Category Archives: National Defense and Military Modernization

Chinese Military to Comprehensively Improve Scientific and Technological Cognition of Strategic Capabilities in Emerging Fields of Warfare

中國軍隊全面提升新興戰爭領域戰略能力科技認知

現代音譯英語:

War is a confrontation of material forces, but it is also a test of ideological cognition. To implement President Xi’s new requirements for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields, we must grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological cognition, focus on the new situation of accelerating the new round of scientific and technological revolution, industrial revolution and military revolution, focus on strengthening the army and winning wars, and strengthen the research and exploration of strategic, cutting-edge and disruptive technologies in emerging fields. With a deep understanding of the nature and laws of science and technology, we can master the realization of high-quality development of military construction, win the initiative in military competition and future wars, transform scientific and technological cognition into a real ability to design and win wars, and accelerate and win new advantages in strategic areas that must be fought.

(one)

Only by understanding the times can we understand war. In the era when scientific and technological revolutions and military revolutions are integrated and intertwined, and science and technology have become the core combat power of modern warfare, improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields will help us understand and grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare, better control information-based and intelligent warfare, achieve overtaking in new fields and new tracks, win military competitive advantages with scientific and technological advantages, and win future high-tech wars.

Leading military reforms to seize the commanding heights. The wise hear what is silent, and the wise see what is not yet formed. Only by keenly perceiving the development trends of emerging technologies and expanding the cognitive boundaries of strategic frontier technologies can we see what is not yet born, recognize what is not yet developed, take the initiative, and lead the elements of the military field to achieve revolutionary transformation and development. In today’s era, emerging technologies represented by artificial intelligence are emerging in a “well-like” manner, leading and promoting the rapid development of military intelligence at an unprecedented speed, triggering chain breakthroughs in the military field, and leveraging fundamental changes in the war pattern. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race of time and speed. Faced with the strong momentum of military science and technology development in emerging fields, we must strive to seize the initiative and gain advantages. We must accurately grasp the general trend of science and technology of the times, dare to stand at the forefront of human warfare and scientific and technological development, grasp the basic laws of scientific and technological development and evolution in the long river of history and the global perspective, and accurately identify new goals, new fields, and new heights for the development of military science and technology. We must find breakthroughs in the development of military science and technology in a timely manner, bravely advance into the “no man’s land” of military science and technology innovation, seize the strategic commanding heights of military technology competition, and lead the military revolution to achieve new breakthroughs and leaps with new thinking concepts.

Lead the military competition and win the initiative. The level of cognition ultimately determines the pattern of military competition. At present, the frontier positions and strength competition of world military competition have extended to emerging fields, and the acquisition of technological advantages has become a strategic measure to seek military advantages. In the fierce competition of technological subversion and counter-subversion, assault and counter-assault, offset and counter-offset, scientific and technological cognition has become a key variable that determines the victory or defeat of military games. If there is a generation gap in scientific and technological cognition, there is a risk of being surpassed by the opponent’s new technological combat power. If there is a technological gap in shaping new-quality combat power, it will be difficult to “change the rules of competition” and form a military competitive advantage. Recent local wars and armed conflicts in the world have shown that whoever has a leading strategic capability and technological cognition in emerging fields and uses technology to empower combat power can control the battlefield situation and thereby achieve a fundamental change in the winner and loser. In the increasingly fierce world military game, in order to seize the initiative in the development of military science and technology in emerging fields and occupy a favorable position of high-level control, it is necessary to enhance the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, keep a close eye on changes in science and technology, changes in war, and changes in opponents, plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, follow the trend, make advance arrangements, and plan ahead to ensure the formation of unique advantages in some important fields and win the initiative in military games.

Leading a strong army to win the war and win the future war. Practice determines cognition, which is the source and motivation, purpose and destination of cognition. The scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is aimed at promoting scientific and technological innovation and application. The fundamental focus is to create a new quality combat power growth pole. The main purpose is to seize the commanding heights of strategic competition, seize the initiative in war, and ultimately win the future war. At present, the development of emerging fields is showing an all-round and multi-domain in-depth advancement trend, and the frequency of dynamic iteration and update of science and technology is accelerating. In order to forge a new quality combat capability with a new killing mechanism and improve the scientific and technological content of national defense and military modernization, we must deeply grasp the key areas of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, grasp the new characteristics of cross-integration development of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, focus on creating a new quality combat capability growth pole, vigorously promote independent innovation and original innovation, eliminate backward technologies that are not adapted to the changes in the war situation, adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence, improve the innovation and application of military science and technology, comprehensively enhance the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and win the battle to achieve the goal of building the army for a hundred years as scheduled.

Two

Improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a very complex process of subjective and objective rational thinking. To accurately grasp the essential attributes and characteristic laws of scientific and technological innovation and development in emerging fields, and to know both the facts and the reasons, we should focus on improving the three abilities of scientific and technological foresight, discrimination, and understanding in the strategic capabilities of emerging fields, and form a scientific cognitive ability system that supports, cooperates with, and influences each other, providing strong support for comprehensively improving the strategic capabilities of emerging fields.

Aiming at future wars, we should enhance our scientific and technological foresight. Emerging fields are one of the main battlefields of future wars. Once some technologies achieve breakthroughs, the impact will be subversive, and may even fundamentally change the form and mode of war, and fundamentally change the traditional offensive and defensive pattern of war. Science and technology have never had such a profound impact on military construction and the outcome of wars as they do today. If we have a narrow scientific and technological cognition and lack strategic foresight and prediction of cutting-edge technologies in emerging fields, we may not understand our opponents, understand wars, and even more so win future wars. During the Gulf War, Iraq’s mechanized steel torrent lost to the US military’s precision-guided weapons. One of the important reasons for this was the gap between the two countries in strategic capabilities and scientific and technological cognition in emerging fields. In order to let our thoughts reach tomorrow’s battlefield, we must improve our scientific and technological awareness, closely follow the development direction of the world’s advanced military science and technology, promptly grasp the latest developments in cutting-edge science and technology, scientifically predict the development trend of science and technology, make full use of technologies such as data mining, comprehensively judge the revolutionary impact of high-tech development on war, take the lead in laying out emerging combat fields, develop a series of high-tech weapons and equipment, accelerate the scientific and technological empowerment of combat effectiveness, and provide a solid material foundation for winning future wars.

Keep a close eye on how to defeat powerful enemies and improve scientific and technological identification. War is a life-and-death confrontation between the enemy and us, and emerging fields are the top priority for the struggle between the two sides. Improving the scientific and technological awareness of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is the fundamental strategy to prevent technological raids and avoid technological traps. In order to seize the initiative in war, powerful enemies have always not only used their unique high-tech weapons and equipment to raid their opponents, putting them in a disadvantageous situation of passive attack, but also a more dangerous trick is to carefully set up technical traps and implement strategic deception. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fell into the strategic deception trap of the US “Star Wars Plan”, which accelerated the decline of national strength. To persist in winning against powerful enemies, we must improve the scientific and technological discernment of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, closely follow the technological frontiers of powerful enemies, formulate breakthrough strategies for building strategic capabilities in emerging fields, and maintain a high degree of technical sensitivity and discernment of some so-called new technologies and new concepts promoted by powerful enemies. We must be good at distinguishing the authenticity of technology, weighing the pros and cons of development and the extent of its impact, and persist in developing strategic resources in emerging fields based on national conditions and military conditions, so that the innovative achievements of military science and technology in emerging fields can better empower the decision-making chain, command chain and combat power generation chain.

Mastering the winning strategy improves the understanding of science and technology. The key to building a strong army and winning wars is to master the winning strategy. In the context of the deep coupling of modern science and technology with the military, understanding and mastering science and technology has become a necessary ability to understand, design and win wars. From the perspective of human military history, it is precisely because of the thorough understanding of the principles of aviation technology and space technology that Douhet’s “air supremacy” theory, Graham’s “high frontier” theory and other war theories have been produced. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of new technologies such as human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control of artificial intelligence, it will be impossible to master the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and explore new theories and tactics of intelligent warfare. Technology determines tactics. To win future wars, we must focus on thinking about wars from a scientific and technological perspective, understand the impact of emerging technological developments on wars, learn from the latest achievements in military science and technology innovation of the world’s superpowers, study and explore the internal mechanisms of high-tech in emerging fields supporting modern warfare, explore how to use scientific and technological concepts and thinking to accurately grasp the laws of winning wars, how to use advanced scientific and technological means to strengthen the construction of new-quality combat capabilities, how to design wars based on scientific and technological principles, and how to transform scientific and technological advantages into capability advantages, and use the “key” of scientific and technological thinking to open the “door” to victory.

(three)

Comprehensively improving the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields is a long-term, systematic strategic project. We must deeply understand and implement the important instructions of Chairman Xi, take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task, and improve the scientific and technological cognition of officers and soldiers with a high sense of mission, scientific thinking concepts, and effective methods and approaches, so as to lay a solid foundation for comprehensively improving strategic capabilities in emerging fields and realizing high-quality development of our army.

Accelerate the transformation of ideas and concepts. The wise change with the times, and the knowledgeable act according to circumstances. While the emerging military technology is transforming the objective world, it is also profoundly changing people’s subjective world, forming a subversive impact on the traditional war-winning mechanism and way of thinking. The internal requirement is to transform ideas and concepts and enhance scientific and technological cognition. Engels pointed out: “When the wave of technological revolution is surging around… we need newer and braver minds.” Whoever is conservative, conservative, and self-contained will miss precious opportunities, fall into strategic passivity, and even miss an entire era. We must emancipate our minds and update our concepts, actively adapt to the development trend of world military changes today, be sensitive to the innovation of military thinking brought about by the technological revolution, have the courage to change the mindset of mechanized warfare, break the shackles of conservative thinking, firmly establish a new mindset of information-based and intelligent warfare, establish a new concept of strengthening the military and winning victory through science and technology, focus on understanding the new face of war, discovering new characteristics of war, and revealing new laws of war from a scientific and technological perspective, and strive to raise the level of war cognition to a new height.

Cultivate the foundation of scientific and technological literacy. Scientific and technological literacy is the ability to scientifically understand and describe the objective world and the ability to think scientifically. The depth of the foundation of scientific and technological literacy fundamentally determines the level of scientific and technological cognition. If you don’t understand science and technology or your scientific and technological literacy is not high, you will be like looking at flowers in the fog or the moon in the water when it comes to modern warfare, let alone being able to fight and win. To improve the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields and understand the winning mechanism of modern high-tech warfare, the key is to work hard to improve the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers, coordinate the use of advantageous military and civilian scientific and technological resources, vigorously spread the scientific spirit, popularize scientific knowledge, strengthen the study of modern science and technology, especially military science and technology knowledge, and conduct in-depth research on cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology. We must have a deep understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as deep learning, cross-border integration, human-machine collaboration, group intelligence, and autonomous control. We must understand and master the latest scientific and technological achievements, build a multi-dimensional knowledge system with information and intelligent technology as the main body, improve the level of thinking, expand the knowledge structure, and vigorously promote the transformation of the “variable” of scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields into the “energy” of building a strong army and winning wars.

