effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the lack of communication and appeal, and it may even be ineffective in the fierce cognitive game.

3. Innovative evidence in the three ways of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is the path to effective use of evidence

In the public opinion war in the cognitive domain, evidence is sometimes an offensive weapon, sometimes a means of deterrence, and sometimes a tool for bargaining… How to cleverly deploy troops and gain the initiative on this battlefield? It is necessary to judge the situation, deeply study the techniques, present accurately, and implement them purposefully, systematically, and strategically. According to the logical order of evidence participation from weak to strong, the understanding of evidence from shallow to deep, and the evidence tactics from passive to active, there are three ways to use evidence: objective, directional, and strategic.

1. Attaching importance to the objective use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

Evidence has incomparable persuasiveness, and public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must attach importance to speaking with evidence. The most basic approach is to solidly promote the objective collection and use of evidence. First, it is necessary to discover and extract evidence from a large amount of materials to preliminarily solve the problem of evidence admissibility. Secondly, the evidence collected must withstand the test and judgment of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to solve the problem of evidence availability. The basic logical line of evidence collection and use is: objectively obtain evidence materials – based on the acquired evidence materials, sort out, match, integrate, and analyze which existing evidence materials can prove objective facts that have an impact on cognition – solve the problem of “what can be proved”. If objective evidence collection is not done well, it is easy for the enemy to take it out of context, generalize, and even confuse right and wrong. On the one hand, through the objective presentation of original evidence, the illegality and provocation of the other party’s behavior are exposed, the legitimacy and justice of our actions are explained, the truth of the incident is intuitively and powerfully clarified, and the psychological defense of the other party is effectively disintegrated, the other party’s fighting will is shaken, and a strong psychological offensive and deterrence effect is formed; on the other hand, it effectively boosts our military morale, inspires fighting spirit, and enhances psychological protection in the cognitive battlefield. In short, we must strive to objectively make good use of “real evidence that can gain the initiative” and expose “false evidence in the hands of evidence dealers.”

2. Strengthening the guiding use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

It is necessary to fully realize that the probative value of evidence needs to be realized through interpretation, which leaves sufficient space for guiding the collection and use of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. On the basis of the objective collection and use of evidence, through more proactive reverse thinking, another logical line of evidence collection and use can be found: first clarify what facts need to be proved in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain – then consider how to compile and interpret the existing evidence materials in a biased manner according to the demand orientation – solve the problem of “how to interpret and use the evidence materials”. Under the demand-oriented role, by actively presetting the facts to be proved, consciously do a good job of evidence association and effectiveness interpretation. It can be said that the process of compiling objective original evidence is the process of evidence interpretation. Scattered evidence materials, after being fully interpreted and compiled with subjective intentions, will form a closed evidence chain with directionality. These directional evidence products guide the audience from “seeing” evidence to “understanding” evidence, which is a weapon that can influence the generation of combat effectiveness in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. In fact, the party with a stronger ability to interpret evidence selfishly is often more able to dominate the development of the battle.

3. Strategic Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare under the Design Cognitive Domain

The ultimate target of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is cognitive ability, and the dominant factor for winning the battle will naturally shift to cognition. Therefore, the high-skilled use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be achieved with the help of the systematic vision and strategic thinking of strategists. The logical line of evidence collection and use here is: consider evidence as an indispensable key element of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and incorporate it into the overall strategic planning link – preset a list of key evidence according to different scenarios – actively create conditions to obtain key evidence – solve the problem of “how to achieve the strategic intention and combat determination of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain from the evidence level”. Under special conditions, even through sophisticated arrangements, with active and proactive “creative design” to lay out the fog of evidence, prompt the enemy to reveal its shortcomings, expose its weaknesses, and make actions and reactions that are beneficial to us, forming a complete and conclusive chain of evidence, so as to achieve the purpose of releasing special information, propaganda against the enemy’s mind, political and diplomatic hints, etc., consume the enemy’s cognitive ability, disrupt its thinking, interfere with its judgment, and hinder its actions. In particular, we must develop an awareness of strategies and tactics in the game of evidence in the context of cognitive domain public opinion warfare, select, choose, combine, assemble, switch among various types of evidence… flexibly deploy and skillfully present them, give full play to the potential of evidence use, contain, curb, and counter enemy actions, and expand our own space for action. The key to applying evidence well lies in one’s heart.

