Category Archives: Mosaic Warfare

Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict

中國軍隊在自信認知對抗衝突中取得成功

現代英語音譯:

Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.

現代國語軍語:

適應情勢發展革新制勝理念

軍事實踐一再證明,戰爭的勝負不單單是兵力兵器的對抗,更是思維方式、作戰理念的較量。要在認知領域佔據優勢主動地位,當前特別關鍵的是確立與資訊時代相適應的新型指導理念。

集能聚優。集能聚優是對傳統集中優勢兵力的創新發展,不僅是打贏具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的重要遵循,也是奪佔認知對抗綜合優勢的關鍵一招。近幾年,資訊網路、叢集控制等技術日益成熟,不斷推動作戰朝向廣域分佈、即時聚優方向轉變。與之相適應,認知域下更要強調在具有決定意義的節點樞紐,綜合施策、跨域集能、奪控優勢,實現快速控局、速決制勝。

數據主導。數據作為一種新型戰爭資源,已成為現代戰爭指揮決策的依據、系統運作的血液。充分發揮資料資源優勢,佔據認知域作戰主動,是搶佔戰略制高點的重要一環。要進一步強化數據意識、數據思維,努力提升數據決策、數據引導的素養,真正讓數據成為認知致勝的「助推劑」。

智能協同。人工智慧技術的不斷發展,基於網路資訊體系的自主感知、決策、評估等能力的不斷增強,正推動著人機動態分享資訊、智慧規劃分配任務、密切協同精準出擊日趨成熟。認知域下,智慧協同將成為重要抓手,資訊互融、人機協作、優算決策、即時互助將成為贏得戰場先機、佔據主動、謀求勝勢的必要手段。

遵循內在規律緊扣價值攻防

認知域作戰並非獨立存在,而是透過物理域行動、資訊域流轉進入感知空間,在認知攻防中影響對手價值判斷、改變對手認知體系,進而引發對手認知「雪崩」效應,置對手於「兵敗如山倒」境地。基於此目的,必須深入研究分析對手的政治、經濟、軍事、文化等要素,發掘影響對手作戰認知的核心價值,進而綜合採取謀略、技術等手段,深度影響塑造對手思維認知、價值判斷。

必須看到,認知域作戰效能的釋放往往具有較強的持久性,只有在深謀遠慮、長期佈局的基礎上,透過採取一系列不間斷、常態化柔性手段,在對手內部漸進式構築共同價值觀,才能形成影響,進而實現認知域作戰功效。在資訊時代,西方已開發國家往往藉由網路傳播技術潛移默化地影響、塑造對手的思維認知、價值體系,進而動搖對手思想文化根基,建構認知域作戰輿論基礎。近年來世界各地發生的多起“顏色革命”,背後很大程度上正是西方國家長期滲透操縱輿論、認知域作戰效能逐漸釋放顯現的結果。

毋庸置疑,發生在認知域的對抗最終還是作用於人的大腦,影響人的情緒、動機、判斷和行動,甚至控制人的思考。正因如此,有人認為,作為認知的引擎,「大腦」有可能成為未來戰爭的主目標、主戰場。值得關注的是,現代認知域作戰的一個顯著特徵,就是科技的應用趨頻、作用突顯。尤其是隨著資訊科技、人工智慧等深度介入,認知域作戰將更重視科技綜合實力的比拼。從這個角度說,只有在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、佔據主動,才能贏得認知優勢。

著眼最大效能堅持軟硬結合

認知空間具有強烈的伸縮性,但就本質而言仍是人類活動及社會關係的映射,與現實世界緊密關聯、相互作用。缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的強力支撐,認知域作戰終將難以產生真正效果。從這個角度看,認知域作戰不是孤立的行動,只有釐清認知域作戰軟力量與物理域硬實力綜合運用的內在規律,將認知攻防融入聯合作戰鏈條,實現不同領域作戰力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能發揮認知域作戰最大效能。

在資訊時代,認知對抗的重心絕非單純追求徹底消滅敵人,而是更強調透過精準的時間、精準的資訊和精準的行動,精確釋放作戰能量,進而剝奪或降低敵方決策能力等。一方面要注重充分借助非對稱手段,透過陸、海、空、天等有形作戰域的高效快捷行動,破壞敵情報、指揮、通信、打擊、保障鏈路,擊垮敵戰爭潛力基礎,牢牢把握戰場主動權。另一方面要強調未雨綢繆、事先佈置虛擬空間對抗,始終關注精神意志對抗,積極尋求形成強大心理壓迫、瓦解對手抵抗意志的方法途徑。為了實現兩者效果疊加,應高度關注物理域的信火打擊與認知域的綜合毀癱聯動配合,密切跟踪基於網絡信息體系,精確打擊敵方決策、行動以及精神、信念的效果,積極主動摸索以攻心奪志為根本目的的戰法打法。

瞄準體系運行癱瘓戰鬥意志

無論時代如何發展,科技如何進步,人始終是戰爭勝負的決定性因素和支撐作戰體系運作的核心力量。在這當中,戰鬥意志可謂是支撐作戰的精神核心。認知域作戰正是要廣泛採取各種措施,尤其是藉助情報戰、心理戰、輿論戰、網路戰等殺傷手段,對敵方戰鬥意志這一精神內核進行打擊、削弱和剝奪,使其在心理、意誌上屈服,最終導致其作戰體係自行瓦解。

資訊時代的認知域作戰,具有大範圍、全領域的特點,剝奪敵方戰鬥意志強調在多個領域、多個維度、多個時段施加干涉、影響、控制,透過整體合力達成對敵認知優勢,實現己方作戰企圖。如精準掌握對手認知基礎、思考模式、文化習慣等,針對性採取營造態勢、改變氛圍、刺激心理、滲透侵蝕等行動,以瓦解對手認知體系整體性統一性,強力削弱對手決心意志。再如廣泛採取各種認知手段,積極借助物理域資訊域攻勢行動,強力摧毀對手關鍵節點,幹擾對手認知判斷,遲滯對手有效反應,以摧毀剝奪其兵心士氣。也可以根據對手傳統文化、理性邏輯以及性格短板等,採取針對性策略,有步驟、成系統地進行軍事、經濟、文化、外交、民心各方面各層級行動,在改變原有認知中形成有效控制,以消解軟化其戰鬥意志。隨著技術的深度發展,未來以控腦武器為代表的認知裝備可能具備直接幹擾或控制敵方大腦認知的能力,不僅能造成其意識混亂,甚至會誘發其做出違背戰爭常理的行動。