Improve capabilities through practice. A knife needs to be sharpened and a person needs to be trained. To enhance the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields, it is necessary not only to nourish the theory to promote the transformation of ideas and concepts, but also to follow the basic law of human cognitive movement of “practice, cognition, re-practice, and re-cognition”, make good use of the actual combat “grindstone” to sharpen the wisdom, and promote the scientific and technological cognition of strategic capabilities in emerging fields to a higher level. We must have the courage to improve quality and capabilities in the practice of strengthening the military with science and technology and strengthening training with science and technology, adhere to learning while doing and learning while doing, focus on our main responsibilities and main business, delve into cutting-edge science and technology based on our posts and combat positions, and improve our scientific and technological acumen, insight, and response speed; enhance our technical understanding of new equipment, new skills, and new tactics, cultivate scientific thinking, master scientific methods, improve our scientific and technological cognition, and cultivate the ideological awareness of strengthening the construction of strategic capabilities in emerging fields from a scientific and technological perspective; keep a close eye on powerful enemies and future battlefields to cultivate a stronger “technological mind”, be familiar with our opponents’ scientific and technological achievements, capabilities, and means, accurately grasp the “hard core” and “soft ribs” of our opponents’ scientific and technological development, adhere to the asymmetric thinking to tailor-make struggle strategies and tactics, and provide strong guarantees for winning this future high-end war and hybrid war.

(Author’s unit: Military Science Academy, Institute of Political Work)

現代國語:

戰爭是物質力量的對抗,更是思想認知力的較量。貫徹落實習主席全面提升新興領域戰略能力的新要求,必須抓住科技認知力這個“牛鼻子”,著眼新一輪科技革命、產業革命和軍事革命加速推進的新態勢,聚焦強軍勝戰加強新興領域戰略性、前沿性、顛覆性技術的研究探索,以對科學技術本質和規律的深刻理解,掌握實現軍隊建設高質量發展,贏得軍事競爭和未來戰爭的主動權,把科技認知力轉化為實實在在的設計戰爭、打贏戰爭能力,在戰略必爭領域跑出加速度、贏得新優勢。

(一)

理解時代才能理解戰爭。在科技革命與軍事革命融合交叉,科技已成為現代戰爭核心戰鬥力的時代背景下,提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,有助於理解和把握現代戰爭的特點規律,更好地駕馭資訊化智能化戰爭,在新領域新賽道實現彎道超車,以科技優勢贏得軍事競爭優勢、贏得未來高科技戰爭。

引領軍事變革搶佔制高點。聰者聽於無聲,明者見於未形。敏銳洞察新興領域科技發展趨勢走向,拓展戰略前沿技術領域認知邊界,才能做到見之於未萌、識之於未發,下好先手棋、打好主動仗,引領軍事領域要素實現革命性轉型發展。在當今時代,以人工智慧為代表的新興科技「井噴式」湧現,引領和推動軍事智慧以前所未有的速度突飛猛進,正在引發軍事領域鍊式突破,撬動戰爭格局發生根本性轉變。科技創新歷來是時間與速度的賽跑,面對新興領域軍事科技發展的強勁勢頭,我們要致力於搶佔先機、贏得優勢,必須準確把握時代科技大勢,勇於站在人類戰爭和科技發展最前沿,在歷史長河和全球視野中把握科技發展演變的基本規律,切實找準軍事科技發展的新目標、新領域、新高地,及時找到軍事科技發展的突破口,勇於向軍事科技創新「無人區」進軍,搶佔軍事技術競爭的戰略制高點,以全新的思維理念引領軍事革命實現新突破新跨越。

引領軍事競爭贏得主動權。認知層次高低最終決定軍事競爭格局。當前,世界軍事競爭前線陣地和實力比拼已經延伸到新興領域,把奪取科技優勢作為謀求軍事優勢的戰略舉措。在技​​術上顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷的激烈較量中,科技認知力已成為決定軍事博弈勝負的關鍵變數。如果科技認知力出現代差,就面臨被對手新技術作戰力量超越的風險。在塑造新質戰鬥力上出現技術鴻溝,就很難「改變競技規則」形成軍事競爭優勢。世界近幾場局部戰爭和武裝沖突表明,誰具有領先對手的新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,用科技為戰鬥力賦能,誰就能掌控戰場態勢,並以此實現勝負手的根本轉換。在日益激烈的世界軍事博弈中,奪取新興領域軍事科技發展主動權,佔據高位瞰的有利位勢,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,因勢而謀,應勢而動,順勢而為,超前佈局、超前謀劃,確保在一些重要領域形成獨特優勢,贏得軍事博弈主動權。

引領強軍勝戰制勝未來戰爭。實踐決定認識,是認識的泉源和動力、目的和歸宿。新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,以推動科技創新和科技運用為實踐指向,根本著眼點是打造新質戰鬥力增長極,主要目的是搶佔戰略競爭制高點,奪取戰爭主動權,最終打贏未來戰爭。當前,新興領域發展呈現全方位多領域縱深推進態勢,科技動態迭代更新頻率加快,鍛造全新殺傷機理的新質戰鬥力,提高國防和軍隊現代化建設的科技含量,必須深刻把握新興領域科技創新發展的關鍵領域,掌握新興領域科技創新發展交叉融合發展新特徵,以打造新質戰鬥力增長極為重點,大力推進自主創新、原始創新,淘汰不適應戰爭形態變化的落後技術,堅持機械化信息化智能化融合發展,提升軍事科技創新力應用力,全面提升新興領域戰略能力,打贏如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標攻堅戰。

(二)

提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,是十分複雜的主觀見之於客觀的理性思維過程。科學準確掌握新興領域科技創新發展的本質屬性與特點規律,做到知其然又知其所以然,應重點提升新興領域戰略能力的科技預知力、鑑別力、理解力三種能力素質,形成相互支撐、相互配合、相互影響的科學認知能力體系,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力提供強大支撐。

瞄準未來戰爭提昇科技預知力。新興領域是未來戰爭的主戰場之一,有些技術一旦取得突破,影響將是顛覆性的,甚至可能從根本上改變戰爭形態和作戰方式,從根本上改變傳統的戰爭攻防格局。科技從來沒有像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊建設和戰爭勝負,如果科技認知力狹隘,對新興領域前沿技術缺乏戰略性預見和預判,就可能看不懂對手、看不懂戰爭,更談不上打贏得未來戰爭。海灣戰爭期間,伊拉克機械化鋼鐵洪流輸給美軍精確制導武器,究其緣由重要的一條是由兩者在新興領域戰略能力科技認知力存在差距造成的。讓思想直達明天的戰場,必須提高科技認知力,緊密跟踪世界先進軍事科技發展方向,及時掌握前沿科技最新動態,科學預測科技發展趨勢,充分運用數據挖掘等技術,綜合研判高科技發展給戰爭帶來的革命性影響,搶先佈局新興作戰領域,研發系列高新技術武器裝備,加速戰鬥力科技賦能,為制勝未來戰爭提供堅實的物質基礎。

緊盯制勝​​強敵提高科技鑑別力。戰爭是敵我雙方的生死對抗,新興領域更是作戰雙方角力的重中之重。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是防止技術突襲和避免技術陷阱的根本之策。為奪取戰爭主動權,強敵向來不僅以獨有的高新技術武器裝備突襲對手,使其陷入被動挨打的不利處境,更危險的招數在於精心設置技術陷阱,實施戰略欺詐。冷戰美蘇爭霸時期,蘇聯就落入美國「星際大戰計畫」的戰略欺騙陷阱,加速了國力衰退。堅持扭住強敵謀打贏,必須提高新興領域戰略能力的科技鑑別力,要密切跟踪強敵對手科技前沿動態,制定新興領域戰略能力建設突破策略,對強敵宣傳炒作的一些所謂新技術新概念,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和辨識力,要善於甄別技術真偽、權衡發展利弊及其影響程度,堅持從國情軍情出發開發新興領域戰略資源,使新興領域軍事科技創新成果更好地賦能決策鏈、指揮鍊和戰鬥力生成鏈。

掌握制勝之道提昇科技理解力。強軍勝戰關鍵要掌握制勝之道,在現代科技與軍事深度耦合的背景下,認識並掌握科技成為理解戰爭、設計戰爭、打贏戰爭的必備能力。從人類軍事史來看,正是由於對航空技術、太空技術等原理的透徹認知,杜黑的「制空權」理論、葛拉漢的「高邊疆」理論等戰爭理論才得以產生。同樣,當前如果對人工智慧所具有的人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新技術缺乏透徹認知,就無法掌握智能化戰爭制勝機理、探索智能作戰新戰法。技術決定戰術。打贏未來戰爭必須著重從科技角度思考戰爭,理解新興領域科技發展對戰爭帶來的影響,並藉鑑吸收世界強國軍事科技創新最新成果,研究探索新興領域高新科技支撐現代戰爭的內在機理,探討如何以科技理念和思維把準戰爭制勝規律、如何運用先進科技手段加強新質戰鬥力建設、如何依據科技原理設計戰爭、如何將科技優勢轉化為能力優勢,用科技思維的“鑰匙”開啟勝戰“大門” 。

(三)

全面提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,是一項長期性、系統性的戰略工程,必須深刻理解貫徹習主席重要指示精神,把提高官兵科技素養作為一項基礎性工作來抓,以高度的使命擔當、科學的思維理念、有效的方法路徑提升官兵科技認知力,為全面提升新興領域戰略能力,實現我軍高質量發展夯實根基。

加快轉變思想觀念。明者因時而變,知者隨事而製。新興領域軍事科技在改造客觀世界的同時,也深刻改變著人們的主觀世界,對傳統的戰爭制勝機理和思維方式形成顛覆性沖擊,內在要求必須轉變思想觀念提昇科技認知力。恩格斯指出:「當科技革命的浪潮正在四周洶湧澎湃的時候……我們需要更新、更勇敢的頭腦。」誰思想保守、因循守舊、固步自封,誰就會錯失寶貴時機,陷於戰略被動,甚至會錯過整整一個時代。我們必須解放思想更新觀念,積極適應當今世界軍事變革的發展趨勢,敏銳感知技術革命帶來的軍事思想革新,勇於改變機械化戰爭的思維定勢,破除守舊守常守成思想束縛,牢固樹立起信息化智能化戰爭新思維,立起科技強軍制勝的新理念,注重從科技角度認識戰爭新面貌、發現戰爭新特點、揭示戰爭新規律,努力把戰爭認知力水平提升到新高度。

涵養科技素養底蘊。科技素養是科學認識和描述客觀世界的能力和科學思維能力,科技素養底蘊的深度,從根本上決定科技認知力高低程度。不懂科技或科技素養不高,對現代戰爭就是霧裡看花、水中觀月,更別說能打仗、打勝仗。提升新興領域戰略能力科技認知力,理解現代高科技戰爭制勝機理,關鍵要在提高官兵科技素養上下功夫,統籌利用軍地科技優勢資源,大力傳播科學精神、普及科學知識,加強現代科技特別是軍事科技知識的學習,深入研究人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等前沿技術,深刻認識人工智慧深度學習、跨界融合、人機協同、群智開放、自主操控等新特點,了解和掌握最新科技成果,構建以資訊化、智慧化技術為主體的多維知識體系,提高思維層次、拓展知識結構,強力推進新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力這個「變量」向強軍勝戰「能量”轉化。

