Chinese People’s Liberation Army Actively Responding to the Challenge of Intelligent Warfare
In recent years, the wave of intelligence has surged and has been widely used in the military field. Major countries in the world attach great importance to the construction and application of military intelligence, and various unmanned combat platforms and intelligent weapons and equipment continue to appear, and they are installed in troops and put into actual combat. In the face of the accelerated evolution of intelligent warfare, only by seizing development opportunities, actively responding to challenges, accelerating the development of military intelligence, and accelerating the forging of intelligent combat capabilities can we seize the strategic initiative of intelligent warfare and win future intelligent warfare.
Focusing on designing wars to create intelligent theory
Military theory comes from combat practice and is used to guide combat practice. Restricted by various conditions in the past, military theory research was mostly “looking backwards”, that is, summarizing battle examples to form combat guidance. With the rapid development of modern technology, especially big data, cloud computing and other disruptive technologies, the research on combat theory has got rid of the traditional follow-up and inductive reasoning mode, and has entered a new era of experimental warfare and design warfare. New disruptive technologies in the field of intelligence have opened up new space for military theory innovation. To this end, we should create a basic theory of intelligent warfare in accordance with the idea of ”proposing concepts-needs analysis-innovating theories”, and conduct in-depth research on the concept connotation, essential characteristics, war guidance, combat styles, offensive and defensive actions, winning mechanisms, etc. of intelligent warfare. Features and laws, etc.; innovate intelligent combat methods and methods, give full play to the overall effectiveness of the intelligent combat system, strengthen research on new intelligent combat methods and methods such as man-machine collaborative intelligent combat, intelligent robot combat, and intelligent unmanned swarm combat, as well as intelligent Combat command, the process and methods of intelligent combat support, etc.; focus on effectively responding to the threat of intelligent combat, and research strategies to defeat the enemy, such as intelligent interdiction warfare and intelligent disruption warfare. These theories are the cornerstone of the theoretical system of intelligent warfare. In the future, the theory of war centered on strengthening “controlling intellectual power” and competing for “algorithm-centric warfare” will most likely replace the theory of warfare centered on “network-centric warfare.”
Focus on cross-domain interconnection and explore intelligent forms
The military organization is the link connecting military technology and combat theory, and the lever to exert the overall combat effectiveness of the military. Modern combat places more emphasis on “elite combat under the support of a large system”, that is, supported by the joint combat system, “fine front and strong back”, according to the idea of ”integrated design, modular formation, and combined application”, the formation is more precise and more accurate. The powerful combat module enables the maximum release of combat energy. The organization of the future intelligent warfare system will be based on strategies, campaigns, and tactics at different levels and different arms and arms, and will form different types and purposes of small, multi-functional and intelligent new joint combat forces. According to the requirements of reconfigurability, scalability and self-adaptation, the intelligentized combat network can seamlessly link and flexibly organize individual weapon platforms according to changes in the enemy situation and battlefield environment, and then aggregate them to form System advantages, forming a combat module integrating offense and defense. The intelligent new combat force system is a comprehensive product of the development of artificial intelligence technology, the formation of new combat capabilities, and the evolution of war forms. new growth point.
Focus on the integration of man and machine to develop intelligent weapons With the development of information technology and intelligent technology, whoever can win in the field of artificial intelligence is expected to have the initiative in future military confrontation. We should focus on the dual needs of intelligent warfare system operations and intelligent weapon equipment system construction, do a good job in top-level design and overall planning, compile a road map for the development of intelligent weapon equipment systems, and develop high, medium, low-end, low-end, and Large, medium and small, long-range and short-range, covering space fields such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and networks, and an intelligent unmanned combat equipment system that matches combat and support, and establishes a “human-led, machine-assisted, mixed formation, joint “Operation” manned-unmanned cooperation system, enhance the system integration of various military arms and various intelligent weapons and equipment such as operations and support. Intelligent unmanned combat system is a new trend in the development of future war equipment. Its core is to aim at the requirements of “zero casualties”, “full coverage” and “fast response” in future wars, and make full use of new theories, new materials, new processes, new energy, and new technology development achievements in two aspects: man-machine collaboration and autonomous action. Continuously make breakthroughs, build a three-level unmanned equipment sys
tem of strategy, campaign, and tactics, build a new type of intelligent unmanned division on a large scale, and realize the systematic and coordinated operations of unmanned combat systems. At the same time, we should focus on the needs of unmanned and anti-unmanned, intelligent and anti-intelligent operations, and focus on the development of anti-enemy intelligent unmanned combat weaponry systems to ensure effective intelligent unmanned offensive and defensive confrontation with the enemy.
Focus on ability compound innovation intelligent training
The professional division of labor in modern warfare is becoming more and more detailed, and the entire combat system is becoming more and more complex, which promotes the transition from manpower-intensive to technology-intensive operations, requiring combatants not only to have good physical fitness, but also to have good technical literacy and intellectual advantages , to meet the needs of different combat missions, combat environments, and combat opponents. Military intelligence puts forward higher requirements on the quality of people. Correspondingly, intelligent military talents should have the characteristics of group talents, sophisticated skills, complex knowledge, innovative thinking, and intelligent decision-making. Intelligent warfare will be a war carried out by the combination of man and machine, and the combat force with the intelligent unmanned combat system as the main body will play an increasingly important role. The effective combination of high-quality personnel and intelligent weapons can maximize combat effectiveness. It is necessary to adapt to the new characteristics of the intelligent warfare force system, innovate and develop the concept of intelligent training, and explore a new model for the generation of intelligent warfare combat power. At present, artificial intelligence technology can create a more “real” weapon operation experience and battlefield environment, and can realistically interpret the combat process, assist decision-making and command, and evaluate combat concepts. To this end, adapt to the new characteristics of the intelligent warfare force system, focus on the improvement of the self-command, self-control, and self-combat capabilities of the intelligent combat system, and make full use of the characteristics of the intelligent system that can self-game and self-growth, forming a special strategy for intelligent warfare. Combat system training system, training environment and training mechanism, strengthen “human” control of intelligent system training, and explore a new training mode with “machine” as the main object. In this way, the intelligent combat system can obtain a leap in combat capability after short-term self-intensive training, so as to cope with the test of disorder, complexity and uncertainty in the future combat environment.
Focusing on Accurate and Efficient Improvement of Guarantee Mode
Intelligent battlefields and the degree of realization of comprehensive support for joint operations are important factors that directly affect the generation of combat effectiveness of troops. The development of intelligent technology will surely trigger a revolutionary change in the construction of the joint combat support system and realize intelligent comprehensive support. Comprehensive support is the foundation of combat effectiveness and a bridge that transforms national economic strength into military combat capability. With the continuous maturity of the Internet of Things technology, intelligent warfare puts more emphasis on integrated guarantee, precise guarantee, and distribution guarantee, that is, the required amount is delivered to the required place at the required time. Relying on the integrated support system, the dispersedly deployed support forces and resources are grouped according to functional modules such as supplies, supplies, maintenance, ammunition, and management, so that they cover all areas of combat service support. Relying on visualization technology, the entire process of combat supply is tracked and mastered According to the current situation, according to the real-time development of the battle situation, information control, reception and distribution of personnel flow and material flow are carried out to achieve point-to-point direct support. Through the use of technologies such as the Internet of Things, drones, smart cars, remote surgery, and 3D printing, upgrade and build an intelligent after-installation support system covering intelligent warehousing, intelligent delivery, intelligent maintenance, and intelligent medical treatment, so as to realize automatic, fast and accurate supply of after-load materials on the battlefield , Rapid diagnosis and maintenance of equipment failures, timely rescue of battlefield personnel, changing passive support into active service, and improving the overall support efficiency and effectiveness of aftermarket.
