Category Archives: Cognitive Domain Warfare

Chinese Military Targeting Future Wars and Fighting the Five Cognitive Battles

中國軍隊瞄準未來戰爭打好五場認知戰

現代英語翻譯:

Source: Liberation Army News Author: Yang Longxi Editor-in-charge: Wang Feng 2022-10-08 10:11:25

In recent years, local wars and armed conflicts are mostly “mixed” confrontations that unfold in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, and economic means, implementing system clamps in the comprehensive decision-making dimension, creating various chaos in the international communication dimension, and carrying out targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shaping the battlefield situation, and seeking to seize strategic initiative. In future wars, we must fight political-military battles and military-political battles, and we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, offense and defense, and improve our ability to fight the “five battles”.

Cognitive warfare is the first step to shape the situation and take the initiative. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of the war situation, the status and role of cognitive warfare are becoming more and more prominent. Aiming to win the future war, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance, and through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the target’s physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive elements should be influenced, intervened and manipulated, and military operations should be covered by cognitive offense and defense, so as to accurately and efficiently dominate the cognitive space. We must fully realize the importance of taking the initiative, flexibly and independently master the right to define and interpret “narrative”, emphasize taking the initiative in the dimension of cognitive narrative struggle, create a favorable situation with legal principles in hand and morality on our side, and occupy the moral high ground.

Cognitive warfare is about attacking the heart, and we should fight a precise war in layers. “A good warrior will attack others but not others.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will be extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent, and unmanned, invisible, and silent. We should focus on cognitive gaps to improve our reach, use big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, psychological model evaluation and other methods to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects, and achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. We should focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, aim at the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual support points that maintain the unity of the powerful enemy alliance to effectively strike, and use their cognitive differences and conflicts of interest to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategy, we should fight a war of deterrence and control with full domain penetration. In future wars, the strategic competition and strategic confrontation between the warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should focus on the decision-making links and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we should pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike means to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we should pay more attention to the “soft kill” effect of cognitive shaping, cognitive inducement, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, so as to form a strong shock through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, and expand new-quality combat forces to the cognitive dimension, thereby forming an asymmetric balance of power.

Information is king in cognitive warfare, and we must expand the field to fight a good support war. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and we should accelerate system integration to gain data advantages. First, we should accelerate the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive combat theory bases, databases, talent pools, case bases, and tactics bases, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive combat capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, we should accelerate the creation of a converged media communication matrix, improve and perfect our own platform system, and step up the deployment of network platforms, focusing on system integration and collaborative linkage, breaking through the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and realizing cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive effectiveness. Thirdly, we should accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making psychological offense and defense, explore and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to provide “clairvoyance” and “clairaudience” for winning future wars.

The key to cognitive warfare is coordination, and we should make efforts in multiple dimensions to fight the overall battle. Future wars will be joint operations carried out in the fields of land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic, etc. We should adhere to system thinking, strengthen coordination awareness, and improve the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations with other military actions. For example, we can integrate human intelligence, geographic intelligence, and open source intelligence, quickly collect and process massive data, remove the false and retain the true, and accurately and efficiently seize cognitive space, so as to achieve complementary advantages and full coverage to form cognitive advantages. By networking the dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish a highly connected, collectively acting, and overall attacking full-domain joint force to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence”. By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, and using cognitive manipulation to amplify the effects of political disintegration, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and coordinating military operations to exert pressure on the target in all dimensions, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)

繁體中文:

來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍溪 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-10-08 10:11:25
近年來的局部戰爭和武裝沖突,大多是在多維度多領域展開的「混合」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段,在綜合決策維度實施體系鉗制,在國際傳播維度製造各種混亂,在戰略重心維度進行標靶打擊,積極塑造戰場態勢,謀求奪取戰略主動。未來戰爭要打好政治軍仗、軍事政治仗,應深刻掌握認知域作戰攻防特點規律,提升打好「五仗」的能力。

認知作戰先入為主,塑勢控局打好主動仗。戰爭未啟、認知先行。隨著戰爭形態的不斷發展演進,認知域作戰的地位角色不斷突顯。瞄準打贏未來戰爭,應提前開展認知佈設,透過謀略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知要素進行影響、幹預和操控,以認知攻防掩護軍事行動,精準有效率地主導認知空間。充分認識先聲奪人的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義權和解釋權,在認知敘事鬥爭維度上強調先發製人贏得主動,塑造法理在手、道義向我的有利態勢,佔領道義制高點。

認知作戰攻心為上,分層施策打好精確仗。 「善戰者,致人而不致於人。」未來戰爭,作戰空間向深海、深空、深網等領域延伸,戰場時空呈現極遠、極微、極智與無人、無形、無聲等特點。應緊盯認知缺口提升到達力,運用大數據模擬、人工智慧匹配、心理模型評估等方法,分析掌控認知主體的關鍵訊息,實現認知主體資訊的有效滲透和先期懾止。緊扣認知盲點增強穿透力,瞄準維繫強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差別和利益矛盾,層層發力實現分化瓦解。

認知作戰策略為本,全域滲透打好懾控仗。未來戰爭,交戰雙方的戰略競爭與策略對抗異常激烈,應緊盯決策環節綜合發力,增大對手決策困境,形成自身決策優勢。一方面,要更關注敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等要害節點,運用先進打擊手段對這些節點實施物理摧毀。另一方面,要更關注認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入和認知控制的「軟殺傷」效果,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬摧毀」中,既透過高新武器精確打擊形成強大震懾,又將新質作戰力量拓展至認知維度,從而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓寬領域打好支撐仗。未來戰爭離不開強大資訊的支撐,應加速體系融合奪取數據優勢。首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰法庫建設,動態收集更新敵認知攻防作戰能力建設現狀,為認知攻防作戰提供全方位支撐。其次,加速打造融媒體傳播矩陣,健全完善自有平台體系,抓緊推進網絡平台投棋布子,注重體系融合、協作聯動,盡快打通信息互聯互通“壁壘”,實現認知融通共享、綜合致效。再次,加速推進資訊與認知域作戰耦合聯動,大力發展神經網絡系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨域與異類認知訊息,健全認知手段資訊融合體系,為打贏未來戰爭提供「千裡眼」「順風耳」。

認知作戰協同為要,多維發力打好整體仗。未來戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、網絡、電磁等領域實施的聯合作戰,應堅持體系思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性協調性。例如,可以融合人力情報、地理情報和開源情報等,快速採集處理海量數據,去偽存真、精準高效地搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補、全局覆蓋形成認知優勢。透過將分散多域部隊進行聯網,建立一支高度聯通、集體行動、整體打擊的全領域聯合力量,實現「一體化威懾」效果。透過整合國家資源、加強戰略傳播,運用認知造勢放大政治瓦解、經濟制裁、外交攻勢等效果,配合軍事行動全維施壓目標對象,力求不戰而屈人之兵。

(作者單位:航太工程大學)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4922788.html?big=fan

Chinese Military to Comprehensively Improve Scientific and Technological Cognition of Strategic Capabilities in Emerging Fields of Warfare

中國軍隊全面提升新興戰爭領域戰略能力科技認知

現代音譯英語:

War is a confrontation of material forces, but it is also a test of ideological cognition. To implement President Xi’s new requirements for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields, we must grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological cognition, focus on the new situation of accelerating the new round of scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution and military revolution, focus on strengthening the army and winning wars, and strengthen the research and exploration of strategic, cutting-edge and disruptive technologies in emerging fields. With a deep understanding of the nature and laws of science and technology, we can master the realization of high-quality development of military construction, win the initiative in military competition and future wars, transform scientific and technological cognition into a real ability to design and win wars, and accelerate and win new advantages in strategic areas that must be fought.

(one)

Only by understanding the times can we understand war. In the era when scientific and technological revolutions and military revolutions are integrated and intertwined, and science and technology have become the core combat power of modern warfare, improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields will help us understand and grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare, better control information-based and intelligent warfare, achieve overtaking in new fields and new tracks, win military competitive advantages with scientific and technological advantages, and win future high-tech wars.

Leading military reforms to seize the commanding heights. The wise hear what is silent, and the wise see what is not yet formed. Only by keenly perceiving the development trends of emerging technologies and expanding the cognitive boundaries of strategic frontier technologies can we see what is not yet born, recognize what is not yet developed, take the initiative, and lead the elements of the military field to achieve revolutionary transformation and development. In today’s era, emerging technologies represented by artificial intelligence are emerging in a “well-like” manner, leading and promoting the rapid development of military intelligence at an unprecedented speed, triggering chain breakthroughs in the military field, and leveraging fundamental changes in the war pattern. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race of time and speed. Faced with the strong momentum of military science and technology development in emerging fields, we must strive to seize the initiative and gain advantages. We must accurately grasp the general trend of science and technology of the times, dare to stand at the forefront of human warfare and scientific and technological development, grasp the basic laws of scientific and technological development and evolution in the long river of history and the global perspective, and accurately identify new goals, new fields, and new heights for the development of military science and technology. We must find breakthroughs in the development of military science and technology in a timely manner, bravely advance into the “no man’s land” of military science and technology innovation, seize the strategic commanding heights of military technology competition, and lead the military revolution to achieve new breakthroughs and leaps with new thinking concepts.