立足實踐提高能力。刀要磨,人要練。提升新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力,既需要理論滋養促進思想理念轉型,更要遵循「實踐、認識、再實踐、再認識」的人類認識運動基本規律,用好實戰「磨刀石」砥礪智慧鋒芒,推動新興領域戰略能力的科技認知力向更高一級躍進。要勇於在科技強軍、科技強訓實踐中提質強能,堅持學中乾乾中學,聚焦主責主業、立足崗位戰位鑽研前沿科技,提高科技敏銳度、洞察力和響應速度;增強對新裝備、新技能、新戰法的技術理解,培育科學思維、掌握科學方法,提高科技認知力,培塑從科技視角加強新興領域戰略能力建設的思想意識;緊盯強敵對手和未來戰場練就更強大的“科技頭腦”,熟悉對手的科技成果、科技能力和科技手段,精準把脈對手科技發展的“硬核”和“軟肋”,堅持非對稱思想量身定制鬥爭策略和戰法,為打贏這場未來高端戰爭、混合戰爭提供有力保障。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍隊政治工作研究院)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/szb_223187/gfbszbxq/index.html?paperName=zggfb&paperDate=2024-06-03&paperNumber=03&articleid=932888

Developing People’s War Strategies and Tactics in the Chinese Military

發展中國軍隊的人民戰爭戰略戰術

現代英語音譯:

Introduction

In his report to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President Xi clearly pointed out the need to develop strategies and tactics of people’s war. Looking back at the glorious journey of the people’s army to strengthen the army and win, one red line running through it is to always insist on proposing and implementing a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics under the leadership of the party. To win future wars, we must pay close attention to changes in technology, warfare, and opponents, continue to inherit the fine traditions of our army, develop people’s war strategies and tactics, and let the magic weapon for defeating the enemy show its power on the modern battlefield.

People’s war strategies and tactics have always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is not only a profound insight into the inherent laws of our army’s victory over the enemy, but also a lofty plan for a strong country and army. It has important strategic value for achieving the 100-year goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army. .

People’s war strategies and tactics are a concentrated expression of the Marxist art of war guidance. Marxism believes that the people are the creators of history and the decisive force in promoting historical progress. The strategies and tactics of people’s war start from this basic viewpoint and fundamental position, and profoundly explain the basic principles of people’s war such as soldiers and the people being the foundation of victory, the decisive factor of victory or defeat in war is that people are not things, and that the broad masses of the people must be organized, mobilized and armed. principle. Our army was born in the flames of war. Facing extremely cruel objective conditions, the Chinese Communists, represented by Comrade Mao Zedong, insisted on combining the basic principles of Marxist people’s war with the reality of China’s revolutionary war, and created an army characterized by flexibility and maneuverability. The essence of the strategy and tactics of people’s war is “you fight yours and I fight mine”, which aims to use strengths to attack weaknesses and seize and master the initiative in war. This embodies the Marxist art of war guidance and shines with the light of truth that is scientific, people-oriented, practical and open to development.

People’s war strategies and tactics are the winning code for the Party’s leadership in all military struggle practices. Since the founding of the People’s Army, our Party has created a complete set of strategies and tactics for people’s war based on the cruel reality that the enemy is strong and we are weak, and the enemy is large and we are small. From the “Sixteen-Character Formula” during the Red Army period, to the “Protracted War” during the Anti-Japanese War, from the “Ten Military Principles” during the Liberation War, to the “piecemeal candy” during the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, to the founding of New China Continuous adjustments to post-military strategic guidelines. The people’s army learns war from war, explores laws from practice, and adheres to and develops this winning code with the times. In the war years, it has created war miracles one after another in which the minority defeated the large and the weak defeated the strong. In peacetime, it resolutely defends National sovereignty, security and territorial integrity have written a glorious chapter in the world’s military history of continuous innovation in the art of war guidance.

Actively developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an intrinsic requirement for building a world-class army in an all-round way. “Every important country must wait for victory.” To measure whether an army is a world-class army, it ultimately depends on its military strength. The strategies and tactics of people’s war are not only the way for our army to win, but also the way to develop and grow. To accelerate the building of a world-class military and build a strong strategic deterrence system, we must adhere to and develop this unique advantage, strengthen research on opponents and enemy situations, proactively understand the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the winning mechanism, advance with the times and innovate people’s war strategies and tactics, and firmly Flexibly carry out military struggles, give full play to the strategic function of military power in shaping security situations, containing crises and conflicts, and winning local wars, and effectively complete the missions and tasks assigned by the party and the people in the new era.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an inevitable choice for our army to win future wars. The form of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, but the essence of war has not changed, and the fundamental law that the deepest source of the power of war lies among the people has not changed. The wars we face in the future are mainly wars to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. They are in line with the fundamental interests of all the Chinese people. They are just actions that conform to the trend of the times. They will continue to receive the support of the overwhelming majority of the people and the people of the world. . Adhering to and developing people’s war strategies and tactics will surely become an important way and inevitable choice for our army to win future wars and check and balance powerful enemies.

Scientifically grasp the connotation of the times in the development of people’s war strategies and tactics

The strategies and tactics of people’s war are living theories and practices, not rigid dogma. They must actively adapt to the development requirements of the times and inject new connotations of the times in order to maintain strong vitality.

We must persist in just war, establish the broadest united front, and fight political and military wars well. Paying attention to guiding the war from a political perspective and consolidating the political foundation for victory are the basic experience of the party in winning the war and the core essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. In today’s era, the relationship between military and politics is closer, the relevance and integrity at the strategic level are increasing day by day, and the influence and constraints of political factors on war are becoming increasingly prominent. To develop the strategies and tactics of people’s war, we must always adhere to the role of the Party Central Committee in overseeing the overall situation and coordinating all parties, mobilizing, uniting, and organizing the broadest number of people to participate in and support the war; strengthen political and organizational functions, and strengthen the entire party, entire army, and people in the country to respond to the war , ideological preparation, organizational preparation, and will preparation to win the war; strengthen political diplomacy and international public opinion and legal struggle, form the broadest united front to support a just war, firmly occupy the moral commanding heights, give full play to the comprehensive effectiveness of political offensives and armed strikes, and coordinate Fight political and military battles well.

Adhere to active defense, highlight enthusiasm, and pay attention to offensive operations. Active defense is a product of people’s war, and its implementation is a fundamental requirement for the strategies and tactics of people’s war. In the future, as the war process accelerates, the strategic goal may be achieved in one battle or battle, which is often the first and decisive battle. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must adhere to the organic integration of defense, counterattack and offense, put more emphasis on internal and external counterattacks at the strategic level, comprehensively use elite combat forces at the beginning of the war, implement a combination of internal and external lines, resolute and fierce strategic counterattacks, and form a high-pressure counterattack situation and pressure, to defeat the feared enemy to the maximum extent, and achieve the strategic goal of using offense to assist defense, attacking later, arriving first, defeating the enemy quickly, containing it as soon as possible, and winning the war.

Adhere to asymmetrical checks and balances, you fight yours, I fight mine, use what you can to fight what you can’t. This is the soul and essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. It is a high-level summary and vivid description of the laws of war and the laws of war guidance. It reveals the laws and methods of war guidance that use inferior equipment to defeat the enemy with superior equipment. It combines flexible and maneuverable strategies with Tactics have been taken to a whole new level. Compared with the past, the modern warfare combat system is huge, with many nodes, and there are many “vital gates” that are vulnerable to attack, which provides an opportunity to implement “attacking what cannot be done with what is possible”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must follow the winning mechanisms of modern wars, fully understand the inherent weaknesses of informatized and intelligent warfare, conduct in-depth research on the opponents’ weaknesses and Achilles’ heel, innovate core operational concepts, and step up efforts to forge new domains and new combat capabilities and means. We should practice tactics such as dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. We should not follow the enemy’s routines but focus on the enemy’s weaknesses. We should give full play to our military’s advantages and long-range attacks and create new winning advantages in “hitting with what we can but not with power”.

Persist in accumulating small victories into big victories, and be good at concentrating strength to fight annihilation wars. Our army has been at an overall disadvantage for a long time in the revolutionary war. Locally, using the strong against the weak and accumulating small victories into big victories is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Compared with the past, modern war operations are often carried out in multi-dimensional and multi-domain environments, providing a broader space for the implementation of “accumulating small victories into big victories”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must strengthen the concept of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but unified force”, dynamically integrate many combat forces distributed on multi-dimensional battlefields, and implement local rapid concentration through efficiency integration and real-time optimization. It can carry out attacks, wide-area guerrilla raids, and carry out annihilating strikes and destructive attacks on the enemy’s key points. This not only has a hammer effect, but also can continuously consume the enemy, causing the opponent to gradually lose the initiative on the battlefield.

We must insist that soldiers and civilians are the foundation of victory, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities. When the army wins battles, the people are its backer. At the beginning of the founding of the army, our party regarded the revolutionary war as a struggle of the masses, emphasized that only by mobilizing and relying on the masses can we carry out war, and created a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics, which is the winning code for the people’s army to remain invincible. Confrontation under conditions of informationization and intelligence is more clearly manifested as a systemic confrontation based on the overall strength of the country. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must continuously consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities, make full efforts in multiple dimensions such as politics, military, economy, culture, and diplomacy, and build powerful war capabilities that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory. and war potential, trapping the enemy in the vast sea of ​​people’s war.

Vigorously promote the development and innovation of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era

In the new era, the connotation of the people’s war strategy and tactics has undergone great changes. It is necessary to strengthen the party’s centralized and unified leadership, strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose, strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation, and strengthen simulation training and testing, so as to gather the forward force of innovation and development.

Strengthen the Party’s centralized and unified leadership and gather the majestic strategic and tactical power of the People’s War. The party’s leadership is the greatest advantage of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and an important guarantee for the implementation and implementation of the people’s war strategies and tactics. We must uphold the leadership of the party and mobilize and organize the people as a whole. Actively explore people’s war strategies and tactics in financial warfare, cyber warfare, cognitive domain warfare and other fields. Timely organize the masses to carry out intelligence warfare, harassment warfare, ambush warfare, etc. to flexibly contain and consume the enemy.

Strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose and consolidate the foundation for the development of the people’s war strategy and tactics. The secret of victory in People’s War is that it sincerely seeks the interests of the masses and wins the trust and support of the broad masses of the people. Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose of our army and is also the strategic foundation for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era. The People’s Army must stand firmly on the people’s side, always adhere to the supremacy of the people, rely closely on the people, continue to benefit the people, be firmly rooted in the people, and always maintain the nature, purpose, and true qualities of the People’s Army.

Strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation and enhance the momentum for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. As high technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology enter the military field, the scientific and technological content of war has undergone a qualitative leap. People’s war strategies and tactics supported by information-based intelligent technology must be innovatively developed and continuously promoted. The integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence will innovate and create the “key” of “hitting the incompetent with what can be used”, making “wisdom and victory” the main feature of the people’s war strategy and tactics in the new era, forming a new era of people’s war that is leading and unique in the era. War strategy and tactics.