注重主動適應優化戰鬥設計

儘管認知域作戰在現代戰爭中的地位作用日益突顯,但不能就此認為認知域作戰無所不能,甚至取代傳統作戰行動。認知域作戰綜合效能的發揮,是一項複雜的系統工程。為了佔據認知主動、適應資訊化戰爭,必須從戰略全局出發,在實踐中努力優化作戰設計。

謀技融合。在認知域作戰中,謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容。儘管技術因素在現代認知域作戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。可以說,認知域作戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相互促進、緊密融合的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的加入而更加豐富,科技因謀略的運用而更加強勁。要掌握認知主動權、打好認知主動仗,不只要善用謀略,也要強化技術應用,將施謀與用技有機結合,努力強化認知攻防綜合效能。

攻防結合。認知域作戰是進攻與防禦的對立統一體,是在認知空間展開影響與反影響、滲透與逆滲透、破壞與反破壞、控制與反控制的認知攻防活動。要認清強弱優劣,抓住對手認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,以癱瘓其心理防線,全面佔據認知主動。同時,要把準攻防轉換節點,加強全域認知防護。要固守己方認知,旗幟鮮明宣揚己方價值理念、戰爭立場,統一意志、凝聚兵心、激發士氣。加強重要認知領域的防護隱密措施,降低己方政治、經濟、社會、資訊等敏感領域的可感知性,強化相關保密防護手段,實際築牢認知防護安全屏障。

中國軍事原文來源:

中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-01/10/content_331888.htm

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy

中國軍隊與智慧戰爭戰略制勝機制的確定

現代英語音譯:

Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.

國語音譯:

2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。

对抗方式从“体系对抗”向“算法博弈”转变,算法优势主导战争优势

算法是求解问题的策略机制。实际上,“算法”是一系列解决问题的清晰指令,是按照一定规则解决某一类问题的明确步骤。未来战争掌握算法优势的一方,能快速准确预测战场态势,创新最优作战方法,实现“未战而先胜”的战争目的。

算法是主导智能化战争的关键。第一,算法优势主导认知优势。大数据通过高性能、高效率的算法进行处理后,将海量数据快速转换为有用的情报。因此,占有算法优势的一方,能驱散因数据得不到及时处理而产生的“战场迷雾”,使得认知更为深刻。第二,算法优势主导速度优势。量子算法相比于经典算法,实现了指数级的加速效果,再加上量子计算机从2003年的1位量子比特,到2015年1000位量子比特,计算效率比经典计算机快了一亿倍,使人工智能实现了质的飞跃。第三,算法优势主导决策优势。算法以其高速、精确的计算,代替人的“冥思苦想”和反复探索,从而加速知识迭代。掌握超强算法能够针对敌情变化快速提出灵活多样的作战方案与应对之策,不断打乱敌既定企图和部署。

算法是战争效能跃升的核心。一是战争效率更高。在算法的支撑下,人工智能的反应速度是人类的成百上千倍。2016年,美国研发的“阿尔法”智能软件,反应速度比人类快250倍,在模拟空战中操控三代机击败了有人驾驶的四代机。二是战争耐力更强。人工智能不受生理机能限制,可连续执行重复性、机械性任务。2016年9月,一架F-16战机在训练中达到8倍重力过载,导致飞行员失去知觉,然而,在飞机撞击地面前,机载“自动防撞系统”自动将飞机拉起,避免了悲剧发生。三是战争结局更好。在海量数据和超算能力支持下,人工智能的判断和预测结果更加准确。美军寻找和捕杀本·拉登行动,有人和无人装备的组合运用就是一个成功的战例。

作战要素从“信息主导”向“机器主战”转变,机器主战重塑作战流程

未来智能科技将渗透到战争全要素全过程。物联网、智联网与脑联网成为战争的基础,物理域、信息域、认知域、社会域四域深度融合,使战场全息透明,战争控制有人,战场交锋无人。智能化武器装备将重塑“从传感器到射手”的作战流程。

慧眼“侦”。“侦”,即智能化情报侦察。能将陆、海、空、天、电等多维传感器,进行虚拟化协同组网、自组织动态调度、多源情报自动挖掘、订单式按需使用,最大程度上拨开信息不足或信息冗余带来的“战争迷雾”,开启透视智能化战争的“慧眼”。

回路“控”。“控”,即智能化指挥控制。围绕决策优势这一核心,运用“人在回路”的人机协同技术,按照机器的自主权限,采取“人在回路中”“人在回路上”“人在回路外”三种决策与控制方式,以高敌一筹的决策质量和行动速度形成全面优势。

智能“打”。“打”,即智能化攻防作战。依托体系结构和算法优势,实时调集全域多维、有人无人作战平台,快速耦合作战力量,按需构建作战体系,聚焦目标,自主实施“分布式”“蜂群式”协同作战,交战完毕迅速解耦待战,做到兵无常势、聚散随机。2015年底,俄罗斯投入6台履带式无人战车、4台轮式无人战车和1架无人机,支援叙利亚政府军强攻伊斯兰极端势力据点,取得了世界上第一场以无人战车为主的攻坚战胜利。战斗中约70名极端势力武装分子被击毙,而叙利亚政府军只有4人受伤。

决策方式从“人脑决策”向“智能决策”转变,智能决策优化作战行动

随着智能辅助决策技术和“云端大脑”“数字参谋”“虚拟仓储”的出现,战争决策由单纯的人脑决策发展为人机混合决策、云脑智能决策和神经网络决策。

人机混合决策。人与机器的合理分工与交互协同是探索解决问题的最优方案。人脑的优势在于创造性、灵活性、主动性;机器的优势在于速度快、精度高、抗疲劳。高层决策等艺术性强的工作由人脑来处理,大数据计算由机器完成。人机交互是让机器能“听”懂人类语言、“看”懂人类动作与表情、“理解”人的情绪和意图,把计算过程和结果用人容易理解的方式呈现出来。