Lead the military competition and win the initiative. The level of cognition ultimately determines the pattern of military competition. At present, the frontier positions and strength competition of world military competition have extended to emerging fields, and the acquisition of technological advantages has become a strategic measure to seek military advantages. In the fierce competition of technological subversion and counter-subversion, assault and counter-assault, offset and counter-offset, scientific and technological cognition has become a key variable that determines the victory or defeat of military games. If there is a generation gap in scientific and technological cognition, there is a risk of being surpassed by the opponent’s new technological combat power. If there is a technological gap in shaping new-quality combat power, it will be difficult to “change the rules of competition” and form a military competitive advantage. Recent local wars and armed conflicts in the world have shown that whoever has a leading strategic capability and technological cognition in emerging fields and uses technology to empower combat power can control the battlefield situation and thereby achieve a fundamental change in the winner and loser. In the increasingly fierce world military game, in order to seize the initiative in the development of military science and technology in emerging fields and occupy a favorable position of high-level control, it is necessary to enhance the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, keep a close eye on changes in science and technology, changes in war, and changes in opponents, plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, follow the trend, make advance arrangements, and plan ahead to ensure the formation of unique advantages in some important fields and win the initiative in military games.

Leading a strong army to win the war and win the future war. Practice determines cognition, which is the source and motivation, purpose and destination of cognition. The scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is aimed at promoting scientific and technological innovation and application. The fundamental focus is to create a new quality combat power growth pole. The main purpose is to seize the commanding heights of strategic competition, seize the initiative in war, and ultimately win the future war. At present, the development of emerging fields is showing an all-round and multi-domain in-depth advancement trend, and the frequency of dynamic iteration and update of science and technology is accelerating. In order to forge a new quality combat capability with a new killing mechanism and improve the scientific and technological content of national defense and military modernization, we must deeply grasp the key areas of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, grasp the new characteristics of cross-integration development of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, focus on creating a new quality combat capability growth pole, vigorously promote independent innovation and original innovation, eliminate backward technologies that are not adapted to the changes in the war situation, adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence, improve the innovation and application of military science and technology, comprehensively enhance the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and win the battle to achieve the goal of building the army for a hundred years as scheduled.

Two

Improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a very complex process of subjective and objective rational thinking. To accurately grasp the essential attributes and characteristic laws of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, and to know both the facts and the reasons, we should focus on improving the three abilities of scientific and technological foresight, discrimination, and understanding in the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and form a scientific cognitive ability system that supports, cooperates with, and influences each other, providing strong support for comprehensively improving the strategic capabilities of emerging fields.

Aiming at future wars, we should enhance our scientific and technological foresight. Emerging fields are one of the main battlefields of future wars. Once some technologies achieve breakthroughs, the impact will be subversive, and may even fundamentally change the form and mode of war, and fundamentally change the traditional offensive and defensive pattern of war. Science and technology have never had such a profound impact on military construction and the outcome of wars as they do today. If we have a narrow scientific and technological cognition and lack strategic foresight and prediction of cutting-edge technologies in emerging fields, we may not understand our opponents, understand wars, and even more so win future wars. During the Gulf War, Iraq’s mechanized steel torrent lost to the US military’s precision-guided weapons. One of the important reasons for this was the gap between the two countries in strategic capabilities and scientific and technological cognition in emerging fields. In order to let our thoughts reach tomorrow’s battlefield, we must improve our scientific and technological awareness, closely follow the development direction of the world’s advanced military science and technology, promptly grasp the latest developments in cutting-edge science and technology, scientifically predict the development trend of science and technology, make full use of technologies such as data mining, comprehensively judge the revolutionary impact of high-tech development on war, take the lead in laying out emerging combat fields, develop a series of high-tech weapons and equipment, accelerate the scientific and technological empowerment of combat effectiveness, and provide a solid material foundation for winning future wars.

Keep a close eye on how to defeat powerful enemies and improve scientific and technological identification. War is a life-and-death confrontation between the enemy and us, and emerging fields are the top priority for the struggle between the two sides. Improving the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is the fundamental strategy to prevent technological raids and avoid technological traps. In order to seize the initiative in war, powerful enemies have always not only used their unique high-tech weapons and equipment to raid their opponents, putting them in a disadvantageous situation of passive attack, but also a more dangerous trick is to carefully set up technical traps and implement strategic deception. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fell into the strategic deception trap of the US “Star Wars Plan”, which accelerated the decline of national strength. To persist in winning against powerful enemies, we must improve the scientific and technological discernment of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, closely follow the technological frontiers of powerful enemies, formulate breakthrough strategies for building strategic capabilities in emerging fields, and maintain a high degree of technical sensitivity and discernment of some so-called new technologies and new concepts promoted by powerful enemies. We must be good at distinguishing the authenticity of technology, weighing the pros and cons of development and the extent of its impact, and persist in developing strategic resources in emerging fields based on national conditions and military conditions, so that the innovative achievements of military science and technology in emerging fields can better empower the decision-making chain, command chain and combat power generation chain.

Mastering the winning strategy improves the understanding of science and technology. The key to building a strong army and winning wars is to master the winning strategy. In the context of the deep coupling of modern science and technology with the military, understanding and mastering science and technology has become a necessary ability to understand, design and win wars. From the perspective of human military history, it is precisely because of the thorough understanding of the principles of aviation technology and space technology that Douhet’s “air supremacy” theory, Graham’s “high frontier” theory and other war theories have been produced. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of new technologies such as human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control of artificial intelligence, it will be impossible to master the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and explore new theories and tactics of intelligent warfare. Technology determines tactics. To win future wars, we must focus on thinking about wars from a scientific and technological perspective, understand the impact of emerging technological developments on wars, learn from the latest achievements in military science and technology innovation of the world’s superpowers, study and explore the internal mechanisms of high-tech in emerging fields supporting modern warfare, explore how to use scientific and technological concepts and thinking to accurately grasp the laws of winning wars, how to use advanced scientific and technological means to strengthen the construction of new-quality combat capabilities, how to design wars based on scientific and technological principles, and how to transform scientific and technological advantages into capability advantages, and use the “key” of scientific and technological thinking to open the “door” to victory.

(three)

Comprehensively improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a long-term, systematic strategic project. We must deeply understand and implement the important instructions of Chairman Xi, take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task, and improve the scientific and technological cognition of officers and soldiers with a high sense of mission, scientific thinking concepts, and effective methods and approaches, so as to lay a solid foundation for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields and realizing high-quality development of our army.

Accelerate the transformation of ideas and concepts. The wise change with the times, and the knowledgeable act according to circumstances. While the emerging military technology is transforming the objective world, it is also profoundly changing people’s subjective world, forming a subversive impact on the traditional war-winning mechanism and way of thinking. The internal requirement is to transform ideas and concepts and enhance scientific and technological cognition. Engels pointed out: “When the wave of technological revolution is surging around… we need newer and braver minds.” Whoever is conservative, conservative, and self-contained will miss precious opportunities, fall into strategic passivity, and even miss an entire era. We must emancipate our minds and update our concepts, actively adapt to the development trend of world military changes today, be sensitive to the innovation of military thinking brought about by the technological revolution, have the courage to change the mindset of mechanized warfare, break the shackles of conservative thinking, firmly establish a new mindset of information-based and intelligent warfare, establish a new concept of strengthening the military and winning victory through science and technology, focus on understanding the new face of war, discovering new characteristics of war, and revealing new laws of war from a scientific and technological perspective, and strive to raise the level of war cognition to a new height.

Cultivate the foundation of scientific and technological literacy. Scientific and technological literacy is the ability to scientifically understand and describe the objective world and the ability to think scientifically. The depth of the foundation of scientific and technological literacy fundamentally determines the level of scientific and technological cognition. If you don’t understand science and technology or your scientific and technological literacy is not high, you will be like looking at flowers in the fog or the moon in the water when it comes to modern warfare, let alone being able to fight and win. To improve the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields and understand the winning mechanism of modern high-tech warfare, the key is to work hard to improve the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers, coordinate the use of advantageous military and civilian scientific and technological resources, vigorously spread the scientific spirit, popularize scientific knowledge, strengthen the study of modern science and technology, especially military science and technology knowledge, and conduct in-depth research on cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology. We must have a deep understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as deep learning, cross-border integration, human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control. We must understand and master the latest scientific and technological achievements, build a multi-dimensional knowledge system with information and intelligent technology as the main body, improve the level of thinking, expand the knowledge structure, and vigorously promote the transformation of the “variable” of scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields into the “energy” of building a strong army and winning wars.

