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Chinese Military Analysis on the Application of Metaverse in Military Communication

中國軍事分析虛擬宇宙在軍事通訊的應用

現代英語翻譯:

Abstract: Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technologies, will become the key to future media content production and cognitive advantage. Looking forward to the development prospects of Metaverse, this article explains the concept of Metaverse and analyzes its development prospects, key technologies and practical applications, aiming to provide reference for the application of Metaverse in the field of military communication.

Keywords: Metaverse; Military Communication; Development Prospects

The Metaverse has become a hot topic that people are competing to talk about, and has been selected as one of the “Top Ten Internet Terms of 2021”. Globally renowned Internet companies from Facebook to ByteDance are all planning the Metaverse. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was called a “public opinion war” and “cognitive war” with various means by domestic and foreign public opinion experts. Some experts even exclaimed that cognitive domain warfare in the form of the Metaverse has begun. The Metaverse, as an innovative concept of the clustering effect of advanced technology, will become the key to future media content production and gaining cognitive advantages. Exploring the application of the Metaverse in the field of military communication has become an important topic in the era of omnimedia.

1. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects

Metaverse was born in the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. The Metaverse described in the novel is a virtual shared space parallel to the real world. According to relevant information, as early as 1990, Qian Xuesen had a vision of virtual reality and Metaverse, and gave it a very meaningful name – “Spirit Realm”. Four years later, Qian Xuesen specifically mentioned: “Spirit Realm technology is another technological revolution after the computer technology revolution. It will trigger a series of changes that will shock the world and must be a major event in human history.” Qian Xuesen had already foreseen that Metaverse-related technologies would bring profound changes to human society.

From originating from science fiction to entering reality, the industry has not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the metaverse. According to the research of relevant experts, the essential characteristics of the metaverse are two: virtual-real integration and immersive experience. Virtual-real integration means that the boundary between the digital world and the physical world gradually disappears, and the economy, life, assets and identity of the two worlds are fully integrated. Immersive experience means that people’s two-dimensional audio-visual experience of the Internet is expanded into a three-dimensional, immersive, full-sensory experience. The special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects.

The Metaverse is the next generation of the Internet. Looking back at the development of the Internet, from PC Internet to mobile Internet, the sense of immersion when using the Internet has gradually increased, and the distance between virtual and reality has gradually shortened. Under this trend, the Metaverse, where both immersion and participation have reached their peak, may be the “ultimate form” of the Internet. Regarding the future development of the Metaverse, some experts predict that: in terms of hardware terminals, with the portable development of wearable devices such as VR/AR glasses, their popularity will increase significantly, and people will gradually adapt to and accept the larger visual range and more natural interaction methods brought by new devices; in terms of content ecology and application scenarios, explosive Metaverse content will continue to emerge, and application scenarios will gradually expand. In the Metaverse, user experience has achieved an improvement and transformation from “online” to “presence”, thus entering the “scenario era”.

The metaverse is a new type of holographic medium. With the development of media technology, the presentation of media content has evolved from one-dimensional, two-dimensional to multi-dimensional. The emergence of the metaverse is another revolution in communication media after radio, television, and the Internet. From the perspective of user experience, the metaverse not only expands the user’s experience space, but also brings an immersive experience of “you are not just watching the content, you are in it as a whole”. From the perspective of media products, a large number of “we are on the scene” news media products will appear in the metaverse. The media products of the metaverse will achieve the advancement of news content with immersive narratives. For example, major sudden incident reports, large-scale live events, news documentaries, etc., can make the complete news scene into a digital scene of the metaverse, allowing the audience to enter the scene from various perspectives for experience. From the perspective of communication methods, there are currently four main modes of information communication: mass communication, network communication, social communication, and intelligent communication. The arrival of the new media of the metaverse will enrich the means of information communication in the era of intelligent communication, and “holographic communication” will become possible.

The metaverse is the future battlefield of cognitive domain warfare. The essence of communication media is the communication platform and channel, which is the material basis and main weapon of cognitive narrative in cognitive domain warfare. The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict was reported to the world in countless “first-person perspectives”. Both Russia and Ukraine spoke out on online media and social platforms to compete for the dominance of international communication cognitive narrative. As a new type of holographic medium, the metaverse transmits cognition in a full-dimensional, full-system and immersive way. It can shape people’s thinking and cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly, and has immeasurable application value in cognitive warfare. In addition, the metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenarios, where cognitive warfare can be efficiently promoted and presented in a panoramic manner.

2. A Preliminary Study on the Application of Metaverse in the Field of Military Communication

Like other new technologies, the metaverse was quickly applied to the field of military communication. The PLA News and Communication Center made a bold attempt and launched the “Holographic Military Newspaper” during the National People’s Congress for three consecutive years. It used technologies such as extended reality and digital construction to show a newspaper full of futuristic atmosphere: you can wear VR glasses to experience the “Holographic Military Newspaper” immersively, or you can watch it through your mobile phone. The “Holographic Military Newspaper” is the first of its kind in the domestic newspaper publishing industry and has been selected as an innovative case of deep integration and development of China’s newspaper industry. During the 2021 National People’s Congress, the center also launched the military media intelligent cartoon virtual person “Xiaojun”, which realized the same-screen interaction between 3D cartoons and real people. In 2022, the center and the Art Department of the PLA Culture and Art Center jointly launched the “2022 Metaverse Military Camp Network Spring Festival Gala”, which used metaverse technology to build a virtual space and interactive platform. Netizens and audiences can enter the three-dimensional virtual space by avatars, visit the performance site, and choose their favorite seats to watch the Spring Festival Gala. They can also interact with the audience around them through language and gestures. Some netizens commented: “It’s so shocking! The literary and artistic light cavalry team expressed it in the form of the metaverse, which shows the advancement of technology!” In addition, the center’s network department also took the lead in launching the public welfare NFT digital collection “Stars Accompany Me to Guard the Border”.

At present, the military-related authoritative media is organizing a team to promote the preliminary research and design of the Metaverse Editorial Department. Looking at the development process from traditional news editorial departments to intelligent editorial departments, combined with the advanced technology and future development of the Metaverse, experts have proposed the concept of “Metaverse Editorial Department”, that is, “Metaverse Editorial Department” enables editors and reporters at multiple locations to efficiently complete planning, interviews, editing, publishing and other tasks “face to face” in the same virtual space, the same chain of command, and the same work system. This will be the evolution of the news editorial department in the future. Each editor and reporter has his or her own virtual workspace. When there is a need for a meeting discussion, they can instantly travel to the virtual conference room for “face-to-face” communication.

3. Thoughts on how to win the cognitive war in the metaverse

A major feature of the 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict is the deep involvement of social media. Mobile Internet has become the main source of information related to this conflict. As mentioned earlier, the special functions of the metaverse determine its broad development prospects. How to win the cognitive war in the metaverse urgently requires us to think forward-lookingly.

Strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse. As a pioneering and innovative frontier field, the metaverse has huge initial R&D costs and requires long-term and continuous high investment to achieve the docking and unification of massive standards and specifications and the connection and interaction of ultra-large-scale users. This also leads to the inherent monopoly gene of the metaverse. At present, American companies such as Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, with the support of their governments and military, have deeply laid out the metaverse, and are very likely to become the technology monopolist and ruler of the future metaverse, just like the current situation of the Internet. In this Russia-Ukraine conflict, these technology giants “one-sidedly” pointed their spearheads at Russia, restricted or even banned Russia from using its technology products, and provided support for the United States to impose comprehensive sanctions. This warns us that in order not to be constrained in technology in the future, we should concentrate the superior forces of the military and the local area, aim at the metaverse technology, work together to tackle key problems, and strive to achieve the autonomy and control of the core technologies of the future metaverse.

Develop a metaverse platform that adapts to cognitive warfare. Developing a metaverse platform that is autonomous, controllable, has a wide coverage, and has a great influence is the key to winning in the cognitive domain battlefield in the future. Back to the Russia-Ukraine conflict, in order to suppress Russia from public opinion, American social platforms such as YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook, at the instruction of the US officials, directly restricted the exposure of Russian media. It can be said that they have taken advantage of the platform at the cognitive warfare level. This requires us to actively think about the future form of military communication platforms, develop metaverse platforms that adapt to cognitive warfare, and strive to create explosive products. For example, launching a metaverse version of the military’s new media platform.

We should speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. In addition to the traditional visible content types, content creation in the Metaverse era has also added a large amount of three-dimensional content, including panoramic shooting, digital twins of the real world, artificial construction of virtual space, and the display of virtual digital people. It is an issue that needs to be considered at present to speed up the production and accumulation of immersive content suitable for the era of the Metaverse. For example, the creation of digital history museums, the creation of heroic virtual people, the reproduction of classic battles, etc., can truly make history “perceptible” and make cultural relics “speaking”. In addition, the independent research and development of content creation tools is also critical.

國語中文:

摘 要:元宇宙作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。展望元宇宙發展前景,本文闡釋了元宇宙概念,並圍繞其發展圖景、關鍵技術和實踐應用進行闡釋分析,旨在為元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用提供借鑒參考。

關鍵字:元宇宙;軍事傳播;發展前景

元宇宙,目前成為人們競相談論的熱門話題,並入選了「2021年度十大網路用語」。從Facebook到位元組跳動等全球知名網路公司都在版面元宇宙。 2022年的俄烏衝突被國內外輿論戰專家稱作是一場手段多樣的“輿論戰”“認知戰”,有專家甚至驚呼元宇宙形態下的認知域作戰拉開了序幕。元宇宙,作為先進技術群聚效應的創新概念,將成為未來媒體內容生產、贏得認知優勢的關鍵。探尋元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用,成為全媒體時代一門重要課題。

一、元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景

元宇宙(Metaverse),誕生於1992年的科幻小說《雪崩》。小說中所描述的元宇宙是一個平行於現實世界的虛擬共享空間。根據相關資料顯示,早在1990年,錢學森就對虛擬實境與元宇宙有過展望,並為其起了個頗有意境的名字—「靈境」。 4年後,錢學森特別提到:「靈境技術是繼電腦科技革命之後的另一場科技革命。它將引發一系列震撼全世界的變革,一定是人類歷史中的大事。」錢學森當時就已預見元宇宙相關技術將對人類社會帶來的深層變革。

從源自科幻到走進現實,業界對於元宇宙的定義還沒能達成共識。根據相關專家的研究,認為元宇宙的本質特徵是兩個:虛實融合和沈浸體驗。虛實融合,就是數位世界和實體世界的邊界逐漸消失,實現兩個世界的經濟、生活、資產和身分認同等全方位的融合。沉浸體驗,就是人們對網路的二維視聽體驗拓展為三維立體、沉浸式的全感官體驗。元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景。

元宇宙是下一代互聯網。回顧網路的發展歷程,從PC互聯網到行動互聯網,使用網路時的沉浸感逐漸提升,虛擬與現實的距離也逐漸縮短。在此趨勢下,沉浸感和參與度都達到高峰的元宇宙或是網路的「終極形態」。對於元宇宙的未來發展,有專家預計:硬體終端方面,隨著VR/AR眼鏡等穿戴設備的便攜化發展,其普及程度將大幅度提高,人們逐漸適應和接受新設備帶來的更大的視覺範圍和更自然的互動方式;內容生態及應用場景方面,爆款元宇宙內容將不斷湧現,應用場景也將逐步拓展。在元宇宙中,使用者體驗實現了從「線上」到「在場」的提升和轉變,從而進入「場景時代」。

元宇宙是新型全息媒介。隨著媒介技術的發展,媒體內容的呈現方式從一維、二維到多維不斷演進。元宇宙的出現,是繼廣播、電視、網路之後傳播媒介的另一次革命。從使用者體驗來看,元宇宙不僅拓展了使用者的體驗空間,也帶來了「你不只是觀看內容,你整個人就身在其中」的沉浸式體驗。從媒體產品來看,元宇宙將出現大量「我們在現場」式的新聞媒體產品。元宇宙的媒體產品將以沉浸式敘事實現新聞內容的進階。例如,重大突發事件報導、大型現場活動、新聞紀錄片等,可以將完整的新聞現場做成元宇宙的一個數位場景,讓觀眾以各種視角進入現場進行體驗。從傳播方式來看,目前,訊息傳播主要有4種傳播模式:大眾傳播、網路傳播、社交傳播、智慧傳播。元宇宙新型媒介的到來將使得智慧傳播時代訊息傳播的手段更為豐富,「全像傳播」成為可能。

元宇宙是認知域作戰的未來戰場。傳播媒介實質就是傳播平台和管道,是認知域作戰中認知敘事的物質基礎和主要武器。 2022年的俄烏衝突以無數「第一視角」的方式向全球報道,俄烏雙方都在網路媒體和社群平台發聲,爭奪國際傳播認知敘事主導權。元宇宙作為新型全像媒介,其傳導認知的方式是全維度、全系統和沈浸式的,能夠更全面、更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知,具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。另外,元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進和全景式呈現。

二、元宇宙在軍事傳播領域的應用初探

和其他新技術的產生一樣,元宇宙也很快被應用於軍事傳播領域。解放軍新聞傳播中心進行了大膽嘗試,連續3年在全國兩會期間推出的“全息軍報”,運用擴展現實、數字構建等技術,展示了一份充滿未來氣息的報紙:可以佩戴VR眼鏡沉浸式體驗“全息軍報”,也可以透過手機觀看。 「全像軍報」是國內報紙出版業的首創,入選了中國報業深度融合發展創新案例。 2021年全國兩會期間,該中心還推出軍媒智慧卡通虛擬人“小軍”,實現了3D卡通與現實人物的同屏互動。 2022年,該中心和解放軍文化藝術中心文藝部共同推出的“2022年元宇宙軍營網絡春晚”,利用元宇宙技術搭建虛擬空間和互動平台。網友觀眾化身虛擬人即可進入立體虛擬空間,參觀演出現場,並自行選擇喜好的座位觀看春晚,還可以跟著周圍的觀眾進行語言和手勢互動。有網友評價:「太震撼了!文藝輕騎以元宇宙的形式表現,真是科技在進步!」另外,該中心網絡部還率先推出了公益性NFT數字藏品《星星伴我守邊防》。

目前,軍隊相關權威媒體正在組織團隊推進元宇宙編輯部的前期研究和設計。縱觀傳統新聞編輯部到智慧編輯部的發展歷程,結合元宇宙先進技術和未來發展,專家提出了「元宇宙編輯部」的概念,即「元宇宙編輯部」使多點位的編輯記者在同一虛擬空間、同一指揮鏈、同一工作體系裡「面對面」有效率地完成規劃、訪談、編輯、發布等工作。這將是未來新聞編輯部的進化形態,每個編輯記者都擁有各自的虛擬工作空間,當有會議討論需求時,可以瞬間穿越到虛擬會議室進行「面對面」交流。

三、如何在元宇宙中打贏認知戰的思考

2022年俄烏衝突的一個主要特徵,是社群媒體的深度參與。行動互聯網成了這次衝突關聯資訊的主要來源。如前所述,元宇宙的特殊功能決定了其廣闊的發展前景。如何在元宇宙中打贏認知戰,迫切需要我們做前瞻性思考。

努力實現未來元宇宙核心技術的自主可控。元宇宙作為開拓性和創新性的前沿領域,前期研發成本龐大,需要長期且持續的高額投資,以實現大量標準規範的對接統一、超大規模用戶的連結互動。這也導致了元宇宙具有內在壟斷基因。目前,Facebook、Google、微軟等美國公司在其政府和軍方的支持下,深入佈局元宇宙,極大可能成為未來元宇宙的技術壟斷者和統治者,就像現在互聯網的情況一樣。在這次俄烏衝突中,上述這些科技巨頭「一邊倒」地將矛頭對準俄羅斯,限制甚至禁止俄羅斯使用其科技產品,為美國實施全面製裁施壓提供了支撐。這警告我們,為了將來在技術上不被掣肘,應該集中軍地優勢力量,瞄準元宇宙技術,協力攻關,努力實現未來元宇宙核心技術的自主可控。

發展適應認知戰的元宇宙平台。開發自主可控、覆蓋範圍廣、影響力大的元宇宙平台,是未來在認知域戰場上取得勝利的關鍵。回到俄烏衝突中,為了從輿論上打壓俄羅斯,YouTube、Twitter和Facebook等美國的社群平台在美國官方的授意下,直接限制了俄羅斯媒體的曝光率,可以說在認知戰層面佔盡了平台優勢。這就需要我們主動思考未來軍隊傳播平台型態,開發適應認知戰的元宇宙平台,努力打造爆款產品。例如,推出軍隊新媒體平台的元宇宙版本等。

抓緊生產與累積適合元宇宙時代的沉浸式內容。元宇宙時代的內容創作除了傳統可見的內容類型外,還大量增加了三維內容,包括全景拍攝、真實世界的數位孿生、虛擬空間的人工構建、虛擬數位人的展示等等。抓緊生產和累積適合元宇宙時代的沉浸式內容,是當前需要重點考慮的問題。例如,製作數位史館、打造英雄虛擬人、復現經典戰例等等,真正實現讓歷史「可感知」、讓文物「會說話」。另外,內容創作工具的自主研發也很關鍵。

(作者單位:解放軍新聞傳播中心網絡部)

中國軍事資源:http://www.81.cn/rmjz_203219/jsjz/2022nd5q_242715/tbch_242721/10193529.html

China’s Military Unveils the Metaverse

中國軍隊推出虛擬宇宙

現代英語翻譯:

As if overnight, “metaverse” suddenly became a hot word, and related concepts formed many hot topics.

With the development of technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks, blockchain, and the iteration of terminal equipment, the construction and evolution of the “metaverse” may far exceed people’s expectations, and a new Internet form of multi-dimensional, full-sensory, immersive human-computer interaction will hopefully become a reality.

What is the Metaverse?

“Metaverse” is a term that comes from the 1992 science fiction novel Snow Crash. In the novel, humans live in a virtual three-dimensional world through “Avatar” (digital virtual avatar), and the author calls this space “Metaverse”.

From science fiction to reality, people have not yet reached an absolute consensus on “what is the metaverse”. Due to the evolution of the times and technological changes, the “metaverse” is still an evolving concept. “There are a thousand Hamlets in the eyes of a thousand people”. Different participants are constantly enriching its definition in their own way, and the possibilities of the characteristics and forms of the “metaverse” are also constantly changing. However, we can explore a little through the existing presentation of the “metaverse”.

At present, “Metaverse” concept products are mainly concentrated in online games, VR/AR, social networking and other fields.

Online games are generally considered by the industry to be the most likely field to realize the “metaverse” because they have virtual scenes and players’ virtual avatars. Today, game functions have gone beyond the game itself, and the boundaries of games are expanding, and they are no longer just games.

A well-known singer held a virtual concert with his virtual image in the game “Fortnite”, which attracted more than 12 million players from all over the world to participate, breaking the boundary between entertainment and games; due to the impact of the epidemic, the University of California, Berkeley and the School of Animation and Digital Studies of Communication University of China coincidentally rebuilt their campuses in the sandbox game “Minecraft”. Students gathered together with virtual avatars to complete the “cloud graduation ceremony”, realizing the integration of virtual games and real social interactions.

The new generation of “VR social (virtual offline social)” has gradually developed and become popular. It is a fusion of offline social (face-to-face in reality) and online social (through social software such as WeChat). Some well-known VR social platforms provide a free community environment, which not only becomes a place for players’ online activities and virtual face-to-face gatherings, but also becomes a social and cultural phenomenon closely related to the current concept of “metaverse”.

The above-mentioned “metaverse slices” are all important explorations into the construction of the “metaverse”, and they explain in a variety of visible and tangible ways how the “metaverse” will change our real life.

In common research, the following consensus has been formed: “Metaverse” is a new type of Internet application and social form that integrates multiple new technologies and integrates virtual and real. It provides immersive experience based on extended reality technology, generates virtual and real scenes based on digital twins and 3D rendering technology, builds basic software and hardware services based on cloud computing, artificial intelligence and high-speed networks, and builds an economic system based on blockchain technology, closely integrating the virtual world with the real world in economic system, social system and identity system. At the same time, it allows each user to produce and edit content, and has complete self-driving and iteration capabilities.

The development direction of the “metaverse”

Today’s mobile Internet is actually still in a flat information interaction state, presented on mobile terminals through text, sound, pictures, and videos. Although news information, e-commerce, social chat, live video, etc. meet people’s needs for using the Internet, it is obviously impossible to achieve the effect of face-to-face communication and full sensory experience in real life through the mobile phone screen. With the development of society, people need more original and rich experience and interaction.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to move their daily lives from offline to online. This forced transformation has led to more thinking, discussion and attention on the “metaverse”. In particular, the core feature of the “metaverse” is the immersive experience, which can turn a plane into a three-dimensional, multi-dimensional, real-time interactive space, greatly enriching and restoring the real physical world and various human relationships. Therefore, people have high hopes for the “metaverse”.