云脑智能决策。未来智能化战争,将有一个“大脑”的隐喻中心,分布式的作战单元将通过云大脑链接。这个云大脑既是物理信息、生理信息和心理信息中心,也是军事指控中心。云脑决策以智能“网、云、端”体系为依托。“网”,是集智能化战场感知、决策和武器控制系统于一体的智能型作战基础网络。“云”,依“网”而建,以智能型资源服务层为主体,既是融合各类作战资源的“资源池”,也是为作战行动提供智能化服务的“智能云”。由于多中心的耦合,即使遭受信息轰炸也能快速组网和决策。“端”,是指作战资源端,作战流程上的分立智能和联网智能,既能自主决策,又能为战争体系提供分布式智能资源,使新的战争体系涌现出群体智能。

神经网络决策。2018年7月,俄罗斯研制的人工神经网络全自动软件,能做到发现即摧毁。美军研发的智能化决策工具,意在缩短决策周期,提高决策效率。神经网络的应用曾局限于战术级计算,难以对战略级宏观复杂态势做出定性分析和决策。“阿尔法狗”通过模拟人脑神经网络工作机制在围棋领域取得突破。未来深度神经网络的超强自我进化和战略决策能力,将实现“人在回路外”的作战循环。

作战样式从“断链破体”向“极限作战”转变,极限作战颠覆传统作战手段

极限作战突破了传统战争的界限,颠覆了传统的作战样式,使战争效能剧增,出现了真正意义上的全天候、全时空、全方位、全领域的智能化战争。

突破人类生理和思维极限。一是作战空间和领域极度拓展。未来智能化作战是立体、全维、全领域作战,战争空间将从传统的空间领域,向极地、深海、太空等极限拓展,特别是向认知域、信息域渗透并贯穿其他领域,作战领域更加模糊。二是作战进程极度加快。无人自主作战大幅压缩“观察—判断—决策—行动”周期,从信息化战争的“瞬时摧毁”发展为智能化战争的“即时摧毁”。智能化战争的胜利,是通过预警时间提前、决策时间缩短,作战行动向前延伸,达到先手布局、先发制人的效果。三是作战行动极度灵活。智能化战争中,人工智能能够提出极为丰富的作战方案,加之无人作战平台,能够在不同功能角色之间快速切换,作战行动更为大胆冒险,战术战法更为出乎意料。即使作战要素中的某一个丧失功能,“去中心化”的功能也会确保群体功能不受影响。

颠覆传统作战样式。一是侵入式独狼作战。即单套无人系统独立作战。二是有人无人协同体系破击战。即基于智能无人系统,通过有无人装备混合作战,快速达成作战目的。三是无人系统编队独立作战。多套无人系统构成作战单元,可执行多目标攻击等复杂任务。四是母舰蜂群集群作战。以母舰为运输载体和指挥中心,形成有人无人混合集群作战样式。

具备“核威力”的作战效能。智能化战争把智能机器人的特性和潜能发挥到极致,导致作战效能接近极限。一是目标小、难发现。比如微型化隐身机器人,雷达和声呐很难发现。美国在“蜻蜓”中嵌入“光极”芯片的混合无人机,更小更轻更隐秘,续航时间高达几个月。二是对抗难,代价高。比如甲虫大小的微型无人机只要扫描到人脸景象,经数据分析和确定即可直接撞向目标头部,携带的弹药足以穿透大脑。三是造价低、破坏大。未来运用智能化武器极限作战具有核武器的威力,特别是极大体量的智能化武器装备,极低成本的机器人自动生产,极度灵活的机器人集群作战,可能会超越核武器爆炸威力的极大化。

中國政府原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0115/c1011-3053888.html

Chinese Military – Cognition-centered warfare: operational concepts for dealing with complex wars

中國軍事-以認知為中心的戰爭:因應複雜戰爭的作戰理念

音譯外語:

Complexity science is one of the frontier fields of contemporary scientific development. It is a new tool for understanding, understanding, and exploring the phenomena, laws, and mechanisms of war. As the form of war evolves from information war to intelligent war, the complexity of war shows an exponential growth trend, and it becomes increasingly difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to put the enemy into a “decision-making dilemma” so that it can even Even with information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thus losing its combat advantage. The focus of operations will change from “information-centered” to “cognition-centered”, and the winning mechanism will change from “information winning” to “cognitive winning”.

“Three changes” reveal the driving forces behind the increasing complexity of war

War is a field full of possibilities, and change is the basic characteristic that runs through it. President Xi stressed that we must pay close attention to changes in technology, war, and opponents. Changes in science and technology are the foundation, changes in war are the subject, and changes in opponents are the key. Changes in science and technology lead to changes in war, and changes in war prompt changes in opponents. The “three changes” have promoted the evolution of war forms, the expansion of war fields, the transformation of war goals, and the expansion of war influence, revealing the driving forces behind the growth of war complexity.

Changes in technology have overturned the basis for winning wars. Science and technology are the core combat effectiveness and the most active and revolutionary factor in military development. Throughout the history of the world’s military development, every major scientific and technological innovation has started a new military revolution, and every military revolution has pushed military development into a new era. Scientific and technological innovation has become a huge engine to improve the military’s combat effectiveness. . At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and military revolution are accelerating. The degree of informatization of modern warfare is constantly increasing, and the characteristics of intelligence are becoming increasingly apparent. The role of driving the military revolution is becoming more and more prominent. The rapid development of some cutting-edge technologies may fundamentally change the face of war and war. According to the rules, the military game between great powers is more embodied in technological subversion and counter-subversion, raids and counter-raids, offsets and counter-offsets. The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project includes reconnaissance, decoy, jamming and other systems. The decoy system covers air, surface and underwater. Under the scheduling and control of the distributed artificial intelligence engine, it can complement each other, coordinate deception, and truly create a A “ghost aircraft carrier formation” completely subverted traditional electronic deception methods and raised information deception to an unprecedented level. It can be said that science and technology has never had such a profound impact on the overall situation of national security and military strategy as it does today. It has profoundly intervened in, supported, and dominated the evolution of war forms and the innovation of combat styles, and has even subverted the mechanism of winning wars.