Strengthen simulation training and testing to improve the quality and effectiveness of the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. In the information age, virtual reality technology can be used to create virtual scenes with a strong sense of three-dimensionality and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and mission background. Officers and soldiers can “experience” the war in virtual reality several times before the war begins, strengthening their understanding of the war. The understanding of real battlefields such as equipment performance, enemy and friend situations, and war rhythm provides a platform for testing whether strategies and tactics are correct. In developing people’s war strategies and tactics, special attention should be paid to the use of simulations, exercises and other war pre-practice methods, qualitative and quantitative analysis should be conducted, and further improvements should be made in practice.

繁體中文:

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術

■李銀祥 宋文超

引言

習主席在黨的二十大報告中明確指出,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術。回望人民軍隊強軍制勝的光輝歷程,貫穿其中的一條紅線,就是始終堅持在黨的領導下,提出和實施一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術。打贏未來戰爭,必須緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,趙續傳承好我軍優良傳統,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,讓克敵制勝的法寶顯威現代戰場。

人民戰爭戰略戰術始終是我軍克敵制勝的重要法寶

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,既是對我軍克敵制勝內在規律的深刻洞察,也是對強國強軍的高遠謀劃,對於如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標,加快把人民軍隊建成世界一流軍隊具有重要的戰略價值。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術的集中體現。馬克思主義認為,人民是歷史的創造者,是推動歷史進步的決定性力量。人民戰爭戰略戰術從這個基本觀點和根本立場出發,深刻闡釋了兵民是勝利之本,戰爭勝負的決定因素是人不是物,以及必須組織、動員和武裝廣大人民群眾等人民戰爭的基本原理。我軍在戰火中誕生,面對異常殘酷的客觀條件,以毛澤東同志為代表的中國共產黨人,堅持把馬克思主義人民戰爭基本原理與中國革命戰爭實際相結合,創造了以靈活機動為顯著特點的人民戰爭的戰略戰術,其精髓是“你打你的、我打我的”,旨在力求揚長擊短,奪取和掌握戰爭主動權。這集中體現了馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術,閃爍著科學性、人民性、實踐性和發展開放性的真理光芒。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是黨領導全部軍事鬥爭實踐的勝利密碼。我們黨締造人民軍隊以來,立基於敵強我弱,敵大我小的殘酷現實,創立了一整套人民戰爭的戰略戰術。從紅軍時期的“十六字訣”,到抗日戰爭時期的“持久戰”,從解放戰爭時期的“十大軍事原則”,到抗美援朝戰爭時期的“零敲牛皮糖”,再到新中國成立後軍事戰略方針的不斷調整。人民軍隊從戰爭中學習戰爭,從實踐中探索規律,與時俱進地堅持和發展這個制勝密碼,戰爭年代創造了一個又一個以少勝多、以弱勝強的戰爭奇蹟,和平時期堅決捍衛國家主權、安全和領土完整,在世界軍事史上書寫了戰爭指導藝術不斷創新的光輝篇章。

積極發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是全面建成世界一流軍隊的內在要求。 「凡國之重也,必待兵之勝也。」衡量一支軍隊是不是世界一流軍隊,最終要看其軍事實力。人民戰爭戰略戰術既是我軍的致勝之道,也是發展壯大之道。加速建成世界一流軍隊、建構強大的戰略威懾體系,必須堅持發展這一特有優勢,加強對手研究、敵情研究,前瞻認識現代戰爭特徵規律與致勝機理,與時俱進創新人民戰爭戰略戰術,堅定靈活進行軍事鬥爭,充分發揮軍事力量塑造安全態勢,遏止危機衝突,贏得局部戰爭的戰略功能,實際完成好黨和人民賦予的新時代使命任務。

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是我軍打贏未來戰爭的必然選擇。戰爭形態加速演變,但戰爭的本質沒有變,戰爭偉力之最深厚根源存在於民眾之中這一根本規律沒有改變。我們未來面對的戰爭,主要是捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰爭,符合全體中國人民的根本利益,是順應時代潮流的正義之舉,必將繼續得到最廣大人民群眾和世界人民的支持。堅持並發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必將成為我軍打贏未來戰爭、制衡強敵的重要途徑和必然選擇。

科學掌握人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的時代內涵

人民戰爭戰略戰術,是活的理論和實踐,不是死板的教條,必須主動順應時代發展要求,注入新的時代內涵,才能保持強大旺盛的生命力。

堅持正義戰爭,建立最廣泛的統一戰線,打好政治軍事仗。注重從政治高度指導戰爭,夯實制勝的政治基礎,是黨奪取戰爭勝利的基本經驗,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術的核心要義。在當今時代,軍事和政治的聯繫更加緊密,在戰略層面的相關性和整體性日益增強,政治因素對戰爭的影響和限制日益突出。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必須始終堅持黨中央統攬全局、協調各方的作用,動員、團結、組織最廣大人民參與、支持戰爭;增強政治功能和組織功能,強化全黨全軍全國人民應對戰爭、打贏戰爭的思想準備、組織準備、意志準備;加強政治外交和國際輿論法理鬥爭,形成支持正義戰爭的最廣泛統一戰線,牢牢佔領道義制高點,發揮政治攻勢和武裝打擊的綜合效能,統籌打好政治軍事仗。

堅持積極防禦,突顯積極性,重視攻勢作戰。積極防禦是人民戰爭的產物,實行積極防禦是人民戰爭戰略戰術的根本要求。未來戰爭進程加快,可能一場戰役或戰鬥就能達成戰略目的,往往是首戰即決戰。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要堅持將防禦、反攻和進攻有機結合,更加強調戰略層次的內外線反擊,在戰爭伊始就綜合運用精銳作戰力量,實施內外線結合、堅決凌厲的戰略反擊,形成高壓反擊態勢與壓力,盡量打痛打怕敵人,達到以攻助防、後發先至,速戰制敵、盡快遏制、打贏戰爭的戰略目的。

堅持非對稱制衡,你打你的,我打我的,以能擊不能。這是人民戰爭戰略戰術的靈魂和精髓,是對戰爭規律和戰爭指導規律的高度概括和生動描述,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰體系龐大、節點眾多,存在許多易受攻擊的“命門”,為實施“以能擊不能”提供了契機。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,充分認清資訊化智能化戰爭本身的固有弱點,深入研究對手的軟肋和死穴,創新核心作戰概念,加緊鍛造新域新質作戰能力手段,錘鍊降維打擊、非對稱打擊等戰法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在「以能擊不能」中創造新的致勝優勢。

堅持積小勝為大勝,善於集中力量打殲滅戰。我軍在革命戰爭中長期處於全局的劣勢地位,局部上以強對弱、積小勝為大勝,是戰勝強敵的關鍵一招。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰往往在多維多域中展開,為實施「積小勝為大勝」提供了更加廣闊空間。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要強化「貌散而神聚,形散而力合」的概念,將分佈在多維戰場的諸多作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,透過效能融合、即時聚優,實施局部快速聚能攻擊、廣域遊擊襲擾,對敵分佈的要點實施殲滅性打擊、破壞性襲擊,這既有重錘效應,又能不斷消耗敵人,使對手逐步喪失戰場主動權。

堅持兵民是勝利之本,鞏固提高一體化國家戰略體系和能力。軍隊打勝仗,人民是靠山。建軍開始,我們黨就把革命戰爭視為群眾的鬥爭,強調只有動員和依靠群眾才能進行戰爭,並創造了一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術,這是人民軍隊立於不敗之地的製勝密碼。在資訊化智能化條件下的對抗,更鮮明地表現為以國家整體實力為基礎的體系對抗。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要不斷鞏固提升一體化國家戰略體系與能力,在政治、軍事、經濟、文化、外交等多維度全面發力,建構起既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力,陷敵於人民戰爭的汪洋大海。

大力推動新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的發展創新

新時代,人民戰爭戰略戰術的內涵發生了很大變化,必須加強黨的集中統一領導,加強實踐根本宗旨,加強科技創新驅動,加強模擬演訓檢驗,才能匯聚起創新發展的前行力量。

加強黨的集中統一領導,匯聚人民戰爭戰略戰術磅礴偉力。黨的領導是中國特色社會主義制度的最大優勢,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術得以體現和實施的重要保證。必須堅持黨的領導,把人民整體動員起來、組織起來。積極探索金融戰、網路戰、認知域作戰等領域的人民戰爭戰略戰術。適時組織人民群眾進行情報戰、襲擾戰、伏擊戰等,靈活牽制、消耗敵人。

加強實踐根本宗旨,夯實人民戰爭戰略戰術發展根基。人民戰爭的致勝奧秘,就在於它真心實意地為群眾謀利益,贏得了廣大人民群眾的信賴和支持。全心全意為人民服務是我軍的根本宗旨,也是新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的戰略根基。人民軍隊必須站穩人民立場,始終堅持人民至上,緊緊依靠人民,不斷造福人民,牢牢植根人民,永葆人民軍隊性質、宗旨、本色。

加強科技創新驅動,增強人民戰爭戰略戰術發展動力。隨著人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等高新技術進入軍事領域,戰爭的科技含量已發生質的飛躍,必須創新發展以資訊化智慧化技術為支撐的人民戰爭戰略戰術,持續推進機械化資訊化智慧融合發展,創新創造“以能擊不能”的“密鑰”,讓“智勝”成為新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的主要特徵,形成具有時代性引領性獨特性的新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術。

加強模擬演訓檢驗,提升人民戰爭戰略戰術發展質效。資訊時代,利用虛擬實境技術可基於實際的戰場環境,以及任務背景創造具有較強立體感和真實感的虛擬場景,官兵在戰爭開始前就可以在虛擬實境中數次「親歷」戰爭,加強對裝備性能、敵我情況、戰爭節奏等真實戰場的了解,這就給戰略戰術正確與否提供了檢驗平台。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,應特別重視運用模擬、演習等戰爭預實踐手段,對其進行定性與定量分析,並在實踐中進一步加以完善。

解放軍原文參考:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4926056.html

軍隊要突顯「高品質」、實現「提速」——軍隊代表探討加速國防和軍隊建設高品質發展

Chinese Military Ordered to Emphasize “High Quality” and Achieve “Acceleration” – Military representatives discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建文 岳雨彤 責任編輯:葉夢圓 2024-03-05 08:12:20

繁體中文國語:

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”

——軍隊代表和委員討論加速國防和軍隊建設高品質發展

■解放軍報記者 李建文 岳雨桐

萬裡征途正酣,我們又一年追夢。

全國兩會開幕時,軍隊代表反覆提到兩個字:一是“高品質”,二是“加速”。

高品質發展是全面建構社會主義現代化國家的首要任務。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,加速把人民軍隊建設成為世界一流軍隊,是全面建設社會主義現代化國家的戰略要求。

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”。 軍隊代表表示,國防和軍隊現代化建設,只有把高品質發展放在首位,加強創新突破,轉變發展理念,創新發展模式,增強發展動力,才能抓住窗口期,加快推進國防和軍隊現代化建設。 ,確保建軍百年奮鬥目標如期實現。