Looking back at the development of information technology and media, humans have continuously changed the way they perceive the world, and later began to consciously transform and reshape the world. From the newspaper era, the radio and television era, to the Internet era, and the mobile Internet era, the tools and platforms under the concept of “metaverse” are becoming increasingly complete, and the path to the “metaverse” is gradually becoming clearer.

Since 2020, Internet giants in various countries have been closely deploying cutting-edge technologies such as extended reality, digital twins, 3D rendering, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, high-speed networks and blockchain, and the door to the ultimate closed-loop ecosystem of the “metaverse” has been opened little by little. Today, when the “bonus” of mobile Internet users has peaked, many experts and scholars have stated that the “metaverse” will be the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet.

Just as it was difficult to accurately predict the development of the Internet 20 years ago, people cannot accurately predict the future form of the “metaverse”. However, combined with the development trends of related industries today, we can see that: the Internet has changed human life and digitized communication between people, and the “metaverse” will digitize the relationship between people and society; the technologies related to the “metaverse” will show gradual development, single-point technological innovations will continue to appear and merge, and all aspects of the industry will move closer to the ultimate form of the “metaverse”; the “metaverse” will emerge with a large amount of user-generated content, and at the same time, the value of digital assets will be revealed.

In general, the “metaverse” will profoundly change the organization and operation of the existing society through the integration of the virtual and the real, form a new lifestyle with both virtual and real poles, give birth to a new social relationship that integrates online and offline, and give new vitality to the real economy from the virtual dimension.

The future physical “metaverse” will be similar to the scene described in the science fiction movie “Ready Player One”: one day in the future, people can switch identities anytime and anywhere, freely shuttle between the real world and the virtual world, and study, work, make friends, shop, travel, etc. in the “metaverse”. Through immersive experience, the virtual world will be closer to and integrated into the real world.

In this virtual world, there will be self-evolving content and economic systems that will always remain safe and stable to meet the social needs of individuals.

The mediating role of the “metaverse”

“Imagine the ‘metaverse’ as a physical Internet, where you are not just watching content, but you are fully immersed in it.” This is a vivid description. However, as far as the current situation is concerned, the content of these “metaverses” that allow “full immersion” is relatively scarce. It needs more content that can be independently written, self-iterated, and multi-dimensionally attract users to participate in the experience and even participate in the creation.

The “metaverse” is bound to become a brand-new platform for media content production. Content producers can transform the “small universe” into the “big universe” through rich content production. In the short term, the breakthrough of the “metaverse” is immersive content. With the development and penetration of the concept of “metaverse”, the integration of immersive virtual content (such as games, cartoons, etc.) and immersive physical content (such as media, social networking, film and television, etc.) will become higher and higher. In other words, the “metaverse” will play a greater role as a medium.

In September this year, Yu Guoming, a professor at the School of Journalism and Communication of Beijing Normal University, pointed out at the release conference of the “2020-2021 “Metaverse” Development Research Report”: “Today, the role of the media is generally to provide cognitive information, but the role of the media is completing a process from providing cognition to providing experience. The entire media and technology has undergone a huge transformation from cognitive development to experience. Once the goal of “Metaverse” is established, it will play a directional role in communication technology, communication forms, communication methods and even communication effects.” If the “Metaverse” is the ultimate form of the next generation of the Internet, then it is a super media channel that will show the ultimate form of media convergence and provide the best immersive experience.

Theoretically, the best communication experience must be based on real scenes. For example, when watching a football game, the ideal situation is to watch it in person on the field. In the “metaverse”, with the development of display interaction, high-speed communication and computing technology, it will become a reality to construct a communication scene that is infinitely close to reality. Users can become “witnesses” and “on-site observers” of news events in a three-dimensional, multi-sensory reception situation.

Therefore, the “metaverse” media can achieve true “multimedia”, and various human senses such as vision, smell, hearing, taste, touch, etc. can play a role, and even fully unfold and cooperate with each other to achieve “immersive” media applications.

Today’s media content is constantly evolving and innovating, and its development trend seems to be moving closer to the concept of “metaverse”. Media content will no longer be limited to flat presentation methods such as TV, computer, and mobile phone screens. Media content production will consider holographic presentation more, pay attention to creating an on-site environment atmosphere, and make users feel immersive. Social interaction will no longer be limited to text messages and comments. Feelings can be expressed instantly with voice and body movements, and face-to-face communication can be virtualized on the spot.

Imagine if news reports could restore the war scene and create a “battlefield metaverse”, making people feel as if they were there and feel in real time the tremendous trauma that war has caused to human civilization. This shock would further stimulate human society’s desire and yearning for peace, and media content would have a stronger influence and dissemination power.

現代國語:

彷彿在一夜之間,「元宇宙」突然成為熱詞,相關概念形成許多熱門話題。

隨著擴展現實、數位孿生、3D渲染、雲端運算、人工智慧、高速網路、區塊鏈等技術的發展及終端設備的迭代,「元宇宙」建設和演變可能遠超人們的預期,多維度、全感官、沉浸式的人機互動新網路形態,將有望成為現實。

何為“元宇宙”

“元宇宙”,英文為“Metaverse”。此字出自1992年的科幻小說《雪崩》。小說中,人類透過“Avatar”(數位虛擬化身),在一個虛擬三維世界中生活,作者稱這個空間為“Metaverse”,即“元宇宙”。

從科幻走進現實,人們對「元宇宙是什麼」還未能達成一個絕對標準的共識。因為時代的演變、技術的變革,“元宇宙”仍是一個不斷發展的概念,“一千個人眼中就有一千個哈姆雷特”,不同參與者以自己的方式不斷豐富著它的定義,“元宇宙」特徵和形態的可能性也在不斷變化。不過,我們可透過「元宇宙」現有的呈現形態來探討一二。

目前,「元宇宙」概念產品主要集中在網路遊戲、VR/AR、社交等領域。

網路遊戲被業界普遍認為是最有可能實現「元宇宙」的領域,因為它本身就具有虛擬場景和玩家的虛擬化身。如今,遊戲功能已超越遊戲本身,遊戲邊界正在擴展,甚至不只是遊戲了。

知名歌手在遊戲《要塞英雄》中,以虛擬形象舉辦一場虛擬演唱會,吸引了全球超過1200萬玩家參與其中,打破了娛樂與遊戲的邊界;因為疫情影響,美國加州大學柏克萊分校、中國傳媒大學動畫與數位學院不約而同地在沙盤遊戲《我的世界》裡重建校園,學生們以虛擬化身齊聚一堂,完成“雲畢業典禮”,實現了虛擬遊戲和現實社交的融合。

新一代「VR社交(虛擬線下社交)」已在逐漸發展和流行。它是線下社交(現實面對面)、線上社交(透過微信等社群軟體)的融合產物。一些知名VR社交平台,提供自由的社區環境,不僅成為玩家線上活動與虛擬面對面聚會的場所,也成了一種與目前「元宇宙」概念密切相關的社會文化現象。

以上這些“元宇宙切片”,都是對建構“元宇宙”的重要探索,用多種看得見、摸得著的方式,詮釋了“元宇宙”將會如何改變我們的現實生活。

在通常研究中,一般形成了這樣的共識:「元宇宙」是整合多種新技術而產生的新型虛實融合的網路應用和社會形態。它基於擴展現實技術提供沉浸式體驗,基於數位孿生和3D渲染技術生成虛實場景,基於雲端運算、人工智慧和高速網路建立基礎軟體硬體服務,基於區塊鏈技術建立經濟體系,將虛擬世界與現實世界在經濟系統、社交系統、身分系統上密切融合。同時,允許每個使用者進行內容生產和編輯,具備完整的自我驅動和迭代能力。

「元宇宙」發展走向

現今的行動互聯網,其實仍是平面資訊互動狀態,透過文字、聲音、圖片、視訊方式在行動終端進行呈現。新聞資訊、電子商務、社群聊天、視訊直播等型態,雖然滿足了人們使用網路的需求,但隔著手機螢幕,顯然無法達到現實生活中面對面交流、全感官體驗所能達到的效果。隨著社會發展,人們需要更原生、更豐富的體驗與互動。

新冠疫情讓人們生活場景從線下更多地移到線上。這種被迫的轉變,讓大家對「元宇宙」有了更多思考、討論和關注。特別是「元宇宙」最核心的特徵,在於沉浸式體驗,它可將一個平面變成一個立體、多維、即時的互動空間,極大地豐富、還原真實物理世界和人類各種關係。因此,「元宇宙」被人們寄予厚望。

縱觀過往資訊科技和媒介的發展歷程,人類不斷改變認知世界的方法,乃至於後來開始有意識地改造和重塑世界。從報業時代、廣播電視時代,到網路時代、行動網路時代,「元宇宙」概念下的工具和平台日益完備,通往「元宇宙」的路徑逐漸清晰。

自2020年以來,各國網路大廠圍繞著擴展實境、數位孿生、3D渲染、雲端運算、人工智慧、高速網路和區塊鏈等前沿科技,展開緊密佈局,通往「元宇宙」終極閉環生態的大門被一點點打開。在行動網路用戶「紅利」已經見頂的今天,不少專家學者表示,「元宇宙」將是下一代網路的終極形態。

如同20年前難以精準預測網路的發展一樣,人們也無法精準預判未來「元宇宙」的形態。但是,結合當今相關產業發展趨勢可以看到:互聯網改變人類生活,將人與人交流數位化,而「元宇宙」將把人與社會關係數位化;「元宇宙」相關技術將呈現漸進式發展,單點技術創新將不斷出現與融合,從產業各方面向「元宇宙」終極形態靠近;「元宇宙」將湧現海量用戶創作內容,同時顯現數位資產價值問題。

概括地說,「元宇宙」將以虛實融合的方式,深刻改變現有社會的組織與運作,形成虛、實兩極的新型生活方式,催生線上、線下一體的新型社會關係,並從虛擬維度賦予實體經濟新的活力。

未來實體化的“元宇宙”,將類似於科幻電影《頭號玩家》裡描述的場景:在未來的某一天,人們可隨時隨地切換身份,自由穿梭於現實世界和虛擬世界,在“元宇宙”中學習、工作、交友、購物、旅遊等。透過沉浸式體驗,讓虛擬世界進一步接近並融入現實世界。

在這個虛擬世界裡,將有自我不斷發展的內容和經濟系統,並且始終保持安全穩定運行,滿足個體的社會需求。

「元宇宙」的媒介作用

「把『元宇宙』想像為一個實體互聯網,你在那裡不只是觀看內容,整個人都身在其中。」這是一個圖像描述。可就現狀而言,這些能讓“整個人都身在其中”的“元宇宙”,內容是相對匱乏的。它需要更多可以獨立成篇、自我迭代、多維立體地吸引使用者參與體驗甚至參與創作的內容。

「元宇宙」勢必成為媒體內容生產的嶄新平台。內容生產者透過豐富的內容生產,可將「小宇宙」演變成「大宇宙」。短期內,「元宇宙」的突破口是沉浸式內容。隨著「元宇宙」概念的發展與滲透,沉浸式虛擬內容(如遊戲、卡通等)與沉浸式實體內容(如媒體、社交、影視等)的融合程度將會越來越高。換句話說,「元宇宙」將發揮更大的媒介作用。

今年9月,北京師範大學新聞與傳播學院教授喻國明在《2020-2021年「元宇宙」發展研究報告》發布會議上指出:「如今媒介所扮演的角色大體上都是認知方面的訊息給予,但媒介的角色正在完成一個從給予認知到給予體驗的過程。甚至傳播效果,都能起到一個定向作用。體驗。

從理論上講,最好的傳播體驗必然是基於真實場景。如看球賽,理想情形是在球場上親身觀看。在「元宇宙」裡,隨著顯示互動、高速通訊和運算技術的發展,建構無限逼近真實的傳播場景將成為現實,使用者能在立體化、多感官接收情境中,成為新聞事件的「目擊者」和「實地觀察者」。

因而,“元宇宙”媒體可實現真正的“多媒體化”,人類的各種感官如視覺、嗅覺、聽覺、味覺、觸覺等,都能發揮作用,甚至完全展開、相互配合,實現“沉浸式”的媒體應用。

當今媒體內容不斷進化和創​​新,其發展趨勢也似乎正在向「元宇宙」概念靠攏。媒體內容將不再侷限於電視、電腦、手機螢幕等平面式的呈現方式,媒體內容製作將更考慮全像化呈現,重視營造現場環境氛圍,使用戶有身臨其境之感。社交也將不再侷限於文字留言評論,可即時用語音、肢體動作來抒發感受,現場虛擬化面對面交流。

設想一下,如果新聞報道能還原戰爭現場,打造“戰場元宇宙”,使人如身臨其境,實時感受到戰爭對於人類文明造成的巨大創傷,這份震撼會更能刺激人類社會對於和平的渴望與嚮往,媒體內容將具備更強大的影響力與傳播力。

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/26/content_303888.htm

Chinese Military Analysis of Japan’s Space and Cyberspace Deterrence Strategy

中國對日本太空和網路空間威懾戰略的軍事分析

現代英語:

The development of new military forces is changing the style of warfare. After years of development, space (also known as outer space) and cyberspace (hereinafter referred to as cyberspace) forces have transformed from conceptual forces to real forces. How to use these two new forces has become a key research topic for major powers in the world. In March 2024, the Security Research Group of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation of Japan released a research report entitled “War 3.0: Fundamental Changes in War” (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”), which explored how to use space and cyberspace to achieve strategic deterrence from the perspective of maintaining Japan’s national security. It also proposed a typical scenario of cyberspace confrontation against the background of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, showing Japan’s thinking on the use of combat forces in emerging fields. The main contents are summarized as follows for readers.

1

War 3.0 is coming

The report believes that during the Cold War, the boundaries between civilians, the state and the military were clear, and the economic dependence between the two sides was low. This was the era of War 1.0. After the Cold War, globalization accelerated, and in 2001, the era of the war on terror began. The main body of the confrontation became state and non-state actors, which was the era of War 2.0. Around 2010, the confrontation between major powers reappeared. Due to the high degree of economic globalization, “war” occurred more in dimensions other than military. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine shows that in modern warfare, other means are becoming as important as military means. At the same time, commercial companies are also more involved in the research and development and use of emerging military technologies, and the government’s control over military power has been weakened. Since then, a new concept can be used to describe modern warfare, namely War 3.0.

As long as war occurs in the context of globalization, the characteristics of War 3.0 will appear. In the era of War 3.0, the target of deterrence is mainly state actors, but the specific form of conflict may be similar to hybrid warfare or conventional warfare. When formulating deterrence strategies in the space and cyberspace domains, both types of conflict should be taken into account. It is necessary to recognize that emerging domain capabilities are multipliers of traditional capabilities. The significance of competing for control in emerging domains lies in enhancing one’s own physical forces such as land, sea, and air forces or weakening the physical forces of opponents.

The report points out that using emerging field forces to carry out attacks can cause no tangible physical damage, is conducive to conflict management, and is the best tool for gray zone operations. Japan currently faces two main problems. One is that the emerging field forces owned by law enforcement agencies are not in line with mission requirements. The other is that it needs to consider how to use emerging field forces to achieve effective conflict management.

2

Strategic Deterrence in Emerging Fields

The report uses traditional deterrence theory for analysis and concludes that space and cyberspace have five common characteristics: difficult situational awareness, high defense difficulty, low attack threshold, mixed actors, and lack of international codes of conduct. Easy to attack and difficult to defend are the common characteristics of these two fields, so it is difficult to achieve effective strategic deterrence. In this regard, action should be taken in four aspects: First, improve situational awareness capabilities so that when problems occur, the cause of the failure can be quickly determined, the attacker can be identified, and the damage effect can be evaluated when counterattacked. Second, improve resilience to ensure that the loss of some functions will not cause the entire system to become disabled. Third, strengthen offensive capabilities, which can be used to attack in a certain field, or to use means in other fields to conduct cross-domain attacks. Fourth, achieve arms control cooperation between countries and build trust, formulate codes of conduct, etc.

3

Strengthening deterrence in air and space

1. The connotation of air and space control continues to be enriched

The report believes that the air and space can control the entire battlefield. In order to compete for air and space dominance, various types of equipment are constantly updated, combat systems are becoming more and more complex, and the scope of operations is becoming wider and wider. In combat, both sides often focus on the “find, locate, track, decide, engage, and assess (Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess, F2T2EA)” full kill chain, and simultaneously confront in emerging fields such as space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space, which greatly expands the connotation of traditional dominance. In future high-end wars, the side with a higher level of space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic space capabilities may have an overwhelming advantage in overall combat capabilities.

2. How to exert the deterrent function of space power

The report emphasizes that space systems play an important role in intelligence collection, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), communications, positioning, navigation and timing (PNT), missile warning, environmental monitoring, etc., and also provide increasingly important support for the use of nuclear and conventional forces. In order to form a strong space deterrence, first, we must possess and demonstrate the corresponding capabilities, mainly the resilience, defense, counter-retaliation and situational awareness capabilities of the space system. Second, we must show the enemy our determination to use retaliatory capabilities. Third, we must form a cross-domain deterrence to ensure the security of the entire space system. In addition, systems in other fields such as land, sea and air must be able to supplement some of the functions of the space system. In the face of enemy attacks on our satellites, we must retaliate not only from space, but also through land, sea, air and cyberspace.

As space systems play an increasingly important role in Japan’s national defense, we will further enhance our deterrence against hostile offensive actions. While improving the resilience of space assets, we will attach great importance to the effective use of commercial space services.

3. How to enhance the deterrent effect of Japan’s aerospace power

The report points out that Japan should attach importance to cross-domain coordination of sea, land, air and space forces, especially to strengthen cooperation with the United States. It is necessary to closely monitor the surrounding airspace, use aircraft to perform denial missions when the situation escalates, and take active defense measures to prevent missile attacks. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of Self-Defense Force bases and realize the mutual use of air bases between Japan and the United States. Japan is surrounded by the sea, and it is necessary to attach importance to developing the ability to use air means to strike maritime targets to ensure the security of the homeland.

Faced with the vast Indo-Pacific region, it is difficult for Japan to accurately grasp the regional situation by relying solely on its own aerospace power. It is necessary to share intelligence information through multilateral cooperation and build a Common Operational Picture (COP) in the Indo-Pacific region to accurately and comprehensively grasp the regional situation and have a deterrent effect on potential enemies. It is necessary to strengthen cooperation with countries other than the United States, especially Australia. Japan, the United States and Australia should establish joint ammunition and fuel depots in their respective countries. In the field of space, Japan will expand cooperation in hosting payloads. If it can cooperate with European countries, then future attacks on Japanese satellites can be regarded as attacks on multiple countries. It is becoming increasingly important to make full use of the power of allies and use their aerospace power to achieve deterrence goals.

4

Strengthening Deterrence in Cyberspace

1. Characteristics of Cyberspace Operations

The report believes that cyberspace has an increasing impact on the course of war, and cyberspace combat capabilities can even deter the occurrence of an entire conflict. Cyberspace security plays an important role in protecting various systems from cyber attacks, ensuring that confidential information is not leaked, and ensuring the normal operation of other systems such as critical infrastructure. It is also of great significance for cognitive domain protection.

There are two main characteristics of cyberspace at present. First, the boundary between military and civilian is blurred. The potential of military application of Internet is constantly emerging. In the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the artillery combat management system (GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA) used by Ukraine is to send data through drones and smartphones to determine the target location and launch attacks, which is very effective. Second, the security concept based on closed system is outdated. Even with physical isolation, it is impossible to completely prevent attacks. Cyberspace is easy to attack but difficult to defend, and the offense and defense are asymmetric. In addition, cyberspace operations can control the rhythm of conflict escalation in a low-intensity form, and can also be upgraded to a powerful weapon with high-intensity offensiveness after the official outbreak of military conflict.

2. Developing emerging technologies to enhance cyber warfare capabilities

The report points out that the development of emerging technologies will continue to change the rules of warfare, and the Japanese Ministry of Defense has begun to study the use of cloud computing to build a basic computing environment. It plans to build a diversified network environment, use Starlink satellites and 5G networks to provide Internet services, and consider enabling the new Internet communication protocol QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connection). The first quantum computer has been developed, and related research on anti-quantum cryptography has been carried out. At the same time, it also pays close attention to the specific ways of combining artificial intelligence with cyber warfare.