(Author’s unit: Political Science Academy of National Defense University)








檢視認知域下輿論戰的證據,就是要從認知層面來探究輿論戰事實認定的本質。認知域以人腦為主要作戰空間。證據,作為某種「過去事實」留下的痕跡,不管人們能否發現,它們無疑都是存在的。但某些證據在某些時候被特別提出和強調,其目的必然是為了佐證某些事實、迎合某些觀點、影響某些態度,其實就是論證主體自身認知塑造、觀點呈現和價值傳播的過程。借助當代認知證據主義(Epistemic Evidentialism)的認知證成理論,論證信念態度與認知證成之間存在著不可忽視的邏輯聯繫:信念態度在認識論上的合理程度,取決於相信者當時所擁有的證據的品質。可以說,認知域下輿論戰的證據價值與資訊化認知作戰的武器脈絡高度契合,高品質的證據能夠高品質影響認知,是不可或缺不可取代的鬥爭武器。這種“證明的根據”,在認知域下輿論戰中,既是打擊、改變敵方認知,做好認知攻擊的長矛利劍;也是引導、鞏固己方認知,做好認知防護的堅固盾牌。























Chinese Military Analysis of Japan’s Space and Cyberspace Deterrence Strategy



The development of new military forces is changing the style of warfare. After years of development, space (also known as outer space) and cyberspace (hereinafter referred to as cyberspace) forces have transformed from conceptual forces to real forces. How to use these two new forces has become a key research topic for major powers in the world. In March 2024, the Security Research Group of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation of Japan released a research report entitled “War 3.0: Fundamental Changes in War” (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”), which explored how to use space and cyberspace to achieve strategic deterrence from the perspective of maintaining Japan’s national security. It also proposed a typical scenario of cyberspace confrontation against the background of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, showing Japan’s thinking on the use of combat forces in emerging fields. The main contents are summarized as follows for readers.


War 3.0 is coming

The report believes that during the Cold War, the boundaries between civilians, the state and the military were clear, and the economic dependence between the two sides was low. This was the era of War 1.0. After the Cold War, globalization accelerated, and in 2001, the era of the war on terror began. The main body of the confrontation became state and non-state actors, which was the era of War 2.0. Around 2010, the confrontation between major powers reappeared. Due to the high degree of economic globalization, “war” occurred more in dimensions other than military. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine shows that in modern warfare, other means are becoming as important as military means. At the same time, commercial companies are also more involved in the research and development and use of emerging military technologies, and the government’s control over military power has been weakened. Since then, a new concept can be used to describe modern warfare, namely War 3.0.

As long as war occurs in the context of globalization, the characteristics of War 3.0 will appear. In the era of War 3.0, the target of deterrence is mainly state actors, but the specific form of conflict may be similar to hybrid warfare or conventional warfare. When formulating deterrence strategies in the space and cyberspace domains, both types of conflict should be taken into account. It is necessary to recognize that emerging domain capabilities are multipliers of traditional capabilities. The significance of competing for control in emerging domains lies in enhancing one’s own physical forces such as land, sea, and air forces or weakening the physical forces of opponents.

The report points out that using emerging field forces to carry out attacks can cause no tangible physical damage, is conducive to conflict management, and is the best tool for gray zone operations. Japan currently faces two main problems. One is that the emerging field forces owned by law enforcement agencies are not in line with mission requirements. The other is that it needs to consider how to use emerging field forces to achieve effective conflict management.


Strategic Deterrence in Emerging Fields

The report uses traditional deterrence theory for analysis and concludes that space and cyberspace have five common characteristics: difficult situational awareness, high defense difficulty, low attack threshold, mixed actors, and lack of international codes of conduct. Easy to attack and difficult to defend are the common characteristics of these two fields, so it is difficult to achieve effective strategic deterrence. In this regard, action should be taken in four aspects: First, improve situational awareness capabilities so that when problems occur, the cause of the failure can be quickly determined, the attacker can be identified, and the damage effect can be evaluated when counterattacked. Second, improve resilience to ensure that the loss of some functions will not cause the entire system to become disabled. Third, strengthen offensive capabilities, which can be used to attack in a certain field, or to use means in other fields to conduct cross-domain attacks. Fourth, achieve arms control cooperation between countries and build trust, formulate codes of conduct, etc.


Strengthening deterrence in air and space

1. The connotation of air and space control continues to be enriched

The report believes that the air and space can control the entire battlefield. In order to compete for air and space dominance, various types of equipment are constantly updated, combat systems are becoming more and more complex, and the scope of operations is becoming wider and wider. In combat, both sides often focus on the “find, locate, track, decide, engage, and assess (Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess, F2T2EA)” full kill chain, and simultaneously confront in emerging fields such as space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space, which greatly expands the connotation of traditional dominance. In future high-end wars, the side with a higher level of space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space capabilities may have an overwhelming advantage in overall combat capabilities.