Improve capabilities through practice. A knife needs to be sharpened and a person needs to be trained. To enhance the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, it is necessary not only to nourish the theory to promote the transformation of ideas and concepts, but also to follow the basic law of human cognitive movement of “practice, cognition, re-practice, and re-cognition”, make good use of the actual combat “grindstone” to sharpen the wisdom, and promote the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields to a higher level. We must have the courage to improve quality and capabilities in the practice of strengthening the military with science and technology and strengthening training with science and technology, adhere to learning while doing and learning while doing, focus on our main responsibilities and main business, delve into cutting-edge science and technology based on our posts and combat positions, and improve our scientific and technological acumen, insight, and response speed; enhance our technical understanding of new equipment, new skills, and new tactics, cultivate scientific thinking, master scientific methods, improve our scientific and technological cognition, and cultivate the ideological awareness of strengthening the construction of strategic capabilities in emerging fields from a scientific and technological perspective; keep a close eye on powerful enemies and future battlefields to cultivate a stronger “technological mind”, be familiar with our opponents’ scientific and technological achievements, capabilities, and means, accurately grasp the “hard core” and “soft ribs” of our opponents’ scientific and technological development, adhere to the asymmetric thinking to tailor-make struggle strategies and tactics, and provide strong guarantees for winning this future high-end war and hybrid war.

(Author’s unit: Military Science Academy, Institute of Political Work)

現代國語:

戰爭是物質力量的對抗,更是思想認知力的較量。貫徹落實習主席全面提升新興領域戰略能力的新要求,必須抓住科技認知力這個“牛鼻子”,著眼新一輪科技革命、產業革命和軍事革命加速推進的新態勢,聚焦強軍勝戰加強新興領域戰略性、前沿性、顛覆性技術的研究探索,以對科學技術本質和規律的深刻理解,掌握實現軍隊建設高質量發展,贏得軍事競爭和未來戰爭的主動權,把科技認知力轉化為實實在在的設計戰爭、打贏戰爭能力,在戰略必爭領域跑出加速度、贏得新優勢。

(一)

理解時代才能理解戰爭。在科技革命與軍事革命融合交叉,科技已成為現代戰爭核心戰鬥力的時代背景下,提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,有助於理解和把握現代戰爭的特點規律,更好地駕馭資訊化智能化戰爭,在新領域新賽道實現彎道超車,以科技優勢贏得軍事競爭優勢、贏得未來高科技戰爭。

引領軍事變革搶佔制高點。聰者聽於無聲,明者見於未形。敏銳洞察新興領域科技發展趨勢走向,拓展戰略前沿技術領域認知邊界,才能做到見之於未萌、識之於未發,下好先手棋、打好主動仗,引領軍事領域要素實現革命性轉型發展。在當今時代,以人工智慧為代表的新興科技「井噴式」湧現,引領和推動軍事智慧以前所未有的速度突飛猛進,正在引發軍事領域鍊式突破,撬動戰爭格局發生根本性轉變。科技創新歷來是時間與速度的賽跑,面對新興領域軍事科技發展的強勁勢頭,我們要致力於搶佔先機、贏得優勢,必須準確把握時代科技大勢,勇於站在人類戰爭和科技發展最前沿,在歷史長河和全球視野中把握科技發展演變的基本規律,切實找準軍事科技發展的新目標、新領域、新高地,及時找到軍事科技發展的突破口,勇於向軍事科技創新「無人區」進軍,搶佔軍事技術競爭的戰略制高點,以全新的思維理念引領軍事革命實現新突破新跨越。

引領軍事競爭贏得主動權。認知層次高低最終決定軍事競爭格局。當前,世界軍事競爭前線陣地和實力比拼已經延伸到新興領域,把奪取科技優勢作為謀求軍事優勢的戰略舉措。在技​​術上顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷的激烈較量中,科技認知力已成為決定軍事博弈勝負的關鍵變數。如果科技認知力出現代差,就面臨被對手新技術作戰力量超越的風險。在塑造新質戰鬥力上出現技術鴻溝,就很難「改變競技規則」形成軍事競爭優勢。世界近幾場局部戰爭和武裝沖突表明,誰具有領先對手的新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,用科技為戰鬥力賦能,誰就能掌控戰場態勢,並以此實現勝負手的根本轉換。在日益激烈的世界軍事博弈中,奪取新興領域軍事科技發展主動權,佔據高位瞰的有利位勢,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,因勢而謀,應勢而動,順勢而為,超前佈局、超前謀劃,確保在一些重要領域形成獨特優勢,贏得軍事博弈主動權。

引領強軍勝戰制勝未來戰爭。實踐決定認識,是認識的泉源和動力、目的和歸宿。新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,以推動科技創新和科技運用為實踐指向,根本著眼點是打造新質戰鬥力增長極,主要目的是搶佔戰略競爭制高點,奪取戰爭主動權,最終打贏未來戰爭。當前,新興領域發展呈現全方位多領域縱深推進態勢,科技動態迭代更新頻率加快,鍛造全新殺傷機理的新質戰鬥力,提高國防和軍隊現代化建設的科技含量,必須深刻把握新興領域科技創新發展的關鍵領域,掌握新興領域科技創新發展交叉融合發展新特徵,以打造新質戰鬥力增長極為重點,大力推進自主創新、原始創新,淘汰不適應戰爭形態變化的落後技術,堅持機械化信息化智能化融合發展,提升軍事科技創新力應用力,全面提升新興領域戰略能力,打贏如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標攻堅戰。

(二)

提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,是十分複雜的主觀見之於客觀的理性思維過程。科學準確掌握新興領域科技創新發展的本質屬性與特點規律,做到知其然又知其所以然,應重點提升新興領域戰略能力的科技預知力、鑑別力、理解力三種能力素質,形成相互支撐、相互配合、相互影響的科學認知能力體系,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力提供強大支撐。

瞄準未來戰爭提昇科技預知力。新興領域是未來戰爭的主戰場之一,有些技術一旦取得突破,影響將是顛覆性的,甚至可能從根本上改變戰爭形態和作戰方式,從根本上改變傳統的戰爭攻防格局。科技從來沒有像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊建設和戰爭勝負,如果科技認知力狹隘,對新興領域前沿技術缺乏戰略性預見和預判,就可能看不懂對手、看不懂戰爭,更談不上打贏得未來戰爭。海灣戰爭期間,伊拉克機械化鋼鐵洪流輸給美軍精確制導武器,究其緣由重要的一條是由兩者在新興領域戰略能力科技認知力存在差距造成的。讓思想直達明天的戰場,必須提高科技認知力,緊密跟踪世界先進軍事科技發展方向,及時掌握前沿科技最新動態,科學預測科技發展趨勢,充分運用數據挖掘等技術,綜合研判高科技發展給戰爭帶來的革命性影響,搶先佈局新興作戰領域,研發系列高新技術武器裝備,加速戰鬥力科技賦能,為制勝未來戰爭提供堅實的物質基礎。

緊盯制勝​​強敵提高科技鑑別力。戰爭是敵我雙方的生死對抗,新興領域更是作戰雙方角力的重中之重。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是防止技術突襲和避免技術陷阱的根本之策。為奪取戰爭主動權,強敵向來不僅以獨有的高新技術武器裝備突襲對手,使其陷入被動挨打的不利處境,更危險的招數在於精心設置技術陷阱,實施戰略欺詐。冷戰美蘇爭霸時期,蘇聯就落入美國「星際大戰計畫」的戰略欺騙陷阱,加速了國力衰退。堅持扭住強敵謀打贏,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技鑑別力,要密切跟踪強敵對手科技前沿動態,制定新興領域戰略能力建設突破策略,對強敵宣傳炒作的一些所謂新技術新概念,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和辨識力,要善於甄別技術真偽、權衡發展利弊及其影響程度,堅持從國情軍情出發開發新興領域戰略資源,使新興領域軍事科技創新成果更好地賦能決策鏈、指揮鍊和戰鬥力生成鏈。

掌握制勝之道提昇科技理解力。強軍勝戰關鍵要掌握制勝之道,在現代科技與軍事深度耦合的背景下,認識並掌握科技成為理解戰爭、設計戰爭、打贏戰爭的必備能力。從人類軍事史來看,正是由於對航空技術、太空技術等原理的透徹認知,杜黑的「制空權」理論、葛拉漢的「高邊疆」理論等戰爭理論才得以產生。同樣,當前如果對人工智慧所具有的人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新技術缺乏透徹認知,就無法掌握智能化戰爭制勝機理、探索智能作戰新戰法。技術決定戰術。打贏未來戰爭必須著重從科技角度思考戰爭,理解新興領域科技發展對戰爭帶來的影響,並藉鑑吸收世界強國軍事科技創新最新成果,研究探索新興領域高新科技支撐現代戰爭的內在機理,探討如何以科技理念和思維把準戰爭制勝規律、如何運用先進科技手段加強新質戰鬥力建設、如何依據科技原理設計戰爭、如何將科技優勢轉化為能力優勢,用科技思維的“鑰匙”開啟勝戰“大門” 。