3. Ways to strengthen cyber deterrence

The report emphasizes that the development of artificial intelligence technology and the adjustment of the network component supply chain are two uncertain factors. Japan should focus on improving its cyber warfare capabilities from the following aspects: (1) vigorously promote intelligence information sharing; (2) build active defense systems; (3) introduce zero trust and risk management frameworks; (4) establish the ability to attack adversary networks; (5) accelerate legislation in the field of cybersecurity; (6) expand the scale of talent training and increase support for commercial enterprises. By carrying out the above work, Japan can achieve early detection and response to cyber attacks. Even if it encounters a cyber attack, it can be discovered, processed and recovered at an early stage to ensure the resilience of the system to continue to operate. In addition, when Japan is attacked, it should coordinate actions with the US military. In peacetime, joint training should be strengthened so that it can carry out joint operations with the Cyber ​​Mission Force (CMF) composed of relevant forces of the US Cyber ​​Command.

Responsible for directing, coordinating and conducting cyber operations

5

Conception of cyberspace combat scenarios

The report describes a basic scenario of cyber warfare between the Red and Blue sides, with the Taiwan Strait incident as the background, and puts forward the following important viewpoints: First, when the Blue side has an absolute advantage, the Blue side should focus on taking defensive actions to achieve deterrence. When the forces of the two sides tend to be balanced, the Blue side should actively take offensive actions to seize the initiative. Second, the Blue side can launch cyber attacks around the Red side’s observation, adjustment, decision-making, and action (OODA) links to weaken the Red side’s military capabilities, especially its maritime and landing combat capabilities, and carry out “anti-military cyber attack missions.” When necessary, strike the Red side’s social infrastructure to weaken its overall strength. At the same time, take cyber attacks to induce and divide public opinion, weaken the Red side’s willingness to take action, and carry out “anti-value cyber attack missions.” Third, in the anti-military cyber attack mission, the Blue side can attack the Red side’s aircraft, and can also take measures such as data pollution, deception cloud, and communication network interruption to attack the Red side’s command and control system. In the action of attacking the civilian network system, cyber attacks can be carried out on key entities of railway and ship operations in the Red coastal areas and key infrastructure such as the power grid in coastal metropolises that support social and economic systems. There are also options for attacking Red Team financial systems, media servers, and water and gas supply networks.

In order to deal with possible cyber attacks from the Red side in the event of an emergency in the Taiwan Strait, Japan should do the following: First, adopt an active defense strategy, require commercial operators to share information with the government, and introduce artificial intelligence to improve cyber situational awareness and network resilience. Second, introduce a large-scale data forensics platform to identify the authenticity of massive image data and counter false information. Third, give priority to countermeasures against domestic cyber attacks, effectively defend the networks of defense, government departments, law enforcement agencies and private enterprises through various active cyber defense measures, and deal with cognitive domain actions against the Japanese public.

6

Conclusion

The report proposed the concept of War 3.0 and launched a series of discussions on achieving cyberspace and space deterrence. While suggesting strengthening its own relevant capacity building, it repeatedly emphasized the need to strengthen cooperation with the United States, especially with countries related to the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) and AUKUS. With Japan’s application to join AUKUS on April 25, 2024, the Asia-Pacific version of the “mini-NATO” alliance has taken shape, and regional peace and stability will be severely impacted.

Disclaimer: This article is reprinted from Military High-Tech Online, the original author is Shi Honglin. The content of the article is the original author’s personal opinion. This public account is translated/reprinted only for sharing and conveying different opinions. If you have any objections, please contact us!

Reprinted from Military High-Tech Online

Author: Shi Honglin

Introduction to the Institute

The International Institute of Technology and Economics (IITE) was established in November 1985. It is a non-profit research institution affiliated to the Development Research Center of the State Council. Its main functions are to study major policy, strategic and forward-looking issues in my country’s economic, scientific and technological social development, track and analyze the development trends of world science and technology and economy, and provide decision-making consulting services to the central government and relevant ministries. “Global Technology Map” is the official WeChat account of the International Institute of Technology and Economics, dedicated to delivering cutting-edge technology information and technological innovation insights to the public.

Address: Block A, Building 20, Xiaonanzhuang, Haidian District, Beijing

Tel: 010-82635522

繁體中文國語:

新領域軍事力量的發展正在改變戰爭樣式,其中太空(也稱為外層空間)和網路空間(以下簡稱網空)力量經過多年的發展,已由概念力量轉變為現實力量。如何利用這兩種新質力量,已成為世界各主要強國重點研究的內容。 2024年3月日本笹川和平財團安全研究小組發布研究報告《戰爭3.0:戰爭的根本變化》(以下簡稱《報告》),從維護日本國家安全的角度出發,探討如何利用太空和網空實現戰略威懾等問題,並以台海突發事件為背景,提出了一個網空對抗的典型場景,展示了日本在運用新興領域作戰力量上的思考。現將其主要內容整理如下,以颯讀者。

01

戰爭3.0時代到來

《報告》認為,在冷戰時期,平民、國家和軍隊之間的界線很清晰,對峙雙方經濟依賴度較低,此時是戰爭1.0時代。冷戰後全球化加速發展,2001年進入反恐戰爭時代,對抗的主體變成國家與非國家行為體,此時是戰爭2.0時代。 2010年前後大國對抗再次出現,由於經濟全球化發展程度較高,「戰爭」較多發生在軍事以外的維度。俄烏衝突顯示在現代戰爭中,其他手段正變得與軍事手段同等重要。同時,商業公司也更參與新興軍事技術的研發和使用,政府對軍事力量的控製程度受到了削弱。自此可以用一個新的概念來描述現代戰爭,即戰爭3.0。

只要戰爭在全球化背景下發生,就會出現戰爭3.0所包含的特徵。進入戰爭3.0時代,威懾的目標主要是國家行為體,但具體衝突形式可能類似混合戰爭,也可能是常規戰爭。在製定太空和網空領域威懾戰略時,要同時考慮這兩類衝突形式。要體認到新興領域能力是傳統能力的倍增器,爭奪新興領域制權的意義,在於提升己方陸、海、空軍等實體力量或削弱對手的實體力量。

《報告》指出,運用新興領域力量實施攻擊,可以不造成有形的物理破壞,有利於管控衝突,是在灰色地帶行動的最佳工具。日本當前主要面臨兩個問題,一是執法機構擁有的新興領域力量和任務需求不相適應。二是需要考慮具體如何運用新興領域力量,以達到衝突的有效管控。

02

新興領域的戰略威懾

《報告》利用傳統威懾理論進行分析,得出太空和網空具有五個共同特徵:態勢感知難、防禦難度大、攻擊門檻低、行動主體混雜、缺乏國際行為準則。易攻難守是這兩個領域的共同特點,因此較難實現有效的戰略威懾。對此,應從四個方面採取行動:一是提高態勢感知能力,以便在出現問題後,能夠迅速確定故障原因,識別攻擊者,並在反擊時評估毀傷效果。二是提升復原力,確保喪失部分功能不會導致整個系統失能。三是強化進攻能力,可在某一領域進行攻擊,也可利用其他領域手段進行跨域攻擊。四是實現國家間軍備控制合作並建立信任,制定行為準則等。

03

加強空中和太空的威懾

(一)空天制權的內涵不斷豐富

《報告》認為,空中和太空可以瞰整個戰場,為爭奪空天制權,各類裝備不斷更新,作戰系統越來越複雜,作戰範圍也越來越寬廣。在作戰中,雙方往往會圍繞「發現、定位、追蹤、決策、交戰、評估(Find Fix Track Targeting Engage Assess,F2T2EA)」全殺傷鏈各環節,在太空、網空、電磁空間等新興領域同時進行對抗,大大拓展了傳統制權的內涵。在未來高端戰爭中,利用太空、網空和電磁空間能力水準較高的一方,可能會在整體作戰能力上擁有壓倒性的優勢。
(二)如何發揮太空力量的嚇阻功能

《報告》強調,太空系統在情報收集、監視和偵察(Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance,ISR),通信,定位、導航和授時(Positioning, Navigation and Timing, PNT),導彈預警,環境監測等方面發揮著重要作用,也為使用核武力量和常規力量提供越來越重要的支持。為了形成強大的太空威懾,一要擁有並展現對應能力,主要是太空系統的復原力、防禦力、反制報復能力以及態勢感知能力。二要向敵方展示使用報復能力的決心。三要形成跨域威懾以確保太空全系統安全。此外,陸海空等其他領域系統要能補充太空系統的部分功能,面對敵方對己方衛星的攻擊,不僅要從太空報復,還要透過陸海空和網空進行報復。

由於太空系統在日本國防中的作用越來越大,所以要進一步提升對敵對進攻行為的威懾。在提升太空資產復原力的同時,要高度重視商業太空服務的有效運用。

(三)如何增強日本空天肌力嚇阻效果

《報告》指出,日本應重視海陸空天力量的跨域協同,特別是加強與美國的合作。若要緊密監視週邊空域,在局勢升級時使用飛機執行拒止任務,採取主動防禦措施,防止遭遇飛彈攻擊。要加強自衛隊基地建設,實現日美兩國空軍基地的互相使用。日本四面環海,要重視發展使用空中手段打擊海上目標的能力,以確保本土安全。

面對廣袤的印太地區,日本僅靠自身的空天力量,難以準確掌握區域態勢,要透過多邊合作分享情報訊息,建構印太地區通用作戰態勢圖(Common Operational Picture, COP),以精準全面地掌握地區態勢,對潛在敵人產生嚇阻效果。要加強與美國以外的國家,特別是澳洲的合作。日本、美國和澳洲應在各自國家建立聯合彈藥和燃料庫。在太空領域,日本將拓展託管有效載荷合作,如能和歐洲國家合作,那麼未來攻擊日本衛星的行為,將可以被視為對多個國家的攻擊。要充分借助盟友力量,利用其空天力量達成威懾目的,這一點正變得越來越重要。

04

加強網空的威懾

(一)網空作戰的特點

《報告》認為,網空對戰爭進程的影響越來越大,而網空作戰能力甚至可以嚇阻整個衝突的發生。網空安全對於保護自身各類系統免受網路攻擊、確保機密資訊不會外洩、確保關鍵基礎設施等其他系統正常運作發揮重要作用,對於認知域防護也有著十分重大的意義。

目前網空主要有兩個特點,一是軍民界線模糊。網路的軍事應用潛力不斷顯現,在俄烏衝突中,烏克蘭使用的砲兵作戰管理系統(GIS Art for Artillery, GIS ARTA),就是透過無人機和智慧型手機,發送資料確定目標位置並發動攻擊,且非常有效。二是基於封閉系統的安全觀念已經過時。即便是進行物理隔離,也不可能完全防止被攻擊,網空易攻難守,攻防呈現不對稱特徵。此外,網空作戰既可以低強度形式控制衝突升級的節奏,也可以在正式爆發軍事衝突後,升級為具有高強度攻擊性的強大武器。
(二)發展新興科技提升網路戰能力

《報告》指出,新興技術的發展將持續改變作戰規則,日本防衛省已開始研究使用雲端運算建構基本運算環境。計畫建置多樣化網路環境,使用「星鏈」衛星和5G網路提供網路服務,考慮啟用新的網路通訊協定QUIC(Quick UDP Internet Connection)。已研發首台量子計算機,並進行反量子密碼的相關研究。同時,也高度關注人工智慧與網路戰結合的具體方式。

(三)強化網空威懾的辦法

《報告》強調,人工智慧技術的發展和網路部件供應鏈的調整是兩個不確定的影響因素。日本應著重從以下幾點提升網路戰能力:(1)大力促進情報資訊共享;(2)建構主動防禦系統;(3)引入零信任和風險管理框架;(4)建立攻擊對手網路的能力; (5)加速網路安全領域立法;(6)擴大人才培育規模,增加對商業企業的支持。透過進行以上工作,日本可以實現提前發現和應對網路攻擊。即使遭遇網路攻擊,也可在早期階段發現、處理和恢復,確保系統繼續運作的彈性。此外,當日本受到攻擊時,要與美軍協調行動。平時要加強聯合訓練,以便能夠與由美國網路司令部相關部隊組成網路任務部隊(The Cyber​​ Mission Force, CMF)實施聯合行動。
負責指導、協調和執行網路行動

05

對網空作戰場景的構想

《報告》以台海突發事件為背景,描述了一個紅藍雙方網路戰的基本場景,提出了以下幾個重要觀點:一是當藍方擁有絕對優勢時,藍方應側重於採取防禦行動實現威懾。當雙方力量趨於平衡時,藍方則應積極採取攻擊行動以爭取主動權。二是藍方可以圍繞紅方觀察、調整、決策、行動(Observe Orient Decide Act, OODA)的各環節展開網絡攻擊,削弱紅方軍事能力,特別是海上作戰和登陸作戰能力,開展「反軍事網絡攻擊任務」。在必要時候打擊紅方社會基礎設施,削弱其整體實力。同時,採取網路攻擊誘導和分裂公眾輿論,削弱紅方採取行動的意願,進行「反價值網路攻擊任務」。第三是在反軍事網路攻擊任務中,藍方可以攻擊紅方飛機,還可以採取資料污染、欺騙雲以及通訊網路中斷等措施,攻擊紅方指控系統。在攻擊民用網路系統的行動中,可以對紅方沿海地區鐵路和船舶運營的關鍵實體以及支持社會和經濟系統的沿海大城市電網等關鍵基礎設施進行網路攻擊。還可以選擇攻擊紅方金融系統、媒體伺服器以及供水和天然氣供應網路。

為因應台海突發事件發生時紅方可能的網路攻擊,日本應做好以下幾點:一是採取主動防禦策略,要求商業業者要與政府分享訊息,引入人工智慧以提高網空態勢感知和網路彈性。二是引進大規模資料取證平台以辨識海量影像資料的真實性,反制假資訊。第三是優先採取針對本國網路攻擊的反制措施,透過各種積極網路防禦措施有效保衛防衛、政府部門、執法機構和私人企業的網絡,並處理針對日本公眾的認知域行動。
06

結語

該報告提出了戰爭3.0的概念,圍繞實現網空和太空威懾展開了一系列論述,在建議加強自身相關能力建設的同時,多次強調要加強與美國,特別是四方安全對話(Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, QUAD)和奧庫斯(AUKUS)相關國家的合作。隨著2024年4月25日日本申請加入“奧庫斯”,亞太版的“小北約”聯盟已現雛形,地區和平穩定將受到嚴重衝擊。

免責聲明:本文轉自軍事高科技在線,原作者史宏林。文章內容係原作者個人觀點,本公眾號編譯/轉載僅為分享、傳達不同觀點,如有任何異議,歡迎聯絡我們!

轉自丨軍事高科技在線

作者丨史宏林

研究所簡介

國際技術經濟研究所(IITE)成立於1985年11月,是隸屬於國務院發展研究中心的非營利研究機構,主要功能是研究我國經濟、科技社會發展中的重大政策性、策略性、前瞻性問題,追蹤分析世界科技、經濟發展態勢,為中央和相關部會提供決策諮詢服務。 「全球技術地圖」為國際技術經濟研究所官方微信帳號,致力於向大眾傳遞尖端技術資訊與科技創新洞見。

地址:北京市海淀區小南莊20號樓A座

中文原文來源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/J5UO0ID90514R8DE.html

Chinese Military Developing Winning Mechanisms of Cognitive Confrontation Warfare

中國軍隊發展認知對抗戰制勝機制

原版現代英語翻譯:

As an important form of modern warfare, cognitive warfare takes cognitive domain as its main combat field, strategy and technology application as its main combat means, and influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking and cognition as its combat purpose. It has a unique winning mechanism and operating rules. In-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is a basic project to grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and win modern cognitive warfare.

  The contemporary connotation of the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare is based on the revolutionary development and widespread application of media technology in cognitive technology, is adapted to the practical requirements of integrated joint operations, and is in line with the characteristics of the era of the integrated development of mechanization, informatization, and intelligence. It has rich contemporary connotations.

  Win with knowledge. As a solid basis and powerful weapon for human beings to understand and transform the world, thinking and cognition fundamentally affect the quality of decision-making, influence strategies and tactics, restrict military morale, and determine the process and outcome of war. It is the most fundamental support and the deepest force of war confrontation. In other words, war confrontation is ultimately a game and confrontation of thinking and cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition means mastering the initiative in war to a large extent. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger cognitive control is the key to defeating a strong enemy. Finding ways to master cognitive control and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to obtain the greatest victory at the lowest cost, is an important mechanism and internal law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare.

  Technology is the key. A significant feature of modern cognitive warfare that is different from previous cognitive warfare is that the elements of strategy are gradually reduced and the role is gradually reduced, while the application of technology is more frequent and its role is more prominent. In particular, with the deep involvement of information technology and artificial intelligence, modern cognitive warfare pays more attention to the competition of technical hard power. The previous soul-stirring and mysterious strategic confrontation seems to be giving way to today’s head-on technical competition. Efforts to seek breakthroughs, master advantages, and take the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, brain control, blockchain, high-performance communications, and the metaverse have become the key focus of countries’ competitive development to gain cognitive advantages and defeat powerful enemies.

  Hidden is the best. A prominent feature of cognitive warfare is the hidden use of strategies, that is, through hidden methods and means such as information suppression, data confusion, hiding the truth and showing the false, and scenario construction, the opponent’s thinking and cognition are subtly influenced, controlled, and shaped. It can be said that “hidden” is the main color, main melody, and main channel. Hidden purpose, hidden means, and hidden actions run through all aspects of the entire process of cognitive attack and defense. In the cognitive perspective, whoever masters more advanced strategies, more flexible tactics, and more hidden tactics can more effectively act on the opponent in cognitive attack and defense confrontation, thus being in a higher cognitive dimension.

  Integration is the basis. If cognitive warfare lacks the support of specific military operations in the material domain, it will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring and defeating the enemy. Cognitive warfare should never be an isolated operation. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into the integrated joint combat chain, closely combining it with physical domain military operations, and closely integrating it with the entire combat system, can the military forces in different fields be closely combined, mutually supported, and organically integrated, and can the combat effectiveness be fully exerted.

  Practical requirements for the winning mechanism of cognitive warfare

  The winning mechanism of war determines the form and method of military force construction and application, and has a mandatory and stabilizing influence on war practice. The winning mechanism of cognitive warfare inherently regulates the form and method of cognitive warfare, and puts forward new requirements for the construction of cognitive warfare forces.

  Take the control of cognition as the core of winning cognitive warfare. Firmly grasp the key of the control of cognition, insist on the two-way efforts of wisdom and technology, strive to seize the commanding heights of thinking and cognition, and seize the control of cognitive operations. Deeply promote the innovation of the theory of control of cognition, integrate high-quality resources, increase funding, follow up and study typical cases of cognitive operations at home and abroad, conscientiously summarize practical experience in all aspects, and combine the specific reality of our army to form a theoretical system with contemporary, leading and unique characteristics as soon as possible; strengthen the basic construction of training facilities, equipment, venues, and talent teams, build a number of special training venues based on the existing comprehensive training grounds, and carry out base-based professional training; carry out the drills of the tactics of control of cognition, incorporate cognitive warfare into daily combat readiness training, into specific combat action plans, simulate important combat operations, imagine major combat targets, preset actual combat scenarios, and practice hard in an environment close to actual combat to form the actual combat capability of real combat, good attack and defense, and control and control.

  Take science and technology as the key to cognitive confrontation. Science and technology are core combat power, core cognitive power, and the core element of cognitive power. Strengthen the awareness of winning with science and technology, deeply understand the basic supporting role of science and technology as one of the two major means of modern cognitive warfare, “strategy + technology”, consciously put cognitive technology innovation in an important position in the strategy of strengthening the army with science and technology, and make efforts to carry out independent innovation in cognitive technology; grasp the breakthrough of core key technologies, focus on artificial intelligence, brain control technology, brain control technology, situational awareness technology, high-performance communication technology, metaverse and other basic technologies related to cognitive warfare, consolidate the scientific and technological foundation of cognitive attack and defense confrontation, and firmly grasp the destiny in our own hands; explore distinctive innovation paths, adapt to my country’s national conditions, military conditions and technical realities, explore innovation paths that suit us, form distinctive technical routes, strive to master asymmetric technologies, and achieve what you don’t have, what I have, what you have, what I have, and what you are better than, so as to form a “new trick” to defeat the enemy at critical moments.