2. How to exert the deterrent function of space power

The report emphasizes that space systems play an important role in intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), communications, positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), missile warning, environmental monitoring, etc., and also provide increasingly important support for the use of nuclear and conventional forces. In order to form a strong space deterrence, first, we must possess and demonstrate the corresponding capabilities, mainly the resilience, defense, counter-retaliation and situational awareness capabilities of the space system. Second, we must show the enemy our determination to use retaliatory capabilities. Third, we must form a cross-domain deterrence to ensure the security of the entire space system. In addition, systems in other fields such as land, sea and air must be able to supplement some of the functions of the space system. In the face of enemy attacks on our satellites, we must retaliate not only from space, but also through land, sea, air and cyberspace.

As space systems play an increasingly important role in Japan’s national defense, we will further enhance our deterrence against hostile offensive actions. While improving the resilience of space assets, we will attach great importance to the effective use of commercial space services.

3. How to enhance the deterrent effect of Japan’s aerospace power

The report points out that Japan should attach importance to cross-domain coordination of sea, land, air and space forces, especially to strengthen cooperation with the United States. It is necessary to closely monitor the surrounding airspace, use aircraft to perform denial missions when the situation escalates, and take active defense measures to prevent missile attacks. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of Self-Defense Force bases and realize the mutual use of air bases between Japan and the United States. Japan is surrounded by the sea, and it is necessary to attach importance to developing the ability to use air means to strike maritime targets to ensure the security of the homeland.

Faced with the vast Indo-Pacific region, it is difficult for Japan to accurately grasp the regional situation by relying solely on its own aerospace power. It is necessary to share intelligence information through multilateral cooperation and build a Common Operational Picture (COP) in the Indo-Pacific region to accurately and comprehensively grasp the regional situation and have a deterrent effect on potential enemies. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation with countries other than the United States, especially Australia. Japan, the United States and Australia should establish joint ammunition and fuel depots in their respective countries. In the field of space, Japan will expand cooperation in hosting payloads. If it can cooperate with European countries, then future attacks on Japanese satellites can be regarded as attacks on multiple countries. It is becoming increasingly important to make full use of the power of allies and use their aerospace power to achieve deterrence goals.


Strengthening Deterrence in Cyberspace

1. Characteristics of Cyberspace Operations

The report believes that cyberspace has an increasing impact on the course of war, and cyberspace combat capabilities can even deter the occurrence of an entire conflict. Cyberspace security plays an important role in protecting various systems from cyber attacks, ensuring that confidential information is not leaked, and ensuring the normal operation of other systems such as critical infrastructure. It is also of great significance for cognitive domain protection.

There are two main characteristics of cyberspace at present. First, the boundary between military and civilian is blurred. The potential of military application of Internet is constantly emerging. In the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the artillery combat management system (GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA) used by Ukraine is to send data through drones and smartphones to determine the target location and launch attacks, which is very effective. Second, the security concept based on closed system is outdated. Even with physical isolation, it is impossible to completely prevent attacks. Cyberspace is easy to attack but difficult to defend, and the offense and defense are asymmetric. In addition, cyberspace operations can control the rhythm of conflict escalation in a low-intensity form, and can also be upgraded to a powerful weapon with high-intensity offensiveness after the official outbreak of military conflict.

2. Developing emerging technologies to enhance cyber warfare capabilities

The report points out that the development of emerging technologies will continue to change the rules of warfare, and the Japanese Ministry of Defense has begun to study the use of cloud computing to build a basic computing environment. It plans to build a diversified network environment, use Starlink satellites and 5G networks to provide Internet services, and consider enabling the new Internet communication protocol QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connection). The first quantum computer has been developed, and related research on anti-quantum cryptography has been carried out. At the same time, it also pays close attention to the specific ways of combining artificial intelligence with cyber warfare.