The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project is based on networked collaborative electronic warfare

Concept, integrating different systems and utilizing unmanned distributed

Clusters of electronic warfare platforms enable large-scale collaborative electronic warfare

The changes in war highlight the complexity of war. Modern warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing unprecedented diversity and complexity. This super complexity stems from many reasons: first, various advanced technologies or weapons are constantly emerging, bringing many uncertainties; second, the battlefield covers land, sea, air, space, network, electricity and cognitive and other multiple third, multiple combat objects, combat styles, combat areas, and combat methods are cross-correlated and combined to form a complex “hybrid war”; fourth, artificial intelligence algorithms build a large number of combat elements into a complex logic, and use human Machine speed beyond the reach of thinking prompts the combination, deconstruction, and recombination of various elements. In the Ukraine crisis in 2022, on the surface it is a confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, but in essence it is a “hybrid war” between the United States and Western countries and Russia; the Russian and Ukrainian armies extensively use military and civilian drones to expand The “unmanned +” application model shows the prototype of future unmanned intelligent operations; with the support of U.S. NATO air and space situational intelligence, the Ukrainian army frequently uses low-cost unmanned equipment to carry out raids on important Russian weapons platforms, highlighting its new qualities Combat forces have asymmetric attack advantages against large weapons and equipment in traditional combat systems. Changes in technology will eventually lead to changes in war. The impact of a single element on war will become weaker and weaker. The joint combat system composed of multiple elements will have a complex impact on war. War is non-linear, uncertain, chaotic and open. Complex characteristics such as adaptability and confrontation will increase exponentially, which will make it more difficult for people to judge the progress and outcome of the war.

Changes in opponents accelerate the growth of war complexity. Changes in war prompt changes in opponents. Currently, we are experiencing major changes unseen in a century. Major military powers are actively making strategic adjustments and promoting a new round of military reforms, which exhibit the following characteristics: first, the trend of joint, miniaturized, and autonomous institutional establishments has become more obvious; second, The first is that weapons and equipment are showing a development trend of digitization, precision, stealth, unmanned, and intelligence; the third is that the combat form is moving towards the “four nons” (non-contact, non-linear, asymmetric and irregular) and the “three nos” (Invisible, silent, unmanned) combat; fourth, the military command form is developing in the direction of flattening, automation, networking, and seamlessness. The United States regards China as its main strategic opponent and strives to suppress and contain China. It has vigorously strengthened the innovation of operational concepts and has successively proposed new operational concepts such as “hybrid warfare”, “multi-domain warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, claiming that it will fight to defeat its opponents. A high-end war in which “technology cannot be understood, strikes are difficult to predict, and speed cannot keep up.” The core of the US military’s “mosaic warfare” is unmanned, low-cost, fast, lethal, flexible and reconfigurable. It is based on distributed situational awareness, with the help of intelligent auxiliary decision-making tools and the concept of building blocks and jigsaw puzzles to adaptively formulate mission planning. , dynamically reorganize combat forces, decompose the functions of the combat platform into a larger number of single-function nodes, and build a combat system with a large number of functional nodes. Replace the “kill chain” with a “kill network”. Several nodes will fail or be missing, and the combat system can be adaptively reorganized.

The increasing complexity of war drives the transformation of the winning mechanism of war

With the rapid development of national defense science and technology, the upgrading of weapons and equipment, and the rapid evolution of war forms, modern warfare has shown exponential and explosive complex changes. These changes may seem dazzling, but there are rules to follow behind them. The fundamental thing is that the winning mechanism of war has changed. Only by thoroughly understanding the winning mechanism of modern war can we accurately recognize changes, respond scientifically, be good at seeking change, and firmly grasp the initiative in future wars.

The form of war has changed from cold weapon warfare to intelligent warfare . The shape of war is a holistic understanding of war. So far, human war has generally gone through four historical stages: cold weapon war, hot weapon war, mechanized war, and information war, and is moving towards intelligent warfare. The history of cognitive warfare is almost as old as the history of human warfare. In the era of cold weapon war, hot weapon war, and mechanized war, cognitive warfare appears more in the form of public opinion warfare and psychological warfare. As mankind enters the information age, the development of cyberspace technology has greatly expanded the space for cognitive warfare, enriched the technical means of cognitive warfare, and greatly enhanced the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare. The status and role of Zhizhan have been unprecedentedly improved. In the future, the form of war will enter intelligent warfare, and a large number of intelligent weapon systems and platforms will be equipped with the military and put into combat. Cognitive warfare can not only interfere with and deceive the cognition of enemy personnel, but also attack the cognition of smart equipment through algorithm deception methods such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning”. Its application scenarios and scope will be further expanded. , the status and role will be further improved.

Drones have gradually become the protagonist of war,

Combat complexity further increases

The purpose of war has changed from conquering by force to conquering by spirit. The winning mechanism of modern war has undergone great changes compared with the past. The violence of war has been curbed. The purpose of combat has changed from the original siege of cities and territories and annihilation of the enemy’s effective forces to making the opponent obey one’s own will. The means of combat have changed from conquering by force to conquering more areas. The emphasis on psychological and spiritual conquest and transformation has made cognitive warfare increasingly prominent in its status and role in modern warfare. In recent years, “hybrid warfare” has become a major means of great power competition. More and more countries have begun to focus on using new fields and new means to achieve political, military, and economic goals that are difficult to achieve with traditional warfare. “Hybrid war” is a mixture of war subjects such as states, non-state actors and individuals, a mixture of conventional warfare, unconventional warfare and other war styles, a mixture of military operations such as combat, stability maintenance and reconstruction, and a mixture of political, military and economic The mixture of multiple fields such as military and people’s livelihood is a mixture of multiple combat goals such as defeating the enemy and winning the hearts and minds of the people. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. The operational field of “hybrid warfare” has expanded from the military field to politics, economy, culture, people’s livelihood and other fields; the combat methods have expanded from firepower warfare and troop warfare to diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, cyber warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare and other directions. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. Its core essence is to “make profit out of chaos”, its main purpose is to win people’s hearts, and its combat guidance is to win by cleverness.