  Use strategy as the key to cognitive offense and defense. Although the importance of technical factors in modern cognitive warfare is increasing, the status and role of strategy are still irreplaceable. Focus on the word “hidden”, strengthen the special function of “strategy” as a smart strategy to surprise, unaware, confuse and mislead the opponent, formulate and implement targeted strategies and tactics according to the opponent’s strategic traditions, thinking habits, cultural attributes and weaknesses, and lead them without shadow, lure them into the invisible, and guide them without a trace; focus on the word “link”, deepen the research on the methods and strategies of strategy application under modern scientific and technological conditions, and comprehensively use modern technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence to empower and increase the efficiency of strategy application, and add the wings of science and technology to cognitive strategy; focus on the word “integration” to achieve results, deepen the research on the characteristics and laws of the combination of cognitive warfare soft power and physical domain military operations hard power, and explore the path of integrated application of military forces in multiple fields such as cognitive domain and physical domain.

  Coordinate and promote the comprehensive and scientific development of cognitive warfare

  To fight a cognitive proactive battle, we must follow the internal mechanisms that run through it, grasp the practical requirements contained therein, follow the ever-changing military practice, strengthen scientific thinking, adhere to problem-orientation, develop a forward-looking perspective, and strive to grasp the three relationships.

  Grasp the relationship between strategy and technology. “Strategy + technology” constitutes the main content of cognitive warfare methods and means. As a highly intelligent combat form and method, cognitive warfare is born with the inherent content of strategy with the most intelligent background. The flexible and flexible strategy game is the historical heritage and wonderful chapter of our army’s cognitive warfare. The process of the development and evolution of cognitive warfare is, to a certain extent, the process of mutual growth and mutual construction of strategy and technology. In this process, strategy is more colorful due to the blessing of technology, and technology is more powerful due to the use of strategy. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, we must not only carry forward the advantages of our army in using strategy, but also strengthen the application of technical means. More importantly, we must organically combine strategy with technology, and enhance the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive attack and defense through technical strategy and strategic use of technology.

  Grasp the relationship between soft and hard. Modern warfare usually divides the combat domain into physical domain, information domain, and cognitive domain according to the characteristics of material form. These three domains conduct each other and influence each other to form the field and soil of military confrontation. Among them, the cognitive domain and information domain show soft power, and the physical domain shows hard power. The two forces of soft and hard are unified in the vast space of the integration of the three domains of military game, and together constitute the basic power elements of cognitive offense and defense. Although cognitive warfare occurs in the cognitive field, its combat support is not only soft power. With the enhancement of the hard power of the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can be better implemented. To grasp the initiative of thinking and cognition and fight the initiative of cognitive warfare, it is necessary not only to strengthen the construction of cognitive warfare ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also to actively borrow power from the physical domain, and use the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to verify and strengthen thinking and cognition, and at the same time promote the materialization of cognitive results through verification and strengthening actions.

  Grasp the relationship between attack and defense. Cognition, in terms of its object, includes two sides of the same coin: “know yourself and shape your opponent”, which can also be succinctly summarized as “save yourself and destroy the enemy”. Among them, knowing and sticking to yourself, preventing and avoiding being influenced and shaped by the enemy is “defense”; weakening and depriving the enemy’s cognitive ability, knowing and shaping the opponent is “attack”. Cognitive warfare is an opposing unity of the two forces of offense and defense, which grows and declines and transforms into each other. The core of mastering the initiative of thinking and cognition and fighting the initiative of cognitive operations is to improve the ability of defense and counterattack, recognize the strengths and weaknesses, strengths and weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages of the enemy and ourselves, stick to ourselves and attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and use our clarity to trap the enemy in confusion; the key is to accurately grasp the transition node between offense and defense, seize the enemy’s cognitive loopholes, concentrate forces to pursue and attack, paralyze its defense line, and seize its key points; the purpose is to master cognitive initiative. Whether it is attack or defense, they all end up occupying a favorable position in the cognitive game and winning. When to attack and when to defend, they must obey and unify this goal.

國語中文:

認知戰作為現代戰爭的重要作戰形式,以認知域為主要作戰領域,以謀略和技術運用為主要作戰手段,以影響和塑造對手的思維認知為作戰目的,具有獨特製勝機理和運行規律。深入研究認知戰制勝機理,是掌握思考認知主動、打贏現代認知戰的基礎工程。

認知戰制勝機理的時代內涵

認知戰制勝機理,以認知技術中媒介技術的革命性發展和廣泛應用為前提,與一體化聯合作戰的實踐要求相適應,與機械化資訊化智能化融合發展的時代特徵相契合,具有豐富時代內涵。

以知取勝。思維認知作為人類認識世界、改造世界的堅實憑藉、強大武器,根本上影響決策品質、左右戰略戰術、制約軍心士氣,決定戰爭的過程與結果,是戰爭對抗最根本的依托、最深層的力量。也就是說,戰爭對抗歸根究柢是思維認知的博弈與對抗,掌握了製認知權很大程度上就掌握了戰爭主動,喪失了製認知權就會在戰爭中處於被動挨打的境地。獲得更高、更強的製認知權是製勝強敵的關鍵。想辦法掌握制認知權進而奪取戰場綜合製權,從而以最小代價獲取最大勝利,是現代戰爭特別是認知戰的重要機理和內在規律。

以技為要。現代認知戰不同於以往認知戰的一個顯著特徵在於,謀略的成分逐漸減少、作用逐步降低,科技的應用更加頻繁、作用更加凸顯。特別是受資訊科技與人工智慧深度介入,現代認知戰更注重科技硬實力的比拼,以往蕩氣迴腸、玄妙無窮的謀略對抗,似乎正讓位於今天針尖對麥芒般硬碰硬的技術較量。努力在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、腦控、區塊鏈、高效能通聯、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、掌握優勢、佔據主動,成為各國贏得認知優勢、制勝強敵對對手競相發展的關鍵重點。

以隱為上。認知戰的一大突出特徵在於謀略的隱性使用,即透過資訊壓制、資料迷茫、隱真示假、情境建構等隱性方法手段,潛移默化地影響、左右和塑造對手的思維認知。可以說,「隱」是主色調、主旋律、主管道,隱形目的、隱性手段、隱藏行動,貫穿認知攻防的全過程各方面。認知視野下,誰掌握了更高超的戰略、更靈活的戰術、更隱蔽的戰法,誰就能在認知攻防對抗中更有效地作用於對手,從而處於更高的認知維度。

以融為基。認知戰如果缺乏物質域具體的軍事行動配合支撐,斷不會產生疑敵、惑敵、嚇敵、勝敵的良好效果。認知戰從來都不應該是孤立的作戰,只有將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈條,與物理域軍事行動緊密結合起來,與整個作戰體系緊密融為一體,做到不同領域的軍事力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能充分發揮作戰效能。

認知戰制勝機理的實踐要求

戰爭制勝機理決定軍事力量建設運用的形態和方式,對戰爭實踐具有強制規定性和穩定影響力。認知戰制勝機理內在規制認知戰形態和作戰方式,對認知作戰力量建構提出新的要求。

把製認知權當作制勝認知戰的核心。緊緊扭住制認知權這個要樞,堅持智謀、技術雙向發力,努力搶佔思維認知制高點,奪取認知作戰控制權。深入推進制認知權作戰理論創新,整合優質資源力量,加大經費投入力度,跟進研究國內外認知作戰典型戰例,認真總結各方面實踐經驗,結合我軍具體實際,儘早形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的理論體系;強化訓練設施、器材、場地、人才隊伍等基本建設,依托現有綜合訓練場打造若干特色訓練場所,進行基地化專業化訓練;紮實開展制認知權戰法演練,將認知戰納入日常戰備訓練,納入具體作戰行動計劃,模擬重要作戰行動,假想主要作戰對象,預設實戰場景,在近似實戰的環境中苦練精訓,形成真打實務、能攻善守、能控巧製的實戰能力。

把科學技術當作認知對抗的關鍵。科學技術是核心戰鬥力,也是核心認知力,更是製認知權的核心要素。強化科技制勝意識,深刻認識科學技術作為現代認知戰「謀略+技術」兩大手段之一的基礎支撐作用,自覺把認知技術創新放在科技強軍戰略的重要位置,下力搞好認知技術自主創新;抓好核心關鍵技術突破,著力在人工智慧、腦控技術、控腦技術、態勢感知技術、高性能通聯技術、元宇宙等與認知戰相關的基礎技術上下大功夫,夯實認知攻防對抗的科技基礎,把命運牢牢掌握在自己手中;探索特色創新路徑,適應我國國情軍情和技術實際,探索適合自己的創新路子,形成特色技術路線,努力掌握非對稱技術,做到你無我有、你有我優、你優我精,形成關鍵時刻克敵制勝的「一招鮮」。

把謀略運用作為認知攻防的密鑰。技術因素雖然在現代認知戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。著力在「隱」字上下功夫,強化「謀」作為智慧韜略之於對手出其不意、不知不覺、迷惑誤導的特殊功能,根據對手戰略傳統、思維習慣、文化屬性和短板弱項等,制定實施針對性策略戰術,引之於無影、誘之於無形、導之於無蹤;著力在「聯」字上做文章,深化現代科技條件下謀略運用方法策略研究,綜合運用網路資訊、人工智慧等現代科技為謀略運用賦能增效,為認知謀略插上科技的翅膀;著力在「融」字上見成效,深化認知戰軟力量與物理域軍事行動硬實力結合運用特質規律研究,探索認知域、物理域等多領域軍事力量融合運用路徑。

統籌推廣認知戰全面科學發展

打好認知主動仗,必須遵循貫穿其中的內在機理,把握其中蘊含的實踐要求,跟進日新月異的軍事實踐,強化科學思維,堅持問題導向,開拓前瞻性視野,著力把握好三種關係。

把握好謀與技的關係。 「謀略+技術」構成認知戰方法手段的主體內容。認知戰作為高度智慧化的作戰形態和方式,最具智慧底色的謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容,機動靈活的謀略博弈更是我軍認知作戰歷史傳承和精彩篇章。認知戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相長互構的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的祝福而更加多彩,科技因謀略的運用而更加強大。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,不僅要發揚我軍善用謀略的優長,還須強化技術手段的應用,更重要的是將施謀與用技有機結合起來,透過技術性施謀、謀略性用技強化認知攻防的綜合效能。

把握好軟與硬的關係。現代戰爭通常依物質形態特徵將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域、認知域,這三個域相互傳導影響共同構成軍事對抗的領域和土壤。其中,認知域和資訊域展現的是軟實力,物理域彰顯的是硬力量,軟硬兩種力量統一於軍事博弈三域合一的廣闊空間,共同構成認知攻防的基本力量元素。認知戰雖然發生在認知領域,但其作戰依托並非只有軟實力,在物理域硬力量增效強化下,認知形成往往能加速實現,認知實現也能更好地落實。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,不僅須加強認知戰本體力量建設,提高直接運用謀略和技術手段加強自我防護、幹預和影響對手思維認知的能力,而且應積極向物理域借力,藉由物理域軍事行動的傳導效應來印證和強化思考認知,同時透過印證和強化行動來推動認知成果的物化轉化。

把握好攻與防的關係。認知就其對象而言包括「認清自己、塑造對手」一體兩面,也可精要概括為「保存自己、消滅敵人」。其中認清和堅守自己,防止和避免被敵人影響塑造是為「防」;削弱和剝奪敵認知能力,認知和塑造對手是為「攻」。認知戰是攻防兩種力量此消彼長、相互轉化的對立統一體。掌握思維認知主動權、打好認知作戰主動仗,核心是提升防守反擊能力,認清敵我強弱、長短、優劣,堅守自己並擊敵薄弱,以我之昭昭陷敵於昏昏沉沉;關鍵在於把準攻防轉換節點,抓住敵認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,癱瘓其防線、奪取其要地;目的是掌握認知主動,無論攻還是防都殊途同歸於在認知博弈中佔據有利位置並贏得勝利,什麼時候攻什麼時候防,都要服從並統一於此目標。

中國軍事原文來源:https://www.workercn.cn/c/2022-05-02/679888.shtml

Chinese Military Insight into the Evolution of Cognitive Warfare

中國軍事對認知戰演變的洞察

國語翻譯:

Cognition is the process by which people acquire, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually received attention from all countries. With the development of the scientific and technological revolution and the expansion of war practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerating evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming the basic driving force of the evolution of war. Technology changes the form of war and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become a sign of the maturity of cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies in cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, artificial intelligence, etc. will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Human beings are entering the era of universal communication. The global cyberspace is being highly linked. The network has become a combat space for comprehensive game between state actors and non-state actors. The contention and war of communication have become part of the high-intensity military action level. At present, major countries in the world have laid out the frontier of cognitive technology and carried out cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control the human brain network, information network and social network; through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, and clever calculation, they aim to maximize the control of people’s cognitive world and cognitive domain.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the intelligent era, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication is giving way to online communication. Various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large social platforms have become the main battlefield for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The space domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep earth, while the logic domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to the social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and anti-blockade, dominance and anti-domination around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare, and the struggle for international discourse control using information as ammunition has become the main way of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, the penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of small-scale war or even victory without fighting through comprehensive game means such as cognitive warfare. The offense and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released.

Cognitive advantage is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of action in war is the lifeblood of the military. From the cognitive dimension, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the freer the action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in war, commanders are beginning to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time, help commanders get rid of cognitive overload, and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantage will dominate decision-making advantage, and decision-making advantage will dominate action advantage. Cognitive advantage has four key indicators: stronger information acquisition ability, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling ability, and higher ability to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with data-driven intelligent communication as its new feature has been highly coordinated and integrated with traditional military operations. This virtual-real integrated combat style has stronger combat effectiveness than simple military operations, which has fundamentally changed the traditional combat methods. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become a fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the forefront of the game of winning wars. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power, and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-penetration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control in cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field. Concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion have appeared frequently in the field of foreign cognitive warfare research. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict domain” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theory innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars, cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation, and cognitive technology will accelerate the advancement of cognitive warfare to become an important “trigger point” for the intelligent military revolution. Since new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are in the process of accelerated incubation, perhaps future wars will present a surprising new situation.

繁體中文:

認知是人們獲得、加工及應用資訊和知識的過程。當前,認知域逐漸成為角逐的新戰場,認知戰也逐漸受到各國重視。隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的拓展,認知戰正呈現加速演變趨勢。

認知科技正成為戰爭演進的基本動力。科技改變戰爭形態,也改變認知戰方式。如果資訊網路的大規模普及,推動了資訊域成為作戰域,資料和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊域成熟的標誌,那麼認知科技的大規模應用,認知技術不斷迭代發展,將成為推動認知戰成熟的標誌。未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等方面技術,將折射出認知技術對社會認知對抗、軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。人類正進入全民傳播時代,全球網路空間正納入高度連動,網路已成為國家行為體和非國家行為體全面博弈的作戰空間,傳播之爭和傳播之戰已成為高烈度軍事行動層面的一部分。當前世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,開展認知技術競賽,透過建模和分析,謀求滲透控制人腦網絡、資訊網絡和社會網絡;透過深算、精算、妙算等,旨在最大限度把握人們的認知世界和認知域的控制權。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。智慧時代,人類溝通方式正發生複雜深刻變化。離線交流更多讓位於線上交流,各種新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地。因此,未來戰爭的作戰域將不斷拓展,空間域從陸海空天網向深空、深海、深地拓展,而邏輯域則從物理域向資訊域、認知域拓展。戰爭不再侷限於傳統戰爭的實體威脅,而是轉向大眾媒體、科技進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。圍繞傳播平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰爭奪的焦點,以資訊為彈藥進行國際話語控制權爭奪成為當今認知對抗的主要方式。在混合戰爭視角下,意識形態宣傳與灌輸、價值觀與文化的滲透、傳統的輿論心理與法律攻防與資訊網絡戰等,都成為認知戰的重要面向。混合戰爭可透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,實現小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的,而認知領域攻防將是一場不間斷的、常態化的鬥爭,作戰效能也將持續累積、逐步釋放。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的勝利優勢。戰爭行動自由是軍隊的命脈。從認知維度來看,對戰場環境、作戰對手認知越深,行動越自由,相對優勢就越大。但隨著戰爭中作戰資料指數級成長,指揮人員開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境,擁有資訊優勢並不等於擁有認知優勢。人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向,就是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮人員擺脫認知過載,快速形成認知優勢。在智慧化戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢主導行動優勢。認知優勢有4個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的突發事件處理能力和更高的開發應用新技術新知識的能力。例如,以數據驅動的智慧傳播為新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動已經高度協同與融合,這種虛實一體的作戰樣式具備了比單純軍事行動更強的作戰效能,使傳統作戰方式發生根本性改變。認知優勢的連動與疊加,將加速推進作戰效能轉化,成為戰爭制勝的根本優勢。

認知理論正成為打贏戰爭的博弈前線。認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。目前,認知空間的滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的爭奪激烈,認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念,已高頻度出現於國外認知戰研究領域。外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“交織的衝突領域”中的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點,認知理論已成為理論創新前沿領域,認知科技將加速推進認知戰成為智慧化軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。由於認知戰的新技術、新理論、新樣式正處於加速孵化之中,也許未來戰爭將會呈現出令人驚詬的全新景況。

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/29/content_32588.htm

Continuous Military Innovation: Preparing for Cognitive Confrontation in Future Wars

Chinese Military Responsibility : Analysis of Cognitive Confrontation in the Era of All-Media

持續軍事創新:為未來戰爭中的認知對抗做好準備 –
中國的軍事責任:全媒體時代的認知對抗分析

現代英語翻譯:

In the era of all-media, cognitive confrontation around military hot spots has a deeper impact on the course of war, and has put forward new and higher requirements for the technical application, organizational form, and talent team of military communication. To adapt to this feature, it is necessary to continuously innovate in thinking concepts, platform construction, knowledge and capabilities, and prepare for cognitive confrontation in future wars.

Keywords: omnimedia era; cognitive confrontation; military communication; responsibility analysis

The report of the 20th CPC National Congress clearly proposed to “strengthen military training and preparation in an all-round way, and improve the people’s army’s ability to win”, “study and master the characteristics and laws of information-based and intelligent warfare, innovate military strategic guidance, and develop strategies and tactics of people’s war”. In the era of all-media, people’s cognitive patterns have undergone profound changes. The impact of cognitive confrontation around military hotspots on the course of war has deepened, and new and higher requirements have been put forward for the technical application, organizational form, and talent team of military communication. To adapt to this feature, it is necessary to continuously innovate in thinking concepts, platform construction, knowledge and capabilities, and prepare for cognitive confrontation in future wars.

1. Grasp the laws and nature of cognitive confrontation and occupy the main position of military communication

The cognitive confrontation in future wars, in the final analysis, is a judgment of the right and wrong of the war, a struggle for the support of the people, and a contest of communication power.

1. Grasping the cognitive characteristics of the omnimedia era

The relationship between cognition and military affairs has always been close. In ancient China, there was the military thought of “the best strategy is to attack the enemy’s strategy”, and there were also battle examples of “Xian Gao used cattle and food to repel the enemy, and Mo Di used the rope to lead the whole city”. Our party has always attached great importance to the issue of cognition. Comrade Mao Zedong wrote a special article “Where do people’s correct thoughts come from?”, answering the source and process of cognition with dialectical materialism epistemology, and revealing the fundamental law of cognition.

The advent of the omnimedia era has not changed this fundamental law of cognition, but the way of cognition has become more complex. The powerful network capabilities have made reach-influence-change a reality. As the breadth and depth of hot discussions increase, more and more people are “involved” and “participate” by posting comments, liking and posting. Individual cognition is driven, influenced and changed by the group, forming a directional and powerful public opinion “current”. Unrest and regime change in many regions of the world are all caused by cognitive factors, which must be taken seriously.

War and armed conflict are natural news hotspots, deeply intertwined with public cognition, and greatly affect the course and outcome of war. In future wars, military communication must use correct cognition to guide the masses, convey judgment of justice, support for the army, and confidence in victory, so as to unite the masses and win the war.

2. Stand Firmly on the People’s Side

In the same war, the attributes of the two opposing sides are essentially different. There are oppositions such as justice and injustice, hegemony and anti-hegemony, progress and reaction, interference and anti-interference, aggression and resistance to aggression. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that there are “reactionary public opinion and people’s public opinion”. To do a good job in military communication, it is necessary to politically distinguish between these two different types of public opinion.