(三)

全面提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是一項長期性、系統性的戰略工程,必須深刻理解貫徹習主席重要指示精神,把提高官兵科技素養作為一項基礎性工作來抓,以高度的使命擔當、科學的思維理念、有效的方法路徑提升官兵科技認知力,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力,實現我軍高質量發展夯實根基。

加快轉變思想觀念。明者因時而變,知者隨事而製。新興領域軍事科技在改造客觀世界的同時,也深刻改變著人們的主觀世界,對傳統的戰爭制勝機理和思維方式形成顛覆性沖擊,內在要求必須轉變思想觀念提昇科技認知力。恩格斯指出:「當科技革命的浪潮正在四周洶湧澎湃的時候……我們需要更新、更勇敢的頭腦。」誰思想保守、因循守舊、固步自封,誰就會錯失寶貴時機,陷於戰略被動,甚至會錯過整整一個時代。我們必須解放思想更新觀念,積極適應當今世界軍事變革的發展趨勢,敏銳感知技術革命帶來的軍事思想革新,勇於改變機械化戰爭的思維定勢,破除守舊守常守成思想束縛,牢固樹立起信息化智能化戰爭新思維,立起科技強軍制勝的新理念,注重從科技角度認識戰爭新面貌、發現戰爭新特點、揭示戰爭新規律,努力把戰爭認知力水平提升到新高度。

涵養科技素養底蘊。科技素養是科學認識和描述客觀世界的能力和科學思維能力,科技素養底蘊的深度,從根本上決定科技認知力高低程度。不懂科技或科技素養不高,對現代戰爭就是霧裡看花、水中觀月,更別說能打仗、打勝仗。提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,理解現代高科技戰爭制勝機理,關鍵要在提高官兵科技素養上下功夫,統籌利用軍地科技優勢資源,大力傳播科學精神、普及科學知識,加強現代科技特別是軍事科技知識的學習,深入研究人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等前沿技術,深刻認識人工智慧深度學習、跨界融合、人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新特點,了解和掌握最新科技成果,構建以資訊化、智慧化技術為主體的多維知識體系,提高思維層次、拓展知識結構,強力推進新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力這個「變量」向強軍勝戰「能量”轉化。

立足實踐提高能力。刀要磨,人要練。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,既需要理論滋養促進思想理念轉型,更要遵循「實踐、認識、再實踐、再認識」的人類認識運動基本規律,用好實戰「磨刀石」砥礪智慧鋒芒,推動新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力向更高一級躍進。要勇於在科技強軍、科技強訓實踐中提質強能,堅持學中乾乾中學,聚焦主責主業、立足崗位戰位鑽研前沿科技,提高科技敏銳度、洞察力和響應速度;增強對新裝備、新技能、新戰法的技術理解,培育科學思維、掌握科學方法,提高科技認知力,培塑從科技視角加強新興領域戰略能力建設的思想意識;緊盯強敵對手和未來戰場練就更強大的“科技頭腦”,熟悉對手的科技成果、科技能力和科技手段,精準把脈對手科技發展的“硬核”和“軟肋”,堅持非對稱思想量身定制鬥爭策略和戰法,為打贏這場未來高端戰爭、混合戰爭提供有力保障。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究院)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/szb_223187/gfbszbxq/index.html?paperName=zggfb&paperDate=2024-06-03&paperNumber=03&articleid=932888

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Analysis of How Their Military Implements Strategic & Tactical Warfare

中國人民解放軍分析軍隊如何執行戰略戰術戰

現代漢語音譯:

To implement the general principle of “the CMC is in overall control, the theater commands are responsible for combat, and the services are responsible for construction,” the services need to accurately grasp the interaction between combat and construction, strengthen coordination with the theater commands, and form a work pattern with clear rights and responsibilities, positive interaction, smooth and efficient operations. They should focus their main tasks, main responsibilities, and main energy on building and managing the troops. They should always adhere to the principles of leading construction in accordance with combat, building for combat, managing for combat, and using construction to promote combat, comprehensively improve the level of practical military training, and provide theater commands with high-quality combat forces.

Get the coordinates of building for war

The coordinates are the direction of the times for building for war. Only when the direction is clear can the construction be accelerated according to the track. Entering the new era, the firepower intensity, mobility speed, strike accuracy and intelligence level of weapons and equipment have greatly increased, the battlefield space has been continuously expanded, the coupling of combat operations has become closer, and the battlefield situation has changed more rapidly. Wars have gradually shown the characteristics of platform combat, system support, tactical operations, and strategic guarantees. In particular, the use of intelligent, stealth, and unmanned combat, as well as aerospace forces, new concept weapons, and highly effective destructive ammunition have fundamentally changed the concept of war time and space. The war form has accelerated the evolution from mechanized informationization to informationization and intelligence, and intelligent warfare has begun to emerge. The main construction of the military service should be the combat effectiveness of informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, rather than the combat effectiveness of mechanized warfare. The military service should focus on informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, turn its attention to intelligent military transformation, fully imagine the future war form, scale, intensity, spatial region, etc., and use concepts that transcend the times to lead the construction vision forward and forward; it is necessary to deeply study the victory mechanism, scientifically judge, and build what kind of troops are needed to win future wars, so as to be targeted.

Find the right target for construction

The target is not only a beacon of construction and development, but also a scale to test combat effectiveness. Only by setting up the correct target can the military build for war and guide the innovation and development of weapons and equipment, system organization and combat theory without deformation or distortion. The military builds for war, and the enemy is not an ordinary opponent, but a strong enemy in the world military game. This requires the military to build for war, and it must lock on the strong enemy, insist on focusing all its attention on defeating the strong enemy, and work hard to defeat the strong enemy. Closely aiming at the world’s first-class standards, the focus should be on firmly grasping the characteristics of future combat systems and system confrontations, exploring standardized and modular construction issues, and forming an integrated and linked system combat capability; focusing on the requirements of all-domain operations, focusing on tackling realistic issues such as rapid response, long-range delivery, and integrated support, and building a strong rapid and mobile cross-domain action capability. We must seize the key of balancing strong enemies, strengthen targeted research on strong enemies, focus on building what the enemy fears, and develop more things that can balance strong enemies. We must strive to have a chance of winning in battles, bargaining chips in negotiations, and confidence in deterrence. We must focus on solving bottleneck problems such as the construction of new forces of the military, the use of high-tech equipment, and information and intelligent integration, and comprehensively build a world-class military.

Innovation and construction as the forerunner of the war

Theory is the forerunner of practice, and scientific military theory is combat effectiveness. Whoever can grasp the pulse of future war development and possess superb war design capabilities will win the initiative in war and even the final victory. The military should build for war, and it cannot just go wherever it wants. It should put research and construction in a strategic position, carry out forward-looking, targeted, and reserve innovative research, propose new concepts, find new breakthroughs, and form innovative theories that are contemporary, leading, and unique. The military should build for war, and it must focus on the current practice and future development of war, clarify the vertical evolution axis, focus on shaping the future battlefield and changing the research of future combat rules, and promote the reshaping of concepts and the reconstruction of systems as soon as possible; focus on cutting-edge technology and future intelligent war design, and make great efforts to achieve major breakthroughs in new technologies and new forms of war; focus on continuously promoting the development of new concepts such as combat thinking, action style, and capability requirements, and form forward-looking thinking on future combat operations. At the same time, the new theories and concepts should be systematized and concretized, and become a “roadmap” for planning and designing the construction of force systems, the development of weapons and equipment, the transformation of military training, and the training of combat talents. It is necessary to form a closed loop from practice to theory and then from theory to practice, allow military theoretical research to draw rich nutrients from practice, allow advanced and mature theoretical results to enter the military decision-making and practical links, and achieve a virtuous interaction between theory and practice.

Build a hard core of construction for war

Science and technology are the most revolutionary force. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race against time and speed. If you don’t work hard to innovate, you will fall behind and be beaten. If you innovate slowly, you will also fall behind and be beaten. Today, scientific and technological innovation has become the core strategy for many countries and militaries to seek advantages. The military must pay close attention to the leading role of science and technology in building for war. By integrating the most cutting-edge and even imagined future science and technology into the overall construction plan, it will lead the basic direction of construction and development, and actively explore the scientific and technological innovation path of using the future army to fight a future war with the future enemy; it must implement the strategy of strengthening the military with science and technology, demand combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, vigorously cultivate new scientific and technological growth points, and strive to increase the contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to the development of the combat effectiveness of the military; it must face the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the main battlefields of the future, and the major needs of combat, accelerate the pace of innovation, and plan and demonstrate that one item must be launched, especially to let disruptive technology run ahead, strive to run faster, and win new advantages. Obviously, talent is the key to building a hard core for war. Talent is the most difficult preparation. Whoever has more high-quality new military talents will be able to gain or gain more winning opportunities on the battlefield in the future. We must accurately grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the requirements for military transformation and construction, so as to train the talents needed for war and prioritize the talents that are most in short supply, so that the supply side of talent training can be accurately matched with the demand side of future battlefields.