The winning domain of war changes from the physical domain and information domain to the cognitive domain. Modern war occurs in three fields: physics, information and cognition at the same time. The physical domain and information domain are separated from the material domain, and the cognitive domain is separated from the spiritual domain. The physical domain is a traditional war domain, consisting of combat platforms and military facilities, which provides the material basis for information warfare. The information domain is a newly emerging war field, that is, the space for information generation, transmission and sharing, and is the focus of information warfare competition. Cognitive domain is the scope and field involved in human cognitive activities. It is not only the space for human feeling, perception, memory and thinking activities, but also the space for knowledge generation, exchange, association, storage and application. It is also the space for perception, judgment and decision-making in combat activities. and spaces of command and control. The cognitive domain exists in the field of consciousness of combatants and affects their judgment and decision-making. It is a rising field of warfare. With the development of technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence, the scope of the cognitive domain has greatly expanded, and is expanding from the field of human consciousness to the field of modern cognitive tools and artificial intelligence. The development of military technology has expanded the scope of the cognitive domain and provided more advanced, faster, and more effective material and technical means for cognitive warfare, greatly enhancing the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare, fundamentally It has changed cognitive warfare, making the cognitive domain a new winning field that transcends the physical domain and information domain, and has become the ultimate domain for great power games and military confrontations.

The mechanism for winning wars changes from information victory to cognitive victory. In the final analysis, war confrontation is a game and confrontation of cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition will largely control the initiative in war. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position of being beaten in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger control rights is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Finding ways to control cognitive power and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to achieve maximum victory at the minimum cost, is an important mechanism and inherent law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare. In recent years, the U.S. military has successively proposed new concepts of future warfare represented by “decision-centered warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, intending to use complexity as a weapon to create multiple dilemmas for opponents, requiring it to ensure its own tactical “selective advantage”. At the same time, by creating highly complex decision-making influences on the enemy and interfering with its decision-making capabilities, it can achieve a subversive advantage over the enemy in the cognitive domain. In the primary and intermediate stages of information warfare, the key to combat is to seize network control and information control, which runs through the progressive model of “network advantage → information advantage → decision-making advantage → combat advantage”. After information warfare enters an advanced stage, it becomes more and more difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to make the enemy fall into a “decision-making dilemma” so that even if it has information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thereby losing its combat advantage and having recognition. Only by knowing the advantages can you have the combat advantage. In future wars, cognitive advantage will be the most important strategic advantage, and cognitive confrontation will be the most important form of confrontation. It can be said that “without cognition, there is no war.”

Coping with complex wars has given rise to the concept of cognitive-centered warfare

In order to cope with the exponential growth trend of the complexity characteristics of modern warfare, we must use the theories and methods of complexity science to change the concept of platform-centered warfare where firepower is supreme and killing is king, and establish a cognitive-centered combat thinking. Cognition-centered warfare refers to taking the cognitive domain as the winning area, taking the cognitive advantage as the operational goal, and focusing on interfering with cognitive means, suppressing cognitive channels, affecting cognitive production, and conducting cognitive operations on enemy personnel and intelligent equipment. Interference, suppression, deception and inducement are a new operational concept that obtains combat advantages by seizing and maintaining cognitive advantages. Its main winning mechanisms are as follows.

Sun Tzu mentioned in “The Art of War” that “there is no constant force in an army;

Water has no permanent shape; those who can win due to the changes of the enemy are called gods.

Use cyber deterrence to destroy the enemy’s will to fight. Targeting the enemy’s political, economic, military, diplomatic, and cultural contradictions and weaknesses, disseminate deterrent information through cyberspace, or publish military parades, large-scale military exercises, new weapons and equipment research and development and other information through the Internet, so as to cause extreme cognitive and psychological changes in the opponent. Great fear and shock, deterring the enemy is not conducive to the implementation of my actions. Comprehensive use of network and electricity attack methods to carry out point strikes and warning attacks against the enemy’s important network and electricity targets and key core nodes, destroying the enemy’s system combat capabilities, affecting the normal performance of the enemy’s weapons and equipment, and providing psychological deterrence to the enemy. The US military’s “gray zone operations” theory relies on its own technological advantages and mainly takes actions such as cyber and electronic countermeasures to respond to the opponent’s “gray zone provocation” and deter the opponent from giving up “confrontation” or escalating the conflict, putting it in a dilemma.

Use information deception to induce the enemy to make misjudgments. Aiming at the enemy’s reconnaissance equipment, intelligence agencies and command systems, use cyber attacks, electronic deception and other means to conceal one’s military intentions, military operations and military objectives, and transmit to the enemy erroneous and false combat plans, troop configurations and operations. capabilities, combat plans, battlefield situation, etc., or use the enemy’s command information system to send false orders and information to induce the enemy to make wrong judgments and disrupt the enemy’s combat command. Implement new attacks such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning” against artificial intelligence algorithms, allowing them to obtain preset conclusions through deep learning training, or causing them to fall into local optimal solutions and ignore the global optimal. Use technologies such as computer imaging, video synthesis, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence to synthesize sound, video, images, text information, etc., or use “deep fake” technology to generate false information that is confusingly real and difficult to distinguish between true and false, and transmit it through the Internet Spread in large quantities to confuse and deceive opponents and influence their decisions and actions.

Use information suppression to block the enemy’s cognitive means. Target the enemy’s important network targets, as well as core routers, switches, gateways, key servers, etc., and use “soft” and “hard” attack methods to destroy their network nodes. Based on the networking characteristics of wireless links such as the enemy’s command and control network, communication transmission network, weapon hinge network, and early warning detection network, comprehensively use technologies and means such as electronic jamming, GPS spoofing attacks, command link takeover, and data hijacking control to suppress them. data communication, blocking its communication links and interfering with its combat command. Implement cyber-paralysis attacks on enemy command and control, military communications, early warning detection, aerospace information and other military networks, destroying core networks that affect their operations and weakening their combat capabilities.

Use public opinion propaganda to create a favorable public opinion environment . Cooperate with the country’s political, military, and diplomatic struggles, vigorously promote one’s own justice in the war, and stimulate the enthusiasm of all people to fully support the war. With the help of new media platforms such as instant messaging tools, online forums, podcasts, Twitter, and WeChat, we can systematically disseminate information that targets the enemy’s weaknesses. After gaining widespread attention and consensus, we can then promptly report information, create new hot spots, and repeatedly build momentum. Enhance the influence and form a resonance effect to expand the effect. Propaganda “sets the tone” by cleverly setting agendas, building public opinion through powerful media, setting off a “spiral of silence”, controlling and guiding public opinion, and changing people’s opinions and behaviors.