Focus on both military and
civilian use and deepen intelligent integration
Breakthroughs in the core and key technologies of artificial intelligence are the “country’s most important weapon” to deal with the threats and challenges of intelligent warfare. The rapid development of intelligent technology has become an accelerator of military intelligence. In the information age, the boundary between military technology and civilian technology is becoming more and more blurred, and the transferability is becoming stronger and stronger. Actively establish a military-civilian collaborative innovation mechanism, continuously strengthen the driving force for the innovation and development of intelligent core technologies, build an open industry-university-research collaborative innovation system for the whole society, plan forward and support investment in core cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence, and give full play to the innovation power of the entire society. Promote the rapid and sustainable development of military intelligence. Accelerate technological breakthroughs in key areas. It is necessary to focus on relevant key technical fields and break the technical bottleneck that restricts the development of military intelligence. Strengthen research on the basic support fields of military intelligence, such as military big data, military Internet of Things, etc.; start from combat requirements, strengthen research on intelligent application technologies in various operational elements, especially intelligent command and decision-making, intelligent weapon platforms, Research on intelligent battlefield perception and intelligent countermeasure technology. The research and development of the core key technology of military intelligence not only requires interdisciplinary and cross-field collaborative innovation, but also integrates the development of social intelligence and military intelligence. Intelligent technology is quickly embedded in operational elements and operational processes. To accelerate the development of military intelligence, we should explore the rules of cultivating relevant talents, make full use of military and local education resources, increase the intensity of training relevant talents, and provide solid intellectual support and talent guarantee for promoting the construction of military intelligence.
Chinese Military Higher Education in the Age of Intelligent Warfare
“Military academies are born for war and built for war.” At the opening ceremony of the 2019 military academy principal training, Chairman Xi proposed the military education policy for the new era, pointing out the direction for the military academies to cultivate high-quality, professional new military talents. At present, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence. What kind of soldiers are needed to win future intelligent wars, and how military higher education can cultivate talents suitable for intelligent warfare are major issues before us.
The form of war is accelerating towards intelligent development
The form of war is the expression form and state of war history staged mainly marked by the technical attributes of the main battle weapon. So far, after experiencing cold weapon wars, hot weapon wars, and mechanized warfare, the form of warfare is accelerating its development towards informationized and intelligentized warfare. The increasingly widespread application of advanced technologies such as big data, the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and brain science in the military field is becoming an important driver of the new military revolution, giving rise to new forms of unmanned, autonomous, and intelligent warfare, changing the Traditional war winning mechanism. In 2014, a foreign military think tank released a research report titled “20YY: War in the Robot Era”, arguing that a storm of military transformation marked by intelligent armies, autonomous equipment, and unmanned warfare is approaching. Platforms, information systems and decision support systems, as well as new weapons such as directed energy, hypersonics, bionics, genes, and nanometers, will initially establish an intelligent combat system by 2035, and will develop to an advanced stage by 2050, fully realizing combat platforms, information Systems, command and control are intelligentized and even unmanned, new weapons such as bionics, genes, and nanometers are on the battlefield, and the combat space is further expanded to biological space, nanospace, and intelligent space.
In recent years, with the continuous deepening of research on the human brain, the brain-computer interface technology is becoming more and more mature. In the future, the information exchange between human beings and the outside world will no longer be limited to the senses, and the direct information exchange between the brain and the outside world can also be realized through chips. People and people, people and things are fully interconnected, and human beings may surpass the Internet and the Internet of Things and enter the era of intelligence supported by the Internet of Brains. In the era of the Internet of Brains, soldiers’ brains are directly connected to combat platforms, information systems, and decision-making support systems, and decisions are made with the assistance of technologies such as quantum computing and cloud platforms. Information and mind merge. Some domestic experts believe that under the influence of artificial intelligence technology, the winning mechanism of future wars will change from “information dominance, system confrontation, precise strikes, and joint victory” in information warfare to “intelligence dominance, independent confrontation, and traceability” in intelligent warfare. Following the transformation of “strike, cloud and brain winning”, following matter, energy, and information, cloud intelligence that integrates man and machine has become the key to determining the outcome of a war. This transformation of the form of intelligent warfare is accelerating, and any hesitation may bring unimaginable consequences.
But it should be noted that no matter how the war develops, people are always the most fundamental element. The form of intelligent warfare will lead to changes in the functions and roles of soldiers, and will put forward higher requirements for the ability and quality of soldiers. Cognitive ability may surpass knowledge and skills and become the core ability of soldiers.
Intelligent warfare requires the upgrading and reconstruction of the comprehensive quality of soldiers.
According to the talent growth cycle, soldiers who are currently receiving higher education will become the main force of combat training in more than 10 years, and will also become the first main force to meet the challenges of intelligent warfare. At present, there are still some deficiencies in the design of personnel training goals in our military’s higher education, and insufficient attention is paid to the ability to adapt to the ever-changing intelligent battlefield in the future. There is still a certain gap between the personnel training objectives and the needs of intelligent warfare. On July 23, 2020, when Chairman Xi inspected the Air Force Aviation University, he emphasized that we must persist in cultivating people with morality, educating people for war, strengthening m
ilitary spirit education, strengthening fighting spirit, and comprehensively strengthening the ideological and political, military, scientific and cultural aspects of pilot students. , Physical and psychological quality foundation. To implement President Xi’s important instructions and meet the needs of future intelligent warfare, it is urgent to build a higher-level military talent training goal with thinking as the core, and accelerate the upgrading and reconstruction of military personnel’s comprehensive quality.
Intelligent warfare is a complex giant system integrating multiple fields. Its intelligence-based characteristics and iterative and changeable development trend are changing the role of soldiers in warfare. Soldiers may gradually move from the foreground of the war to behind the scenes, from direct face-to-face combat to man-machine collaborative combat, from front-line charging to back-end planning and design of war. In order to be competent in man-machine coordination, planning and designing wars and other functional roles, in addition to ideological, political, physical and psychological requirements, in terms of military profession and scientific culture, soldiers should focus on improving the following five aspects of knowledge, ability and quality: First, multidisciplinary integration Master the core principles of multiple disciplines related to intelligent warfare, such as nature, military, cognitive psychology, and network intelligence, and be able to integrate knowledge across disciplines to guide military practice; the second is strong cognitive ability, with logical thinking, judgment Thinking and system thinking ability, able to use scientific methods to analyze and reason to solve combat problems; the third is human-machine collaboration ability, deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of intelligent warfare, skillfully use combat platforms, command and control systems, and decision support systems, and be able to control diversified intelligent weapons The fourth is the ability to innovate, with a keen sense of technology and strong creativity, able to grasp the frontiers of science and technology, innovate combat styles, and grasp the laws of war development; the fifth is the ability to self-growth, to be able to accurately recognize oneself , rationally plan military careers, freely use information means to acquire new knowledge, new technologies, and new methods, constantly improve the knowledge structure, enhance cognitive ability, and better adapt to the complex and changeable military revolution development.
Identifying the Emphasis Points of Military Higher Education Reform
At present, the superposition of informatization and intelligentization has brought greater complexity to the personnel training work of military academies. It is necessary to meet the actual needs of informatization operations and at the same time lay the foundation for adapting to intelligent warfare. We should focus on The following work.