Laying a solid foundation for building for war

Fighting is hard-hitting, while training is practical. The root of “war” lies in “construction”, and the foundation of “construction” lies in “training”. Military training, as the regular and central work of the troops, is not only the basic way to generate and improve combat effectiveness, but also the most direct preparation for military struggle. In the new era, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence, the mission and tasks of the army are constantly expanding, the level of informationization and intelligence of weapons and equipment is gradually improving, and the conditions for training support are gradually improving. It is urgent for the services to comprehensively upgrade their combat capabilities from considering the interaction of multiple fields such as the form of war, combat methods, weapons and equipment, and personnel quality, to analyzing the influence of many factors such as known and unknown, possible and impossible, and possible and impossible. To build for war, we must focus on training against strong enemies, practice reconnaissance, coordination, equipment, and support around the progress of the real enemy situation, practice strong force deployment, practice fast battlefield construction, practice real equipment data, and practice strong support support; we must aim at the latest enemy situation in multiple fields such as land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, and carry out real, difficult, strict, and practical full-element training in the re-enactment of the scene, “fight” with strong enemies, and let the troops hone their skills and strengthen their strength in the real confrontation; we must pursue extreme training, constantly impact the limits of people and equipment, so that the physiological and psychological limits of officers and soldiers, the performance limits of equipment, and the combat effectiveness limits of the combination of people and weapons can be fully exerted. Only by using “forced to the extreme, difficult to the extreme” training to present all shortcomings and weaknesses and overcome them can we cope with the most brutal battlefield. Some tactics and methods trained beyond the limit are often the key move and fatal blow to defeat the enemy in actual combat.

Do a good job in coupling construction with combat

The fundamental purpose of war and construction is to be able to fight and win. We must accelerate the realization of functional coupling under the new system and work together to accelerate the generation of combat effectiveness. To build an army that adapts to future combat needs is to build troops that can complete future combat tasks and have corresponding combat capabilities. Combat requirements are the specific embodiment of such task requirements and capabilities. Construction for war should be based on the needs of fulfilling missions and tasks, and should be designed in advance for future combat military needs. Military needs should be used to guide various military constructions, and combat needs should be continuously refined and dynamically adjusted to promote the coupling of war and construction. By strengthening the demonstration and research of future combat needs and making good top-level planning, we can grasp the direction and focus of military construction in general, consider the comprehensive development of military weapons and equipment and personnel quality from a strategic height and long-term development, clarify the focus, insist on doing what we should do and not doing what we should not do, concentrate on developing strategic and key projects, give priority to emergency operations, correctly handle the primary and secondary, urgent and slow, light and heavy aspects of military construction, firmly grasp the main and key aspects, and promote coordinated and coordinated military construction, scientific and reasonable, standardized and orderly, and sustainable development. Scientific combat effectiveness assessment can not only scientifically and specifically understand the composition and strength of one’s own combat effectiveness, but also help to take targeted measures to promote the coupling of construction and combat, timely discover and correct deficiencies in construction, truly realize the scientific development, intensive and efficient development of the army, and promote combat effectiveness construction to a higher level.

Strictly grasp the test of building for war

Whether a unit is well built and has the ability to win a battle must ultimately be tested through military practice. After a comprehensive test of military practice, problems in unit construction will inevitably be exposed, thereby promoting the army to make corresponding adjustments in the content, focus and direction of construction. Through repeated tests of military practice, new requirements and new goals are constantly put forward for unit construction, thereby leading the development of unit construction to a higher stage. Make good use of network simulation confrontation test. The informatization and intelligence of network simulation confrontation make the cognition, decision-making, feedback, correction, and action of simulation confrontation more close to actual combat, revolutionize the process of military activities, and then have a positive effect on weapons and equipment, command and control, force organization and other fields, thereby promoting the continuous leap in the combat effectiveness of the troops, and even giving birth to new war styles and changing the mechanism of winning wars. Make good use of on-site live-fire exercises. As a pre-practice of future wars, live-fire exercises can not only effectively test the actual combat capabilities of the troops, but more importantly, they can discover some weak links in the construction of the troops, optimize and improve them in a targeted manner, and obtain the maximum combat effectiveness return. Make good use of war practice tests. The leading role of war practice in unit construction is irreplaceable. The harsh practice of war can truly test which troop construction is suitable and which is unsuitable for future wars, and then correct deviations and mistakes in many aspects such as construction guidance, construction focus, and construction methods, so as to prepare for winning the next war.

現代國語軍語:

貫徹「軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建」總原則,軍種部隊需要準確掌握戰與建互動規律,加強同戰區對接,形成權責清晰、正向互動、順暢高效的工作格局,把主要任務、主要職責、主要精力放在建設、管理部隊上,始終堅持以戰領建、抓建為戰、抓管為戰、以建促戰,全面提高軍事訓練實戰化水平,為戰區提供優質作戰力量。

把準抓建為戰的座標

座標是抓建為戰的時代方位,只有方位明晰,建設才能依軌加速。進入新時代,武器裝備的火力強度、機動速度、打擊精度、智能化程度大幅躍升,戰場空間不斷拓展,作戰行動耦合更加緊密,戰場態勢變換更加迅速,戰爭逐漸呈現出平台作戰、體系支撐,戰術行動、戰略保障等特點,特別是智能化、隱身化、無人化作戰以及空天力量、新概念武器、高效毀傷彈藥的運用,從根本上改變了戰爭時空概念,戰爭形態加速由機械化信息化朝向資訊化智能化演變,智能化戰爭初見端倪。軍種主建,建的應是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的戰鬥力,而不是機械化戰爭的戰鬥力。軍種抓建為戰,必須聚焦具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭,把目光投向智慧化軍事變革,充分設想未來戰爭形態、規模、強度、空間地域等,用超越時代的理念,引領建設視野向前再向前;必須深研製勝機理,科學研判,打贏未來戰爭需要什麼部隊就建設什麼部隊,做到有的放矢。

找準抓建為戰的靶標

標靶既是建設發展的燈塔,也是檢驗戰鬥力的天秤。只有樹立正確靶標,軍種抓建為戰才能有的放矢,不變形、不走樣地牽引武器裝備、體制編制和作戰理論創新發展。軍種抓建為戰,戰的不是一般對手,而是世界軍事賽場上的強敵。這就要求軍種抓建為戰,必然要鎖定強敵,堅持全部心思向打敗強敵聚焦、各項工作向戰勝強敵用勁。緊緊瞄準世界級標準,重點要牢牢把握未來作戰體系與體系對抗的特徵,探索標準化、模組化建設問題,形成一體聯動的體係作戰能力;圍繞全局作戰要求,聚力攻關快速反應、遠程投送、融合保障等現實課題,建強快速機動跨域行動能力。抓住制衡強敵這個關鍵,加強對強敵的針對性研究,堅持敵人怕什麼就重點建什麼,發展什麼能製衡強敵就多備幾手,力求做到戰有勝算、談有籌碼、懾有底氣,著力解決軍種新型力量建設、高新裝備運用、資訊智慧整合等瓶頸問題,全面建成世界一流軍隊。

創新抓建為戰的先導

理論是實踐的先導​​,科學的軍事理論就是戰鬥力。誰能把準未來戰爭的發展脈動、擁有高超的戰爭設計能力,誰就能贏得戰爭的主動權甚至最後的勝利。軍種抓建為戰,不能走到哪算哪,要把研戰謀建擺在戰略位置,開展前瞻性、針對性、儲備性創新研究,提出新概念、尋找新突破,形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的創新理論。軍種抓建為戰,必須著眼戰爭當前實踐和未來發展,理清縱向演進軸線,把重點放在塑造未來戰場、改變未來作戰規則研究上,盡快推動觀念重塑、體系重構;放在聚焦前沿科技領域、未來智慧化戰爭設計上,下氣力在戰爭新技術、新形態方面實現重大突破;放在持續推進作戰思想、行動樣式、能力需求等新概念的開發上,形成對未來作戰行動的前瞻性思考。同時把新理論新概念體系化、具體化,成為規劃設計力量體系建構、武器裝備發展、軍事訓練轉變、作戰人才培育的「路線圖」。要形成從實踐到理論、再從理論到實踐的閉環迴路,讓軍事理論研究從實踐中汲取豐厚養分,讓先進成熟的理論成果進入軍事決策和實踐環節,實現理論和實踐良性互動。