Use psychological attacks to undermine the morale of enemy soldiers and civilians. Through the Internet, processed and processed information is widely disseminated to promote one’s justice, demonstrate one’s strength, will and determination, vilify the enemy politically and morally, gather the thoughts and will of the military and civilians internally, and strive to win externally. The commanding heights of law and morality can “soften” and “weaken” the enemy spiritually. Use a variety of network communication methods and technical means to send various deceptive, disruptive, inductive, and deterrent messages to the enemy’s military and civilians in a targeted manner to attack the enemy’s psychological defense line, promote an ineffective confrontation mentality, and then lose combat capabilities. . Through the Internet to create, guide, plan, build, and expand momentum, we can create a “momentum” that is beneficial to ourselves but not beneficial to the enemy, causing a psychological impact on the other party’s people, thereby affecting or changing their psychological state, and implementing effective psychological attacks.

Use legal struggle to gain legal and moral support. Use legal weapons to curb the enemy’s possible or future illegal acts, declare the legality of our actions, affirm our power of military counterattack, declare our determination to pursue war responsibilities, and deter the enemy. By exposing the illegality of the enemy’s provocative behavior, criticizing the legal basis for the enemy’s combat operations, and condemning the enemy’s illegal behavior, it causes the enemy’s strategic defeat and our own strategic gain. Use legal means to restrict the enemy’s possible actions, limit the possible interference of third parties, and block other parties from interfering with our own actions. Formulate the laws and regulations necessary for our operations to provide legal protection for our operations, or take legal remedial measures to reduce the possible negative impacts of our operations and ensure that combat operations are carried out in accordance with the law.

This article was published in the 7th issue of “Military Digest” magazine in 2023.

Authors: Wang Xin, Huang Xiaoyan, etc.

原始繁體中文:

複雜性科學是當代科學發展的前沿領域之一。 它是認識、理解和探索戰爭現象、規律和機制的新工具。 隨著戰爭形式從資訊戰爭向智慧化戰爭演變,戰爭的複雜性呈指數級增長趨勢,奪取資訊控制權變得越來越困難。 作戰的關鍵是讓敵人陷入“決策困境”,使其即使擁有資訊優勢,也無法做出正確決策,從而失去戰鬥優勢。 作戰重心將從“以資訊為中心”轉變為“以認知為中心”,制勝機制將從“資訊制勝”轉變為“認知制勝”。
「三個變化」揭示戰爭複雜化背後的驅動力
戰爭是一個充滿可能性的領域,變化是貫穿其中的基本特徵。 習主席強調,要密切注意科技變化、戰爭變化、對手變化。 科技的變化是基礎,戰爭的變化是主體,對手的變化是關鍵。 科技的變化導致戰爭的變化,戰爭的變化又促使對手的變化。 「三個變化」推動了戰爭形態演變、戰爭領域拓展、戰爭目標轉變、戰爭影響力擴大,揭示了戰爭複雜性成長的驅動力。
科技的變革顛覆了贏得戰爭的基礎。 科學技術是軍事發展的核心戰鬥力,也是最活躍、最具革命性的因素。 縱觀世界軍事發展史,每一次重大科技創新都開啟了新的軍事革命,每一次軍事革命都推動軍事發展進入新時代。 科技創新成為提升軍隊戰力的巨大引擎。 。 目前,新一輪科技革命和軍事革命正在加速推進。 現代戰爭資訊化程度不斷提高,智能化特徵日益顯現。 推動軍事革命的角色日益凸顯。 一些尖端技術的快速發展可能會從根本上改變戰爭和戰爭的面貌。 依照規則,大國之間的軍事博弈更體現為技術顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷。 美國海軍的「復仇女神」計畫包括偵察、誘餌、幹擾等系統。 誘餌系統覆蓋空中、水面和水下。 在分散式人工智慧引擎的調度和控制下,可以優勢互補,協同欺騙,真正打造出「幽靈航空母艦編隊」,徹底顛覆傳統電子欺騙手段,將資訊欺騙提升到前所未有的水平。 可以說,科學技術從來沒有像今天這樣對國家安全和軍事戰略大局產生如此深刻的影響。 它深刻地介入、支持、主導戰爭形態的演變和作戰方式的創新,甚至顛覆了戰爭的勝利機制。