Restructure the curriculum system. The curriculum system supports the formation of talent knowledge structure. In order to cultivate military talents that meet the needs of intelligent warfare and achieve the training goals of military majors, science and culture, it is necessary to break the practice of designing a curriculum system with a single major as the background and establish a curriculum system of “general education + direction”. The general education course is based on the existing natural science and public courses, adding courses such as mathematical logic, mathematical modeling, critical thinking, network foundation, artificial intelligence, cognitive neuroscience, system engineering, etc., to establish cross-field and interdisciplinary courses System, expand the knowledge of students, build a knowledge structure urgently needed for intelligent warfare, and lay a broad knowledge foundation for their lifelong growth. Orientation courses are to establish a discipline and professional direction, set up a vertical curriculum system of mathematical science, professional foundation, and professional positions, build a solid professional background, and cultivate students’ ability to use professional theories to solve complex combat training problems. The curriculum system of “General Education + Orientation” helps build a “T”-shaped knowledge structure and meets the needs of military personnel to adapt to diverse and intelligent warfare.
Deepen classroom reform. Educational neuroscience believes that education is the reshaping of students’ brains, and the classroom is the main position for reshaping students’ neural networks, especially for the formation of high-level cognitive abilities required for intelligent warfare. Continuously deepening classroom reform is the key to military Critical tasks for higher education today. It should be seen that a classroom with only knowledge and understanding is far from a good classroom. All human behaviors, though
ts and emotions are all controlled by the brain, and every knowledge, thought and emotion corresponds to a specific neural network of the brain. Therefore, classroom reform should center on students’ learning, follow the cognitive laws of the human brain, and Attract and maintain attention as the starting point, establish a scientific thinking framework, and mobilize students to think proactively. Usually, teaching methods aimed at higher-level abilities have a general model—problem-driven heuristic teaching, and the commonly used problem-based teaching methods, project-based teaching methods, and inquiry-based teaching methods all belong to this model. Therefore, the main path to promote classroom reform is to develop unknown, novel, and interesting questions and stories for students, design a thinking framework that points to logical reasoning, critical thinking, reflection, creativity, and learning ability, and inspire students under the guidance of the framework. Active thinking, supplemented by the output process of speaking and writing, finally achieves the goal of internalizing knowledge understanding and forming high-level abilities.
Promote comprehensive education. Modern educational theory not only regards the classroom as an important position of education, but also regards all time and space outside the classroom as an important resource for cultivating students. The time and space outside the classroom not only support classroom teaching and promote the formation of knowledge and ability, but also an important place to cultivate non-intellectual ability. Colleges and universities should make full use of these time and space, clarify specific training objectives, focus on going deep into the army, close to actual combat, highlighting practicality and creativity, and scientifically design education and training programs. Focus on giving full play to the advantages of military academies in management and education, explore the establishment of a student management model, and promote the cultivation of students’ leadership and management capabilities; continue to enrich the second classroom, build an innovative platform, create more opportunities for independent practice, and improve students’ innovation capabilities; make full use of various Large-scale activities to cultivate students’ competition awareness and teamwork ability; strengthen the construction of management cadres, improve scientific management and training capabilities, and effectively guide students to carry out time management, goal management, emotional management, psychological adjustment, habit formation, etc., to help students improve self-management and self-learning ability.
All in all, education is a systematic project. The above are only three aspects to break through the shortcomings of talent training in the era of intelligence. To truly solve the problem, military academies need to carry out systematic reforms, such as strategic planning, quality management, personnel quality, teaching conditions, etc. All aspects can effectively support the achievement of the goal of personnel training, and this requires us to continuously explore and innovate, continuously improve the level of running schools and educating people, and strive to create a new situation in the construction and development of military academies.
Chinese Military Perspective on the Evolution of the Winning Mechanisms of Intelligent Warfare
Military theorists have often said that victory tends to smile to those who can foresee changes in the character of warfare, rather than to those who wait for changes to occur before adapting. In recent years, disruptive technologies represented by artificial intelligence have developed rapidly and are widely used in the military field, accelerating the evolution of warfare to intelligence, and correspondingly, the concept of warfare is also undergoing changes. Only by discovering changes in time, actively responding to changes, and actively adapting to changes can we be invincible in future wars.
From “fighting the weak with the strong” to “controlling the clumsy with wisdom”
“The strong win the weak and the weak lose” is a law of victory in war with certain universality. Even those battles in which the weak defeated the strong often had to form a strength advantage against the enemy at a local and specific period of time in order to truly win. In the era of intelligent warfare, the contribution rate of intelligence superiority to combat effectiveness is much higher than that of other factors.
In the confrontation of intelligent warfare, human intelligence widely penetrates into the combat field and is transplanted into weapon systems. Global multi-dimensional and various types of intelligent combat platforms can quickly couple combat forces, build a combat system according to mission requirements, and independently implement coordinated operations. After the end, it quickly returned to the standby state, showing the trend of intelligence and autonomy. The side with a higher and stronger level of intelligence can better develop and use the mechanism of “controlling stupidity with wisdom”, and even design wars based on this, dominate the development of the battle situation, and win the final victory. It should also be noted that in the era of intelligent warfare, there are likely to be multiple stages of development from low to high. Try to keep yourself at an advanced stage, and attack your opponent so that it is at a low-dimensional stage. use.
From “destroying power” to “destroying cognition”
With the accelerated evolution of warfare to intelligence, the combat space has gradually expanded from the physical domain and the information domain to the cognitive domain, from the tangible battlefield to the invisible battlefield. The cognitive space composed of people’s spiritual and psychological activities has become a new combat space. Different from the main purpose of destroying the enemy’s vital forces in traditional warfare, intelligent warfare will pay more attention to weakening the enemy’s morale, disintegrating the enemy’s will, and destroying the enemy’s cognition.
Through the intelligent analysis of the opponent’s personality preferences, psychological characteristics, and decision-making habits, deterrent information can be “tailored” in a targeted manner, and the advantages of cutting-edge technologies such as intelligence can be used to show the opponent’s powerful strength in a vivid way, so that anxiety, suspicion, etc. , panic and other emotions continue to ferment inside it, which eventually leads to its self-defeating. Known as the “new oil”, big data not only enriches intelligence sources, but also becomes an important “weapon” that acts on the opponent’s cognition. By processing big data and deliberately “leaking” it to the opponent, it will create a new “fog of war” for it, and make it fall into a situation of cognitive confusion. In an intelligent war, the game of struggle will be more intense, and the party with a cognitive advantage will be ahead of the opponent, and it will be easier to grasp the initiative and opportunities.
From “people-oriented” to “human-machine collaboration”
In traditional warfare, the organization and use of military power are dominated by people. With the widespread application of intelligent technology, the proportion of unmanned equipment continues to increase. In intelligent warfare, combat tasks will be completed by man-machine collaboration, and the two will achieve organic integration and complement each other’s advantages. The third “offset strategy” proposed by the foreign military regards human-machine cooperation as a key technology for key development, and its successively proposed concepts such as “loyal wingman” are also aimed at exploring the realization of manned/unmanned coordinated operations. It is foreseeable that human-machine collaboration will play an important role in future warfare.
Using unmanned reconnaissance forces to carry out three-dimensional and multi-dimensional battlefield situational awareness can provide real-time intelligence support for manned combat forces; use unmanned platforms to carry relay loads to continuously provide communication relay support for manned combat forces; use
unmanned combat forces to go deep into the front battlefield, It can attract the enemy to attack, force the enemy to expose its position, and provide target guidance and fire support for manned combat forces; use unmanned transport equipment to provide supplies for the front line, which can improve the efficiency of logistics support, reduce transportation costs, and reduce unnecessary casualties. With the assistance of artificial intelligence, manned combat forces and unmanned combat forces will realize scientific division of labor and reasonable collocation in terms of quantity, scale and function, so as to maximize the overall effectiveness.