打造抓建為戰的硬核

科技是最具革命性的力量。科技創新歷來是與時間和速度的賽跑。不努力創新就會落後挨打,創新速度慢了也同樣會落後挨打。今天,科技創新已成為許多國家和軍隊尋求優勢的核心策略。軍種抓建為戰,必須高度關注科技引領作用的發揮,透過把當前最前沿甚至是設想中的未來科學技術融入建設整體規劃之中,引領建設發展的基本方向,積極探索用未來的我軍與未來的敵人打一場未來戰爭的科技創新路徑;必須落實科技強軍戰略,向科技創新要戰鬥力,大力培育新的科技增長點,著力提高科技創新對軍種戰鬥力發展的貢獻率;必鬚麵向世界科技前沿、面向未來主要戰場、面向作戰重大需求,加快創新速度,規劃論證好一項就要上馬一項,特別是要讓顛覆性技術跑在前面,力爭跑出加速度,贏得新優勢。顯然,打造抓建為戰的硬核,人才是關鍵。人才是最艱鉅的準備,誰擁有更多高素質新型軍事人才,誰就能在未來戰場上提早獲得或多獲得一些致勝先機。要準確掌握現代戰爭特徵規律和軍種轉型建設要求,做到打仗需要什麼人才就培養什麼人才、什麼人才最緊缺就優先鍛造什麼人才,使人才培養供給側同未來戰場需求側精準對接。

夯實抓建為戰的根基

打仗硬碰硬,訓練實打實。 「戰」的根本在於「建」,「建」的基礎在於「練」。軍事訓練作為部隊的經常性中心工作,既是產生和提高戰鬥力的基本途徑,也是最直接的軍事鬥爭準備。新時代,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化發展,軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,武器裝備資訊化智能化水準逐步提高,訓練保障條件逐步改善,迫切需要軍種部隊從考慮戰爭形態、作戰方法、武器裝備、人員素質等多個領域的相互作用,到分析已知與未知、可能與不可能、可為與不可為等諸多因素的影響,全面升級實戰能力。抓建為戰,必須聚焦強敵練兵,圍繞真實敵情的進展,練偵察、練協同、練裝備、練保障,練實力量布勢、練快戰場建設、練真裝備數據、練強保障支撐;必須瞄準陸海空及太空、網路空間等多領域最新敵情,在情景重現中開展真、難、嚴、實的全要素訓練,與強敵“過招”,讓部隊在真刀真槍對抗中礪功、強實力;必須追求極限訓練,不斷向人和裝備極限衝擊,使官兵的生理心理極限、裝備的性能極限、人與武器結合的戰鬥力極限全面迸發。唯有用「逼到絕境、難到極致」的訓練呈現所有短板弱項,並加以克服,才能應付最殘酷的戰場。一些超越極限訓出的戰術戰法,往往是實戰中勝敵的關鍵一招、致命一擊。

搞好抓建為戰的耦合

戰與建,根本目的都是為了能打仗、打勝仗,必須在新體制下加快實現功能耦合,為加速戰鬥力生成共同發力。建構適應未來作戰需求的軍隊,說到底是建設能完成未來作戰任務、具備相應作戰能力的部隊,作戰需求就是這種任務需求和能力的具體展現。抓建為戰應根據履行使命任務需要,針對未來作戰軍事需求超前設計,以軍事需求牽引軍隊各項建設,不斷細化和動態化調整作戰需求促進戰建耦合。透過加強未來作戰需求論證研究搞好頂層規劃,從整體上把握軍隊建設的方向和重點,從戰略高度和長遠發展考慮軍隊武器裝備、人員素質的全面發展,明確重點,堅持有所為有所不為,集中力量發展戰略性、關鍵性項目,優先保障應急作戰,正確處理軍隊建設的主與次、急與緩、輕與重,緊緊抓住主要的、關鍵的,推動軍隊建設協調配套,科學合理,規範有序,持續發展。科學的戰鬥力評估不僅能夠科學具體地認識己方戰鬥力的組成及其強弱,還有利於採取針對性措施促進抓建為戰的耦合,及時發現並糾正建設中的不足,真正實現軍隊建設的科學發展、集約高效,促進戰鬥力建設上台階。

嚴格抓建為戰的檢驗

一支部隊建設得好不好,是不是已經具備打勝仗的能力,最終還是要透過軍事實踐來檢驗。經過軍事實踐的全面檢驗,必然暴露部隊建設上存在的問題,從而推動軍隊在建設內容、重點、方向上做出相應的調整。透過這樣一次次軍事實踐的反覆檢驗,不斷地給部隊建設提出新要求新目標,由此引領部隊建設向著更高的階段發展。用好網路模擬對抗檢驗。網路模擬對抗資訊智慧化,使得模擬對抗的認知、決策、回饋、修正、行動等更趨於實戰,革命性地改造軍事活動流程,進而對武器裝備、指揮控制、力量編組等多個領域產生正面作用,由此促進部隊戰鬥力不斷躍升,甚至催生新的戰爭樣式、改變戰爭制勝機制。用好現地實兵演習檢驗。作為未來戰爭的預實踐,實兵演習不僅能有效檢驗部隊的實戰能力,更為重要的,是能發現部隊建設中存在的一些薄弱環節,有針對性地加以優化改進,獲得最大限度的戰鬥力回報。用好戰爭實踐檢驗。戰爭實踐對部隊建設的引領作用不可取代。嚴酷的戰爭實踐,可以真正檢驗部隊建設哪些適合、哪些不適合未來戰爭,進而修正在建設指導、建設重點、建設方法等諸多方面的偏差和失誤,為打贏下一場戰爭做好準備。

中國軍事資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/48713888.html

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:王雪平  許炎 朱曉萌 責任編輯:

喬楠楠 2020-09-17 08:38:16

Chinese Military Focuses On Information Networks as Emphasis to Winning the Cognitive War

中國軍隊以資訊網為打贏認知戰爭的重點

國語音譯:

In today’s era of integrated development of informatization and intelligence, information networks will play an irreplaceable and important role in cognitive warfare with their advantages of deep reach, wide audience, and strong interactivity. With the blessing of information networks, cognitive warfare will be even more powerful and at ease. A deep understanding of the mechanisms, basic forms, methods and means of information networks’ role in cognitive warfare will help to timely grasp the initiative in cognitive warfare and lay the foundation for victory.

The Mechanism and Law of Information Network Cognitive Warfare

The essence of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks is to provide massive amounts of information through core algorithms, create biased cognitive scenarios, and influence the thinking and cognition of people and intelligent machines. This process integrates the operating rules of information networks and the internal mechanisms of thinking and cognition, has strong predictability, and is the underlying architecture and key point that must be grasped in information network cognitive warfare.

Sticky effects based on path dependence. The highly developed information network in today’s society provides an inseparable platform for people to study, work, live, and entertain, as well as for military construction, operations, and military struggle preparations, forming an interconnected path dependence between them. With information as the core and the Internet as the medium, this platform connects different groups of people, societies, countries, including the military, through invisible stickiness. It not only opens up the entire world into a closely connected global village, but also objectively provides a basis for carrying out cognitive operations. , influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, and provide a bridge and link to win the cognitive war. In 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton delivered an “Internet Freedom” speech, advocating the “Internet Freedom” strategy in an attempt to use the channel formed by people’s high dependence on the Internet to influence the thinking and cognition of people in rival countries, especially the younger generation, and spread American values. .

Interactive influence based on information exchange. Education believes that interactive communication can effectively overcome the cognitive barriers formed by one-way information transmission, reach consensus, form empathy, and strengthen empathy through information exchange, emotional integration, and mutual promotion of needs. A big difference between information networks and traditional communication media is that they provide a carrier that can interact and communicate on a large scale, at a fast pace, and with high efficiency. In this carrier, the information-dominant party can repeatedly confirm the influence, adjust methods and strategies, and intervene in the thinking and cognition of the other party through the interactive mechanism provided by the carrier based on the other party’s ideological fluctuations, emotional changes, attitude feedback, etc. For a long time, the United States has maintained a “engagement + containment” strategy toward China. One of the important considerations is that this kind of contact can effectively overcome the communication barriers and information gaps formed by simple blockade and confrontation, enhance the interaction between the two governments and the people, and thus find opportunities to open gaps and influence our ideas and ideologies. Although this strategy occurs in the traditional field, it is inherently consistent with the interactive influence mechanism of information networks based on information exchange.