Through the observation of several international communication events, it can be seen that some forces, with the help of platform advantages and technological advantages, coupled with the usual means of spreading rumors and deception, will prevail in the scale and breadth of communication. However, doing too much evil will eventually lead to self-destruction. This approach can only gain temporary advantages and ultimately cannot change the fate of failure. Military communication must obey and serve the requirements of victory, not copy others and mistakenly believe that we can use deception methods just as others can. On the contrary, determined by our party spirit and people-oriented nature, our military communication must adhere to the principle of authenticity and resolutely oppose the spread of all fake news and transplants; we must persist in spreading the glory of revolutionary heroism and news that we can win battles, especially we must not harbor illusions and play the tragic card; we must inspire confidence that justice and the people will win, and expose the enemy’s essential cowardice covered by cruelty; and so on.

In future wars, cognitive confrontation will be unprecedentedly fierce. Regarding people’s hearts and minds, if the enemy deceives, we must counter-deception; if the enemy blocks, we must counter-block; if the enemy covers up the truth, we must report the facts; if the enemy smears, we must publicize victory. Maintaining a close relationship with the people and standing firm on the people’s side is a necessary part of winning the people’s war and the fundamental prerequisite for winning cognitive confrontation in future wars.

3. Consciously obey and serve the requirements of victory

Military communication is integrated in peacetime and wartime. Effective communication in wartime cannot be separated from exploration and accumulation in peacetime. The more urgent the wartime situation is, the higher the communication capability required, and the more accurate the grasp of the communication tone must be. Slight deviations can be magnified through communication and the effect may go in the opposite direction. We must have a full understanding of the double-edged sword effect of communication in the omnimedia era, and practice the ability to do military communication online through communication one by one in peacetime.

To achieve close coordination between the political and military battlefields, it is necessary to achieve an organic connection between military communication and combat command. From the perspective of cognitive confrontation of international events, there must be a sufficient number of news products. At the same time, the release must be accurate. Especially in wartime, or “quasi-wartime” when public opinion forms the focus, the caliber of a news product and whether the timing of its release is appropriate may produce a “butterfly effect” in the overall situation. In the normalized and diversified use of military forces, it is necessary to attach importance to the connection between professional communication forces and combat command, prevent the lack of cognitive confrontation due to the absence of communication, and prevent “information flow bullets” from causing passive public opinion.

In the long-term practice of revolutionary wars, the war correspondents of our party and army have explored many valuable experiences, and some principles are still applicable in the era of all-media. We must focus on research and inheritance to prevent subjective mistakes, reduce blindness, take fewer detours, enhance confidence and confidence, and better serve the requirements of victory.

2. Deeply study the mechanism and impact of cognitive confrontation and seize the initiative in military communication

Modern media has become a key factor influencing the outcomes of all competitive behaviors. Only by deeply studying the mechanisms and impacts of cognitive confrontation can we seize the initiative in military communication.

1. Do a good job in war mobilization and form correct “cognition”

Since ancient times, wars must solve the problem of “cognition”, emphasize the justification of the war, and attach importance to the unity of the upper and lower levels. For example, in the overseas war to resist the US and aid Korea, we attached great importance to “cognition” and made every soldier clear about the significance of “resisting the US and aiding Korea to defend the country”, thus completing in-depth ideological and political mobilization. War correspondent Huashan recorded in “Diary of the Korean Battlefield”: Enemy planes broadcast over the battlefield, and soldiers cursed at the enemy planes: “Besides eating and drinking, what other words do you have? American politics is just this?” Huashan recorded such feelings: “Education must be raised to the height of patriotism and internationalism to adapt to the level of consciousness of today’s soldiers. It is no longer enough to talk about dividing two acres of land.”

Such cognition is the result of struggle. At that time, there was a “pro-American” ideology – some people believed that “personally they really couldn’t hate the American empire”; there was a “fear of the United States” ideology – they believed that if the United States dropped the atomic bomb, China would be destroyed. The Party Central Committee proposed that the focus of propaganda at that time was to “resolutely eliminate the reactionary pro-American ideology and the wrong fear of the United States, and generally cultivate an attitude of hatred, contempt, and disdain for American imperialism.” It was this powerful political mobilization that laid a strong ideological foundation for defeating the interference of American imperialism.

In this war, we invested unprecedented power in cognition. The Xinhua News Agency Chinese People’s Volunteer Army General Branch was established on the Korean front. The People’s Daily and radio stations and film studios in Beijing, Tianjin, Shenyang and other places sent reporters and staff to North Korea, leaving a large number of vivid records of that war and setting up a monument in the history of military reporting in the people’s journalism. Today, communication technology and means have undergone tremendous changes. We must carry forward the good tradition of military communication and make due contributions to in-depth ideological mobilization.

2. Fight against false information and clear up the cognitive fog

People generally believe that false information is rare and individual. However, in some major struggles, people have a certain understanding of deception. It is normal for newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, news agencies, etc. abroad, which are deeply controlled, to spread false information. Cognitive confrontation also requires anticipating the enemy and being lenient.

American data scientists studied fake news in the 2016 US election and found that if you occasionally like a piece of fake news online, you will be targeted by scripts from data mining companies such as Cambridge Analytica, which can frequently push tailored political propaganda information and reconstruct the perception of the real world. The conclusion is: “The best way to describe it is that this is an ecosystem: an ecosystem that surrounds mainstream news and ultimately kills it.”

In future wars, cognitive confrontation will not be sporadic, but rather massive, overwhelming, and unscrupulous false information that is far beyond people’s imagination. The enemy will use high-tech means such as artificial intelligence to falsify public opinion, cover up the truth, stir up public opinion, and divide the people. The unprecedented breadth, intensity, and depth of confrontation have become a huge challenge that military communication needs to fully respond to. In the face of this challenge, on the one hand, we must adhere to our political advantages to offset the enemy’s technological advantages; on the other hand, we must also catch up in terms of technological strength to avoid allowing the enemy to form a situation where one tael is worth a pound in cognitive confrontation. We must also have a deep insight into the driving force behind news hotspots and make solid preparations for cognitive confrontation in future wars.

3. Integrate into the war process and form a joint force for victory

Wherever the battle is fought, propaganda and agitation for military morale must be carried out, and the dissemination of public knowledge must follow. We must avoid separating combat from dissemination, and ensure that military dissemination and military operations are in step with each other, so as to work together to achieve victory.

Judging from the practice of our party in leading the military struggle, we have always fought well in the political battle while fighting well in the military battle, and have never relaxed political propaganda due to the intensity of fighting. Military communication has focused on the victory news from the front line, the spirit of revolutionary heroism, and the wise and creative deeds of officers and soldiers to defeat the enemy. It has spread a large number of vivid facts that have inspired military morale and made the people happy.

Military journalists are the backbone of military communication. To cultivate a large number of experts, they must be integrated into exercises and drills on a regular basis, discover good works from actual combat training, and hone strong military communication skills.

3. Focusing on the scale and magnitude of cognitive confrontation, building a main force of military communication

The report of the 20th CPC National Congress clearly proposed to consolidate and expand the mainstream ideology and public opinion in the new era. The report also clearly proposed to strengthen the construction of the all-media communication system and shape a new pattern of mainstream public opinion. Military communication should pay attention to the upgrading of thinking concepts, communication platforms, and knowledge and capabilities, and provide strong public opinion support for accelerating the construction of the People’s Army into a world-class army.

1. Innovative thinking concepts

Cognition is the premise of consensus. Only correct cognition can gather strength and unify actions. Judging from the COVID-19 pandemic over the past three years, the “cognitive epidemic” has always been with it. In local conflicts, cognitive confrontation accompanies every battlefield hotspot. In traditional and new security fields such as trade, biology, finance, and the Internet, there are signs that Western hostile forces are wantonly hyping and fully infiltrating. Although these do not occur entirely in the military field, they are all previews of cognitive confrontation in future wars.

In the era of all-media, the characteristics of increasing intensity of cognitive confrontation and increasing volume of communication should be given high attention. Military communication itself is an extremely important part of mainstream ideology and public opinion. It has important responsibilities and missions in implementing the Party’s leadership over ideological work and implementing the responsibility system for ideological work. In future wars, cognitive confrontation will begin before military struggle and run through the entire process. Thinking and research on cognitive confrontation must focus on the characteristics of modern communication in order to maintain its focus and not deviate from its direction.

Military journalists must change their mindsets and keep up with the pace of development. On the basis of writing every report well and making every product well, they must also delve into modern communication practices and study the laws of modern communication. They must attach importance to user stickiness, pay attention to follow-up effects, base themselves on the requirements of victory, and highlight the “war” content of the reports. In normal times, they must enhance their awareness of cognitive confrontation and consciously and bravely enter into the practice of cognitive confrontation.

2. Build a communication platform

Our Party attaches great importance to the construction of military communication power. Newspapers, periodicals, radio stations, movies, and books have all played an important role in different historical periods. In the new era, in order to shape a new pattern of mainstream public opinion and form an international voice that matches our country’s comprehensive national strength and international status, we need to conduct in-depth research and demonstration on the construction of military news media after the reform, and strive to build a modern military communication system that suits the national conditions and military situation and meets the requirements of the development of the times.

There is no communication without social networking, no news without video, no comment without interaction… These views reflect that the habits, preferences and choices of the audience have undergone fundamental changes. In the long run, a communication platform that integrates communication, social networking, reading and interaction and has authority and credibility is an important support for coping with cognitive confrontation.

The war of communication is a war of content and a war of platforms. We must be highly sensitive to new communication technologies and always maintain our enthusiasm for embracing new technologies. We must strengthen preparations for wartime, open up reliable communication channels, and ensure that our voices can be delivered. Whether in peacetime or wartime, we must stand firmly among the people and do a good job in military communication. This is also the fundamental requirement for adhering to the unity of party spirit and people’s nature in propaganda work.

3. Improving communication capabilities

The report of the 20th CPC National Congress clearly proposed to strengthen the study and education of military history, flourish and develop the culture of strengthening the military, and strengthen the cultivation of fighting spirit. Military communication not only accompanies and guarantees the victory of military operations, but also plays a direct role in the fundamental issue of cognition, and is a direct political operation.

Military communication in the Internet environment is a new thing, which requires communication, summary and improvement in peacetime. Military content is naturally a hot news topic, which requires high speed and intensity of communication, and requires strong ability to make decisions on the spot and respond quickly. Strengthening the normalization and diversification of military forces, firmly and flexibly carrying out military struggle, shaping the security situation, containing crises and conflicts, and winning local wars requires military communication to play an active and important role. We should focus on wartime applications, do a good job in communication training, let military communication focus on training and preparation, take active actions in equipment and reporter delivery, and the production of important military news and cultural products, and continuously improve military communication capabilities.

Cognitive confrontation is characterized by the integration of peacetime and wartime, long-lasting confrontation, and constant companionship. In the face of new situations and new problems, we cannot underestimate the status, role, and responsibility of military news dissemination. We must have a sense of responsibility that time is of the essence and cultivate strong dissemination skills that can both carry out strong ideological and political work and serve the needs of victory.

(Author’s unit: Air Force Political Work Department Propaganda and Culture Center Newspaper)

繁體中文:

作者:黃春一
摘 要:全媒體時代,圍繞軍事熱點的認知對抗對戰爭進程的影響加深,對軍事傳播的技術應用、組織形態、人才隊伍提出了新的更高要求。適應這項特點,需要在思維理念、平台建立、知識能力等方面不斷創新,為未來戰爭中的認知對抗做好準備。

關鍵字:全媒體時代;認知對抗;軍事傳播;責任論析

黨的二十大報告明確提出,「全面加強練兵備戰,提高人民軍隊打贏能力」「研究掌握資訊化智慧化戰爭特徵規律,創新軍事戰略指導,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術」。全媒體時代,人們的認知方式已經發生了深刻變化,圍繞軍事熱點的認知對抗對戰爭進程的影響加深,對軍事傳播的技術應用、組織形態、人才隊伍提出了新的更高要求。適應這項特點,需要在思維理念、平台建立、知識能力等方面不斷創新,為未來戰爭中的認知對抗做好準備。

一、掌握認知對抗的規律與本質,佔領軍事傳播主陣地

未來戰爭中的認知對抗,歸根到底是對戰爭是非曲直的判斷,是民心向背之爭,是傳播力量的較量。

(一)掌握全媒體時代的認知特點

認知與軍事的關係歷來密切,在中國古代,就有「上兵伐謀」的軍事思想,也有「弦高以牛餼退敵,墨翟以螢帶全城」的戰例。我黨歷來重視認知問題,毛澤東同志特別寫了《人的正確思想是從哪裡來的? 》一文,用辯證唯物論認識論回答了認識的來源、過程,揭示了認識的根本規律。

全媒體時代的來臨並沒有改變認知的這種根本規律,但認知方式變得更為複雜,強大的網路能力讓到達—影響—改變成為現實。隨著熱點討論的廣度和深度增加,越來越多的人「捲入」進來,以發表評論、點讚跟帖的方式「參與」。個體認知被群體帶動、影響和改變,形成帶有方向性的、能量巨大的輿論「洋流」。世界上多個地區動盪和政權更迭,都有認知的因素在起作用,必須高度重視。

戰爭和武裝衝突是天然的新聞熱點,與人民認知深度交織,並在很大程度上影響戰爭的進程和結果。未來戰爭中,軍事傳播要用正確的認知引導群眾,傳遞對正義的判斷、對軍隊的支持、對勝利的信心,以凝聚群眾力量,贏得戰爭勝利。

(二)站穩人民立場

在同一場戰爭中,對抗雙方的屬性有著本質上的不同,存在著正義與非正義、霸權與反霸權、進步與反動、干涉與反干涉、侵略與抵抗侵略等對立。毛澤東同志指出,有“反動派的輿論和人民的輿論”,做好軍事傳播,需要從政治上對這兩種不同性質的輿論進行區分。

透過對若干國際傳播事件的觀察可以看出,有的力量借助平台優勢、技術優勢,再加上慣用造謠、欺騙等手段,在傳播的量級和廣度上會佔上風。然而,多行不義必自斃,這種做法只能取得暫時的優勢,最終改變不了失敗的命運。軍事傳播要服從服務於勝戰要求,並非有樣學樣,錯誤地認為欺騙手段別人能用我們也能用。恰恰相反,由我們的黨性和人民性決定,我方的軍事傳播必須恪守真實性原則,堅決反對一切假新聞和移花接木的傳播;必須堅持傳播革命英雄主義的光輝和能打勝仗的消息,尤其不能抱持幻想打悲情牌;要鼓舞正義必勝、人民必勝的信心,揭露敵人以兇殘掩蓋的本質上的怯懦;等等。

未來戰爭中,認知對抗將空前激烈。圍繞人心和民意,敵人欺騙,我們就要反欺騙;敵人封殺,我們就要反封殺;敵人掩蓋真相,我們就要報道事實;敵人唱衰抹黑,我們就要宣傳勝利。維繫好與人民的血肉聯繫,站穩人民立場,是打贏人民戰爭的題中應有之義和贏得未來戰爭中認知對抗的根本前提。

(三)自覺服從及服務於勝戰要求

軍事傳播平戰一體,戰時有效的傳播離不開平時的探索與累積。戰時情況越緊急,對傳播的能力要求越高,對傳播基調的掌握就要越準。細微偏差透過傳播放大就可能會讓效果南轅北轍,對全媒體時代傳播的雙刃劍作用要有充分認識,透過平時一條一條地傳播,紮實練就做好網上軍事傳播的本領。

做到政治和軍事兩個戰場密切配合,就要實現軍事傳播和作戰指揮的有機對接。從國際事件的認知對抗來看,新聞產品要有足夠的數量。同時,發布一定要精準。尤其是在戰時,或者輿論形成焦點的“準戰時”,一條新聞產品口徑、發佈時機是否適當,都可能在全局上產生“蝴蝶效應”。在軍事力量的常態化多樣化運用中,要重視傳播專業力量與作戰指揮的聯繫,防止因傳播缺位導致認知對抗乏力,防止「資訊流彈」造成輿論被動。

在長期的革命戰爭實踐中,我黨我軍的戰地記者探索出許多寶貴經驗,有些原則在全媒體時代仍然適用。要重研究傳承,以防止犯主觀主義錯誤,減少盲目、少走彎路,增強信心和底氣,更好地服務於勝戰要求。

二、深研認知對抗的機制與影響,掌握軍事傳播主動權

現代傳媒成為影響一切競爭性行為結果的關鍵因素,只有深研認知對抗的機制與影響,才能掌握軍事傳播主動權。

(一)做好戰爭動員,形成正確“認知”

自古以來,戰爭必須解決「認知」問題,講求師出有名,重視上下同欲。例如,在抗美援朝出國作戰中,我們高度重視“認知”,讓每一名戰士明確“抗美援朝保家衛國”的意義,從而完成了深入的思想動員和政治動員。戰地記者華山在《朝鮮戰場日記》中這樣記載:敵機在陣地上空廣播,戰士對著敵機罵 :「除了吃呀、喝呀,你還有什麼詞兒?美國的政治就是這點子呀? 」華山記下這樣的感受:「教育必須提到愛國主義和國際主義高度,才能適應今天戰士的覺悟水平,老講分兩畝地不行了。

這樣的認知是鬥爭的結果。當時存在著「親美」思想—有人認為「個人感情上實在是對美帝仇恨不起來」;存在著「恐美」思想—認為美國放原子彈中國就要亡國。黨中央提出當時的宣傳重點是「堅決消滅親美的反動思想和恐美的錯誤心理,普遍養成對美帝國主義的仇視、鄙視、蔑視的態度。」正是這種強大的政治動員為戰勝美帝國主義的干涉奠定了強大的思想基礎。

在這場戰爭中,我們在認知上投入的力量是空前的。新華社中國人民志願軍總分社在朝鮮前線成立,人民日報社和北京、天津、沈陽等地的廣播工作站、電影製片廠等都派出記者和工作人員入朝,為那場戰爭留下了大量生動鮮活的記錄,樹起了人民新聞事業軍事報道史上的一座豐碑。今天,傳播技術和手段發生了巨大的變化,我們要發揚軍事傳播的好傳統,為深入的思想動員作出應有貢獻。

(二)對抗假訊息,廓清認知“迷霧”

人們一般認為,假資訊是少數的、個別的。然而,在一些重大鬥爭實踐中,人民對欺騙性有了一定認識。國外被深度操控的報紙、廣播、電視、網路、通訊社等,散播假訊息是常態,認知對抗也同樣要料敵從寬。

美國資料科學家研究了2016年美國大選中的假新聞發現,如果在網路上偶爾給一則假新聞點贊,就會被「劍橋分析」這種資料探勘公司的腳本盯上,從而可以頻繁推送量身客製化的政治宣傳訊息,並重構對真實世界的認知。結論認為:“最好的描述方式是,這是一個生態系統:一個包圍了主流新聞,並最終扼殺了主流新聞的生態系統。”

在未來戰爭中,認知對抗面對的並非零星的,相反是海量的、鋪天蓋地的、無所不用其極的、遠超人們想像的虛假信息。敵人將使用人工智慧等高技術手段,偽造民意、掩蓋真相、攪動輿論、分化民眾。前所未有的對抗廣度、強度、深度,成為軍事傳播需要全力應對的極大挑戰。面對這種挑戰,一方面,要堅持我們的政治優勢以抵消敵人的技術優勢;另一方面,也要從技術力量上迎頭追趕,避免在認知對抗上讓敵人形成以鎰稱銖的局面。也要深刻洞察新聞熱點背後的推動力量,為未來戰爭中的認知對抗做好紮實準備。

(三)融入戰爭進程,形成勝戰合力

仗打到哪裡,軍心士氣的宣傳鼓動工作就要做到哪裡,對民眾的認知傳播就要跟到哪裡。要避免作戰歸作戰、傳播歸傳播,確保軍事傳播和軍事行動步調一致,合力製勝。

從我黨領導軍事鬥爭的實踐看,都是在打好軍事仗的同時打好政治仗,從未因打仗緊張而放鬆政治宣傳,讓軍事傳播聚焦來自一線的勝利消息、革命英雄主義精神、官兵贏得敵人的智慧創舉,傳播了大量激勵軍心士氣、讓人民歡欣鼓舞的生動事實。

軍事新聞工作者是軍事傳播的骨幹力量,要培養大批行家里手,平時就要融入到演習演練中,從實戰實訓中發掘好作品,錘煉出過硬的軍事傳播本領。

三、著眼認知對抗的規模與量級,建立軍事傳播主力軍

黨的二十大報告明確提出,鞏固壯大奮進新時代的主流思想輿論。報告也明確提出,強化全媒體傳播體系建設,塑造主流輿論新格局。軍事傳播應重視思考理念、傳播平台、知識能力的升級,為加速把人民軍隊建成世界一流軍隊提供強力輿論支持。