From “eat the small with the big” to “eat the slow with the fast”
In traditional warfare, it is often necessary to make up for shortcomings in equipment performance and other aspects by increasing the number of troops. The rapid development of military intelligence has greatly improved the speed of information transmission and the accuracy of weapon strikes, greatly reduced the time for reconnaissance and early warning, intelligence processing, command decision-making, firepower strikes, and damage assessment, and accelerated the OODA kill chain cycle. , making “find and destroy” possible.
Hypersonic missiles, laser weapons, microwave weapons, electromagnetic pulse weapons and other new rapid-kill weapons have further pushed the rhythm of war to “second kill”. In the Gulf War, the loop time of the OODA loop required 3 days; in the Iraq War, the loop time has been shortened to less than 10 minutes; and in the Syrian War, the loop has almost achieved near real-time. In intelligent warfare, the use of an unmanned platform for surveillance and attack to quickly target high-value targets such as the enemy’s core command post and high-level commanders will cause the opponent to suffer heavy losses before they can react, and even face the danger of paralysis. It can be seen that victory does not necessarily favor the side with a large military force, and the side that moves quickly and accurately will be more likely to win the battlefield. According to statistics, the reaction time required by artificial intelligence to respond to changes in the battlefield is more than 400 times faster than that of humans. In the face of the rapidly changing battlefield situation, people will be more inclined to use artificial intelligence technology to realize the adaptive planning and autonomous decision-making of the command and control system, so that the command and control mode will be changed from “people on the loop” to “people outside the loop”, so as to reduce the While shouldering the burden of commanding personnel, it can improve combat efficiency and the success rate of mission execution.
From “Integrated Winning” to “Cluster Winning”
The traditional concept of equipment development is to invest a lot of money in the research and development of highly integrated high-precision weapon platforms, in order to achieve dimensionality reduction strikes on the enemy by virtue of intergenerational advantages and performance advantages in war. However, developing and deploying a multi-functional high-end platform not only takes a lot of time and money, but when multiple software and hardware modules are integrated into a single weapon platform, there may be incompatibility among them. Once the platform is destroyed, it will cause heavy losses. The military application of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence has led to the rapid development of unmanned swarms. Unmanned swarms have the advantages of large scale, low comprehensive cost, and decentralization. Unmanned platforms coordinate with each other, divide labor and cooperate, and can make independent decisions and carry out combat tasks in an organized manner. Even if some unmanned platforms are destroyed, it will not affect the overall operation. efficacy. Combat concepts such as “decision-making center warfare” and “mosaic warfare” proposed by foreign militaries focus on the use of unmanned swarms to complete combat tasks. In intelligent warfare, by dispersing functions such as reconnaissance and surveillance, information communication, command and control, and fire strikes into a large number of single-function unmanned combat units, a highly robust and highly elastic “kill net” is constructed, and then Adjusting the combination method will make it emerge a powerful group intelligence, creating great uncertainty for the opponent, and then trap the opponent in the judgment link of the OODA loop, unable to make effective decisions. In addition, due to the large number of unmanned swarms, the opponent’s detection, tracking, and interception capabilities can be quickly saturated, and the opponent has to face the dilemma of fortification failure because it cannot destroy all unmanned platforms in the swarm.
From “Military Dominance” to “Multiple Mixture”
Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to make the enemy submit to one’s own will, and usually has a strong war intensity, with clear boundaries between peacetime and wartime. With the continuous expansion of the field of military struggle to new fields such as space, network, and intelligence, and the increasingly prominent role of economic, cultural, diplomatic, and legal means in warfare, intelligent warfare will be carried out in many fields represented by the “grey zone”. Developed in the form of “multi-pronged approach”. The intensity of war may be weakened, and the boundary between peace and war will become more blurred. Whether in 2019, half of Saudi Arabia’s oil fields were attacked by drones and half of its oil production was shut down, or in 2021, the largest oil pipeline in the United States was hit by cyber attacks and caused a large-scale oil shortage. The far-reaching impact of various new attack methods cannot be ignored underestimate.
With the development and maturity of intelligent technology, the comprehensive use of various means to attack opponents’ industrial, transportation, financial, communication, energy, medical and other facilities and networks will become more common. The threshold of intelligent warfare will show a downward trend, and the warring parties may adopt the method of undeclared war to launch a hybrid war that integrates economic warfare, diplomatic warfare, cyber warfare, public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, etc., so that the opponent is exhausted. Handle.
From “actual combat inspection” to “experimental exercise”
Under traditional conditions, due to the lack of scientific simulation and evaluation tools, the true capabilities of the army can only be tested in actual combat. Under intelligent conditions, using virtual reality technology can create a virtual scene with a strong sense of three-dimensional and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and task background. This scene can not only restore objective things such as weapons and equipment from multiple dimensions such as sound, appearance, and performance, but also simulate various severe weather such as heavy fog, heavy rain, and snowstorm, and display the terrain, meteorology, hydrology, etc. of the battlefield in a visualized form. Electromagnetic, nuclear and other information, close to the real situation of the battlefield.
Set the imaginary enemy in the virtual environment according to the characteristics of the enemy in reality, and carry out intelligent simulation of the possible trend of the battle situation, so that officers and soldiers can “experience” the war in virtual reality several times before the official war, so as to improve the equipment performance, The rhythm of the war and the situation of the enemy and the enemy are all clear, and it will be easier to perform realistic tasks. Before the outbreak of the Iraq War, the U.S. military secretly developed a computer game that simulated the combat environment in Baghdad. Among the personnel dispatched to Iraq to perform missions, the survival rate of those trained in the game was as high as 90%. With the continuous enrichment and improvement of data collected in reality, the construction of virtual battlefields will be more realistic, the prediction of the battlefield situation will be more accurate, and the comprehensive evaluation of exercises will be more credible. If the outcome of the war is known in advance, there may be a situation where “surrender the enemy” without a fight or a small fight.
Chinese Military to focus on the integration and development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence
Adhere to the integration and development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence
——Conscientiously study, publicize and implement the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
■Chinese People’s Liberation Army Unit 66011
The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasized that we should adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence. This important exposition endows the modernization of national defense and the armed forces with new connotations of the times, and further points out the development direction and path for accelerating the modernization of national defense and the armed forces. We must seize the opportunity, based on the status quo, insist on promoting the integrated development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence with systematic thinking, coordinate the development of various fields, especially key areas, realize the positive interaction of the three, and promote the overall improvement of national defense and military modernization.
Engels pointed out: “Human beings fight in the same way as they produce.” At present, the new military revolution in the world is developing rapidly, the degree of informatization in modern warfare is constantly improving, and the characteristics of intelligence are becoming increasingly apparent. Especially under the influence of the new round of scientific and technological revolution, the concepts, elements and methods of winning war are undergoing major changes. Judging from the recent local wars and armed conflicts in the world, a large number of high-tech weapons and equipment have been used in actual combat, and intelligent technology, unmanned equipment, and data information have become new growth points for combat effectiveness. In the face of increasingly fierce military competition, only by standing at the forefront of war and technology, and adhering to the integration of mechanization, information, and intelligence, can we seize the opportunity and win the initiative in military strategic competition.