把握新時代的硬道理

2023年,中國創新動力與發展活力將迸發。 C919大型飛機實現商業飛行、國產大型郵輪完成試航、「神舟」家族太空接力、「奮鬥號」極限深潛…

紮實推動高品質發展,創新驅動累積發展動能,美麗中國走向「新」。 軍隊代表一致認為,高品質發展是新時代硬道理。 國防和軍隊現代化作為國家現代化的重要組成部分,必須積極落實高品質發展要求,確保國防和軍隊現代化進程與國家現代化進程一致、軍事能力與國家戰略需求一致。

目前,實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標已進入攻堅克難期和壓力增大的衝刺期。 軍隊代表深刻體認到,發展速度太慢,品質低落。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,很大程度取決於轉變發展理念、創新發展模式、增強發展動力。 只有清醒認識“硬道理”,自覺推動高品質發展,真正把發展方式轉向系統化、內涵式發展,才能推動我軍建設發展品質變革、效率變革、動力變革,不斷提高軍隊建設發展水平。國防和軍隊現代化品質。 益處。

推動我軍高品質發展,必須牢固樹立「五個聚焦」戰略引領。 多位軍隊代表表示,「五個更加聚焦」為新時代我軍建設確立了戰略指導,明確了發展方向、發展動力、發展方式、發展模式、發展路徑。 我們必須糾正一切不符合實戰要求的思想行為,加大創新對戰鬥力增長的貢獻,提高我軍體係作戰能力,提高國防和軍隊建設的精準度,鞏固提高一體化的國家戰略體系和能力。

「一切為了打仗,一切為了勝利。我軍高品質發展必須圍繞著能打仗、打勝仗。」 高高強代表表示,軍隊的主要職責是備戰,發展理念要指向戰鬥力建設,最終要落到全面提高打贏能力方面,推動高水平打仗。 ——高質量發展,戰鬥力躍升。

先進的思想造就現代化的軍隊; 創新理念,成就輝煌發展。 “近年來,我們強化作戰需求牽引,上高原、下海洋、跨界飛行,系統訓練、系統訓練已成為新常態。” 談起身邊的變化,郝景文代表感慨萬千,“實戰化、創新化、系統化、集約化、融合化這樣的新理念正在融入國防和軍隊建設的方方面面、全過程。”

「在過去的日子裡

多年來,我們堅持打仗、備戰、建設並舉,戰建備一體化的良好局面取得了可喜成果。 徐安祥代表表示,黨的二十大報告提出“堅持打仗、備戰”,“邊防建設”不僅是有效履行人民軍隊使命任務的必然要求新時代,也是推動我軍高質量發展、實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標的科學決策。

軍隊各項工作必須以備戰為中心,把高品質發展實際落實到我軍建設全過程各領域。 多位陸軍代表表示,近年來,陸軍深化戰備政治工作體系建設,加強認知作戰、人才保障等實際問題研究,嵌入演練訓練,創新戰時政治工作模式,並改善服務和準備。 獲勝貢獻率。

深化改革創新需要動力

只有改革者前進,只有創新者強大,只有改革者創新者勝利。

指揮體系精幹高效,規模結構不斷優化,聯合作戰訓練開創新局面,政策制度更加完善……全軍代表們深切感受到,全面實施以來,改革強軍戰略的實施,人民軍隊加快實現「新體制時代」破繭蝶變。

這種情況是令人欣慰和鼓舞的。 “改革創新是我軍發展的強大動力,推動高品質發展,必須用改革創新的方法研究解決問題。” 張紅星代表表示,適應世界軍事發展趨勢和我軍戰略能力發展需要,必須堅持國防和軍事改革深入推進,堅持推動國防和軍隊高質量發展以改革創新精神,使我軍建設發展和戰鬥力生成模式盡快轉向創新驅動發展軌道。

“只有不斷改革創新,才能不斷獲得發展進步的活力。” 劉偉代表表示,我軍的發展史也是一部改革創新史。 面對世界新軍事革命的嚴峻挑戰和難得機遇,我們必須堅持把創新放在我軍總體建設發展的核心位置,依靠科技進步和創新提高軍隊素質和戰鬥力。軍隊。

“作為親歷者,我切身感受到近年來軍隊科技創新能力的快速提升。” 吳德偉特派員表示,近年來,他們加強關鍵核心技術研究,推動先進科技加速轉化為戰鬥力。

科技創新是高品質發展的核心動力。 有各軍兵種軍隊代表表示,近年來,全軍大力推動訓練轉型升級,探索「科技+」、「網路+」等訓練方法與手段,推動新裝備融合發展。把新力量、新領域納入系統培養,加速新素質戰鬥力生成提高。

高品質發展依賴創新,創新的基礎在於人才。 軍學院和科學研究單位代表表示,要深入貫徹新時代軍事教育方針,實施大學優先發展戰略,深化軍事教育改革創新,完善「三化」建設。— 建立新的軍事人才培育體系,提高備戰打仗人才供給能力和供給能力。 等級。

以高水準治理推動整體提升

目前,加快我軍戰略能力形成是硬核任務,必須立足全局規劃領域,融入備戰體系,聚焦核心,分解能力指標,繪製任務地圖,制定時間表,逐節點推進,一一解決疑難問題,確保論文

都按時交了,如期返崗了。」張東旭代表說。

實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,有明確的政治方向、戰略方向、實踐方向,根本是提升捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。 多位軍隊代表表示,改革重塑後,軍隊力量更加多元化、要素更加多元、運作更加複雜。 加速建立健全適應資訊化戰爭和履行使命任務要求的新型管理模式,提高國防資源使用效率,提高軍隊建設和使用效率。

戰略管理作為國防和軍隊建設的最高層管理,是管全局、管長遠、管大事的宏觀管理活動。 它從頂層規劃和設計軍事資源的投入。 軍隊代表表示,加強戰略管理是軍隊管理的樞紐,是推動我軍高品質發展的關鍵。

國家因治而興,軍隊因治而興。 黨的二十大報告提出“全面加強治軍”,體現了我們黨對新時代軍隊建設和管理規律的深刻把握。 「這幾年,我們著力解決基層官兵的各種急、難、急問題,把官兵的煩惱變成暖心的事。」 軍隊代表表示,基層是軍隊一切工作和戰鬥力的基礎,全面加強軍隊治理必須始終堅持依靠基層、建設強基層的寶貴經驗,不斷釋放基層治理活力。

軍事治理根本上就是製度治理。 軍事制度越完善,制度執行得越有力,軍事治理就越有效。 袁偉代表表示,近年來,不斷推動軍事政策和體制改革,著力把戰爭、建設、準備等各項治理活動納入法治軌道,堅持依法管理和科學治理相統一,增強軍隊建設管理的科學性、有效性。 性別。

春天的陽光灑滿大地,戰爭的號角在耳邊迴響。 軍隊代表紛紛表示,要堅持把高品質發展放在第一位,強化如期交出歷史答案卷的使命,加快推進新時代強軍鬥爭,全力以赴打好攻堅戰為實現建軍百年奮鬥目標而奮鬥。

(解放軍報北京3月4日電)

外文音譯:

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”

——Army representatives and members discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

■People’s Liberation Army Daily reporter Li Jianwen and Yue Yutong

The journey of thousands of miles is going strong, and we are pursuing our dreams for another year.

At the opening of the National Two Sessions, two words were repeatedly mentioned by military representatives: one is “high quality” and the other is “acceleration.”

High-quality development is the primary task of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army are strategic requirements for comprehensively building a modern socialist country.

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”. Representatives of the military have stated that in the modernization of national defense and the military, only by putting high-quality development first, strengthening innovative breakthroughs, changing development concepts, innovating development models, and enhancing development momentum can we seize the window period, accelerate, and ensure The centenary goal of the founding of the army was achieved as scheduled.

Grasp the hard truth of the new era

In 2023, China’s innovation power and development vitality will surge forward. The C919 large aircraft has achieved commercial flight, the domestic large-scale cruise ship has completed its trial voyage, the “Shenzhou” family space relay, the “Struggle” extreme deep dive…

High-quality development is solidly promoted, innovation drives the accumulation of development momentum, and Beautiful China moves towards “newness”. Military representatives unanimously believe that high-quality development is the last word in the new era. As an important part of national modernization, national defense and military modernization must actively implement high-quality development requirements to ensure that the national defense and military modernization process is consistent with the national modernization process, and military capabilities are consistent with national strategic needs.

At present, the realization of the 100-year goal of the founding of the army has entered a critical period of hard work and a sprint period of increasing pressure. The military representatives are deeply aware that development is too slow, let alone low quality. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled depends largely on changes in development concepts, innovation in development models, and enhancement of development momentum. Only by consciously promoting high-quality development with a clear understanding of “hard truth” and truly shifting the development model to systematic and connotative development can we promote quality changes, efficiency changes, and motivation changes in our military’s construction and development, and continuously improve the quality of national defense and military modernization. benefit.

To promote the high-quality development of our military, we must firmly establish the strategic guidance of “Five More Focuses”. Many military representatives said that the “Five More Focuses” have established strategic guidance for the construction of our military in the new era, clarifying the development direction, development motivation, development methods, development models, and development paths. We must correct all thoughts and behaviors that are inconsistent with actual combat requirements, increase the contribution of innovation to the growth of combat effectiveness, improve the combat capabilities of our military system, improve the accuracy of national defense and military development, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities.

“Everything is for fighting, everything is for victory. The high-quality development of our army must focus on being able to fight and win wars.” Representative Gao Gaoqiang said that the main responsibility of the army is to prepare for war, and the development concept should be directed towards the construction of combat effectiveness, which should ultimately fall to In terms of comprehensively improving the ability to win, we will promote high-quality development with a jump in combat effectiveness.

Advanced ideas lead to a modern military; innovative ideas lead to brilliant development. “In recent years, we have strengthened the traction of combat needs, going to plateaus, going to the ocean, and flying across borders. System training and system training have become the new normal.” Talking about the changes around him, Representative Hao Jingwen was filled with emotion, “Actual combat, innovation, system, intensiveness, and integration Such new concepts are being incorporated into all aspects and the entire process of national defense and military construction.”

“In the past few years, we have insisted on fighting, preparing for war, and building at the same time, and the good situation of integrating war, construction, and preparation has achieved gratifying results.” Representative Xu Anxiang said that the report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “persisting in fighting, preparing for war, and “Border construction” is not only an inevitable requirement for effectively fulfilling the missions and tasks of the People’s Army in the new era, but also a scientific decision to promote the high-quality development of our army and achieve the 100-year goal of the founding of the army.

All work in the military must focus on preparing for war and effectively implement high-quality development into all areas of the entire process of building our military. Several representatives from the Army said that in recent years, the Army has deepened the system construction of political work in preparation for war, strengthened research on practical issues such as cognitive operations and talent support, embedded in exercises and training to innovate wartime political work models, and improved service and preparation. Win contribution rate.

Need motivation to deepen reform and innovation

Only reformers advance, only innovators are strong, and only reformers and innovators win.

The command system is lean and efficient, the scale and structure are constantly optimized, joint combat training has opened up a new situation, and policies and systems have become more perfect… Members of the military representatives deeply feel that since the comprehensive implementation of the strategy of reform and strengthening the military, the people’s army has accelerated its breakthrough in the “new system era” Cocoon butterfly transformation.