(一)革新思維理念

認知是共識的前提,只有正確的認知才能凝聚力量、統一行動。從三年來的新冠疫情看,「認知疫情」一直與之伴生。局部衝突中,認知對抗伴隨著每一個戰場熱點。在貿易、生物、金融、網路等傳統和新型安全領域,都有西方敵對勢力肆意炒作、全力滲透的跡象。這些雖然不完全發生在軍事領域,但無一不是未來戰爭中認知對抗的預演。

全媒體時代,對認知對抗激烈程度增加及傳播體量增大的特點,應予以高度重視。軍事傳播本身就是主流思想輿論極為重要的內容,在貫徹黨對意識形態工作領導權,落實意識形態工作責任制方面,負有重要職責與使命。在未來戰爭中,認知對抗先於軍事鬥爭開始並貫穿全程。認知對抗的思考與研究必須著眼於現代傳播特點,方能不失其重心,不偏離方向。

軍事新聞工作者要轉變思維理念,跟上時代發展步伐,在寫好每一篇報道、做好每一個產品的基礎上,還要深入現代傳播實踐,深研現代傳播規律;要重視用戶粘度,關注後續效應,立足勝戰要求,突顯報道的含「戰」量;平時就要增強認知對抗意識,自覺地、勇敢地進入認知對抗鬥爭實踐。

(二)打造傳播平台

我黨高度重視軍事傳播力量的建設,報紙期刊、廣播電台、影視書籍,都在不同歷史時期扮演了重要角色。在新時代,塑造主流輿論新格局,形成與我國綜合國力和國際地位相符的國際話權,需要我們深入研究論證軍事新聞媒體在改革後的建設問題,努力建構適合國情軍情、符合時代發展要求的現代軍事傳播體系。

無社交不傳播、無視頻不新聞、無互動不評論……這樣一些看法反映出受眾群體的習慣、喜好和選擇發生了根本變化。長遠來看,集通信、社交、閱讀、互動於一體,並具有權威性和公信力的傳播平台是應對認知對抗的重要支撐。

傳播戰,打的是內容仗,也是平台仗。要對傳播的新技術高度敏感,始終保持擁抱新技術的熱情。要著眼戰時加強準備,開啟可靠的傳播管道,確保聲音能夠傳遞出去。無論平時或戰時,都要牢牢站在人民中間做好軍事傳播,這也是堅持宣傳工作黨性和人民性統一的根本要求。

(三)提升傳播能力

黨的二十大報告明確提出,加強軍史學習教育,繁榮發展強軍文化,強化戰鬥精神培育。軍事傳播既有為軍事行動贏得勝利伴隨和保障的屬性,又有在認知這個根本問題上直接作用的屬性,是直接的政治作戰。

在網路環境中做軍事傳播是個新事物,需要在平時邊傳播、邊總結、邊改進。軍事內容天然是新聞熱點,對傳播速度和力度要求高,要求有很強的臨機決斷和快速反應能力。加強軍事力量常態化多樣化運用,堅定靈活進行軍事鬥爭,塑造安全態勢,遏制危機衝突,打贏局部戰爭,需要軍事傳播發揮積極的重要的作用。要著眼戰時應用,做好傳播訓練,讓軍事傳播向練兵備戰聚焦,在裝備和記者投送、重要軍事新聞文化產品製作等方面積極作為,不斷提升軍事傳播能力。

認知對抗具有平戰一體、持久對抗、始終伴隨的特質。面對新狀況新問題,我們不能把軍事新聞傳播的地位看輕了,作用看低了,責任看小了。要以時不我待的責任感,練就既能遂行強有力的思想政治工作,又能服務勝戰需要的過硬傳播本領。

(作者單位:空軍政治工作部宣傳文化中心報社)

中國軍事資料來源:http://www.81.cn/rmjz_203219/jsjz/2023nd1q_244462/tbch_244468/16203888.html

Chinese Military Considers Metaverse the New Frontier for Future Cognitive Warfare

中國軍方認為元宇宙是未來認知戰的新領域

現代英語翻譯:

●The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but also reacts to the real world.

●Parallel with the real world, reaction to the real world, and integration of multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse.

●The metaverse provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society.

● Strengthening the follow-up research on the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare and highlighting the exploration of the mechanism of the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare will help enrich and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but reacts to the real world. When virtual technologies such as digital, Internet, augmented reality and modern communications, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other technologies develop to a certain stage, the metaverse will emerge. Being parallel to the real world, reacting to the real world, and integrating multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural law of human understanding and transformation of the world. It directly acts on human thinking and cognition but is not bound by the essential attributes of thinking and cognition, which determines that it carries the operating laws of the real world, provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behavior, state and laws of complex systems in reality, and a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. At the same time, it is itself a complex cognitive body, so it has immeasurable cognitive warfare application value.

The basic mechanism of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

The difference between the metaverse and other technologies is that it builds a complete digital world. Its operation is not supported by a single or a few technologies, but by a complex high-tech complex. This complex is built by humans, is a product of cognition, and continues to develop and evolve with the development of human cognitive practice. Its cognitive application has a unique regular mechanism.

System enhancement mechanism. The digital world constructed by the metaverse is itself a highly developed cognitive world. In this special cognitive world, technology not only exists as an additional role such as support and guarantee, but also directly participates in the shaping of cognition itself as a basic element of cognition. In other words, the technology that constitutes the metaverse itself has a distinct cognitive background, which not only supports the operation of cognition but also realizes the self-construction, revolution and transcendence of cognition; it not only provides a series of necessary technical services, but also creates a holographic technical soil for human cognition to operate independently and fight independently. The effect of the metaverse on cognition is not one-dimensional, but full-dimensional; not single-line, but full-system; not independent, but immersive; not fragmentary, but continuous; not cyclical, but full-life process. How far the thinking cognition develops, how far the metaverse develops, and thus it can shape people’s thinking cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly. Therefore, humans have used high technology to create “Avatar”, a complex system combining man and machine, and have also created a life form on “Pandora” that can think independently, recognize itself, and think and act on its own. This life form, which was created by humans and is independent of humans, has achieved self-improvement and development in the new universe.

The mechanism of mutual construction of technology and knowledge. Unlike the one-way effect of individual technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks on thinking and cognition, the metaverse provides a space for mutual construction of technology and cognition, and influence and counter-influence. In this space, we can simulate, demonstrate, simulate, and verify the process and results of this two-way mutual construction and promotion, so as to understand cognition more accurately and efficiently, improve cognitive warfare methods, and directly engage in real cognitive confrontation. The metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenes, where cognitive warfare can be promoted efficiently, enhanced at a fast pace, and presented in a panoramic manner. It is reported that the US military uses virtual technology to verify the performance of new weapons and equipment, test the effectiveness of the use of new tactics, and conduct combat simulation training, relying on the deployment of forces, combat terrain, human characteristics, and other scenes similar to actual combat constructed in virtual spaces such as the metaverse. At the same time, more and more countries and armies are conducting direct cognitive attacks and defenses with their opponents through virtual spaces, confusing their minds, misleading their directions, and eroding their will.

Active reflection mechanism. As a virtual existence parallel to the real world, the metaverse is not a simple digital copy of the three-dimensional space, but has its own operating rules and can actively act on the real world. This active action is the focus of the cognitive application of the metaverse. The metaverse space game reflects the characteristics of cognitive warfare. The war results deduced in the metaverse through virtual simulation may directly affect the real world, extending to the conscious cognitive competition game through sensory touch, thereby winning the dominant position in cognitive warfare. In the cognitive perspective, the metaverse is both a new cognitive space and the main battlefield of cognition, as well as an extended domain of cognition and a new cognitive component. At present, the military of many countries uses sandbox operations, war games and even computer simulations to formulate and test strategies and tactics, revise the application of tactics, improve training methods, and improve weapons and equipment. This is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to reality. With the continuous development and integration of the metaverse technology group, cognitive confrontation will inevitably shift more and faster from the real world to a hybrid world combining virtuality and reality.

The basic characteristics of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Existence determines consciousness, and technology drives creation. The metaverse has many characteristics, such as parallelism with the real world, initiative in the real world, and comprehensiveness that integrates multiple technologies. These prominent characteristics determine the different characteristics and laws of its effects on thinking and cognition.

Cross-domain construction. The formation, development and evolution of cognition are rarely determined by a single factor, but are often the result of the combined effect of multiple factors. The metaverse originates from the real world and is presented in the virtual space. It has the characteristics of multi-domain interconnection that runs through the real and virtual worlds. As the saying goes, “a lot of gossip can melt gold, and accumulated criticism can destroy bones.” This cross-domain characteristic that spans different fields and opens up related spaces can best influence and shape people’s thinking and cognition from different angles. The most typical case is that game developers are increasingly focusing on using virtual stories based on historical facts and real feelings to attract and infect people. The United States has used this cross-domain shaped surreal “real” experience to spread values. At present, the most representative “metaverse” themed science fiction work is “Ready Player One” directed by Spielberg. The play focuses on depicting the era background of the birth of the “metaverse” and the huge contrast between the real status and virtual status of the protagonist. Through the plot and special effects shots, it delicately portrays the real sense of human participation, thereby spreading the American ideology, especially the values ​​of gaining wealth, status, love and friendship through “bloodless” struggle in the virtual world.

Integrated influence. The important fulcrums of cognitive warfare are strategy and technology. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the proportion of technology in cognitive warfare is increasing and its role is becoming more and more prominent. It can be said that cognitive warfare without scientific and technological support is cognitive warfare without power, and cognitive warfare with advanced technology is more likely to win. As a complex system integrating multiple cutting-edge technologies, the metaverse has a natural advantage in the use of cognitive warfare. Many people, including adults, are deeply trapped in the virtual world and indulge in online games. It is very important that the virtual space gives game operators a super-time and space experience and a sense of achievement. If martial arts novels are fairy tales for adults, then the metaverse, which can “do whatever you want”, creates a super fairy tale world, which has an immeasurable impact on people’s thinking, cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotional will, and behavior patterns.

Compromising influence. A big difference between the metaverse and other technical means is that it constructs a virtual world that originates from the real world but reacts to the real world. In this complex domain space, people’s thinking and cognition go back and forth between the real world and the virtual space, verify each other, repeatedly confirm, and constantly correct, thereby generating new thinking and cognition, and exerting a dynamic influence on both worlds. This two-way interactive compromising influence, on the one hand, is conducive to the formation and development of correct thinking and cognition, making the cognition of the real world more imaginative with the wings of the virtual world’s thoughts, and at the same time, it also makes the cognition of the virtual space find the material support of the real world and become more scientific. On the other hand, if it is not operated properly, it is likely to cause great safety hazards and ethical problems. In recent years, the U.S. military has relied on artificial intelligence and virtual technology to remotely control drones to attack opponents, which is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to the real world. This attack is far away from the tragic scene of face-to-face fighting, which greatly dilutes the drone operator’s awe of life and lowers the threshold for remotely controlling the opponent. At the same time, due to the imperfect reconnaissance and identification technology, incidents of accidental shooting, injury, and killing of civilians, friendly forces, and even their own troops often occur.

The basic style of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Metaverse cognitive warfare is based on reality and leads future development. It involves both the virtual and real worlds, penetrates multiple fields, covers multiple technologies, and has a variety of combat styles. There is great uncertainty, but it is not without rules. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are three basic styles.

Platform confrontation. In terms of its relationship with human thinking and cognition, the metaverse itself is a complex cognitive actor, a derivative of human thinking and cognition, and an important component and platform of cognitive warfare. When hostile countries and armies regard the metaverse as an important position for cognitive warfare, cognitive offensive and defensive operations between different camps within the metaverse exist in reality. On this platform, all technologies, resources and forces of the metaverse are integrated and operated with thinking and cognition as the center. Metaverse operations are prominently manifested as cognitive offensive and defensive operations aimed at disrupting, delaying, blocking, destroying and eliminating the existence and operation of the opponent’s metaverse. In this field, whoever has higher-end strategic planning, more flexible tactical application, more advanced technical force and more solid material support will be able to gain the initiative in metaverse cognitive warfare.

System attack. The metaverse is a cognitive system composed of a series of cutting-edge technologies, and systemicity is its inherent attribute and vitality guarantee. Advanced technologies such as digital foundation, efficient communication, blockchain identity authentication, holographic AR imaging, artificial intelligence, and high-performance Internet constitute a unified body with tight structure, functional coupling, and complete system. The components are indispensable for the formation and development of thinking cognition and offensive and defensive confrontation. It is difficult to imagine that the metaverse still has the possibility of existence without the support of advanced technology groups such as high-level digitization, high-quality communication, and high-speed computing. Using superior forces to force or use asymmetric tactics to attack and block the key nodes and technological operation chains of the opponent’s metaverse system, hinder its operation, suppress its functions, and destroy its existence is an important style and efficient path of metaverse cognitive warfare.

Divert the flow. An important value and significance of the existence and development of the metaverse lies in serving and supporting the related activities of the real world. Under normal circumstances, the metaverse can demonstrate, display, review and predict the related activities of the real world in a digital form. Once the communication between the virtual and real worlds is disturbed or the self-operation of the metaverse is disordered, it is easy to cause the situation reflected to be untrue, the information analyzed to be distorted, the conclusions derived to be invalid, and the suggestions provided to be wrong, causing the related activities of the real world to deviate. It is based on this that we can concentrate our efforts on inducing attacks on the internal operation of the opponent’s metaverse or the communication technology devices of the two worlds, and use extremely confusing and deceptive information and scenes to divert the flow, confuse their cognition, interfere with their judgment, and mislead their decision-making. Therefore, we should strengthen the tracking research on the cognitive warfare of the role of the metaverse, highlight the exploration of the cognitive warfare mechanism of the role of the metaverse, and strengthen and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute of the Academy of Military Sciences)

現代國語:

●元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。

●與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。

●元宇宙提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式,以及探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段。

●加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,將有助於豐富促進認知戰理論建構。

元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。當數位、網路、擴增實境等虛擬技術和現代通訊、區塊鏈、人工智慧等技術發展到一定階段,元宇宙就橫空出世。與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。元宇宙運作符合人類認識世界、改造世界的自然規律,其直接作用於人的思維認知但又不拘泥於思維認知的本質屬性,決定其本身承載了現實世界的運作規律,提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式和探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段,同時它本身就是一個複雜的認知體,因而具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本機制

元宇宙相對於其他技術的差異在於構築了一個完整的數位世界,支撐其運作的不是單一或幾個技術,而是一個複雜的高科技複合體。這個複合體是人構築的,是認知的產物並隨人類認知實踐的發展不斷發展演變,其認知運用具有獨特的規律機制。

體系增強機理。元宇宙構築的數位世界本身就是一個高度發展的認知世界,在這個特殊的認知世界裡,科技不僅以支撐和保障等附加角色存在,也直接作為認知的基本元素參與認知本身的塑造。也就是說構成元宇宙的技術本身俱有鮮明的認知底色,既支撐了認知的運作又實現了認知的自我建構、革命與超越;既提供了一系列必要的技術服務,又打造了一個人類認知自我運作、獨立作戰的全息技術土壤。元宇宙對認知的作用不是單向度的,而是全維度的;不是單線的,而是全系統的;不是獨立式的,而是沉浸型的;不是片段的,而是持續型的;不是周期階段型的,而是全壽命流程的。思維認知發展有多遠,元宇宙發展就有多遠,因而能夠更全面更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知。於是,人類既用高科技打造了「阿凡達」這個人機結合的複雜系統,同時也打造了一個在「潘朵拉星球」上能夠自主思維、自我認知、自行思想與行動的生命體,這個產生於人又獨立於人的生命體在新的宇宙空間中實現了自我完善與發展。

技知互構機理。與人工智慧、資訊網路等單一技術對思考認知的單向作用不同,元宇宙提供了一個技術與認知作用與反作用、影響與反影響的互構空間。在這個空間裡,我們能夠模擬、展示、模擬、驗證這種雙向互構共促的過程與結果,進而更加精準高效地認識認知、改進認知戰方式,同時也可以直接進行真刀真槍的認知對抗。元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進、快節奏增強、全景式呈現。據悉,美軍將虛擬技術運用於新武器裝備性能驗證、新戰法運用效果檢驗及作戰模擬訓練等,依託的就是在元宇宙等虛擬空間中構建的兵力佈置、作戰地形、人文特徵等近似實戰的場景。同時,也有越來越多的國家和軍隊透過虛擬空間與對手進行直接的認知攻防,迷茫其心智,誤導其方向,銷蝕其意志。

能動反射機理。元宇宙作為與現實世界平行的虛擬存在,不是簡單地將三維空間數位化複製,而有著自身運行規則並能動作用於現實世界,這種能動作用即是元宇宙認知運用的著力點。元宇宙空間博弈體現認知戰特點,透過虛擬模擬在元宇宙中推演出的戰爭結果,可能直接作用於現實世界,透過感官觸覺延伸到意識認知的爭奪博弈,從而贏得認知戰主導權。在認知視域下,元宇宙既是認知的新空間也是認知的主戰場,既是認知的延伸域也是認知的新構件。目前,不少國家軍隊透過沙盤作業、兵棋推演甚至電腦模擬模擬來發展和檢驗戰略戰術、修訂戰法運用、完善訓練方法、改進武器裝備,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實的典型案例。隨著元宇宙技術群不斷發展融合,認知對抗必將更多、更快由現實世界向虛實結合的混合世界發展轉進。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本特徵

存在決定意識,技術驅動創造。元宇宙具有與現實世界的平行性、對現實世界的能動性、融多種技術於一體的綜合性等諸多特徵。這些突出特徵,決定其作用於思考認知的不同特徵規律。

跨領域構塑。認知的形成發展演變很少由單一因素決定,往往是多種因素綜合作用的結果。元宇宙源自現實世界、呈現於虛擬空間,具有貫穿現實與虛擬的多域連結特徵。所謂“眾口鑠金,積毀銷骨”,這種跨越不同領域、打通關聯空間的跨域特質,最能從不同角度影響和塑造人的思維認知。最典型的案例就是遊戲開發商越來越注重用建立在歷史事實和現實感受基礎上的虛擬故事吸引人感染人。美國已將這種跨領域塑造的超現實「真實」體驗用於價值觀的傳播。目前最具代表性的「元宇宙」主題科幻作品是史匹柏導演的《頭號玩家》,該劇聚焦於描繪「元宇宙」誕生的時代背景及主角的現實地位與虛擬地位之間的巨大反差,透過故事情節和特效鏡頭細膩地刻畫人類的真實參與感,從而傳播在虛擬世界裡透過「不流血」的鬥爭也能獲得財富、地位、愛情和友誼的美式意識形態特別是價值觀。

融合式影響。認知戰運作依託的重要支點是謀略和技術,隨著科技的發展和社會的進步,技術之於認知戰構成所佔比重越來越大、作用越來越突出。可以說,缺乏科技支撐的認知戰是缺乏力量的認知戰,有先進科技加持的認知戰獲勝的可能性更大。元宇宙作為融多種前沿科技於一體的複雜系統,在認知戰運用上具有天然優勢。不少人包括成年人深陷虛擬世界、沉湎網路遊戲,很重要的是虛擬空間賦予遊戲操盤手的超時空體驗和成就快感。如果說武俠小說是成人的童話,那麼可以「隨心所欲」縱橫馳騁的元宇宙,則打造了一個超級童話世界,其對人的思維認知、價值追求、道德觀念、情感意志、行為模式等的影響不可限量。

折衝性浸染。元宇宙與其他技術手段的一個很大不同,在於其建構的是一個源自現實世界但又反作用於現實世界母體的虛擬世界。在這個複雜領域空間中,人的思維認知在現實世界與虛擬空間之間往來折衝、相互印證、反覆確認、不斷修正進而產生新的思考認知,並對兩個世界都產生施動性影響。這種雙向互動的折衝性浸染,一方面有利於正確思維認知的形成與發展,使現實世界的認知插上虛擬世界思想放飛的翅膀而更富想像力,同時也使虛擬空間的認知找到現實世界的物質支撐而更科學。另一方面如果操作不當,很可能產生極大的安全隱患和倫理問題。這些年美軍依賴人工智慧和虛擬技術遙控的無人機攻擊對手,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實世界的典型案例。這種攻擊因遠離面對面搏殺的慘烈現場,極大淡化了無人機操作員對生命的敬畏,降低了其遙控攻擊對手的門檻。同時,由於偵察辨識技術不完善,誤擊誤傷誤殺平民、友軍甚至自己軍隊的事時有發生。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本樣式

元宇宙作用認知戰基於現實基礎、引領未來發展,涉及虛實兩界、貫通多個領域、涵蓋多種技術,作戰樣式多種多樣,有很大的不確定性,但並非無規律可循。綜合分析,基本樣式有以下三種。

平台對抗。元宇宙就其與人的思維認知的關係而言,本身就是一個複雜的認知行為體,是人類思維認知的衍生品,也是認知戰的重要構件和平台。當敵對國家和軍隊都將元宇宙視為認知戰的重要陣地時,元宇宙內部不同陣營間的認知攻防作戰就會現​​實存在。在這個平台上,元宇宙的一切技術、資源和力量都以思維認知為中心來整合運作。元宇宙作戰突顯為以擾亂、遲滯、阻擋、摧毀、消滅對手元宇宙存在和運作為目的的認知攻防作戰。在這個領域中,誰的戰略運籌更高端、戰術運用更靈活、技術力量更先進、物質支撐更堅實,誰就能取得元宇宙認知戰主動權。

體系破襲。元宇宙是由一系列前沿技術所構成的認知系統,而體系性則是其固有屬性和活力保證。數位基礎、高效通訊、區塊鏈身分認證、全像AR成像、人工智慧、高效能互聯網等先進科技,構成結構緊密、功能耦合、體系完整的統一體,其中構件對思維認知的形成發展與攻防對抗缺一不可。很難想像缺乏高階階數位化、高品質通聯、高速度計算等先進技術群的支撐,元宇宙還有存在的可能性。運用優勢力量高壓強製或以非對稱戰法攻擊和阻斷對手元宇宙體系的關鍵節點和科技運行鏈條,阻遏其運作、壓制其功能、摧毀其存在,是元宇宙認知戰的重要樣式和高效路徑。

曲嚮導流。元宇宙存在發展的一個重要價值和意義在於服務支持現實世界關聯活動。正常情況下,元宇宙能夠以數位形式全景展示、展示、複盤和預測現實世界的相關活動。一旦虛實兩個世界的通聯受擾受阻或元宇宙內部自運行失序,很容易導致其反映的情況失實、分析的信息失真、推導的結論失效、提供的建議失策,使現實世界的關聯活動跑偏走向。正是基於此,可集中力量對對手元宇宙內部運作或兩個世界的通聯技術裝置進行誘導攻擊,用極具迷惑性欺騙性的信息和場景曲嚮導流,迷茫其認知,幹擾其判斷,誤導其決策。因此,應加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,強化促進認知戰理論建構。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍事政治工作研究院)

中國軍事資源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-03/03/content_310888.htm

Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍隊把攻防當作認知域作戰作戰的重要著力點

現代英語翻譯:

Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.