美國海軍「復仇女神」計畫基於網路化協同電子戰
概念,整合不同系統並利用無人分散式
電子戰平台集群可實現大規模協同電子戰

戰爭的變化凸顯了戰爭的複雜性。 現代戰爭正在發生深刻變化,呈現前所未有的多樣性和複雜性。 這種超級複雜性源自於多種原因:一是各種先進技術或武器不斷湧現,帶來許多不確定性; 第二,戰場涵蓋陸、海、空、天、網、電、認知等多個 第三,多種作戰對象、作戰方式、作戰領域、作戰方式相互關聯、組合,形成複雜的“混合戰爭” ; 第四,人工智慧演算法將大量的戰鬥元素建構成複雜的邏輯,並以人類思維無法企及的速度提示各種元素的組合、解構、重新組合。 2022年的烏克蘭危機,表面上是俄羅斯與烏克蘭的對抗,實質上是美國與西方國家與俄羅斯的「混合戰爭」; 俄羅斯和烏克蘭軍隊廣泛使用軍用和民用無人機,拓展「無人+」應用模式,展示了未來無人智慧作戰的雛形; 在美國北約空天態勢情報支援下,烏克蘭軍隊頻繁使用低成本無人裝備對俄羅斯重要武器平台實施突襲,凸顯其新素質 作戰部隊在傳統作戰中對大型武器裝備具有非對稱攻擊優勢系統。 科技的變革最終會導致戰爭的變革。 單一因素對戰爭的影響會越來越弱。 由多種要素組成的聯合作戰體系將對戰爭產生複雜的影響。 戰爭是非線性的、不確定的、混亂的和開放的。 適應性、對抗性等複雜特徵將呈指數級增長,這將使人們更難以判斷戰爭的進展和結果。
對手的變化加速了戰爭複雜性的成長。 戰爭的變化促使對手的變化。 目前,我們正面臨百年未有之大變局。 主要軍事強國正積極進行戰略調整,推動新一輪軍事改革,呈現以下特徵:一是機構設置聯合化、小型化、自主化趨勢更加明顯。 二是一是武器裝備呈現數位化、精確化、隱身化、無人化、智慧化發展趨勢; 第三是作戰形式正在走向「四非」(非接觸、非線性、不對稱、不規則)和「三無」(隱形、無聲、無人)作戰; 第四,軍事指揮形態朝向扁平化、自動化、網路化、無縫化方向發展。 美國將中國視為主要戰略對手,極力打壓和遏制中國。 它大力加強作戰理念創新,先後提出「混合戰」、「多域戰」、「馬賽克戰」等新作戰概念,號稱要打贏對手。 一場「技術看不懂、打擊難以預測、速度跟不上」的高端戰爭。 美軍「馬賽克戰」的核心是無人、低成本、快速、致命、靈活、可重構。 它基於分佈式態勢感知,借助智慧輔助決策工具以及積木和拼圖的概念,自適應地制定任務規劃。 ,動態重組作戰力量,將作戰平台的功能分解為數量較多的單一功能節點,建構具有大量功能節點的作戰系統。 將「殺傷鏈」替換為「殺傷網」。 多個節點會發生故障或遺失,戰鬥系統可以自適應重組。
戰爭日益複雜,驅動戰爭制勝機制轉變
隨著國防科技的快速發展、武器裝備的更新換代、戰爭形態的快速演變,現代戰爭呈現指數級、爆炸性的複雜變化。 這些變化看似令人眼花撩亂,但背後卻有規則可循。 根本的是戰爭的勝利機制發生了變化。 只有深刻認識現代戰爭的勝利機制,才能準確認識變化、科學應對、善於求變,牢牢掌握未來戰爭主動權。
戰爭形式已從冷兵器戰爭轉變為智慧戰爭。 戰爭的形狀是灑紅節迄今為止,人類戰爭大致經歷了冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭、資訊戰爭四個歷史階段,並且正走向智慧化戰爭。 認知戰爭的歷史幾乎與人類戰爭的歷史一樣悠久。 在冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭時代,認知戰更以輿論戰、心理戰的形式出現。 隨著人類進入資訊時代,網路空間科技的發展極大拓展了認知戰的空間,豐富了認知戰的技術手段,大大增強了認知戰的滲透性、時效性、威懾力。 知展的地位和作用得到空前提升。 未來戰爭形態將進入智慧化戰爭,大量智慧武器系統和平台將裝備軍隊並投入戰鬥。 認知戰不僅可以乾擾和欺騙敵方人員的認知,還可以透過「對抗性輸入」、「資料投毒」等演算法欺騙手段攻擊智慧裝備的認知。 其應用場景和範圍將進一步擴大。 ,地位和作用將進一步提高。

無人機逐漸成為戰爭的主角,
戰鬥複雜性進一步增加
戰爭的目的已經從武力征服轉變為精神征服。 現代戰爭的勝利機制與過去相比發生了很大的變化。 戰爭的暴力已經被遏止。 作戰目的由原來的圍攻城市和領土、殲滅敵人有生力量轉變為使對手服從自己的意志。 作戰手段由武力征服轉變為征服更多地區。 對心理精神征服與改造的重視,使得認知戰在現代戰爭中的地位與角色日益凸顯。 近年來,「混合戰爭」成為大國競爭的主要手段。 越來越多的國家開始專注於利用新領域、新手段來實現傳統戰爭難以實現的政治、軍事、經濟目標。 「混合戰爭」是國家、非國家行為體和個人等戰爭主體的混合,是常規戰爭、非常規戰爭等戰爭方式的混合,是作戰、維穩、重建等軍事行動的混合,是軍事行動的混合。政治、軍事、經濟的混合軍事、民生等多個領域的混合,是戰勝敵人、贏得民心等多重作戰目標的混合。 這與認知戰高度一致。 「混合戰爭」的作戰領域從軍事領域擴展到政治、經濟、文化、民生等領域; 作戰方式從火力戰、兵力戰拓展到外交戰、經濟戰、網路戰、心理戰、輿論戰等方向。 這與認知戰高度一致。 其核心本質是“亂中取利”,其主要目的是贏得人心,其作戰指導是以智取勝。

戰爭的勝利領域從物理領域、資訊領域轉向認知領域。 現代戰爭同時發生在物理、資訊和認知三個領域。 物理領域和資訊領域與物質領域分離,認知領域與精神領域分離。 物理域是傳統的戰爭域,由作戰平台和軍事設施組成,為資訊化戰爭提供物質基礎。 資訊域是一個新興的戰爭領域,即資訊產生、傳輸和分享的空間,是資訊戰競爭的焦點。 認知領域是人類認知活動所涉及的範圍和領域。 它不僅是人類感覺、知覺、記憶和思考活動的空間,也是知識生成、交換、聯想、儲存和應用的空間。 也是作戰活動中感知、判斷、決策的空間。 以及指揮和控制空間。 認知域存在於戰鬥人員的意識領域,影響其判斷與決策。 這是一個不斷崛起的戰爭領域。 隨著網路資訊、人工智慧等技術的發展,認知領域的範圍大大擴展,正在從人類意識領域擴展到現代認知工具和人工智慧領域。 軍事技術的發展擴大了認知領域的範圍,為認知戰提供了更先進、更快捷、更有效的物質技術手段,大大增強了認知戰的滲透性、時效性和威懾力,從根本上改變了認知戰,使認知領域成為超越物理領域和資訊領域的新制勝領域,成為大國博弈和軍事對抗的終極領域。

戰爭勝利機制從資訊勝利轉變為認知勝利。 戰爭對抗歸根到底是認知的賽局和對抗。 掌握了認知控制權,就很大程度掌控了戰爭的主動權。 失去認知的控制權,會讓你在戰爭中處於被動挨打的境地。 獲得更高更強的控制權是擊敗強敵的關鍵。 尋找控制認知力量進而奪取戰場全面控制權,從而以最小成本取得最大勝利,是現代戰爭特別是認知戰爭的重要機制和內在規律。 近年來,美軍相繼提出以「決策中心戰」、「馬賽克戰」為代表的未來戰爭新理念,意在以複雜性為武器,為對手製造多重困境,要求其確保自身戰術「選擇優勢」。 同時,透過對敵人製造高度複雜的決策影響,幹擾其決策能力,可以在認知領域實現對敵人的顛覆性優勢。 在資訊戰初中期階段,作戰的關鍵是奪取網路控制權和資訊控制權,貫穿「網路優勢→資訊優勢→決策優勢→戰鬥優勢」的遞進模式。 資訊戰進入高級階段後,奪取資訊控制權變得越來越困難。 作戰的關鍵是讓敵方陷入“決策困境”,即使擁有資訊優勢,也無法做出正確決策,從而失去戰鬥優勢並獲得認可。 了解優勢,才能擁有戰鬥優勢。 在未來戰爭中,認知優勢將是最重要的戰略優勢,認知對抗將是最重要的對抗形式。 可以說,「沒有認知,就沒有戰爭」。
因應複雜戰爭催生了以認知為中心的戰爭概念