3. Ways to strengthen cyber deterrence

The report emphasizes that the development of artificial intelligence technology and the adjustment of the network component supply chain are two uncertain factors. Japan should focus on improving its cyber warfare capabilities from the following aspects: (1) vigorously promote intelligence information sharing; (2) build active defense systems; (3) introduce zero trust and risk management frameworks; (4) establish the ability to attack adversary networks; (5) accelerate legislation in the field of cybersecurity; (6) expand the scale of talent training and increase support for commercial enterprises. By carrying out the above work, Japan can achieve early detection and response to cyber attacks. Even if it encounters a cyber attack, it can be discovered, processed and recovered at an early stage to ensure the resilience of the system to continue to operate. In addition, when Japan is attacked, it should coordinate actions with the US military. In peacetime, joint training should be strengthened so that it can carry out joint operations with the Cyber ​​Mission Force (CMF) composed of relevant forces of the US Cyber ​​Command.

Responsible for directing, coordinating and conducting cyber operations


Conception of cyberspace combat scenarios

The report describes a basic scenario of cyber warfare between the Red and Blue sides, with the Taiwan Strait incident as the background, and puts forward the following important viewpoints: First, when the Blue side has an absolute advantage, the Blue side should focus on taking defensive actions to achieve deterrence. When the forces of the two sides tend to be balanced, the Blue side should actively take offensive actions to seize the initiative. Second, the Blue side can launch cyber attacks around the Red side’s observation, adjustment, decision-making, and action (OODA) links to weaken the Red side’s military capabilities, especially its maritime and landing combat capabilities, and carry out “anti-military cyber attack missions.” When necessary, strike the Red side’s social infrastructure to weaken its overall strength. At the same time, take cyber attacks to induce and divide public opinion, weaken the Red side’s willingness to take action, and carry out “anti-value cyber attack missions.” Third, in the anti-military cyber attack mission, the Blue side can attack the Red side’s aircraft, and can also take measures such as data pollution, deception cloud, and communication network interruption to attack the Red side’s command and control system. In the action of attacking the civilian network system, cyber attacks can be carried out on key entities of railway and ship operations in the Red coastal areas and key infrastructure such as the power grid in coastal metropolises that support social and economic systems. There are also options for attacking Red Team financial systems, media servers, and water and gas supply networks.

In order to deal with possible cyber attacks from the Red side in the event of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, Japan should do the following: First, adopt an active defense strategy, require commercial operators to share information with the government, and introduce artificial intelligence to improve cyber situational awareness and network resilience. Second, introduce a large-scale data forensics platform to identify the authenticity of massive image data and counter false information. Third, give priority to countermeasures against domestic cyber attacks, effectively defend the networks of defense, government departments, law enforcement agencies and private enterprises through various active cyber defense measures, and deal with cognitive domain actions against the Japanese public.



The report proposed the concept of War 3.0 and launched a series of discussions on achieving cyberspace and space deterrence. While suggesting strengthening its own relevant capacity building, it repeatedly emphasized the need to strengthen cooperation with the United States, especially with countries related to the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) and AUKUS. With Japan’s application to join AUKUS on April 25, 2024, the Asia-Pacific version of the “mini-NATO” alliance has taken shape, and regional peace and stability will be severely impacted.

Disclaimer: This article is reprinted from Military High-Tech Online, the original author is Shi Honglin. The content of the article is the original author’s personal opinion. This public account is translated/reprinted only for sharing and conveying different opinions. If you have any objections, please contact us!

Reprinted from Military High-Tech Online

Author: Shi Honglin

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新領域軍事力量的發展正在改變戰爭樣式,其中太空(也稱為外層空間)和網路空間(以下簡稱網空)力量經過多年的發展,已由概念力量轉變為現實力量。如何利用這兩種新質力量,已成為世界各主要強國重點研究的內容。 2024年3月日本笹川和平財團安全研究小組發布研究報告《戰爭3.0:戰爭的根本變化》(以下簡稱《報告》),從維護日本國家安全的角度出發,探討如何利用太空和網空實現戰略威懾等問題,並以台海突發事件為背景,提出了一個網空對抗的典型場景,展示了日本在運用新興領域作戰力量上的思考。現將其主要內容整理如下,以颯讀者。



《報告》認為,在冷戰時期,平民、國家和軍隊之間的界線很清晰,對峙雙方經濟依賴度較低,此時是戰爭1.0時代。冷戰後全球化加速發展,2001年進入反恐戰爭時代,對抗的主體變成國家與非國家行為體,此時是戰爭2.0時代。 2010年前後大國對抗再次出現,由於經濟全球化發展程度較高,「戰爭」較多發生在軍事以外的維度。俄烏衝突顯示在現代戰爭中,其他手段正變得與軍事手段同等重要。同時,商業公司也更參與新興軍事技術的研發和使用,政府對軍事力量的控製程度受到了削弱。自此可以用一個新的概念來描述現代戰爭,即戰爭3.0。