現代國語:

價值攻防是從戰略層面進行認知域作戰的重要方式,通常價值攻防是透過幹預人的思維、信念、價值觀等,以達成瓦解敵方共識,摧毀敵方意志,進而掌控戰場綜合控制權的目的。精確掌握價值攻防的特性、機制、手段,對奪取未來認知域作戰優勢至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的特點

價值攻防是指透過引發個體或群體的深層邏輯思辨、價值判斷改變,完成其對相對穩定的認知結果的干預和影響,以期重構人的意志、思維、心理、情感等認知能力。價值攻防主要有以下幾個特點:

軟性對抗。傳統戰爭主要依賴暴力手段來削弱瓦解敵方的軍事能力,通常具有較強的戰爭強度。認知域作戰將不再侷限於攻城略地等硬性對抗,而更著重於圍繞價值陣地展開滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制,透過爭奪認知域對抗的主導權,進一步激發物理域和資訊域的作戰效能,從而奪取戰場主動,甚至達到不戰而屈人之兵的效果。在實踐中,價值攻防往往著眼於一個國家、民族的文化傳統、價值觀念和社會心理展開,最終達到對敵方意志摧毀、認知操縱、精神控制的目的。

全維度釋放。現代戰爭日益呈現總體性、多域性、全時性特徵。認知域作戰旨在透過幹預人的意識進而影響戰場效果,而意識的相對穩定決定了人的世界觀、信仰等價值觀念一般情況下往往較為穩固,因此價值攻防需要長期的、不間斷的、全息全維度地進行。從時間上看,價值攻防模糊了平戰邊界,常態在戰、隨時在戰,持續積累、逐步釋放作戰效能;從空間上看,價值攻防模糊了作戰前後方界限,在有形空間與無形空間全方位展開;從領域上看,價值攻防模糊了軍事與非軍事的界限,不僅發生在軍事領域,也存在於政治、經濟、外交、文化等領域,呈現出全局覆蓋的特徵。

科技賦能。認知域作戰是一項技術密集的複雜系統工程。人工智慧、腦科學、量子運算等新興技術手段全流程滲透,正在引發認知域作戰的迭代升級與深刻變革。智慧化工具從根本上增強了認知域作戰人員操縱對手思想和乾預對手思維的能力,人機混合作為作戰力量新手段新樣式將改變未來戰爭主體,自主對抗、雲腦制勝或成為主流攻防模式。近年來,北約推出的認知電子戰設備,旨在透過資訊攻防來改變對手價值認知及行為。科技發展也引發了認知革命,資訊的快速傳播進一步加速了大眾價值認知差異,認知孤島加劇了不同主體之間的價值鴻溝,智能化帶來的社會結構變遷則深刻改變著政治文化格局。從這點出發,在未來認知域作戰中,牽住科技創新的“牛鼻子”,掌握關鍵核心技術,對於奪取戰場主動至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的機理

價值攻防是認知域作戰的高階對抗,作用對象指向的是人的深層認知。意識是社會存在在大腦中的反映,對社會存在的調節、對大眾意識的引導和人腦作用的改變,都能強化或扭轉人的意識。要在攻防對抗中製勝對手,就要遵循思考認知規律,掌握價值攻防制勝機理。

衝擊價值「保護帶」。佔領價值制高點是開展價值攻防的邏輯起點。社會意識往往由相對穩定的核心價值觀念和外圍的輔助性理論所構成,經濟、政治、宗教、文化等各種理論都能被建構調適以用來保護核心價值觀念免受外來衝擊,因此也承受著其他價值觀的衝擊挑戰。在外軍看來,價值攻防就是要透過文化滲透、宗教衝突、戰略傳播等手段,配合物理域和資訊域的行動,不斷衝擊對手意識形態的「保護帶」領域。這往往需要抓住影響對手認知的價值觀念、政治態度、宗教信仰等,透過擾亂其社會群體心理,誘發價值困惑,動搖作戰意志,摧毀文化認同,甚至改變瓦解其原有的認知體系,從而灌輸或植入新的、於己有利的價值觀念,以實現作戰目的。

點燃衝突“引爆點”。認知域作戰涉及歷史文化、政治制度、民族情感、宗教信仰等多個範疇,戰爭主體也從單純軍事人員拓展到一般民眾。透過炒作話題爭端、公共事件,激發一般民眾的認知衝突,將成為認知領域作戰的重要手段。在近幾場局部衝突中,交戰各方透過有目的性的敘事點燃國家民族情緒,引發政治危機進而影響戰局已屢見不鮮。未來戰爭,一些國家利用熱點敏感事件引爆輿論,依托網路技術對一般民眾進行聚攏吸附、煽動動員、精準操控和誘導塑造,從而推動一般性衝突上升為信仰之爭、制度之爭、價值之爭將成為常態。

控制認知「斷裂面」。認知空間作為觀念層面的存在,由全部作戰個體的主觀認知空間疊加而成,是分化的、差異性的乃至衝突性的價值集合體。然而,意識形態具有「縫合」功能,透過認知塑造、話語建構,可以把斷裂的認知有效地「縫合」起來,把分散的價值凝聚起來,形成相對穩固的認知體系。二戰後法國對戰敗創傷曾進行過有效的認知“縫合”,其運用一整套獨立敘事邏輯,闡述戰爭如何為法國提供了“新的機會”,極大地凝聚了法國人民對政府的政治認同。在認知域作戰中開展價值陣地爭奪,應注重敵方內部的認知斷裂面,尋找敵我之間的認知連接點進行認知“縫合”,最大限度地團結各方力量,孤立瓦解敵人。

價值攻防作用認知域的主要手段

價值攻防使認知對抗從輿論、心理等層面拓展到思維空間,從軍事領域拓展到整體全局,從而實現了對敵方深層的政治認同的打擊。當前世界軍事強國都在加強戰略預置,瞄準目標主體、戰法手段的深刻變化,變革作戰思維,積極掌控認知域作戰的主動權。

以深層摧毀為目標。認知域作戰直接作用於人的大腦認知,相較於物理域作戰,更容易實現深層的戰略意圖。特別是人的語言層級、思維層級和文化層級的「高階認知」一旦被突破,有助於從戰略上扭轉戰場態勢,實現戰爭的政治目的。基於此,認知域作戰往往始於未戰,透過幹預對手內政外交,動搖其意識形態和價值觀基礎等;戰時則注重影響敵方戰爭決策、戰役指揮、戰鬥實施的價值判斷,打擊或削弱作戰人員的決策能力和抵抗意誌等。敵對各方都試圖做到“維繫自己的世界,同時增加對手的破壞性壓力”,以通過爭奪認知優勢實現決策優勢,進而取得行動優勢的目標。

以普通個體為中心。未來認知域作戰的主體將不再局限於軍事人員,廣義上講,可以進行資訊交流傳播的個體都可能成為參戰力量。相較於社會領域的精英,一般民眾更容易接受和傳播多元價值,其認知空間被操縱的機率更大。目前,網路媒體正成為社會領域資訊交流傳播的主要管道,透過有針對性的訊息引導、訊息傳遞,進而達到認知塑造的目的。外軍實踐證明,借助對一般個體的認知塑造,可以造成從下到上的遞進滲透和認知幹擾,使一般民眾與社會決策層之間的意識觀念產生背離,在關鍵行動中無法達成有效共識。

以持久作戰為形式。與物理域軍事鬥爭直接打擊摧毀「硬」目標不同,認知域作戰的潛在目標為人的認知,價值攻防指向的是改變作戰對象的觀念、信念、意志、情感等,往往需要潛移默化、步步為營。有效的認知進攻一般在作戰準備階段就發起,並貫穿戰爭始末,透過收集對手的認知態勢、決策習慣、思考模式等情況,有針對性地進行營造態勢、改變氛圍等行動。因此,認知域作戰更需要加強整體設計,尤其要注重協調多方力量,在輿論場營造、外交等多個陣地多點強化預置準備,進而形成整體作戰合力。

中國軍事資源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/HDOT8JIM0511DV4H888.html

China’s “War of Annihilation” from the Perspective of Modern Warfare

現代戰爭視角下的中國“殲滅戰”

現代英語:

“Based on the evolution of war, grasp the “cautious first battle””

  Written in front

  In the history of our army, fighting a war of annihilation is one of the most distinctive and important guiding ideas for operations. As early as the Agrarian Revolutionary War, based on the war purpose of “preserving ourselves and destroying the enemy”, our army clearly proposed that the basic policy in operations was to fight a war of annihilation. Since then, in different historical periods, according to different environments, situations and tasks, our army has maintained a high degree of flexibility and maneuverability in combat guidance, and has resolutely implemented the principle of fighting a war of annihilation, continuously enriched and developed combat theories, and wrote classic examples of the weak defeating the strong in the history of world wars.

  With the advent of the information age, the form of warfare, battlefield environment, military technology, and warfare mechanisms have undergone major changes. How the traditional theory of annihilation warfare can adapt to the changes of the times, give full play to our strengths, attack the enemy’s weaknesses, and innovate and develop is a question of the times that our generation of soldiers must answer well.

  Depriving the enemy of its combat power is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In the long-term practice of revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. In order to dampen the enemy’s spirit, seize the initiative and defeat the enemy, while emphasizing the cautiousness of the first battle, we pay great attention to planning and fighting a war of annihilation to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. Therefore, “it is better to cut off one finger than to injure ten fingers”, completely depriving the enemy of its combat capability, avoiding a war of attrition or a war of defeat, has also become a key indicator for measuring the success or failure of a war of annihilation and the comprehensive effectiveness of combat. Combat under traditional conditions is often the physical superposition of troops and weapons in the same time and space, emphasizing hard killing as the main method, and the strength of combat effectiveness is mainly manifested through parameters such as mobility, firepower, and protection. Correspondingly, quickly and effectively eliminating the enemy’s living forces has become the most effective means of winning hearts and minds and disintegrating the enemy.

  Entering the information age, information power has driven the displacement of combat effectiveness measurement standards in an exponential manner. While becoming the dominant factor in the informationized battlefield, it has strongly promoted the organic integration of combat power with early warning detection, reconnaissance intelligence, command and control, and rear-end support. The warring parties are showing a trend of full-system and full-factor confrontation. The informationized battlefield no longer simply emphasizes the spatial and temporal concentration of troops and weapons to suppress and attack the enemy, but focuses on relying on the network information system to seize information space and compete for information advantages, so that the enemy “cannot see clearly, cannot connect, and cannot hit accurately”, thereby completely depriving the enemy of its combat effectiveness. In the Kosovo War, after suffering 78 days of continuous air strikes by NATO, although the Yugoslav army did not suffer major losses in its manpower, it was always in a passive position because the material basis of the war and the reconnaissance and early warning, command and control, air defense and anti-missile systems were destroyed and paralyzed by the enemy, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty.

  In today’s era, destroying the enemy’s key war support elements, depriving it of the objective material basis for continuous combat, and undermining its will to wage war are not only important options for annihilation warfare to pursue deterrence effects and deprive the enemy of its combat effectiveness, but also a necessary way for annihilation warfare to achieve combat intentions and defeat the opponent.

  Attacking the key points and breaking the system is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  For a long time, pulling teeth out of a tiger’s mouth and striking the enemy’s vital points have been important indicators for testing the courage and command art of commanders and fighters, and are also effective means to defeat the enemy and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. During the Hujia Wopeng Battle of the Liaoshen Campaign during the War of Liberation, the 3rd Column of the Northeast Field Army first destroyed the Liao Yaoxiang Corps Command through bold penetration, infiltration, and division, and quickly trapped the enemy in a state of collapse and defeat. But at the same time, we should also see that due to the constraints of military technology level and the effectiveness of weapons and equipment, in traditional operations, there are often many practical difficulties in accurately striking core targets such as enemy command organizations and key defense positions, and there is a lack of effective means to “go straight to Huanglong”. It can be said that traditional annihilation warfare is still more about annihilating the opponent’s living forces. This also makes it an important factor in designing the combat process and considering the success or failure of operations in traditional operations to measure and compare the number and scale of troops and weapons of both sides.

  In the information age, on the one hand, the environmental situation and war thinking have undergone profound changes. The necessity and possibility of expanding the size of the army in exchange for improved combat effectiveness and then winning the war by annihilating a large number of enemy heavy troops are becoming less and less; on the other hand, new weapons and equipment such as precision guidance and unmanned intelligence, with the support of powerful information networks and aerospace reconnaissance capabilities, can implement “decapitation operations” and “targeted elimination” more quickly and accurately, and quickly achieve the goal of annihilation warfare. The combat mode of seizing the key nodes and parts of the enemy’s combat system, carrying out precise strikes and structural destruction, paralyzing the enemy’s combat system while reducing collateral damage and achieving combat objectives is becoming more and more respected. As a result, command centers, communication hubs, radar positions, network nodes, etc. have become sensitive parts that the warring parties focus on protecting and the key points of attacking. In the Iraq War, the US military launched a comprehensive structural paralysis operation against the Iraqi army. By implementing “decapitation operations” against Iraqi military and political leaders and “targeted elimination” of the Iraqi army’s communication command and air defense systems, the Iraqi army was placed in a completely passive position throughout the process, and the war process was accelerated.

  In today’s era, with the rapid development of information technology and war practice, “system destruction” is becoming a keyword in modern combat theory, and is gradually promoting the overall transformation of combat modes. It has not only become a new way and means to win wars, but also an important way to win modern annihilation wars.

  Controlling operational control is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  In previous war practices, the combat environment faced by our army was relatively simple, and the battlefield was mainly carried out on land. Although our army is often at a disadvantage compared to the opponent’s weapons and equipment, it can often defeat the strong with the weak and defeat the enemy by exploring its own advantages, exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses, and actively looking for opportunities. In the second battle of the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, the volunteer army adopted the combat strategy of internal operations, luring the enemy deep into the enemy, and defeating them one by one. They made full use of the darkness of night and terrain to secretly engage the enemy, dared to cut off the enemy’s retreat, interspersed attacks, and divided and surrounded the enemy, giving the enemy an annihilating blow, and finally won the battle and reversed the entire situation in one fell swoop. This shows that for a party that is temporarily unable to seize comprehensive control of the battlefield in combat, as long as it is good at exploiting the enemy’s weaknesses and cleverly reducing the enemy’s sharp attack momentum, it can still seek the initiative to win in difficult and difficult situations and achieve the goal of annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, wars are fought on vast battlefields, both visible and invisible. In addition to the traditional battlefields of land, sea and air, they are also further extended to deep sea, space, electromagnetic, network, intelligence, biology and other space fields, presenting a complex situation. The armies of the world’s powerful countries have taken the seizure of comprehensive control and the initiative in war as important indicators and necessary ways to build their army and defeat their opponents. Dimensionality reduction strikes have become a must-have in battlefield confrontations. In recent years, the US military’s foreign aggression has relied on the battlefield comprehensive control dominated by the advantages of air and space control and information control. However, we must also see that no matter how powerful the opponent is, there will be fatal weaknesses. Even if it is difficult for the party with relatively backward weapons and equipment to fully seize the battlefield comprehensive control, it can still “attack the incapable with the capable” in the local battlefield, seek local combat initiative, and thus win the local annihilation war, and use the local initiative to drive the overall initiative, and use asymmetric single control to help seize local comprehensive control and achieve final victory.

  In today’s era, we must accelerate the construction of all aspects of the military and step up the forging of capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield. We must also follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive war”, “cross-domain war”, “intelligent war” and other tactics, use dimensionality reduction strikes, asymmetric strikes and other tactics, turn disadvantages into advantages, turn passivity into initiative, control combat control by “attacking the incapable with the able”, and win the war of annihilation.

  Accurately releasing energy is the key to winning a war of annihilation

  Traditional warfare is restricted by factors such as command and communication, mobility, firepower speed, and weather conditions. The use of forces is often limited to a certain combat area. There is little change in combat command and troop actions, and offensive and defensive actions are relatively clear. In the past, annihilation warfare was more often achieved through echelon (group) deployment, continuous attack (resistance), layer-by-layer capture (defense), combined with interspersed detours, segmentation and encirclement, and cutting off the enemy’s flanks. For this reason, “concentrating superior forces and annihilating the enemy one by one” often becomes the fundamental principle and important way to plan annihilation warfare.

  In the information age, the combat force structure has undergone major changes. With the emergence of space combat, intelligent combat, stealth combat forces, as well as a large number of new weaponry and equipment such as hypersonic aircraft and kinetic weapons, the military’s information power, mobility, and strike power have unprecedentedly increased, and the effectiveness of unmanned intelligent combat has become increasingly prominent. Although quantity and scale are still important criteria for measuring the combat effectiveness of an army, “newer, faster, more accurate, and smarter” has begun to become an important indicator for measuring an army’s ability to adapt to modern warfare. Correspondingly, scientifically and rationally organizing combat forces and focusing on the best to release combat effectiveness have become important links in winning modern annihilation wars.

  Structural strength determines combat effectiveness, and advanced and applicable structural formation is an important prerequisite for multi-functional and powerful combat effectiveness. In the information age, only by jointly using new and old combat forces, realizing the organic integration of new quality capabilities and traditional capabilities, and then building a new force formation that integrates multiple capabilities, can we promote the overall optimization of the combat system and the aggregation of advantages, and accurately control the combat rhythm, combat time and space, combat operations and combat process. In the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Azerbaijan adopted a flexible formation mode for manned and unmanned combat forces, using low-cost An-2 drones to lure the Armenian air defense system to open fire, and followed up with Habib-2 anti-radar drones and TB-2 reconnaissance and strike drones to destroy more than a dozen air defense systems on the Armenian side in one fell swoop, and then calmly defeated the Armenian ground armored forces.

  In today’s era, as the status and role of combat operations such as network and electronic warfare, air and space attacks, and unmanned combat become more prominent, more attention should be paid to scientific design and rational organization of troops and weapons, so as to achieve the effect of clenching fingers into a fist through the accumulation of quality and integration of efficiency, and fight a war of annihilation that is quick to strike and quick to retreat, and wins with precision.