Induced influence based on preset scenarios. The concealment, virtuality and permeability of information networks enable their controllers to create highly deceptive, tempting and inflammatory information scenarios through technical and strategic means such as water army flooding, information filtering and “fishing in troubled waters”, so that the opponent is deeply trapped in it without knowing it, but develops towards the preset process and results. This directional manipulation of information networks can subtly and efficiently influence, infect and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition, so that they are unconsciously led by the rhythm, and achieve a much better combat effect than confrontation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US media spread false information such as the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq through the Internet and other platforms, accusing the Saddam regime of collusion with al-Qaeda, corruption, and unprovoked killing of the Iraqi people. At the same time, they tried every means to cover up the truth, filter out the anti-war voices of their own people, and strive to create an atmosphere that the Saddam regime is evil and hateful and the whole United States is united against the enemy.

The basic form of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks

The laws of war and the winning mechanism determine the basic shape of war. The regular mechanism of information network’s role in cognitive warfare inherently determines the external form of this kind of war. The most basic and representative ones include information confusion warfare, thinking misleading warfare and will-destroying warfare.

Information confusion war. It is to infuse the network with a large amount of complex information that combines reality and reality, and is both real and illusory, causing the enemy’s information network capacity to be overloaded, dysfunctional, and out of order, or causing specific audiences to become “deaf, blind, and insensible,” causing cognitive congestion and cognitive impairment. and impaired decision-making and judgment. This form of war is often used in the early stages of combat and on opaque battlefields. The party with information superiority can cause the enemy to fall into a state of confusion and panic, resulting in loss of perception, loss of thinking, and confusion. According to Bloomberg, the Space Force, the newly established sixth military branch of the United States, plans to purchase 48 jamming systems by 2027, aiming to interfere with satellite signals of major powers “in the event of conflict.” The military forces of many countries generally feel that the information they obtain now is not too little but too much. The huge amount of information coming from all directions has caused huge pressure on situational awareness and analysis and judgment.

War of misleading thinking. It is to form a tendentious information scene by instilling specific information containing the intention of the information network controller, misleading, deceiving and influencing the thinking and ideas of specific countries, armies and people, causing them to deviate from the correct development track and move in a direction that is beneficial to oneself and harmful to the enemy. The direction deviation is the highest state and common practice of cognitive attack. This kind of misdirection is premised on strong external pressure, based on specious strategies, and uses mixed information as a weapon. It targets the opponent’s thinking characteristics and weak links to implement clearly oriented deception, causing the opponent to lose its way in tension and panic. Unknowingly fell into the “trap”. In recent years, while implementing the strategy of great power competition, some countries have used online trolls to fabricate false information, create false information, and spread true rumors to stir up trouble around our country and instigate some countries that have had grievances with our country in history and friction in reality. The purpose of provoking quarrels and provoking troubles is to induce us to divert our attention, weaken the investment of resources and strength in the main strategic directions, deviate from the track of rejuvenation of a strong country, and seek to reap the benefits of the fishermen.

Will-destroying war. Futurist Alfred Toffler said that whoever controls the human mind controls the entire world. War is ultimately a confrontation between people. People’s psychological activities greatly affect their mental state, which in turn affects their will to fight. Will-destroying war is different from traditional warfare that indirectly affects people’s will through material destruction. It directly affects the psychological activities, mental state and thinking decisions of key figures, affecting military morale, fighting will and combat operations. With the development of science and technology and social progress, the intervention in people’s will has evolved from the traditional strategy-based intervention to the “technology + strategy” stage. More than ten years ago, scientists developed a “sound wave cluster” weapon that emits extremely narrow sound wave “sound columns” from hundreds of meters away through an electromagnetic network, interfering with the enemy’s judgment and even causing strong-willed soldiers to become insane. In recent years, studies have shown that artificial speech synthesis technology based on brain wave signals can extract signals from the brain and synthesize speech that humans can directly understand.

Information network plays a major role in cognitive warfare

“Technology + strategy” constitutes the basic means of modern cognitive warfare. As a product of the development of modern science and technology, the information network’s role in cognitive warfare is mainly reflected in “technology + strategy”. This provides a basic entry point for us to understand and grasp the methods and scientific paths of the role of information networks in cognitive warfare, so as to win the war.

Big data shaping. As the core component of information networks, data is not only the carrier of information, but also the “new oil” that drives the value of information networks, and is the basic ammunition for cognitive warfare. By constructing complex information scenarios for my own use through massive data, it can confuse the opponent’s thinking, mislead and deceive the opponent’s thinking, or destroy belief and will, which constitutes the basic logic of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks. In this logical architecture, data is undoubtedly the most basic resource and the core element. A few years ago, authoritative departments calculated that the world produces about 2.5 exabytes (EB) of data every day, of which only 20% is structured data that can be directly utilized, and the remaining 80% needs to be analyzed, screened, and screened. These geometrically growing data resources provide inexhaustible “data ammunition” for shaping data information scenarios and implementing cognitive warfare.

Intelligent push. In the information network era, intelligent push has become a convenient channel for people to absorb external information, gain thinking recognition, emotional resonance, and influence others’ thinking cognition. Using advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence to collect, organize, and analyze people’s thinking inertia and behavioral preference data, forming anthropomorphic customized perception push, can produce an “echo wall” of social cognitive convergence and an information cocoon that shackles people. At the same time, it is also conducive to empathizing with others, understanding the opponent’s thinking trends and possible actions, and taking targeted countermeasures. In life, we all have the experience of a large amount of similar information being pushed in after shopping online or searching for a certain type of information once or several times. This intelligent push method is applied to cognitive operations, which can easily enable the information leader to use information network data to make forward-looking analysis and judgment on the decisions and actions that the command and decision-making level of the combat target may make, and induce them to make the decision actions they want to see or make corresponding countermeasures in advance.

Emotionally imbued. Freud said that we are not pure intelligence, pure soul, but a collection of impulses. In the information network space, conceptual cognition that can be widely and rapidly spread is often not a calm, rational and objective thinking analysis, but mostly impulsive and irrational emotional mobilization. This is determined by the fast pace of information dissemination and news release “pre-emptively”. The cognitive need to respond quickly to this information, in turn, leads to “fast thinking” conditioned reflexes, impulsive, and emotional reactions, transforming seemingly isolated social cases into strongly oppressive, inciting psychological suggestions and Behavior-driven, explosive behavior prompts irrational decision-making. A diplomatic cable disclosed by WikiLeaks in June 2009 described an extravagant banquet for the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and described the regime as a “mafia” of corruption and tyranny, which deepened the resentment of the country’s citizens. Emotions thus became an important driver of the “Jasmine Revolution” that overthrew Ben Ali’s regime.

原始繁體中文:

在資訊化智慧化融合發展的當今時代,資訊網絡以其觸角深、受眾廣、互動性強等優勢,在認知戰中將發揮無可取代的重要作用。有了資訊網絡的加持,認知戰將如虎添翼、如魚得水。深刻掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的機制法則、基本形態、方法手段等,有助於及時掌控認知戰主動權,為贏得勝利奠定基礎。

資訊網路作用認知戰的機理規律

資訊網路作用認知戰的本質在於透過核心演算法,提供大量訊息,營造傾向性認知場景,影響人和智慧機器的思考認知。這個過程融合資訊網路運作規律和思考認知內在機理,具有很強的可預測性,是資訊網路認知戰必須掌握的底層架構和關鍵之點。

基於路徑依賴的粘性影響。當今社會高度發展的資訊網絡,提供了一個人們學習、工作、生活、娛樂,軍隊建設、作戰和軍事鬥爭準備須臾離不開的平台,在彼此之間形成一個互聯互通的路徑依賴。這個平台以資訊為核子、網路為媒,透過無形的黏性把不同人群、社會、國家包括軍隊連結在一起,既將整個世界打通成一個緊密聯繫的地球村,客觀上也為開展認知作戰、影響對手思維認知、制勝認知戰爭提供了橋樑和紐帶。 2009年美國國務卿希拉蕊曾發表「網路自由」演說,鼓吹「網路自由」策略,企圖利用人們對網路的高度依賴形成的作用通道,影響對手國民眾特別是青年世代的思維認知,傳播美式價值觀。

基於資訊交換的互動影響。教育學認為,互動交流能有效克服訊息單向傳遞所形成的認知屏障,在彼此訊息交換、情感融通、需求相促中達成共識、形成同理心、強化同理。資訊網路與傳統溝通溝通媒介的一個很大不同,在於提供了一個能大範圍、快節奏、高效率互動交流的載體。在這載體中,資訊強勢一方能透過載體提供的互動機制,依據另一方的思想波動、情緒變化、態度回饋等,反覆確認影響,調整方法策略,介入另一方的思考認知。長期以來,美國對華保持「接觸+遏制」策略,一個很重要的考慮就在於這種接觸能有效克服單純封鎖對抗形成的溝通壁壘和資訊鴻溝,增強兩國政府和民眾之間的互動,從而尋找機會打開缺口,影響我們的思想觀念和意識形態。這項策略雖然發生在傳統領域,但與資訊網路基於資訊交換的互動影響機理內在一致。