The situation is gratifying and inspiring. “Reform and innovation are a powerful driving force for the development of our military. To promote high-quality development, we must use reform and innovation methods to study and solve problems.” Representative Zhang Hongxing said that to adapt to the world’s military development trends and the development needs of our military’s strategic capabilities, we must persist in The reform of national defense and the military is advancing in depth, and we insist on promoting high-quality development in the spirit of reform and innovation, so that our military’s construction and development and combat effectiveness generation model can be shifted to the track of innovation-driven development as soon as possible.

“Only through continuous reform and innovation can we continue to gain vitality for development and progress.” Representative Liu Wei said that the development history of our army is also a history of reform and innovation. Facing the severe challenges and rare opportunities of the world’s new military revolution, we must insist on placing innovation at the core of the overall construction and development of our military, and rely on scientific and technological progress and innovation to improve the quality and combat effectiveness of the military.

“As a witness, I personally feel the rapid improvement of the military’s scientific and technological innovation capabilities in recent years.” Commissioner Wu Dewei said that in recent years, they have strengthened research on key core technologies and promoted the accelerated transformation of advanced science and technology into combat effectiveness.

Technological innovation is the core driving force for high-quality development. Some military representatives from various services and arms said that in recent years, the entire military has vigorously promoted the transformation and upgrading of training, explored training methods and means such as “technology +” and “network +”, promoted the integration of new equipment, new forces and new fields into system training, and accelerated new Quality combat effectiveness generation is improved.

High-quality development relies on innovation, and the foundation of innovation lies in talents. Military representatives from military academies and scientific research units said that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the military education policy of the new era, implement the priority development strategy of colleges and universities, deepen the reform and innovation of military education, improve the three-in-one new military talent training system, and improve the supply capacity and supply of talent for war preparation and fighting. level.

Use high-level governance to promote overall improvement

“Currently, accelerating the formation of strategic capabilities of our military is a hard-core task. We must base ourselves on the overall situation to plan a domain, integrate into the system to prepare for war, focus on core priorities, decompose capability indicators, draw a mission map, formulate a timetable, and advance node by node, one by one Solve difficult problems to ensure that papers are handed in on time and returned to work as scheduled.” Representative Zhang Dongxu said.

“Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army contains clear political, strategic and practical directions. The fundamental thing is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security and development interests.” Many military representatives said that after the reform and reshaping , the military strength is more diverse, the elements are more diverse, and the operation is more complex. We should speed up the establishment and improvement of a new management model that adapts to information warfare and the requirements of fulfilling missions and tasks, improve the efficiency of the use of national defense resources, and improve the efficiency of military force construction and use.

As the highest-level management of national defense and military construction, strategic management is a macro-management activity that manages the overall situation, long-term management, and major events. It plans and designs the investment of military resources from the top level. Military representatives said that strengthening strategic management is the hub of military management and the key to promoting the high-quality development of our military.

A country thrives on governance, and an army thrives on governance. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “comprehensively strengthening military governance”, which reflects our party’s profound grasp of the laws of military building and management in the new era. “In the past few years, we have focused on solving various urgent, difficult and anxious problems of officers and soldiers at the grassroots level, and turning the troubles of officers and soldiers into heart-warming things.” The representative of the army said that the grassroots level is the foundation of all the work and combat effectiveness of the army, and comprehensively strengthening military governance must always be Persist in relying on the valuable experience of grassroots and building strong grassroots, and constantly release the vitality of grassroots governance.

Military governance is fundamentally the governance of systems. The more perfect the military system is and the more powerful the system is implemented, the more effective military governance will be. Representative Yuan Wei said that in recent years, the continuous advancement of military policy and system reforms has focused on integrating various governance activities of war, construction, and preparation into the rule of law, adhering to the unification of legal management and scientific governance, and enhancing the scientific and effective nature of military construction management. sex.

The spring sunshine fills the earth, and the horn of war echoes in the ears. Representatives of the armed forces have expressed that they must insist on putting high-quality development first, strengthen the mission of handing in historical answers as scheduled, accelerate the struggle to strengthen the army in the new era, and go all out to fight the tough battle to achieve the centenary goal of the founding of the army.

(People’s Liberation Army Daily, Beijing, March 4)

中國國防部資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/qwfb/16290903.html

中國軍事史<2005>中華人民共和國的新軍事變革

Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation

繁體中文:

迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。

裁軍20萬

 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。


 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。

附:前九次裁軍資料

 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。

科技練兵

 2003年,中國軍隊和武警部隊圓滿完成了年度訓練任務,在理論創新、實戰演練、反恐訓練、人才培養、從嚴治訓等5個方面取得新成果。

 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。

 三、依據國家賦予軍隊反恐怖鬥爭新的軍事任務,擔負反恐怖任務的部隊紮實進行反恐怖軍事鬥爭研究和訓練實踐。

 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。

 五、軍隊堅持依法治訓,嚴格依綱施訓,大力進行崗位練兵活動,契約戰術演練品質提高,部隊正規化訓練水準不斷提高。

部隊改革

 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。

 6月中旬,經中央軍委批准,解放軍總政治部就認真貫徹中共中央通知精神,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮提出意見。

 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。

後勤支援

     軍隊後勤工作堅持以「三個代表」重要想法統攬各項建設,按照積極推進中國特色軍事變革的要求,加大改革創新力度,加快發展步伐,後勤建設取得顯著成績。

     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。

住房制度日趨完善

     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。

基層幹部住宅建設明顯加快

     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。

軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼

     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。

全軍99%以上的醫院實現資訊化管理

     根據解放軍總後勤部相關部門介紹,至2003年底,除駐西藏等偏遠地區的4所軍隊醫院外,全軍99%以上的醫院已實現資訊化管理,取得了顯著的效益。

     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。

首次派遣高級專家團赴駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊

     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。

武器裝備

     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.


    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.


    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.

Weaponry

    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.

中國政府資料來源:https://www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/28/content_10531.htm

中國軍方智能通信任務:認知域作戰的重要領域

Chinese Military Mandate of Intelligent Communication: An Important Field of Cognitive Domain Operations

Original Mandarin Chinese:

要點提示

●智能傳播環境下,人不斷“吸收”信息成為媒介的延伸,媒介逐漸變成具有“主體能動性的人”。人機雙方實現了循環交替與即時交互,使認知攻防呈現出不間斷、常態化的特徵。

●智能傳播能夠全維全時全域塑造用戶與信息之間的關系,使輿論引導、觀念塑造和行為導控變得更加便捷,日益成為“控腦武器”,並逐步發展出一整套認知操縱的實踐手法。

隨著智能媒介和平台技術的快速發展,智能傳播逐漸實現了智能技術與傳播媒體的跨界融合應用,不僅極大改變了信息的生產樣式和傳播方式,也深刻影響著人類的思維邏輯和價值觀念。智能傳播為影響認知、主導認知、顛覆認知等提供了強力支撐和廣闊空間,正在引發認知域作戰的迭代升級和深刻變革。釐清智能傳播作用於認知攻防的機理手段,對於借助智能傳播創新認知域作戰戰法具有重要意義。

智能傳播作用認知域的特點

智能傳播是將大數據、雲計算、機器學習、虛擬現實等技術應用於信息生產與傳播的活動。智能傳播能夠持續塑造和深入誘導目標對象的價值取向與行為思辨,日益成為認知攻防的全新平台和重要場域。

萬物泛在互聯。隨著智能傳播的發展演進,人與人、人與物、物與物都將被連接起來,任何智能終端都可以成為用戶接收信息的工具和平台投放內容的渠道,並且推送能力更加強大,分發場景也更為廣泛。受此影響,傳播平台的作用不再是純粹的信息輸出,對傳播內容甚至對人的思維、行為以及各種關系的塑造能力也將越來越突出。智能傳播可以深度介入並促進人際交往、數據交互和信息交換,無形之中使得認知域作戰空間、參戰力量類型得到極大拓展,同時還實現了對公眾思維認知、生產交往的全方位操控。 “萬物泛在互聯”的持續演進,使一切物體都可能成為媒介實現信息傳播的工具,信息也不再受到維域的限制,認知對抗的主體無處不在、空間廣為擴展。

虛實雜糅互構。在智能技術賦能的多元傳播格局下,無論是文字、圖片,還是聲音、影像等產品形態,均可輕而易舉地被偽造並大肆擴散。隨著深度偽造技術的迭代演化,其生產內容能夠以無限接近真實的形式呈現給廣大受眾,極易影響公眾對某一議題、事件、對象的態度立場。同時,由代碼和算法驅動的社交機器人,可以通過提取關鍵信息、點贊轉發評論等進行“噴灌式”傳播,從而不斷擴散假情況、假信息以混淆輿論視聽,加劇公眾對信息的非理性、情緒化反應,進而操縱認知走向。信息傳播真中有偽、真偽混雜,這種真實與虛假雜糅互構的狀態,極易引發群體信任撕裂,使認知攻防的狀況愈加復雜難控。

人機雙向互動。智能媒介既不斷豐富著信息的輸入輸出方式,也日益模糊了人與媒介原本清晰的界限。其不僅可以簡單地執行用戶指令,還可以根據傳播效果給予更多回饋。長此以往,公眾便可能潛移默化地視其為外接“大腦”,無意識地受其影響。在技術的支撐下,智能媒介還可以獲得類似人的感知、運算甚至情感智能,借助人機交互反向影響用戶的思維方式,通過算法推薦塑造用戶的行為取向。智能傳播環境下,人不斷“吸收”信息成為媒介的延伸,媒介逐漸變成具有“主體能動性的人”。人機雙方實現了循環交替與即時交互,使認知攻防呈現出不間斷、常態化的特徵。

智能傳播作用認知域的機理

當前,智能傳播已經成為主導信息內容、控制輿論導向的有效手段,並借助全方位、多感官的媒介系統,由淺入深地調動目標受眾的沉浸體驗和主體意識,進而加深其感知程度、拓寬其認知範圍並影響其價值選擇,逐漸成為進行思想滲透、實施攻心奪志的重要方式。

借助情境浸染施加認知影響。心理學理論認為,受眾身體及其與環境的交互關系在認知活動中發揮著關鍵作用。媒介作為人體之外的人工感應系統,不斷進化的媒介技術能夠改變甚至重塑感知方式。智能媒介可以將不能同時出現在相同時空的復雜信息,進行疊加合並或仿真模擬,從而最大程度地還原信息的本來面貌,為公眾提供視覺、聽覺、觸覺等沉浸式的感官體驗。如此一來,傳播效果越來越呈現出沉浸式趨勢,智能傳播使信息以更具立體感、時空感和震撼感的方式,直擊目標受眾的感官通道,並由此催生“感官觸碰-心理觸動-情感共鳴”的一系列鏈式反應,藉以實現對其在生理層面的感知影響和操控。