“Everything must come, and it is a matter of course.” Mechanization, informatization, and intelligence are superimposed, interpenetrated, and mutually supported. Among them, mechanization is the material basis and carrier for the development of informatization and intelligence; informatization plays a connecting role between mechanization and intelligence; intelligence represents advanced combat effectiveness and is the development direction of future military construction. Without the previous “transformation” as the premise and foundation, there would be no emergence and development of the latter “transformation”.
Adhering to the integration and development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence is in line with the reality of our military construction and development, and is the only way for the modernization of national defense and the military in the future. Our army has basically achieved mechanization, and the construction of informatization has made significant progress but has not yet been completed. If the intelligentization is carried out after completing the informatization step by step, it will open up a new generation gap with the armed forces of developed countries; if the construction focus is fully shifted to intelligentization, it is unrealistic to expect to be in place in one step.
Science and technology are the core combat capability and the most active and revolutionary factor in military development. The key to adhering to the integrated development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence lies in promoting technological innovation. We should vigorously implement the strategy of strengthening the army through science and technology, actively promote self-reliance and self-improvement in high-level science and technology, accelerate the breakthrough of key core technologies, accelerate the development of strategic, cutting-edge, and disruptive technologies, and realize the transformation from following and running to leading and running as soon as possible. Persist in seeking combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, improve scientific and technological cognition, innovation, and application capabilities, speed up the resolution of “stuck neck” problems, and firmly grasp the lifeline of our army’s development in our own hands.
Wars change with the times, and preparations for wars should not be conservative or rigid. To promote war preparations in the new era, we must focus on winning the new requirements of information-based and intelligent warfare. The construction of our army’s combat effectiveness has accelerated transformation, overall reshaping, and leapfrog development to ensure that it can attack and defend freely and win opportunities in future wars.
The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasized that we should adhere to the integrated development of mechanization, informationization and intelligence. From the perspective of the relationship between mechanization, informatization and intelligence, mechanization is the foundation of informatization, and intelligence is the sublimation of informatization. Without mechanization, there will be no informatization, and without sufficient informatization, it is impossible to achieve a major breakthrough in intelligence. At present, to vigorously promote military intelligence, we must first lay a solid foundation for informatization construction, and strive to improve the level of army informatization.
Lay a solid material foundation. Make bricks without straw. In order to shorten the “system gap” with powerful enemies, informatization construction should closely follow missions and tasks, keep up with cutting-edge technology, do a good job in top-level design, and promote peacetime and wartime integration. First, upgrade and improve various information systems. It is necessary to focus on the construction of the command and control center, use the information infrastructure as a platform, coordinate the construction of sub-systems and the linkage construction of various systems, promote the construction of command and control with all elements and a system, and realize the integration of information networks in various sub-domains, command and control real-time. Second, build and use the combat database well. In accordance with the principle of “integration of peacetime and wartime, overall planning, and classified implementation”, a comprehensive operational database will be established to achieve information sharing, data support, and decision-making assistance, and “information flow” to support the “chain of command.” Again, a backup mobile command post is preset. Actively learn from the beneficial practices of foreign militaries, vigorously strengthen civil air defense projects, and form a mobile command capability with multi-point layout, dynamic and static complementarity, and rapid deployment.
Build a strong team. Building a strong information force team is an important guarantee for winning an informationized local war with intelligent features. On the whole, we should focus on cultivating four types of talents: First, information command talents. Front-line mid-level and senior commanders should study information and data like they study soldiers, study the construction of information systems like they study the breakthroughs of battles, and study the use of electromagnetic spectrum like they study the performance of ammunition. The second is information warfare personnel. Cultivate a group of intelligent staff, combat planning, cognitive operations and other talents who are competent in information-based operations. The third is information security personnel. Focusing on the personnel of the information assurance department and the information assurance operation and maintenance professional technical team as the main target, continue to increase professional training efforts to improve network management, system use, inspection and maintenance capabilities. The fourth is information research and development personnel. Take the method of inviting in and going out, let go of the burden and hand over tasks, cultivate a group of expert technical talents with strong system research and development capabilities, establish a mobile station for high-end informatization talents, and form a “not for me, but for me” “A virtuous circle.
Change the concept of command. Modern warfare is all about the system, and joint combat command is a key part of it. In order to cope with the challenges of real threats, it is necessary to establish a new concept of command that is compatible with future warfare. The first is to firmly establish the concept of integrated command. Overcome the narrow command concept of a single service and arms, comprehensively coordinate multi-dimensional battlefield operations such as land, sea, air, space, electricity, and network, comprehensively integrate various combat elements, and effectively improve the combat effectiveness of overall and joint victory. The second is to firmly establish the concept of digital command. Transform from extensive to precise command, specify and refine task division, force use, time-space division, and target determination, standardize the command procedures, command methods, and command content of joint combat forces, and integrate reconnaissance intelligence, weapons Platforms, command and control, etc. are networked and real-time, shortening the command process and improving command timeliness. The third is to firmly establish the concept of intelligent command. Actively explore the systematic application of artificial intelligence technology, accelerate the development and application of new technologies such as intelligent decision-making, digital twins, big data, and cloud computing, improve the level of complex information processing on the battlefield, and enable commanders to control combat units and various weapons with the support of intelligent cloud brains. Platform mission command.
Promote innovative practices. In order to adapt to changes in technology, changes in warfare, and changes in opponents, we should speed up the construction of the “three systems” to win the information war. The first is to innovate the tactical system. In-depth research on the real tactics of defending against enemy information attacks, resisting enemy information interference, and counterattacking enemy information under the circumstances of all-round information strikes and hard fire destruction by powerful enemies, and strive to achieve precise control of the enemy. The second is to innovate the training system. Focusing on powerful enemies and combat missions, set up an information warfare environment, conduct in-depth research on topics such as command coordination, tactical application, system construction, and comprehensive support, and promote actual combat deployment and application. The third is the innovation management system. Adhere to the integration of peacetime and wartime management and the combination of virtual reality and real situation, establish a demand traction mechanism led by war, a plan-led mechanism, and an inspection and evaluation mechanism to create independent and controllable industrial chains, supply chains, and guarantee chains to ensure that “peacetime management” and “wartime management” “Use” seamless connection to help the continuous improvement of informationized combat capabilities.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has put forward a series of original new ideas, new ideas, and new strategies in leading the great practice of comprehensively governing the country according to law and building a cyber power, forming Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and President Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law. The secretary’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping has a deep grasp of the “time” and “trend” of the information age, attaches great importance to the work of the rule of law on the Internet, and incorporates the rule of law into the overall law-based governance of the country and the construction of a strong network country. Discuss and make clear requirements. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, my country’s rule of law in the Internet has been further advanced, and the Internet legal system with Chinese characteristics has been continuously improved. , and the road to governing the Internet according to law with Chinese characteristics, the construction of the Internet rule of law has made historic achievements.
The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out profoundly: “Comprehensively ruling the country according to law is a profound revolution in state governance. This is the first time that my country has released a white paper on the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. It is important for in-depth study and implementation of the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, and to accelerate the construction of a powerful network country and a digital China in the new era. On the track of the rule of law It is of great significance to build a modern socialist country in an all-round way. We must take the opportunity of the release of the white paper “Construction of the Internet Rule of Law in China in the New Era” to study and implement Xi Jinping’s thought on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet. The decisive significance of “two establishments” is to strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve “two maintenances”, and fully implement the major decisions and deployments of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on comprehensively governing the country according to law and building a powerful network country , strive to create a new situation in the work of the rule of law on the Internet in the new era, escort the high-quality development of digital China with the power of the rule of law, and provide a solid rule of law guarantee for the construction of a powerful network country.