《報告》認為,空中和太空可以瞰整個戰場,為爭奪空天制權,各類裝備不斷更新,作戰系統越來越複雜,作戰範圍也越來越寬廣。在作戰中,雙方往往會圍繞「發現、定位、追蹤、決策、交戰、評估(Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess,F2T2EA)」全殺傷鏈各環節,在太空、網空、電磁空間等新興領域同時進行對抗,大大拓展了傳統制權的內涵。在未來高端戰爭中,利用太空、網空和電磁空間能力水準較高的一方,可能會在整體作戰能力上擁有壓倒性的優勢。

《報告》強調,太空系統在情報收集、監視和偵察(Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance,ISR),通信,定位、導航和授時(Positioning, Navigation and Timing, PNT),導彈預警,環境監測等方面發揮著重要作用,也為使用核武力量和常規力量提供越來越重要的支持。為了形成強大的太空威懾,一要擁有並展現對應能力,主要是太空系統的復原力、防禦力、反制報復能力以及態勢感知能力。二要向敵方展示使用報復能力的決心。三要形成跨域威懾以確保太空全系統安全。此外,陸海空等其他領域系統要能補充太空系統的部分功能,面對敵方對己方衛星的攻擊,不僅要從太空報復,還要透過陸海空和網空進行報復。




面對廣袤的印太地區,日本僅靠自身的空天力量,難以準確掌握區域態勢,要透過多邊合作分享情報訊息,建構印太地區通用作戰態勢圖(Common Operational Picture, COP),以精準全面地掌握地區態勢,對潛在敵人產生嚇阻效果。要加強與美國以外的國家,特別是澳洲的合作。日本、美國和澳洲應在各自國家建立聯合彈藥和燃料庫。在太空領域,日本將拓展託管有效載荷合作,如能和歐洲國家合作,那麼未來攻擊日本衛星的行為,將可以被視為對多個國家的攻擊。要充分借助盟友力量,利用其空天力量達成威懾目的,這一點正變得越來越重要。





目前網空主要有兩個特點,一是軍民界線模糊。網路的軍事應用潛力不斷顯現,在俄烏衝突中,烏克蘭使用的砲兵作戰管理系統(GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA),就是透過無人機和智慧型手機,發送資料確定目標位置並發動攻擊,且非常有效。二是基於封閉系統的安全觀念已經過時。即便是進行物理隔離,也不可能完全防止被攻擊,網空易攻難守,攻防呈現不對稱特徵。此外,網空作戰既可以低強度形式控制衝突升級的節奏,也可以在正式爆發軍事衝突後,升級為具有高強度攻擊性的強大武器。

《報告》指出,新興技術的發展將持續改變作戰規則,日本防衛省已開始研究使用雲端運算建構基本運算環境。計畫建置多樣化網路環境,使用「星鏈」衛星和5G網路提供網路服務,考慮啟用新的網路通訊協定QUIC(Quick UDP Internet Connection)。已研發首台量子計算機,並進行反量子密碼的相關研究。同時,也高度關注人工智慧與網路戰結合的具體方式。


《報告》強調,人工智慧技術的發展和網路部件供應鏈的調整是兩個不確定的影響因素。日本應著重從以下幾點提升網路戰能力:(1)大力促進情報資訊共享;(2)建構主動防禦系統;(3)引入零信任和風險管理框架;(4)建立攻擊對手網路的能力; (5)加速網路安全領域立法;(6)擴大人才培育規模,增加對商業企業的支持。透過進行以上工作,日本可以實現提前發現和應對網路攻擊。即使遭遇網路攻擊,也可在早期階段發現、處理和恢復,確保系統繼續運作的彈性。此外,當日本受到攻擊時,要與美軍協調行動。平時要加強聯合訓練,以便能夠與由美國網路司令部相關部隊組成網路任務部隊(The Cyber​​ Mission Force, CMF)實施聯合行動。