通過虛擬映射影響認知走向。智能設備的發展與普及,提高了人的“可量化度”與“可跟蹤性”,這些設備有些存在於外部環境,但未來也會越來越多地與人的身體形成密不可分的關系。得益於此,可以將受眾的行為、活動、身體狀態等以多種維度映射在虛擬世界裡。一旦人們可以通過“虛擬實體”真實體驗認知的過程及其所在的環境,認知域與認知語境的關系,便不再割裂為虛擬和現實兩種維度。在此過程中,作為受眾,既被增強,即獲得新的感知覺體驗,實現認知活動的自由延展;同時也被約束,即被數字化映射的個體,更容易被他人洞察和操控。

運用人機融合強化認知幹預。當前,社交機器人可以通過捕捉用戶情感動態、分析信息內容及結構的方式,形塑一個類人的交流對象,推動傳播主體由“人”轉向“人機共生”。基於用戶身份和實時互動,社交機器人能在一定程度上影響公眾的思考習慣和行為模式,在傳播虛假信息、操縱公共輿論、進行社會動員、煽動公眾情緒等方面效果顯著。隨著技術的不斷完善,社交機器人的形象將會更加豐富、具有質感,甚至可以模仿人類的情緒。前段時間,基於生成式AI的ChatGPT,其生成的數據、信息等更容易被用戶信任和接納,對思維認知的影響更直接、更有效,可以在潛移默化中改變用戶的意識,隱秘而持續地建構用戶的認知框架。

智能傳播作用認知域的手段

智能傳播能夠全維全時全域塑造用戶與信息之間的關系,使輿論引導、觀念塑造和行為導控變得更加便捷,日益成為“控腦武器”,並逐步發展出一整套認知操縱的實踐手法。

製造信息迷霧,攻擊認知黑洞。智能傳播環境下,深度偽造信息混淆了存在與虛無、現實與虛擬以及記憶與遺忘的界限,能夠用以扭曲事實真相、左右輿論流向,進而達到影響認知走向、強化認知幹預的目的。特別是以社交機器人為代表的智能程序具備自動識別、智能應答甚至類腦思考的能力,並且不知疲憊、全時無休,能夠以大規模、多渠道、高速度、強頻率的方式對公眾進行信息轟炸,形成高強度思維認知壓迫。一旦虛假意見或者偽造事件形成輿論環境,將極大地壓縮個體的反應時間,受眾不僅難以進行深度思考,還容易在從眾心理的驅使之下,產生從不相信到相信、從不接受到接受、從不認同到認同的質變,進而營造出虛假的集體認同,將目標對象引入預設的議題陷阱。

實施靶向攻心,構建認知繭房。信息化智能化時代,公眾對事物的認知受到無處不在的各類推送信息的潛在影響。外軍認為,通過掌握目標對象的上網痕跡、購物記錄、社交狀態等情況,能夠迅速採集不同維度、不同層級、不同模態的認知數據,為高效掌握其價值觀念、輿論立場等提供支撐。在精準繪制認知圖景的基礎上,能夠發現目標對象認知體系的疑點、弱點和需求點,可以按其思維偏好設定內容主題、敘事方式和話語框架。繼而或選定具有相似理解語境、相同情感特質的群體,或選定易受影響、具有較大影響價值的特定個體,通過有選擇性地推薦和有針對性地過濾,差異化、分眾化投送相關信息。借助內容定向投送和渠道精準攻擊,能夠對目標對象進行靶向攻心和持續影響,有效固化其信息接受範圍,不斷削弱其獨立思考能力,致使其陷入認知繭房和思維定式,甚至強制地改變其決策意圖和行動部署。

滲透心理裂隙,擊潰情感堤防。不同於以往的傳播手段,智能傳播可以構建身臨其境式的虛擬環境,在使用戶感覺空間和感覺維度得以拓展的同時,也天然附帶強烈的感官刺激和感性認知偏向,磨損著用戶的理性認知水平與價值判斷能力。受眾在感知事件真相時將更加受制於感性的影響,要想撬動認知就特別需要倚重感性爭取。或是用絢爛的景觀吸引人,或是以娛樂的場景誘惑人,或是靠恐怖的場景震懾人,借助可觸可感可交互的智能傳播營造出極具欺騙性、迷惑性、煽動性的信息場景,強烈刺激用戶的心理感受,使其深陷其中而不自知。一旦陷入情感浸潤和場景浸染中,就可以利用共通情感、共同價值來進行情緒煽動或加以道德裹挾,摧毀其情感依賴,破壞其價值支撐,進而震撼、佔據甚至極化目標對象心智。

(作者單位:國防大學國家安全學院)

●Under the intelligent communication environment, people continue to “absorb” information and become the extension of the media, and the media gradually become “persons with the initiative”. Both man and machine have achieved cyclic alternation and real-time interaction, making cognitive attack and defense present uninterrupted and normalized features.

●Intelligent communication can shape the relationship between users and information in all dimensions, all time and all domains, making public opinion guidance, concept shaping, and behavior guidance more convenient. It has increasingly become a “brain control weapon” and gradually developed a set of cognitive manipulation methods Practical approach.

With the rapid development of intelligent media and platform technology, intelligent communication has gradually realized the cross-border integration and application of intelligent technology and communication media, which has not only greatly changed the production style and communication mode of information, but also profoundly affected human thinking logic and values. . Intelligent communication provides strong support and broad space for influencing cognition, dominating cognition, subverting cognition, etc., and is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain operations. Clarifying the mechanism and means of intelligent communication on cognitive attack and defense is of great significance for innovating combat tactics in the cognitive domain with the help of intelligent communication.

The Characteristics of the Cognitive Domain of Intelligent Communication

Intelligent communication is an activity that applies technologies such as big data, cloud computing, machine learning, and virtual reality to information production and dissemination. Intelligent communication can continuously shape and deeply induce the value orientation and behavioral speculation of the target audience, and has increasingly become a new platform and important field for cognitive attack and defense.

Everything is ubiquitously connected. With the development and evolution of intelligent communication, people and people, people and things, and things and things will all be connected. Any smart terminal can become a tool for users to receive information and a channel for the platform to deliver content, and the push capability is more powerful. The scene is also wider. Affected by this, the role of the communication platform is no longer pure information output, and its ability to shape the content of communication and even people’s thinking, behavior and various relationships will become more and more prominent. Intelligent communication can deeply intervene and promote interpersonal communication, data interaction and information exchange, which invisibly greatly expands the combat space in the cognitive domain and the types of forces participating in the war. The continuous evolution of “Ubiquitous Internet of Everything” makes it possible for all objects to become a tool for media to realize information dissemination, and information is no longer limited by dimensions. The subject of cognitive confrontation is ubiquitous and the space is widely expanded.

Mixture of fiction and reality. Under the multi-communication pattern empowered by intelligent technology, whether it is text, pictures, sound, video and other product forms, it can be easily forged and spread wantonly. With the iterative evolution of deep forgery technology, its production content can be presented to a wide audience in a form that is infinitely close to reality, which can easily affect the public’s attitude towards a certain issue, event, or object. At the same time, social robots driven by codes and algorithms can carry out “sprinkling” dissemination by extracting key information, liking and forwarding comments, etc., so as to continuously spread false information and false information to confuse public opinion and aggravate the public’s irrationality and dissatisfaction with information. Emotional responses, which in turn manipulate cognitive trends. Information dissemination is true and false, and the true and false are mixed. This state of mixed and interconstructed truth and falsehood can easily lead to a tear in group trust, making the situation of cognitive attack and defense more complicated and difficult to control.

Human-machine two-way interaction. Intelligent media not only continuously enriches the input and output methods of information, but also increasingly blurs the original clear boundary between people and media. It can not only simply execute user instructions, but also give more feedback according to the propagation effect. If things go on like this, the public may subtly regard it as an external “brain” and be influenced by it unconsciously. With the support of technology, intelligent media can also obtain human-like perception, computing, and even emotional intelligence. With the help of human-computer interaction, it can reversely affect the user’s way of thinking, and shape the user’s behavior orientation through algorithm recommendations. In the intelligent communication environment, people continue to “absorb” information and become the extension of the media, and the media gradually become “people with subjective initiative”. Both man and machine have achieved cyclic alternation and real-time interaction, making cognitive attack and defense present uninterrupted and normalized features.

The Mechanism of Intelligence Spreading in the Cognitive Domain

At present, intelligent communication has become an effective means to dominate information content and control the direction of public opinion. With the help of an all-round and multi-sensory media system, it can mobilize the immersive experience and subject consciousness of the target audience from the shallower to the deeper, thereby deepening their perception and broadening their horizons. Its scope of cognition and its influence on its value choices have gradually become an important way to infiltrate thoughts and implement mind-boggling.

Cognitive influence is exerted through situational immersion. According to psychological theory, the audience’s body and its interaction with the environment play a key role in cognitive activities. As an artificial sensory system outside the human body, media technology can change and even reshape the way of perception. Smart media can superimpose and merge or simulate complex information that cannot appear in the same time and space at the same time, so as to restore the original appearance of the information to the greatest extent, and provide the public with immersive sensory experiences such as vision, hearing, and touch. As a result, the communication effect is increasingly showing an immersive trend. Intelligent communication enables information to directly hit the sensory channels of the target audience in a more three-dimensional, time-space and shocking way, thus giving birth to the “sensory touch-psychological A series of chain reactions of “touch-emotional resonance” in order to realize the influence and control of its perception on the physiological level.

Influence cognitive orientation through virtual mapping. The development and popularization of smart devices have improved people’s “quantifiability” and “traceability”. Some of these devices exist in the external environment, but in the future they will increasingly form an inseparable relationship with the human body. Thanks to this, the behavior, activities, and physical status of the audience can be mapped in the virtual world in multiple dimensions. Once people can truly experience the process of cognition and its environment through the “virtual entity”, the relationship between the cognitive domain and the cognitive context will no longer be separated into two dimensions: virtual and real. In this process, as the audience, it is not only enhanced, that is, to obtain a new sensory experience, to realize the free extension of cognitive activities; but also constrained, that is, the individual who is digitally mapped is more likely to be observed and manipulated by others.

Using human-machine fusion to strengthen cognitive intervention. At present, social robots can shape a human-like communication object by capturing users’ emotional dynamics and analyzing information content and structure, and promote the main body of communication from “human” to “human-machine symbiosis”. Based on user identity and real-time interaction, social robots can affect the public’s thinking habits and behavior patterns to a certain extent, and have remarkable effects in spreading false information, manipulating public opinion, conducting social mobilization, and inciting public emotions. With the continuous improvement of technology, the image of social robots will be richer and more textured, and can even imitate human emotions. Some time ago, based on the generative AI ChatGPT, the data and information generated by it are easier to be trusted and accepted by users, and the impact on thinking and cognition is more direct and effective. It can change the user’s consciousness subtly and continuously construct The user’s cognitive framework.

The Means of Intellectual Diffusion in the Cognitive Domain

Intelligent communication can shape the relationship between users and information in all dimensions, time and space, making public opinion guidance, concept shaping, and behavior guidance more convenient. It has increasingly become a “brain control weapon” and gradually developed a set of cognitive manipulation practices. technique.