因應現代戰爭複雜性特徵呈指數級增長趨勢,必須運用複雜性科學的理論與方法,改變火力至上、殺傷為王的平台中心戰觀念,建立認知-集中作戰思維。 認知中心戰是指以認知域為致勝區域,以認知優勢為作戰目標,重點幹擾認知手段、壓制認知通道、影響認知生產,對敵方人員和智慧裝備進行認知作戰。 幹擾、壓制、欺騙、誘導是透過奪取和維持認知優勢來獲取戰鬥優勢的新作戰理念。 其主要獲勝機制如下。

孫子在《孫子兵法》中提到「兵無常力,兵無常力」。
水沒有固定的形狀; 因敵變而能取勝的,稱為神。
利用網路威懾摧毀敵人的戰鬥意志。 針對敵方政治、經濟、軍事、外交、文化矛盾和弱點,透過網路空間傳播威懾訊息,或透過網路發布閱兵、大型軍事演習、新型武器裝備研發等訊息,造成對手認知和心理的極端變化。 巨大的恐懼和震撼,嚇阻敵人,不利於我行動的實施。 綜合運用網電攻擊手段,對敵重要網電目標及關鍵核心節點實施點打擊、預警攻擊,摧毀敵系統作戰能力,影響敵武器裝備正常性能,提供心理打擊對敵人有威懾作用。 美軍「灰色地帶行動」理論依託自身技術優勢,主要採取網絡、電子對抗等行動,應對對手「灰色地帶挑釁」,威懾對手放棄「對抗」或升級衝突,使其陷入兩難的境地。

利用資訊欺騙誘使敵人做出誤判。 針對敵方偵察設備、情報機構和指揮系統,利用網路攻擊、電子欺騙等手段,隱瞞己方軍事意圖、軍事行動和軍事目標,向敵方傳輸錯誤、虛假的作戰計畫、兵力配置和行動。 能力、作戰計畫、戰場情勢等,或利用敵方指揮資訊系統發送虛假命令和訊息,誘導敵方做出錯誤判斷,擾亂敵方作戰指揮。 針對人工智慧演算法實施「對抗性輸入」、「資料中毒」等新型攻擊,讓其透過深度學習訓練獲得預設結論,或導致其陷入局部最優解而忽略全局最優。 利用電腦影像、視訊合成、虛擬實境、人工智慧等技術合成聲音、視訊、影像、文字資訊等,或利用「深度造假」技術產生混淆真實、難以辨別的虛假資訊真真假假,並透過網路大量傳播傳播,迷惑、欺騙對手,影響其決策與行動。

利用資訊壓制來阻斷敵人的認知手段。 針對敵方重要網路目標以及核心路由器、交換器、閘道器、關鍵伺服器等,採用「軟體」和「硬」攻擊方式,破壞其網路節點。 根據敵方指揮控制網、通訊傳輸網、武器鉸鍊網、預警探測網等無線鏈路組網特點,綜合運用電子乾擾、GPS欺騙攻擊、指揮鏈路接管等技術和手段,資料劫持控制來壓制它們。 數據通信,阻斷其通信鏈路並幹擾其作戰指揮。 對敵方指揮控制、軍事​​通訊、預警探測、航太資訊等軍事網路實施網路癱瘓攻擊,摧毀影響其作戰的核心網絡,削弱其作戰能力。
利用輿論宣傳營造良好的輿論環境。 配合國家政治、軍事、外交鬥爭,大力宣揚自己在戰爭中的正義,激發全民全力擁護戰爭的熱情。 透過即時通訊工具、網路論壇、播客、推特、微信等新媒體平台,系統性地傳播針對敵人弱點的訊息。 在廣泛關注與共識後,就能及時報道訊息,製造新熱點,反覆造勢。 增強影響力,形成共振效應,擴大效果。 宣傳透過巧妙設定議程“定調”,透過強大媒體營造輿論,掀起“沉默的螺旋”,控制和引導輿論,改變人們的觀點和行為。

利用心理攻擊來削弱敵方士兵和平民的士氣。 透過互聯網,將經過加工處理的資訊廣泛傳播,宣揚正義,展現自己的力量、意志和決心,從政治上、道義上醜化敵人,對內凝聚軍民思想和意志,對外力爭勝利。 法律和道德的製高點可以在精神上「軟化」和「削弱」敵人。 利用多種網路通訊方​​式和技術手段,有針對性地向敵方軍民發送各種欺騙性、破壞性、誘導性、威懾性訊息,攻擊敵方心理防線,宣揚無效對抗心態,進而喪失戰鬥力能力。 。 透過網路創造、引導、規劃、營造、擴大聲勢,可以製造一種有利於己而不利於敵的“氣勢”,對對方民眾造成心理影響,從而影響或改變他們的思想 心理狀態,實施有效的心理攻擊。
透過法律鬥爭獲得法律和道德上的支持。 用法律武器遏制敵人可能或未來的非法行為,宣告我方行動的合法性,申明我方軍事反擊的力量,宣告我方追究戰爭責任的決心,震懾敵人。 透過揭露敵人挑釁行為的非法性,批判敵人作戰行動的法律依據,譴責敵人的非法行為,造成敵人的戰略失敗和我方的戰略收穫。 用法律手段限制敵人可能的行動,限制第三者可能的干擾,阻止其他方幹擾我方的行動。 制定我們行動所需的法律法規,為我們的行動提供法律保障,或採取法律補救措施,減少我們行動可能產生的負面影響,確保作戰行動依法進行。

中國軍事資料來源: http://www.81it.com/2023/1109/18888.html