《報告》以台海突發事件為背景,描述了一個紅藍雙方網路戰的基本場景,提出了以下幾個重要觀點:一是當藍方擁有絕對優勢時,藍方應側重於採取防禦行動實現威懾。當雙方力量趨於平衡時,藍方則應積極採取攻擊行動以爭取主動權。二是藍方可以圍繞紅方觀察、調整、決策、行動(Observe Orient Decide Act, OODA)的各環節展開網絡攻擊,削弱紅方軍事能力,特別是海上作戰和登陸作戰能力,開展「反軍事網絡攻擊任務」。在必要時候打擊紅方社會基礎設施,削弱其整體實力。同時,採取網路攻擊誘導和分裂公眾輿論,削弱紅方採取行動的意願,進行「反價值網路攻擊任務」。第三是在反軍事網路攻擊任務中,藍方可以攻擊紅方飛機,還可以採取資料污染、欺騙雲以及通訊網路中斷等措施,攻擊紅方指控系統。在攻擊民用網路系統的行動中,可以對紅方沿海地區鐵路和船舶運營的關鍵實體以及支持社會和經濟系統的沿海大城市電網等關鍵基礎設施進行網路攻擊。還可以選擇攻擊紅方金融系統、媒體伺服器以及供水和天然氣供應網路。



該報告提出了戰爭3.0的概念,圍繞實現網空和太空威懾展開了一系列論述,在建議加強自身相關能力建設的同時,多次強調要加強與美國,特別是四方安全對話(Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, QUAD)和奧庫斯(AUKUS)相關國家的合作。隨著2024年4月25日日本申請加入“奧庫斯”,亞太版的“小北約”聯盟已現雛形,地區和平穩定將受到嚴重衝擊。





國際技術經濟研究所(IITE)成立於1985年11月,是隸屬於國務院發展研究中心的非營利研究機構,主要功能是研究我國經濟、科技社會發展中的重大政策性、策略性、前瞻性問題,追蹤分析世界科技、經濟發展態勢,為中央和相關部會提供決策諮詢服務。 「全球技術地圖」為國際技術經濟研究所官方微信帳號,致力於向大眾傳遞尖端技術資訊與科技創新洞見。



Chinese Military Developing Winning Mechanisms of Cognitive Confrontation Warfare



As an important form of modern warfare, cognitive warfare takes cognitive domain as its main combat field, strategy and technology application as its main combat means, and influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition as its combat purpose. It has a unique winning mechanism and operating rules. In-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is a basic project to grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and win modern cognitive warfare.

  The contemporary connotation of the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is based on the revolutionary development and widespread application of media technology in cognitive technology, is adapted to the practical requirements of integrated joint operations, and is in line with the characteristics of the era of the integrated development of mechanization, informatization, and intelligence. It has rich contemporary connotations.

  Win with knowledge. As a solid basis and powerful weapon for human beings to understand and transform the world, thinking and cognition fundamentally affect the quality of decision-making, influence strategies and tactics, restrict military morale, and determine the process and outcome of war. It is the most fundamental support and the deepest force of war confrontation. In other words, war confrontation is ultimately a game and confrontation of thinking and cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition means mastering the initiative in war to a large extent. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger cognitive control is the key to defeating a strong enemy. Finding ways to master cognitive control and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to obtain the greatest victory at the lowest cost, is an important mechanism and internal law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare.

  Technology is the key. A significant feature of modern cognitive warfare that is different from previous cognitive warfare is that the elements of strategy are gradually reduced and the role is gradually reduced, while the application of technology is more frequent and its role is more prominent. In particular, with the deep involvement of information technology and artificial intelligence, modern cognitive warfare pays more attention to the competition of technical hard power. The previous soul-stirring and mysterious strategic confrontation seems to be giving way to today’s head-on technical competition. Efforts to seek breakthroughs, master advantages, and take the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, brain control, blockchain, high-performance communications, and the metaverse have become the key focus of countries’ competitive development to gain cognitive advantages and defeat powerful enemies.

  Hidden is the best. A prominent feature of cognitive warfare is the hidden use of strategies, that is, through hidden methods and means such as information suppression, data confusion, hiding the truth and showing the false, and scenario construction, the opponent’s thinking and cognition are subtly influenced, controlled, and shaped. It can be said that “hidden” is the main color, main melody, and main channel. Hidden purpose, hidden means, and hidden actions run through all aspects of the entire process of cognitive attack and defense. In the cognitive perspective, whoever masters more advanced strategies, more flexible tactics, and more hidden tactics can more effectively act on the opponent in cognitive attack and defense confrontation, thus being in a higher cognitive dimension.

  Integration is the basis. If cognitive warfare lacks the support of specific military operations in the material domain, it will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring and defeating the enemy. Cognitive warfare should never be an isolated operation. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into the integrated joint combat chain, closely combining it with physical domain military operations, and closely integrating it with the entire combat system, can the military forces in different fields be closely combined, mutually supported, and organically integrated, and can the combat effectiveness be fully exerted.