基於預設場景的誘導影響。資訊網路的隱密性、虛擬性、滲透性,使其掌控者能透過水軍灌水、資訊過濾、「渾水摸魚」等技術和謀略手段,營造極具欺騙性、誘惑性、煽動性的資訊場景,使對手深陷其中而不自知,反而朝著預設的過程和結果發展。這種對資訊網路的指向性操控,能潛移默化地高效影響、感染和塑造對手的思維認知,使之不知不覺被帶節奏,收到遠比對抗硬槓好得多的作戰效果。伊拉克戰爭前夕,美國媒體透過網路等平台大肆散佈伊拉克存在大規模殺傷性武器等虛假訊息,指責薩達姆政權與蓋達組織相互勾連、腐敗成風,還無端殘害伊拉克人民,同時又想方設法掩蓋事實真相,過濾本國人民的反戰聲音,極力營造薩達姆政權邪惡可恨、全美上下同仇敵愾的氛圍。

資訊網路作用認知戰的基本形態

戰爭規律和致勝機制決定戰爭的基本形態。資訊網路作用認知戰的規律機制內在規定這種戰爭的外在呈現形態。其中最基本、最具代表性的包括資訊迷茫、思維誤導戰和意志毀傷戰。

資訊迷茫戰。就是用海量虛實結合、亦真亦幻的複雜信息灌注網絡,使敵對方信息網絡容量過載、功能失常、運轉失序,或導致特定受眾對象“失聰失明失感”、認知能力擁堵、思維認知和決策判斷受阻。這戰爭形態常用於作戰初期和不透明戰場,擁有資訊優勢的一方能使敵對方陷入茫然不知所措的恐慌狀態,從而感知失靈、思維失據、自亂陣腳。彭博社稱,美國成立不久的第六大軍種——太空軍,計劃2027年前採購48套幹擾系統,旨在“與大國發生衝突情況下”,幹擾迷茫其衛星信號。不少國家軍隊普遍感到,現在獲取的資訊不是太少了而是太多了,來自四面八方的巨量資訊大量聚集,給態勢感知和分析判斷造成巨大壓力。

思維誤導戰。就是透過灌輸包含資訊網路掌控方意圖指向的特定訊息,形成傾向性訊息場景,誤導欺騙和影響特定國家、軍隊和人群思維理念,使之偏離正確發展軌道,朝著於己有利、於敵有損的方向偏移,是認知攻擊的最高境界和慣常做法。這種誤導以強大的外部壓力為前提,以似是而非的策略為基礎,以摻雜水分的信息為武器,針對對手思維特點和薄弱環節,實施導向鮮明的誘騙,使對手在緊張慌亂中迷失方向,不知不覺落入「圈套」。這些年來,一些國家在實施大國競爭戰略的同時,透過網路水軍虛構假情況、製造假資訊、散佈真謠言,在我國週邊煽風點火,鼓動一些在歷史上與我國有積怨、現實中有摩擦的國家尋覓滋事,目的就是要誘導我們轉移注意力,削弱在主要戰略方向上的資源力量投入,偏離強國復興的軌道,謀取漁翁之利。

意志毀傷戰。未來學家托夫勒說,誰控制了人的心理,誰就控制了整個世界。戰爭說到底是人與人的對抗,人的心理活動很大程度影響人的精神狀態,進而影響作戰意志。意志毀傷戰與傳統作戰透過物質摧毀間接影響人的意志不同,它透過直接影響關鍵人物的心理活動、精神狀態和思考決策,影響軍心士氣、戰鬥意志和作戰行動。隨著科技發展和社會進步,對人的意志的干預,已經由傳統以謀略為主演進到“技術+謀略”階段。早在十多年前就有科學家研製出“聲波集束”武器,通過電磁網絡從數百米外發射極為狹窄的聲波“音柱”,幹擾敵人判斷甚至使意志堅強的軍人精神錯亂。近年來有研究表明,基於腦電波訊號的人工語音合成技術可提取大腦中的訊號,合成人類能夠直接理解的語音。

資訊網路作用認知戰的主要手段

「技術+謀略」構成現代認知戰的基本手段。資訊網絡作為現代科技發展的產物,其對認知戰的作用手段也主要體現在「技術+謀略」上。這為我們認識和掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的方式方法、科學路徑,從而製勝戰爭提供了基本切入點。

大數據構塑。數據作為資訊網路的核心構件,不僅是資訊的載體,而且是資訊網路價值驅動的“新石油”,更是作用認知戰的基本彈藥。透過大量資料構塑為我所用的複雜資訊場景,或對對手進行思維認知迷茫,或給予思維誤導欺騙,或進行信念意志摧毀,構成資訊網路作用認知戰的基本邏輯。在這邏輯架構中,資料無疑是最基礎的資源、最核心的元素。遠在幾年前,權威部門就統計,全球每天生產約2.5艾字節(EB)的數據,其中僅20%是可以直接利用的結構化數據,其餘80%則需要進行分析、甄別、篩選。這些幾何級數成長湧現的資料資源,為構塑資料資訊場景、實施認知戰提供了取之不盡用之不竭的「資料彈藥」。

智能化推送。資訊網路時代,智慧化推播成為人們攝取外在訊息,獲得思維認同、情感共鳴、影響他人思維認知的便捷管道。運用人工智慧等先進技術收集、整理、分析人的思維慣性、行為偏好數據,形成擬人化客製化感知推送,能夠產生社會認知趨同的「回音壁」和桎梏人的信息繭房,同時也有利於推己及人、了解對手的思維趨向和可能行動,有針對性地採取應對措施。生活中,我們都有一次或幾次網上購物、搜索某類信息後,大量類同信息推送進來的經歷,這種智能化推送手段應用到認知作戰中,很容易使信息主導方通過信息網絡數據,對作戰對象指揮決策層可能作出的決策、採取的行動等予以前瞻分析研判,誘導其作出希望看到的決策行動或預先作出相應的應對措施。

情緒浸染。佛洛伊德說,我們不是純粹的智慧、純粹的靈魂,而是衝動的集合。在資訊網路空間,能夠得到廣泛且快速傳播的觀念認知,往往不是冷靜理性客觀的思考分析,多是衝動非理性的情緒情緒動員。這是由資訊傳播、新聞發布「先發制人」的快節奏決定的。對這些資訊做出快速反應的認知需求,反過來又導致「快速思維」條件反射性、衝動性、情緒化反應,將看似孤立的社會個案轉化為具有強烈壓迫性、煽動性的心理暗示和行為驅動,暴發性催生非理性決策行動。 2009年6月維基解密披露的一份外交電文中,描繪了突尼斯本·阿里政權家族宴會的奢靡場景,並煞有介事地將該政權形容為腐敗暴政的“黑手黨”,這加深了該國國民怨恨情緒,因而成為引燃推翻本·阿里政權的「茉莉花革命」重要推手。

中國國防部資源:

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/18/content_303888.htm

Chinese Cognitive Warfare: Penetrating Quasi-cognitive Domains and Affects on Rules of Multi-domain Operations

中國認知戰:準認知域的滲透及對多域作戰規則的影響

繁體中文國語:

From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of land, sea, air, and space; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all of which are related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain on the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion and other levels of both the enemy and ourselves, which will be rapid, sudden, and unexpected. It profoundly affects the overall situation of the war, and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, mind, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemies destroyed, the temporary gains and losses of one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their indicator significance in evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be considered from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions caused by them. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategic situation, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first of all because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of the captives to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations all convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact is also significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for operations such as fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations, etc., different levels of imagination and creative thinking, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee during the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming active kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. To realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain impact in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to impact multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

原始中國軍事繁體普通話:

從冷兵器時代“弓馬騎射、刀兵相接”式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到信息化智能化時代涵蓋物理、信息、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有一定基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機理。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的制高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵

現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合制權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、制海、制空、制天權;在信息域阻斷敵人、聯通自己,爭奪制網、制信息權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策干擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

籌劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的復雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互聯通、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的“蝴蝶風暴”。籌劃實施物理域信息域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精准控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的總體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層面去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體聯動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。信息化智能化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的“不可算”“不可控”快速向相當程度上的“可算”“可控”發展。大數據、智能算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確制導炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為通過作戰行動點穴式精准打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精准畫像、智能分發、社交媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬現實等智能化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智能技術的交叉融合發展,使籌劃實施“X+認知攻防”、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷高效。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰籌劃和實施路徑的創新性設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考量對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立信道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考量對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我信息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報信息搜集的重點,要重點考量掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特征、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞“對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度”等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、采用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃和細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的信息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求實現效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網絡攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想象能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮員公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報數據、信道帶寬、取證信息、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、實時、體系、精准調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層次的理念革命,需要加強各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體聯動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度和協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、信息域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮員能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮員需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和信息制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水平。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突出錘煉指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的升華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究和戰法創新,以理論積淀打牢思想根基。

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