1. In-depth study and implementation of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet
General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forward a series of original new ideas, new ideas and new strategies centering on the major era issue of governing the Internet according to the law, and clarified the important position, strategic goals, principle requirements, and international propositions of the Internet rule of law in the overall situation of the party and the country. and basic methods, etc. These important expositions have enriched and perfected Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet with new connotations, and provided scientific guidance for us to do a good job in network security and informatization.
General Secretary Xi Jinping profoundly expounded the requirements of the times for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. At present, the overall strategy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the major changes in the world unseen in a century, and the trend of the information revolution era have historically converged, and a new round of technological revolution and industrial transformation has developed in depth. General Secretary Xi Jinping accurately grasped the general trend of the era when human society is undergoing an information revolution, and emphasized that the “new frontier” of the Internet is not a “land outside the law”. Legislation in key fields, emerging fields, and foreign-related fields, coordinate the advancement of domestic and foreign-related rule of law, promote development with good laws, and ensure good governance. We must use law-based governance of the Internet as a basic means, continue to accelerate the formulation and improvement of laws and regulations in the Internet field, and promote law-based management of the Internet. Run the Internet according to the law, access the Internet according to the law, ensure that the Internet operates on the track of the rule of law, and so on. These important expositions scientifically calibrate the background and historical orientation of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet, fully reflect the profound insight into the development pulse of the information age, and the precise grasp of the new characteristics of cyberspace, and further deepen our understanding of the historical inevitability and reality of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. awareness of urgency.
General Secretary Xi Jinping scientifically pointed out the practical path for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping, on the basis of profoundly summarizing the practical experience of law-based network governance since my country’s full-featured access to the international Internet, focused on the new situation, new tasks, new situations, and new problems faced by the network legal work since the new era, and made a comprehensive deployment of the network legal construction, emphasizing It is necessary to thoroughly implement the Cybersecurity Law, ensure the healthy development of new business forms and models with good laws and good governance, formulate legislative plans as soon as possible, improve laws and regulations such as Internet information content management and key information infrastructure protection, and strengthen network social management in accordance with the law, etc. These important expositions are deeply rooted in the fertile soil of practice in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country. They originate from practice, guide practice, and are verified by practice. Powerful practical power.
General Secretary Xi Jinping highlighted the concept of serving the people in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. The rule of law on the Internet is directly connected to more than 1 billion Internet users, and is closely related to the sense of gain, happiness, and security of more than 1.4 billion people. General Secretary Xi Jinping has repeatedly stressed that cyberspace governance must be strengthened in accordance with the law in an attitude of being responsible to the society and the people, and that illegal and criminal acts such as cyber hacking, telecommunications and network fraud, and infringement of citizens’ personal privacy must be severely cracked down in accordance with the law, so as to protect citizens’ cyberspace security. Legal rights to space, etc. These important expositions, insisting that the rule of law on the Internet is for the people, rely on the people, benefit the people, and protect the people, have injected the deepest and most lasting source of motivation and development foundation for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet.
General Secretary Xi Jinping clearly put forward China’s proposition of international exchanges and cooperation on the rule of law on the Internet. General Secretary Xi Jinping creatively put forward the “Four Principles” to promote the reform of the global Internet governance system and the “Five Proposals” to build a community with a shared future in cyberspace. , drug trafficking, money laundering, gambling and other criminal activities; China is willing to work with other countries to promote the formulation of universally accepted international rules in cyberspace, improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, and jointly maintain peace and security in cyberspace, etc. These important expositions regard the rule of law as an important guarantee for promoting the reform of the global Internet governance system and building a community with a shared future in cyberspace, put forward a series of ideologies, principles and guidelines that conform to the practice of network development and reflect the common wishes of all countries, and propose a Chinese plan for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet , Contributed Chinese wisdom.
General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet has profound thoughts and rich connotations, and is highly political, ideological, forward-looking, and instructive. It provides us with a fundamental follow-up and action guide for us to do a good job in the work of the rule of law on the Internet in the new era. We must in-depth study and comprehensively grasp the rich connotations, practical requirements, and distinctive features of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important expositions on the rule of law on the Internet, and earnestly enhance the ideological, political, and action awareness of learning and implementing them.
2. Comprehensively grasp the historic achievements made in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country in the new era
Since full-featured access to the international Internet in 1994, my country has attached great importance to the construction of the rule of law on the Internet, and has continuously explored the way to rule the Internet according to the law in line with the characteristics of China’s Internet development. Entering the new era, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, and under the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we have conscientiously studied and implemented General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet, and insisted on governing the Internet by law. It has been placed in a more prominent position and has achieved a series of remarkable achievements, making important contributions to the construction of a strong network country, the comprehensive rule of law, and the party’s governance of the country under the conditions of informationization.
Promote scientific legislation and lay the foundation for the rule of law in cyberspace. Grasp the law of Internet development, focus on establishing a legal system for the protection of network rights and interests, improve the legal rules of the digital economy, delineate legal red lines for network security, and improve network ecological governance norms. Fundamental, comprehensive, and overall laws such as protection laws. Up to now, more than 140 pieces of legislation in the network field have been formulated and promulgated, basically forming a constitution based on the Constitution, relying on laws, administrative regulations, departmental regulations, local regulations, and local government regulations, based on traditional legislation, and based on network content construction and cooperation. The network legal system with special network legislation on management, network security and informatization as the main body provides a solid institutional guarantee for the construction of a strong network country.
Promote strict law enforcement to ensure orderly cyberspace. Adhere to strict, standardized, fair and civilized law enforcement on the Internet, increase law enforcement in key areas, comprehensively protect the legitimate rights and interests of the people, and safeguard social and public interests. Increase law enforcement efforts to protect personal information, strengthen network intellectual property protection, actively explore law enforcement models that are compatible with new business forms in the network market, and rectify monopoly and unfair competition behaviors in accordance with the law. Strengthen security law enforcement in areas such as network basic resources, important network systems, and network data, continue to carry out a series of special campaigns such as “cleaning the network”, “clearing the sky” and “protecting seedlings” , Internet violence, algorithm abuse, and minors’ addiction to online games, and other issues, to promote the continuous improvement of cyberspace and clear skies.
Promote fair justice and safeguard fairness and justice in cyberspace. Actively respond to the new demands of justice in the information age, and use network information technology to empower traditional justice. Innovate Internet judicial rules, formulate Internet-related judicial interpretations in a timely manner, and try new types of judicial cases that are difficult and complex and have prominent Internet characteristics in accordance with the law. Explore the network judicial model, actively promote the in-depth application of modern technologies such as big data, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence in the fields of litigation services, trial enforcement, and judicial management. The quality, efficiency and effect of trials are showing a good trend.
Promote the law-abiding of the whole people, and enhance the awareness and literacy of the rule of law in the Internet of the whole society. Innovate the content, form, and means of online legal publicity and education, expand the new model of “Internet + law popularization”, actively use online media to carry out online legal popularization activities, and promote the extension of offline legal popularization to online. Publicity on the rule of law was carried out around young people, employees of Internet companies and other important objects of law popularization, and the awareness and literacy of the rule of law in the Internet of the whole society were significantly enhanced. Strengthen the professional construction and personnel training of Internet law disciplines, actively promote the construction of Internet rule of law think tanks, and provide intellectual support and talent guarantee for the construction of Internet rule of law.