  Practical requirements for the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of war determines the form and method of military force construction and application, and has a mandatory and stabilizing influence on war practice. The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare inherently regulates the form and method of cognitive warfare, and puts forward new requirements for the construction of cognitive warfare forces.

  Take the control of cognition as the core of winning cognitive warfare. Firmly grasp the key of the control of cognition, insist on the two-way efforts of wisdom and technology, strive to seize the commanding heights of thinking and cognition, and seize the control of cognitive operations. Deeply promote the innovation of the theory of control of cognition, integrate high-quality resources, increase funding, follow up and study typical cases of cognitive operations at home and abroad, conscientiously summarize practical experience in all aspects, and combine the specific reality of our army to form a theoretical system with contemporary, leading and unique characteristics as soon as possible; strengthen the basic construction of training facilities, equipment, venues, and talent teams, build a number of special training venues based on the existing comprehensive training grounds, and carry out base-based professional training; carry out the drills of the tactics of control of cognition, incorporate cognitive warfare into daily combat readiness training, into specific combat action plans, simulate important combat operations, imagine major combat targets, preset actual combat scenarios, and practice hard in an environment close to actual combat to form the actual combat capability of real combat, good attack and defense, and control and control.

  Take science and technology as the key to cognitive confrontation. Science and technology are core combat power, core cognitive power, and the core element of cognitive power. Strengthen the awareness of winning with science and technology, deeply understand the basic supporting role of science and technology as one of the two major means of modern cognitive warfare, “strategy + technology”, consciously put cognitive technology innovation in an important position in the strategy of strengthening the army with science and technology, and make efforts to carry out independent innovation in cognitive technology; grasp the breakthrough of core key technologies, focus on artificial intelligence, brain control technology, brain control technology, situational awareness technology, high-performance communication technology, metaverse and other basic technologies related to cognitive warfare, consolidate the scientific and technological foundation of cognitive attack and defense confrontation, and firmly grasp the destiny in our own hands; explore distinctive innovation paths, adapt to my country’s national conditions, military conditions and technical realities, explore innovation paths that suit us, form distinctive technical routes, strive to master asymmetric technologies, and achieve what you don’t have, what I have, what you have, what I have, and what you are better than, so as to form a “new trick” to defeat the enemy at critical moments.

  Use strategy as the key to cognitive offense and defense. Although the importance of technical factors in modern cognitive warfare is increasing, the status and role of strategy are still irreplaceable. Focus on the word “hidden”, strengthen the special function of “strategy” as a smart strategy to surprise, unaware, confuse and mislead the opponent, formulate and implement targeted strategies and tactics according to the opponent’s strategic traditions, thinking habits, cultural attributes and weaknesses, and lead them without shadow, lure them into the invisible, and guide them without a trace; focus on the word “link”, deepen the research on the methods and strategies of strategy application under modern scientific and technological conditions, and comprehensively use modern technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence to empower and increase the efficiency of strategy application, and add the wings of science and technology to cognitive strategy; focus on the word “integration” to achieve results, deepen the research on the characteristics and laws of the combination of cognitive warfare soft power and physical domain military operations hard power, and explore the path of integrated application of military forces in multiple fields such as cognitive domain and physical domain.

  Coordinate and promote the comprehensive and scientific development of cognitive warfare

  To fight a cognitive proactive battle, we must follow the internal mechanisms that run through it, grasp the practical requirements contained therein, follow the ever-changing military practice, strengthen scientific thinking, adhere to problem-orientation, develop a forward-looking perspective, and strive to grasp the three relationships.

  Grasp the relationship between strategy and technology. “Strategy + technology” constitutes the main content of cognitive warfare methods and means. As a highly intelligent combat form and method, cognitive warfare is born with the inherent content of strategy with the most intelligent background. The flexible and flexible strategy game is the historical heritage and wonderful chapter of our army’s cognitive warfare. The process of the development and evolution of cognitive warfare is, to a certain extent, the process of mutual growth and mutual construction of strategy and technology. In this process, strategy is more colorful due to the blessing of technology, and technology is more powerful due to the use of strategy. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, we must not only carry forward the advantages of our army in using strategy, but also strengthen the application of technical means. More importantly, we must organically combine strategy with technology, and enhance the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive attack and defense through technical strategy and strategic use of technology.