現代國語(繁體):

《立足戰爭演變把握「慎重初戰」》

寫在前面

在我軍戰史上,打殲滅戰是最鮮明、最重要的作戰指導思想之一。早在土地革命戰爭時期,基於「保存自己,消滅敵人」這場戰爭目的,我軍明確提出作戰中基本的方針是打殲滅戰。此後在不同歷史時期,根據環境、情勢和任務的不同,我軍在作戰指導上既保持了高度的靈活機動,又堅決貫徹打殲滅戰的原則,不斷對作戰理論予以豐富發展,在世界戰爭史上寫下了一個以弱勝強的經典戰例。

進入資訊時代,戰爭形態、戰場環境、軍事科技和戰爭機理等已發生重大變化,傳統的殲滅戰理論如何適應時代之變,揚我之長、擊敵之短並創新發展,是我們這代軍人必須回答好的時代課題。

剝奪敵方戰力是打好殲滅戰的關鍵

在長期革命戰爭實踐中,我軍在數量、規模和裝備上常常處於劣勢。為挫敵銳氣、奪取主動、克敵制勝,在強調慎重初戰的同時,十分注重籌劃和打好殲滅戰,以迅速削弱敵方戰略優勢。由此,“傷其十指,不如斷其一指”,徹底剝奪敵方作戰能力,力避打成消耗戰、擊潰戰,也成為衡量殲滅戰成敗和作戰綜合效益的關鍵指標。傳統條件下的作戰,往往是兵力兵器在同一時空的物理疊加,強調以硬殺傷為主要方式,戰鬥力強弱主要透過機動、火力、防護等參數表現。與之相應,迅速有效消滅敵有生力量,成為攻心奪志、瓦解敵方最有效的手段。

進入資訊時代,資訊力以指數級方式推動戰鬥力衡量標準發生位移,在一躍成為資訊化戰場主導要素的同時,強力推動作戰力量與預警探測、偵察情報、指揮控制、後裝保障等要素有機融合,交戰雙方呈現全系統全要素對抗之勢。資訊化戰場不再單純強調兵力兵器時空集中以壓制打擊敵方,而是注重依托網路資訊體系,透過搶佔資訊空間、爭奪資訊優勢,使敵“看不清、聯不上、打不準”,進而全盤剝奪敵方戰力。在科索沃戰爭中,在遭受北約78天持續空中打擊後,南聯盟軍隊有生力量儘管沒有遭受重大損失,但由於戰爭物質基礎和偵察預警、指揮控制、防空反導體係等被敵毀癱,始終處於被動挨打境地,被迫簽訂城下之盟。

當今時代,摧毀敵方戰爭關鍵支持要素,剝奪其持續作戰的客觀物質基礎,瓦解其遂行戰爭意志,既是殲滅戰追求震懾效應、剝奪敵方戰力的重要選項,也是殲滅戰達成作戰企圖、制勝對手的必要途徑。

擊要害破體係是打好殲滅戰的重心

一直以來,虎口拔牙、擊敵要害既是考驗指戰員膽略勇氣、指揮藝術的重要指標,也是克敵制勝、達成殲滅戰目標的有效手段。解放戰爭期間遼沈戰役的胡家窩棚戰鬥,東北野戰軍3縱經過大膽穿插、滲透、分割,首先搗毀了廖耀湘兵團指揮部,迅速陷敵於土崩瓦解、潰不成軍的境地。但同時我們也應當看到,因為軍事技術水準、武器裝備效能的製約,在傳統作戰中,要對敵指揮機構等核心目標和重點防禦部位實施準確打擊,往往存在諸多現實難題,缺乏「直搗黃龍」的有效手段。可以說,傳統殲滅戰仍是殲滅對方有生力量。這也使得在傳統作戰中,衡量對比雙方兵力兵器數量與規模,始終是設計作戰進程、考量作戰成敗的重要因素。

資訊時代,一方面,環境情勢、戰爭思維發生了深刻變化,那種以擴充兵力規模換取作戰效能提高,進而透過大量殲滅敵方重兵集團奪取戰爭勝利的必要性和可能性越來越小;另一方面,精確導引、無人智慧等新型武器裝備在強大資訊網路、空天偵察能力加持下,可以更快捷精準地實施“斬首行動”“定點清除”,迅速達成殲滅戰目標。抓住敵作戰體系關鍵節點及部位,實施精確打擊和結構破壞,在減少附帶損傷的同時癱瘓敵作戰體系、達成作戰目標的作戰模式,越發受到推崇。由此,指揮中心、通訊樞紐、雷達陣地、網路節點等,則成為交戰雙方重點防護的敏感部位及尋隙打擊的要害。在伊拉克戰爭中,美軍對伊軍全面展開了結構癱瘓式作戰,透過對伊拉克軍政首腦實施“斬首行動”,對伊軍通信指揮、防空系統進行“定點清除”,全程置伊軍於完全被動挨打境地,戰爭進程得以加快。

當今時代,伴隨資訊科技與戰爭實踐的快速發展,「體系破擊」等正成為現代作戰理論的關鍵詞,並逐步推動作戰模式整體轉型,不僅成為戰爭制勝的新方式新手段,也成為打贏現代殲滅戰的重要途徑。

掌控作戰制權是打好殲滅戰的樞紐

以往戰爭實踐中,我軍面對的作戰環境相對單一,戰場主要在陸地展開。儘管相較於對手武器裝備我軍常處於劣勢,但透過發掘自身優勢、利用敵方弱點、主動尋找戰機,往往能夠以弱勝強、克敵制勝。在抗美援朝戰爭第二次戰役中,志願軍部隊透過採取內線作戰、誘敵深入、各個擊破的作戰方針,充分利用夜暗、地形等條件隱蔽接敵,敢於斷敵退路、穿插襲擊、分割圍殲,予敵殲滅性打擊,最終取得戰役勝利,一舉扭轉整個戰局。這表明,對於作戰中一時難以奪控戰場綜合製權的一方,只要善於利用敵方弱點,巧妙消減敵方攻擊銳勢,仍可在難局、困局中求得制勝先機,達成殲滅戰目標。

資訊時代,戰爭展開於有形無形廣大戰場,除了傳統的陸、海、空戰場,也進一步向深海、太空、電磁、網路、智慧、生物等太空領域擴展延伸,呈現出錯綜複雜的態勢。世界強國軍隊紛紛把奪控綜合製權、佔據戰爭主動,作為軍隊建設、制勝對手的重要指標和必要途徑,降維打擊成為戰場對決的必殺技。美軍近年來對外侵略就是依仗以製空天權和製資訊權優勢主導的戰場綜合製權。但是我們也要看到,對手再強大也會有致命的弱點,武器裝備相對落後的一方,即便難以全面奪控戰場綜合製權,卻依然可以在局部戰場“以能擊不能”,求得局部作戰主動,從而打贏局部殲滅戰,並以局部主動帶動全局主動,以非對稱的單項制權助力奪取局部綜合製權,並取得最終勝利。

當今時代,固然要加快軍隊各項建設,加緊鍛造奪控綜合製權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,更要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰” 「智能戰」等戰法,以降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,化劣勢為勝勢,變被動為主動,在「以能擊不能」中掌控作戰制權,打贏殲滅戰。

聚優精準釋能是打好殲滅戰的要則

傳統作戰,受指揮通信、機動能力、火力速度、天候氣像等因素影響制約,力量運用往往局限於一定的作戰區域,作戰指揮和部隊行動臨機變化小,攻防行動比較分明。以往的殲滅戰,更多的還是透過梯隊(群隊)式部署,以及連續攻擊(抗擊)、層層奪佔(防守),結合穿插迂迴、分割包圍、斷敵側後等手段達成作戰目標。正因此,「集中優勢兵力,各個殲滅敵人」往往成為籌劃殲滅戰的根本遵循與重要途徑。

資訊時代,作戰力量結構發生重大變化。伴隨太空作戰、智慧作戰、隱身作戰力量,以及高超音波速飛行器、動能武器等新型武器裝備的大量湧現,軍隊資訊力、機動力、打擊力空前增大,無人智能作戰效能日益突出。儘管數量、規模仍是衡量一支軍隊戰鬥力的重要標準,但“更新、更快、更準、更智”,已開始成為衡量一支軍隊對現代戰爭適應能力的重要指標。與之相應,科學合理編組作戰力量,聚優釋放作戰效能,成為打贏現代殲滅戰的重要關節。

結構力決定戰鬥力,結構編成先進適用是戰鬥力多能、強大的重要前提。資訊時代,只有透過新舊作戰力量的聯合運用,實現新質能力與傳統能力的有機融合,進而建構集多種能力於一體的新型力量編組,才能促進作戰體系整體優化與優勢聚合,精準控製作戰節奏、作戰時空、作戰行動和作戰過程。在2020年的納卡衝突中,阿塞拜疆對有人和無人作戰力量採取了靈活編組模式,用價格低廉的安-2無人機引誘亞美尼亞防空系統開火,用哈比-2反雷達無人機和TB -2察打一體無人機跟進打擊,一舉摧毀亞方十餘套防空系統,進而從容打掉亞方地面裝甲部隊。

當今時代,隨著網電作戰、空天襲擊、無人作戰等作戰行動地位作用的進一步凸顯,更應注重科學設計、合理編組兵力兵器,透過質量累加、效能融合,達到攥指成拳的效果,打好快打快收、精打製勝的殲滅戰。

中國軍事資源:https://military.cctv.com/2022/07/07/ARTIWv2oVWmzfSsX9KKVoDPW220888.shtml

來源:解放軍報 | 2022年07月07日 08:OO

Chinese Military to Emphasize Technical Cognition as The Foundation for Victory

中國軍隊強調技術認知是勝利的基礎

現代英文音譯:

Never before has scientific and technological power had such a profound impact on the future of the military and the outcome of wars, and never before has it been such a powerful support for a strong military to win wars.

The so-called technological cognition is the ability to recognize and grasp the performance, value and development trend of technology with the goal of promoting scientific and technological innovation and application, which is prominently reflected in the sensitivity, understanding, discrimination and control of technology. In today’s era, science and technology are becoming the core combat power of modern warfare, and the technological content has become a key indicator for measuring the quality of military construction. Faced with unprecedented opportunities and challenges, if technological cognition cannot adapt to the new requirements of the development of the times, it will be difficult to inject momentum into the generation and improvement of combat power, and it will be difficult to win the important weight to win the future.

Improving technical cognition is not only a “question to be answered” for professional and technical personnel, but also a “must-choose question” for every officer and soldier. From the perspective of the realization process of technical value and effectiveness, if the invention and creation of technology is “primary value”, then the effective use of technology is “secondary value”. Accelerating the pace of scientific and technological innovation depends on the broadening of the knowledge horizons of professional and technical personnel, keeping a close eye on the forefront of science and technology, and constantly making new breakthroughs in the research and development of forward-looking, strategic, and disruptive technologies. With more new inventions and creations in the field of military science and technology, we can increase our contribution to the construction of the army and the growth of combat effectiveness, and actively seize the commanding heights of military technology competition. The transformation and application of scientific and technological achievements depends on the officers and soldiers, especially the leading cadres at all levels, to speed up the updating of knowledge and improve their scientific and technological literacy, so as to enhance and tap the application value of technology with scientific cognition and thorough understanding of science and technology, ensure that scientific and technological achievements are transformed into real combat effectiveness, and improve the ability to prepare for war at a higher starting point and level. Obviously, from scientific and technological innovation to scientific and technological application, it is a “value-added” process that is closely connected, mutually promoted, and focused. It is a process of seeking to win through science and technology and releasing the combat effectiveness of technology to a greater extent. Technical cognition is the internal support that runs through it and demonstrates people’s active role and creative talent. We must take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task. We must have political and military minds as well as scientific and technological minds. Scientific and technological literacy and scientific and technological thinking are based on and built on technological cognition. The higher the technological cognition, the stronger the innovation and creativity in the use of science and technology, and the greater the effect of promoting the growth of combat effectiveness.

Improving technical cognition is not only the key to mastering modern weapons and equipment, but also the move to accelerate the innovation of military theory and combat theory. With the rapid development of military technology, especially emerging technologies such as information, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned, the high-tech content of weapons and equipment is getting higher and higher, the replacement cycle is getting shorter and shorter, and the correlation and coupling between various types of weapons and equipment are getting stronger and stronger, and the system application characteristics are becoming more and more prominent. From a realistic perspective, insufficient technical cognition is a prominent shortcoming that restricts the mastery and use of weapons and equipment, and there is even a phenomenon that troops cannot “play” without the accompanying support of manufacturer technical personnel in exercises. Facing the new development trend of weapons and equipment, from mastering skills to exploring potential, from enhancing the effectiveness of systematic application to improving the ability of actual combat application, it is inseparable from improving technical cognition, thereby realizing the organic combination of people and weapons and equipment and obtaining a new “growth pole” in combat capability. It should also be noted that modern technology is penetrating into the military field with unprecedented strength, depth and breadth. The new military technology form accelerates the reconstruction of military theory and military system form, bringing about the deep interaction and deep integration of military technology and military theory, making technical cognition the “catalyst” of new combat theory. Practice has shown that without a thorough understanding of aviation technology, there will be no air combat theories such as air superiority; without a thorough understanding of information technology, there will be no information combat theories such as information superiority; without a thorough understanding of space technology, there will be no space combat theories such as “high frontier”. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as data-driven, human-machine collaboration, cross-border integration, and autonomous control, it will be impossible to create new theories and tactics such as intelligent combat and unmanned combat. Only with a technological cognitive advantage can we truly transform the military technology advantage into a theoretical leadership advantage and even a battlefield victory advantage.

Improving technology awareness is not only a way to distinguish the authenticity of technology and guard against technology fraud, but also a need to keenly perceive the development trend of military science and technology. It is worth being highly vigilant that Western media often promote and hype some so-called new technologies and new concepts, playing specious tricks. If you lack the ability to discern, cannot distinguish the true from the false, and believe everything you hear, you will inevitably fall into the technology trap set by others and become passive. Back then, the Soviet Union was led by the nose by the “Star Wars Plan” of the United States, and was confused by the Americans’ hype and deliberate fraud, which ultimately affected the entire military combat capability construction and the lesson was extremely painful. In the face of new opportunities and challenges brought about by the new round of scientific and technological revolution, we must maintain a high degree of technical acumen and insight, recognize the dominant direction and characteristics of the times in the development of military science and technology, and accurately grasp the trend of weapons and equipment developing in the direction of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned. The continuous emergence of disruptive technologies is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat power. Trend: new breakthroughs in high-tech will accelerate the development of new combat forces. Those military technologies that “change the rules of the game” will accelerate the evolution of war forms and combat methods. The integration of military technology and civilian technology is becoming deeper and deeper. We will strive to plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, and follow the trend, and make greater efforts to promote the development of the military through science and technology. Only by deepening the research on war and combat issues from the perspective of technological change, recognizing and grasping the characteristics, laws and winning mechanisms of informationized warfare from the influence of scientific and technological factors, and seeking breakthroughs in the innovation of combat theories and tactics by tapping into the effectiveness of technology, can we promote the precise and effective implementation of the strategy of developing the military through science and technology, lay a solid foundation and increase confidence for our military to remain invincible in future wars.

國語 中文:

●科技力量從未像今天這樣深刻影響軍隊未來和戰爭勝負,從未像今天這樣成為強軍勝戰的強力支撐。

所謂技術認知力,是以推動科技創新和運用為指向,對技術的性能功效、價值作用及發展趨勢的認識和把握能力,突出體現為對技術的敏銳度、理解力、甄別力、駕馭力。在當今時代,科技正成為現代戰爭的核心戰鬥力,科技含量成為衡量軍隊建設品質的關鍵指標。面對前所未有的機會與挑戰,如果技術認知力無法適應時代發展的新要求,就難以為戰鬥力的生成與提升注入動力,也難以贏得制勝未來的重要砝碼。

提高技術認知力,不僅是專業技術人員的“應答題”,更是每位官兵的“必選題”。從技術價值效能的實現過程來看,如果說技術的發明創造是“一次賦值”,那麼技術的有效運用就是“二次賦值”。加速科技創新步伐,有賴於廣大專業技術人員拓寬知識視野、緊盯科技前沿,不斷在前瞻性、戰略性、顛覆性技術的研發上取得新突破,以更多軍事科技領域的新發明新創造,提高對軍隊建設和戰鬥力成長的貢獻率,積極搶佔軍事技術競爭的製高點。實現科技成果的轉化應用,有賴於廣大官兵特別是各級領導幹部加快知識更新、提高科技素養,以對科技的科學認知、透徹理解,去提升和挖掘技術的應用價值,確保科技成果轉化為實實在在的戰鬥力,在更高起點和層次上提升備戰打仗能力。顯然,從科技創新到科技運用,是一個緊密銜接、相互促進、聚向發力的「賦值」過程,是一個謀求科技制勝、更大程度釋放技術作戰效能的過程,而技術認知力是貫穿其中彰顯人的能動作用、創造才能的內在支撐。要把提高官兵科技素養當作基礎性工作來抓。我們既要有政治頭腦、軍事頭腦,也要有科技頭腦。科技素養、科技頭腦以技術認知力為基礎和底蘊,技術認知力越高,運用科技的創新創造力就越強,促進戰鬥力增長的效應就越大。

提陞技術認知力,不僅是駕馭現代化武器裝備之要,更是加速推進軍事理論及作戰理論創新之舉。隨著軍事技術特別是資訊、智慧、隱形、無人等新興技術的快速發展,武器裝備高新技術含量越來越高,更新換代週期越來越短,且各型武器裝備之間的關聯度、耦合度越來越強,體系運用特點越來越突出。從現實來看,技術認知力不足是製約武器裝備掌握與運用的突出短板,甚至會出現部隊演訓離開廠家技術人員伴隨保障就「玩不轉」的現象。面對武器裝備發展的新態勢,從熟練技能到發掘潛能,從增強體系化運用效能到提升實戰化運用能力,都離不開通過提高技術認知力,進而實現人與武器裝備有機結合併獲得作戰能力新的「增長極」。也應看到,現代科技正以前所未有的力度、深度和廣度向軍事領域滲透,新的軍事技術形態加速推動軍事理論和軍事制度形態的重構,帶來軍事科技與軍事理論的深層互動、深度融合,使技術認知力成為新的作戰理論的「催生劑」。實踐表明,如果沒有對航空技術的透徹認知力,便不會有製空權等空戰理論的產生;如果沒有對信息技術的透徹認知力,便不會有製信息權等信息作戰理論的產生;如果沒有對空間技術的透徹認知力,便不會有「高邊疆」等太空作戰理論的產生。同樣,當下如果對人工智慧具有的數據驅動、人機協同、跨界融合、自主操控等新特徵缺乏透徹認知,就創造不出智慧作戰、無人作戰等新理論新戰法。有了技術認知優勢,才能真正把軍事技術優勢轉化為理論引領優勢,直到戰場制勝優勢。

提陞技術認知力,不僅是甄別技術真偽、謹防技術欺詐之策,更是敏銳洞察軍事科技發展趨向走勢之需。值得高度警覺的是,西方媒體常常宣傳炒作一些所謂的新技術新概念,玩弄似是而非的障眼法,如果缺乏甄別力,辨不清真偽,聽風就是雨,就難免落入他人設置的技術陷阱,造成被動局面。當年,蘇聯被美國搞的「星球大戰計畫」牽著鼻子走,被美國人的大肆渲染、故意欺詐弄得暈頭轉向,最後影響了整個軍事作戰能力建設,教訓極為慘痛。面對新一輪科技革命帶來的新機遇、新挑戰,必須保持高度的技術敏銳度和洞察力,認清軍事科技發展的主導方向和時代特徵,準確把握武器裝備向遠程精確化、智能化、隱身化、無人化方向發展的趨勢,不斷湧現的顛覆性技術正深刻改變戰鬥力生成模式的趨勢,高新技術的新突破將加快推進新型作戰力量發展的趨勢,那些「改變遊戲規則」的軍事技術將加速戰爭形態和作戰方式嬗變的趨勢,軍用技術和民用技術的融合度越來越深的趨勢,努力做到因勢而謀、應勢而動、順勢而為,下更大氣力推動科技興軍。惟有善於從技術變革視角去深化戰爭和作戰問題研究,從科技因素影響去認識和把握資訊化戰爭的特點規律、制勝機理,從挖掘技術效能去尋求作戰理論和戰法創新的突破,才能推動科技興軍精準落地、有效落實,為我軍在未來戰爭中立於不敗之地夯實基礎、增添底氣。

中國軍事資料來源: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4845888.html