Promote international exchanges and actively participate in the construction of the rule of law on the global network. Adhere to the guidance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s concept and proposition of building a community of shared future in cyberspace, and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation on the rule of law in the Internet. Support the role of the United Nations as the main channel in the international governance of the Internet, and put forward the “Global Data Security Initiative”. Actively participate in the formation of regional network governance rules. Carry out bilateral and multilateral dialogues and exchanges on the rule of law on the Internet, and strengthen international law enforcement and judicial cooperation on Internet security. Establish a platform for international dialogue and cooperation on the rule of law in the Internet, hold the World Internet Conference, and release the “Action Initiative to Build a Community of Shared Future in Cyberspace”, etc.
3. Conscientiously summarize the valuable experience in the construction of the rule of law on the Internet in my country in the new era
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the reason why my country’s Internet rule of law has achieved historic achievements and achieved leapfrog development is fundamentally that General Secretary Xi Jinping, as the core of the Party Central Committee and the core of the whole party, is at the helm at the helm, and lies in Xi Jinping’s new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics In particular, Xi Jinping’s thoughts on the rule of law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important scientific guidance on the network power. Since the new era, the construction of the rule of law on the Internet has developed in practice, innovated in inheritance, and accumulated a series of hard-won and precious experiences.
Persist in guiding the overall work of the rule of law on the Internet with Xi Jinping’s socialist ideology with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era is Marxism in contemporary China and Marxism in the 21st century. We must thoroughly study and implement Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially closely combine the study and implementation of Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law with General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, conscientiously implement General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important exposition on the rule of law on the Internet, and earnestly implement it. It is used to arm the mind, guide practice, and promote work.
Persist in strengthening the party’s overall leadership over the rule of law work on the Internet. The party’s overall leadership is the fundamental political guarantee for doing a good job in the rule of law on the Internet. It is necessary to strengthen the party’s overall leadership over the Internet and information work, insist on the party’s management of the Internet, deeply understand the decisive significance of the “two establishments”, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve the “two maintenances”, and constantly Improve political judgment, political comprehension, and political execution, and implement the party’s leadership throughout the entire process and all aspects of governing the Internet by law, so as to ensure that Internet rule of law work always advances along the correct political direction and path.
Adhere to the people as the center. The work of the rule of law on the Internet is closely related to the vital interests of the people. We must always adhere to the people-centered development idea, and implement the interests of the people, reflect the wishes of the people, safeguard the rights and interests of the people, and improve the well-being of the people in all aspects of the construction of the rule of law on the Internet. The masses create a safe, fair, healthy, civilized, and clear cyberspace.
Adhere to the road of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics. The path of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics is essentially a concrete manifestation of the path of socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics in the field of Internet information, and it is a concentrated expression of the achievements and experience of my country’s Internet rule of law construction. We must adhere to the way of governing the Internet with Chinese characteristics, based on national conditions, public conditions, and Internet conditions, use legal thinking and methods to solve bottlenecks that restrict Internet development, take the road of Internet rule of law with Chinese characteristics, and propose Chinese solutions for promoting the reform of the global Internet governance system , Contribute Chinese wisdom.
Persist in grasping the law of network rule of law work. The rule of law on the Internet is a university and a new study. It is necessary to scientifically grasp the internal laws, properly handle the relationship between development and security, freedom and order, openness and autonomy, and management and service. Coordinating with encouragement and support, linking domestic rule of law with foreign-related rule of law, boosting the high-quality development of cybersecurity and informatization with high-quality rule of law construction, providing guarantees for the healthy and orderly development of the Internet, and laying a solid foundation for the rule of law for the construction of a strong network country.
Persist in advancing the innovation of network rule of law work. The Internet was born and prospered because of innovation, and the rule of law on the Internet especially needs innovation. It is necessary to conform to the general trend of global informatization development, based on the practice of my country’s Internet development, accelerate the promotion of all-round innovations in the concept, content, methods, and methods of the rule of law on the Internet, improve and innovate the rules of new technologies and new fields, and enhance the pertinence and effectiveness of the rule of law work on the Internet. Lead the practice of the rule of law on the Internet with innovation.
Persist in cohesive efforts in network rule of law work. The rule of law work on the Internet is a systematic project, and it is necessary to make overall plans, grasp the key points, and make overall plans, better exert the enthusiasm, initiative, and creativity of all parties, and coordinate and promote the construction and management of Internet content, Internet security, informatization, and international cooperation in cyberspace The rule of law work in various fields, so that the Internet can run healthily on the track of the rule of law.
4. Strive to create a new situation in the network rule of law work in the new era
Promoting law-based governance of the Internet is an inevitable requirement for comprehensive law-based governance, and Internet rule of law work is an important guarantee for the construction of a powerful Internet country. We must thoroughly study, publicize and implement the spirit of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, especially Xi Jinping Thought on the Rule of Law and General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the power of the Internet, build the foundation of the rule of law, practice the power of the rule of law, Accumulate the momentum of the rule of law, deeply promote the process of the rule of law in cyberspace, and strive to create a new situation in the work of the rule of law in the Internet.
Effectively improve political standing, and strengthen the party’s overall leadership over the rule of law on the Internet. Deeply comprehend the decisive significance of the “two establishments”, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve the “two maintenances”, and fully implement the party’s management of the Internet in the work of online legislation, law enforcement, judiciary, and law popularization the whole process and all aspects. Improve the system and mechanism for the party leadership to rule the Internet according to the law, and form a strong working force.
Strengthen legislation in key areas, and build a systematic and complete network legal system. Based on the development of the Internet information business during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, further improve laws such as the Network Security Law, Data Security Law, and Personal Information Protection Law, covering network content construction and management, network security, informatization, international cooperation in cyberspace, etc. Fields, laws, administrative regulations, departmental rules and other levels, civil and commercial law, criminal law, administrative law and other legal departments of the network legal system. Strengthen key legislation on the Internet, and speed up the formulation and revision of laws and regulations such as the Internet Security Law, the Regulations on the Internet Protection of Minors, and the Regulations on the Management of Internet Data Security. Adhere to urgent needs first, and enrich the “small, fast and smart” legislation. Strengthen research on cutting-edge issues, accelerate the pace of legislation in emerging fields such as digital economy, Internet finance, artificial intelligence, big data, and cloud computing, so that wherever new technologies and applications develop, the rule of law will be covered.
Carry out in-depth cyber law enforcement to ensure the implementation of cyber laws and regulations. Deeply promote the construction of network law enforcement coordination mechanisms, strengthen cross-field and cross-departmental joint law enforcement, promote the formation of a national network administrative law enforcement work system with horizontal coordination and vertical linkage, and improve the connection mechanism between administrative law enforcement and criminal justice. Strengthen the orderly and standardized governance of online communication. Focus on outstanding issues that the people have strongly reported, continue to carry out the “Qinglang” series of special actions, comprehensively use various punishment methods, and carry out classified and hierarchical supervision and law enforcement. Crack down on the use of the Internet to engage in illegal and criminal activities that endanger national security and social and public interests, disrupt economic and social order, and infringe on the legitimate rights and interests of others, and severely punish the use of the Internet to disseminate illegal information. Strengthen the construction of online law enforcement talent teams, and promote strict, standardized, fair and civilized law enforcement.
Strengthen the publicity and research of the rule of law, and gather powerful forces to rule the Internet according to the law. Fully implement the “Eighth Five-Year” law popularization plan of the network information system, and “whoever makes the law popularizes the law”, “whoever enforces the law popularizes the law”, “whoever manages the law popularizes”, and “whoever serves the service popularizes the law” runs through the entire process of governing the Internet by law. Make the publicity and education of the rule of law on the Internet for leading cadres and youth a priority, increase the education and training of laws and regulations for Internet industry practitioners, and continuously improve the awareness and quality of the rule of law in the entire society. Deepen research and education on the rule of law on the Internet, promote theoretical innovation on the rule of law on the Internet, establish and improve a long-term mechanism for education on the rule of law on the Internet, promote the construction of think tanks on the rule of law on the Internet, and provide stronger intellectual support for the construction of the rule of law on the Internet.