  Grasp the relationship between soft and hard. Modern warfare usually divides the combat domain into physical domain, information domain, and cognitive domain according to the characteristics of material form. These three domains conduct each other and influence each other to form the field and soil of military confrontation. Among them, the cognitive domain and information domain show soft power, and the physical domain shows hard power. The two forces of soft and hard are unified in the vast space of the integration of the three domains of military game, and together constitute the basic power elements of cognitive offense and defense. Although cognitive warfare occurs in the cognitive field, its combat support is not only soft power. With the enhancement of the hard power of the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can be better implemented. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, it is necessary not only to strengthen the construction of cognitive warfare ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also to actively borrow power from the physical domain, and use the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to verify and strengthen thinking and cognition, and at the same time promote the materialization of cognitive results through verification and strengthening actions.

  Grasp the relationship between attack and defense. Cognition, in terms of its object, includes two sides of the same coin: “know yourself and shape your opponent”, which can also be succinctly summarized as “save yourself and destroy the enemy”. Among them, knowing and sticking to yourself, preventing and avoiding being influenced and shaped by the enemy is “defense”; weakening and depriving the enemy’s cognitive ability, knowing and shaping the opponent is “attack”. Cognitive warfare is an opposing unity of the two forces of offense and defense, which grows and declines and transforms into each other. The core of mastering the initiative of thinking and cognition and fighting the initiative of cognitive operations is to improve the ability of defense and counterattack, recognize the strengths and weaknesses, strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of the enemy and ourselves, stick to ourselves and attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and use our clarity to trap the enemy in confusion; the key is to accurately grasp the transition node between offense and defense, seize the enemy’s cognitive loopholes, concentrate forces to pursue and attack, paralyze its defense line, and seize its key points; the purpose is to master cognitive initiative. Whether it is attack or defense, they all end up occupying a favorable position in the cognitive game and winning. When to attack and when to defend, they must obey and unify this goal.
















把握好謀與技的關係。 「謀略+技術」構成認知戰方法手段的主體內容。認知戰作為高度智慧化的作戰形態和方式,最具智慧底色的謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容,機動靈活的謀略博弈更是我軍認知作戰歷史傳承和精彩篇章。認知戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相長互構的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的祝福而更加多彩,科技因謀略的運用而更加強大。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,不僅要發揚我軍善用謀略的優長,還須強化技術手段的應用,更重要的是將施謀與用技有機結合起來,透過技術性施謀、謀略性用技強化認知攻防的綜合效能。




Chinese Military Insight into the Evolution of Cognitive Warfare



Cognition is the process by which people acquire, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually received attention from all countries. With the development of the scientific and technological revolution and the expansion of war practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerating evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming the basic driving force of the evolution of war. Technology changes the form of war and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become a sign of the maturity of cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies in cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, artificial intelligence, etc. will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Human beings are entering the era of universal communication. The global cyberspace is being highly linked. The network has become a combat space for comprehensive game between state actors and non-state actors. The contention and war of communication have become part of the high-intensity military action level. At present, major countries in the world have laid out the frontier of cognitive technology and carried out cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control the human brain network, information network and social network; through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, and clever calculation, they aim to maximize the control of people’s cognitive world and cognitive domain.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the intelligent era, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication is giving way to online communication. Various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large social platforms have become the main battlefield for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The space domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep earth, while the logic domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to the social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and anti-blockade, dominance and anti-domination around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare, and the struggle for international discourse control using information as ammunition has become the main way of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, the penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of small-scale war or even victory without fighting through comprehensive game means such as cognitive warfare. The offense and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released.

Cognitive advantage is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of action in war is the lifeblood of the military. From the cognitive dimension, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the freer the action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in war, commanders are beginning to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time, help commanders get rid of cognitive overload, and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantage will dominate decision-making advantage, and decision-making advantage will dominate action advantage. Cognitive advantage has four key indicators: stronger information acquisition ability, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling ability, and higher ability to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with data-driven intelligent communication as its new feature has been highly coordinated and integrated with traditional military operations. This virtual-real integrated combat style has stronger combat effectiveness than simple military operations, which has fundamentally changed the traditional combat methods. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become a fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the forefront of the game of winning wars. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power, and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-penetration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control in cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field. Concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion have appeared frequently in the field of foreign cognitive warfare research. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict domain” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theory innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars, cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation, and cognitive technology will accelerate the advancement of cognitive warfare to become an important “trigger point” for the intelligent military revolution. Since new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are in the process of accelerated incubation, perhaps future wars will present a surprising new situation.








中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research