Create information fog and attack cognitive black holes. Under the environment of intelligent communication, deep fake information confuses the boundaries between existence and nothingness, reality and virtuality, memory and forgetting, and can be used to distort the truth, influence the flow of public opinion, and then achieve the purpose of influencing the direction of cognition and strengthening cognitive intervention. In particular, intelligent programs represented by social robots have the ability of automatic recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. Bombing forms high-intensity thinking and cognitive oppression. Once false opinions or falsified events form a public opinion environment, the individual reaction time will be greatly reduced, and it will be difficult for the audience to think deeply, and it is easy to be driven by the herd mentality, from disbelief to belief, from non-acceptance to acceptance, from The qualitative change from disapproval to identification creates a false collective identity and leads the target audience into the preset issue trap.

Implement targeted attacks and build a cognitive cocoon. In the era of informationization and intelligence, the public’s perception of things is potentially affected by all kinds of ubiquitous push information. The foreign army believes that by grasping the target’s online traces, shopping records, social status, etc., it can quickly collect cognitive data of different dimensions, levels, and modes, and provide support for efficiently grasping its values, public opinion positions, etc. On the basis of accurately drawing the cognitive landscape, it is possible to discover doubts, weaknesses, and needs of the target object’s cognitive system, and to set content themes, narrative methods, and discourse frameworks according to their thinking preferences. Then either select a group with a similar understanding context and the same emotional characteristics, or select a specific individual who is susceptible and has a greater influence value, and through selective recommendation and targeted filtering, differentiated and segmented delivery Related Information. With the help of targeted delivery of content and precise attacks on channels, it can carry out targeted attack and continuous influence on the target object, effectively solidify the scope of their information acceptance, continuously weaken their independent thinking ability, cause them to fall into a cognitive cocoon and mindset, and even forcibly change Its decision-making intention and action deployment.

Penetrate psychological fissures and break down emotional embankments. Different from the previous means of communication, intelligent communication can build an immersive virtual environment. While expanding the user’s sense of space and dimension, it also naturally comes with strong sensory stimulation and perceptual cognitive bias, which wears down the user’s rationality. Cognitive level and value judgment ability. When the audience perceives the truth of the event, they will be more subject to the influence of sensibility. If they want to leverage cognition, they need to rely more on sensibility. Either attract people with gorgeous landscapes, seduce people with entertaining scenes, or frighten people with scary scenes. With the help of tactile, sensible and interactive intelligent communication, it creates a very deceptive, confusing and provocative The information scene strongly stimulates the user’s psychological feelings, making them deeply immersed in it without knowing it. Once immersed in emotional infiltration and scene infiltration, you can use common emotions and common values ​​​​to incite emotions or impose moral coercion, destroy their emotional dependence, destroy their value support, and then shock, occupy, and even polarize the mind of the target object.

(Author unit: National Security College, National Defense University)

Source: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/16217865.html

圖解十八大報告之九:“國防和軍隊現代化建設”

Graphic illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: “National Defense and Military Modernization”

【編者按】:在黨的十八大開幕式上,胡錦濤代表第十七屆中央委員會向大會作了題為《堅定不移沿著中國特色社會主義道路前進,為全面建成小康社會而奮鬥》的報告。

黨的十八大報告旗幟鮮明、思想深刻、求真務實、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新觀點、新部署和新要求,例如“兩個加快”、“三個自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一體”……為了能讓廣大網友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大報告中的要點及精華,本網特從十八大報告的十二部分中擷取了典型“關鍵詞”,每天一期,連續推出,供網友學習參考。

键词:富国 军民融合式发展。十八大报告提出“走中国特色军民融合式发展路子,坚持富国和强军相统一”, 明确了建设巩固国防和强大军队是我国现代化建设的战略任务。同时也进一步明确了国防和军队建设在中国特色社会主义事业总体布局中的地位,指引国防和军队建设步入着力提升国家战略能力、与国家经济社会建设同步发展的轨道。

□ 相关新

高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Key words: “Prosperous country and strong military-civilian integrated development” . The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward “taking the path of military-civilian integration with Chinese characteristics, and insisting on the unity of rich country and strong military”, and it is clear that building and consolidating national defense and a strong military is a strategic task for China’s modernization drive. At the same time, it has further clarified the status of national defense and army building in the overall layout of the socialist cause with Chinese characteristics, and guided national defense and army building on the track of focusing on improving national strategic capabilities and developing in sync with the country’s economic and social construction.

□  Related news:

HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Illustrated one of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Five in One of Scientific Development

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Three Adhere to Three Advocate the Rule of Virtue

Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

【编者按】:在党的十八大开幕式上,胡锦涛代表第十七届中央委员会向大会作了题为《坚定不移沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进,为全面建成小康社会而奋斗》的报告。

党的十八大报告旗帜鲜明、思想深刻、求真务实、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新观点、新部署和新要求,例如“两个加快”、“三个自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一体”……为了能让广大网友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大报告中的要点及精华,本网特从十八大报告的十二部分中撷取了典型“关键词”,每天一期,连续推出,供网友学习参考。

键词:高度关注三个空安全。党的十八大报告强调要高度关注海洋、太空、网络空间安全,这对我们加强军事战略指导、维护国家安全提出了新的要求。海洋是国际交往的大通道和人类可持续发展的战略资源宝库,当今世界正在兴起新一轮海洋开发浪潮;太空是国际战略竞争新的制高点,太空军事优势对现代战争进程和结局具有决定性影响;网络空间是信息时代的基本标志,正在成为影响国家安全和发展的新兴战略领域,成为渗透、影响甚至决定其他作战空间的重要作战空间。我们要充分认清海洋、太空、网络空间安全形势,加强海洋、太空、网络空间安全问题研究,抓好相关力量和手段建设,为维护国家利益提供有力的战略支撑。

□ 相关新

高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Keywords: Highly concerned about the safety of the “three spaces” . The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasized the need to pay close attention to the security of oceans, space, and cyberspace, which puts forward new requirements for us to strengthen military strategic guidance and maintain national security. The ocean is a major channel for international exchanges and a treasure house of strategic resources for the sustainable development of mankind. A new wave of ocean development is emerging in the world today; space is the new commanding height of international strategic competition, and space military advantages have a decisive influence on the process and outcome of modern warfare; Cyberspace is the basic symbol of the information age. It is becoming an emerging strategic area that affects national security and development, and an important combat space that penetrates, influences, and even determines other combat spaces. We must fully understand the security situation of oceans, space, and cyberspace, strengthen research on ocean, space, and cyberspace security issues, and do a good job in building related forces and methods to provide strong strategic support for safeguarding national interests.

□  Related news:

HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Illustrated one of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Five in One of Scientific Development

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Three Adhere to Three Advocate the Rule of Virtue

Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

【编者按】:在党的十八大开幕式上,胡锦涛代表第十七届中央委员会向大会作了题为《坚定不移沿着中国特色社会主义道路前进,为全面建成小康社会而奋斗》的报告。

党的十八大报告旗帜鲜明、思想深刻、求真务实、部署全面,提出一系列新提法、新观点、新部署和新要求,例如“两个加快”、“三个自信”、“四化同步”、“五位一体”……为了能让广大网友全面、深刻理解和掌握十八大报告中的要点及精华,本网特从十八大报告的十二部分中撷取了典型“关键词”,每天一期,连续推出,供网友学习参考。

键词:两大核心坚持。一是坚决听从党中央的指挥,这是我党历来的重要思想。二是国防和军队现代化。现代化是军队建设的中心任务。随着时代条件和战争形态加速演变,信息化已经成为军队现代化的本质规定性。正是基于对军队现代化时代内涵的准确把握,党的十八大报告提出要坚定不移把信息化作为军队现代化建设发展方向,推动信息化建设加速发展。

键词:现代化建设。我们必须看到,与国家安全和发展需求相比,国防和军队现代化水平还存在较大差距。国防和军队建设的主要矛盾,仍然是现代化水平与打赢信息化条件下局部战争的要求不相适应、军事能力与履行新世纪新阶段我军历史使命的要求不相适应。十八大报告中这一重要论断体现了党中央对国家安全环境新特点新趋势的深刻把握,体现了国防建设必须坚持以国家核心安全需求为导向的内在逻辑和基本规律,也反映了全党全军全国各族人民对新形势下国防和军队建设的新期待。

□ 相关新

高清专题:图解十八大报告

图解十八大报告之一:科学发展观 五位一体

图解十八大报告之二:八个坚持 三个公平 三个自信

图解十八大报告之三:两个翻一番 五个加快

图解十八大报告之四:四化同步 三个平等 创新驱动

图解十八大报告之五:推进政治体制改革

图解十八大报告之六: 三个坚持 三个倡导 以德治国

图解十八大报告之七:社会建设 两个同步 两个公平

图解十八大报告之八:美丽中国 两个坚持 三个发展

党的十八大报告全文

专题:中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会

独家解读:详解党的十八大报告十二部分

专题:学习宣传贯彻落实党的十八大精神

Modern English Translation:

At the opening ceremony of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao, on behalf of the 17th Central Committee, presented the title of “Unswervingly Marching on the Road of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Striving for the Full Construction of a Well-off Society” Report.

The report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is clear-cut, profound, truth-seeking, pragmatic, and comprehensive. It puts forward a series of new formulations, new viewpoints, new deployments and new requirements, such as “two accelerations”, “three confidences”, and “four modernizations”. “Synchronization”, “Five in One”… In order to allow netizens to fully and profoundly understand and master the key points and essence of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, this website has extracted typical “keys” from the twelve parts of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. “Words”, one issue every day, is continuously released for the reference of netizens.

Keywords: “persistence” at the two cores . The first is to resolutely obey the instructions of the Party Central Committee. This is an important thought of our Party. The second is the modernization of national defense and the army. Modernization is the central task of army building. With the accelerating evolution of the conditions of the times and the forms of warfare, informatization has become the essential requirement of military modernization. It is precisely based on an accurate grasp of the connotation of the era of military modernization that the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposes to unswervingly regard informatization as the development direction of military modernization and promote the accelerated development of informatization.

Keywords: modernization . We must be aware that there is still a big gap in the level of national defense and military modernization compared with national security and development needs. The main contradiction between national defense and army building is still the incompatibility of the modernization level with the requirements of winning local wars under the conditions of informationization, and the incompatibility of military capabilities with the requirements of fulfilling our military’s historical mission in the new century and new stage. This important conclusion in the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China reflects the Party Central Committee’s profound grasp of the new characteristics and trends of the national security environment, the internal logic and basic laws that must be guided by the country’s core security needs in national defense construction, and also reflects the entire party’s The people of all ethnic groups throughout the army have new expectations for national defense and army building under the new situation.

□  Related news:

HD topic: Illustrating the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Illustrated one of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Five in One of Scientific Development

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Eight adhere to three fairness and three self-confidence

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two doubled and five accelerated

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Four modernizations, three equal innovation drivers

Illustrated report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 5: Promoting political reform

Illustration of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Three Adhere to Three Advocate the Rule of Virtue

Illustration 7 of the report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China: Two simultaneous two fairs in social construction

Graphical report of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China No. 8: Beautiful China, two adhere to three developments

The full text of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Topic: The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

Exclusive interpretation: Detailed explanation of the twelve parts of the report of the 18th CPC National Congress

Topic: Studying, propagating and implementing the spirit of the 18th National Congress of the Party

Original Communist Party of China url: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2012/1227/c164113-20027402-3.html