Enhance international exchanges and cooperation, and promote the building of a community of shared future in cyberspace. Adhere to the guidance of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s concept and proposition of building a community with a shared future in cyberspace, increase the intensity of publicity of my country’s Internet governance practices and concepts to the outside world, do a good job in the publicity and interpretation of the white paper “Construction of China’s Internet Rule of Law in the New Era”, and strengthen external communication. Spread and tell Chinese stories well. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules in the fields of digital currency, digital taxation, data security, and personal information protection. Give full play to the role of the United Nations as the main channel, and strengthen exchanges and cooperation in the construction of online legislation and policy mechanisms through platforms such as the BRICS cooperation mechanism, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization, and the World Internet Conference.
(The author is the deputy director of the Central Propaganda Department, the director of the Office of the Central Cyber Security and Informatization Commission, and the director of the State Internet Information Office)
Chinese Spying Operations – Games Chinese Spooks Play
From 國家安全部 ‘Guójiā ānquán bù’ to 新華社 ‘Xinhua’, how China’s espionage network operates in shadows.
China has systemically set up one of the quietest but most lethal espionage networks across the world.
As the world continues to debate over the spy balloons allegedly sent by China for espionage in the United States, probably it is missing the big picture. The real threat to global security comes from China’s spy network which is a complex web of many agencies, most of whom have successfully remained in the shadows. This multipart series would unravel the lesser known as well the unknown details about the Chinese espionage network.
The Chinese spy network has successfully remained in the shadows for decades. The Chinese Communist Party had built its spy network much before it came to power in China in 1949 turning a republic into a communist dictatorship. Since then, China has systematically set up one of the quietest but one of the most lethal espionage networks across the world.
The information regarding the Chinese spy network is scant and so scattered that it makes it difficult for even keen China watchers to paint the big and the real picture.
Ministry of State for Security
Ministry of State for Security (MSS) is China’s premier intelligence agency. It is also known as 國家安全部 ‘Guójiā ānquán bù’. MSS is largely responsible for operations outside China. The domestic intelligence and surveillance is looked after by the Ministry of Public Security (MPS). In addition, Chinese defence forces have their own intelligence agencies which conduct operations all over the globe.
Peter Mattis, one of the foremost authorities on Chinese intelligence operations, explains the Chinese military intelligence network (A Guide to Chinese Intelligence Operations, August 18, 2015), “Within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), intelligence organizations fall under the General Staff Department (the Second and Third Departments, or, respectively, China’s DIA and NSA equivalents); the General Political Department for intelligence and covert influence operations; the PLA Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery headquarters; and technical reconnaissance bureaus in the military regions. Much of the military intelligence infrastructure is based in China, but defence attachés and clandestine collectors do operate abroad, including from the service intelligence elements.”
New China News Agency (Xinhua)
Founded in 1931 by the Chinese Communist Party, Xinhua is the official news agency of China and a major facilitator for China’s intelligence gathering. According to an investigative report in Greek media outlet Pentapostagma published in April 2021, “Xinhua is primarily the eyes, ears, and voice of China. It is one of the important arms of the Chinese Intelligence agency in gathering information. Its prime objective is to promote positive news/narrative about CCP leadership/Chinese government and to marginalize, demonize, or entirely suppress anti-CCP voices, incisive political commentary and exposes that present the Chinese Government/CCP leadership in a negative light. It owns more than 20 newspapers and a dozen magazines and prints in eight languages: Chinese, English, Spanish, French, Russian, Portuguese, Arabic and Japanese It has established 107 bureaus in foreign countries including eight sub offices or editorial offices in Hong Kong, New York, Mexico, Nairobi, Cairo, Paris, Moscow, and Rio de Janeiro and currently employs more than 10,000 people.”
The report explained the standard operating procedure of gathering intelligence by this Chinese agency which has been operating in India also for several years, “Xinhua covers all news and developments/events in foreign countries which have meaning, or which could be of any significance for China. It then forwards reports/articles to China’s Ministry of State Security which directly handles the information inflow from Xinhua. The reports/articles are uploaded in a secured web system. Those that contain intelligence value are treated as classified and forwarded to CCP leadership for their consumption. Xinhua journalists are trained to be able to identify news/articles that are suitable for the CCP leaders and not for the public.”
According to this investigative report, “The agency (Xinhua) maintains a huge database of experts across the world and contacts favorable pro-Chinese contacts/assets in foreign countries and forwards their articles/reports to concerned departments back in Beijing.”
United Front Work Department (UFWD)
Set up in 1942, UFWD is the blue-eyed boy of the Communist Party Chinese (CPC). President Xi Jinping has further strengthened it ever since he came to power in 2012 and now it plays a significant role in China’s overall espionage network as well foreign policy framework. According to a research report published in August 2018 by the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, “The United Front strategy uses a range of methods to influence overseas Chinese communities, foreign governments, and other actors to take actions or adopt positions supportive of Beijing’s preferred policies.”
‘Several official and quasi-official entities conduct overseas activities guided or funded by the United Front including Chinese government and military organizations, cultural and “friendship” associations, and overseas academic groups such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs) and Confucius Institutes. The UFWD also oversees influence operations targeting Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau that aim to suppress independence movements, undermine local identity, and promote support for Beijing’s political system.
In all these cases, United Front work serves to promote Beijing’s preferred global narrative, pressure individuals living in free and open societies to self-censor and avoid discussing issues unfavorable to the CPC and harass or undermine groups critical of Beijing’s policies.’
Ryan Fedasiuk, a research Analyst at Georgetown University’s Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET) meticulously calculated the budget for UFWD in his essay ‘How China Mobilizes Funding for United Front Work (China Brief Volume: 20 Issue: 16). This indicates the priority given to this agency by the Chinese government and the CCP.
There is no direct budget for UFWD but there are several government and quasi-government bodies which fund it. That include Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, State Ethnic Affairs Commission, State Administration of Religious Affairs, Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council and All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce. The current annual budget for UFWD allocated through these bodies stands at not less than $1.4 billion.
“Chinese officials maintain that the United Front system is a benign network of administrative organizations, and that the PRC’s foreign policy is based on “mutual respect and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs” (PRC Embassy in Sweden, August 2019; ABC, June 2020). If this really were the case, regional governments probably would not classify their united front spending as secret 秘密資助 (Mìmì zīzhù) or refuse to disclose the structure of government offices ostensibly reserved for public diplomacy,” says Fedasiuk.
He further adds, “That regional governments in China budget nearly as much for united front work ($1.3 billion annually) as they do for CPC propaganda indicates how highly the Party values the united front as a tool for both domestic and foreign influence’.”
Overseas Chinese Affairs Office (OCAO)
This department /office is a front for keeping tabs on the Chinese communities abroad. It works closely with the Chinese Ministry of Education. According to Mattis, “The Overseas Chinese Affairs Office and the Ministry of Education… keep tabs on Chinese who live outside of China. The former office maintains ties to overseas Chinese communities and sponsors a variety of Chinese professional associations. The Ministry of Education keeps tabs on Chinese students abroad and helps support students’ and scholars’ associations. Both assist in mobilizing Chinese expats and émigrés for visible displays of support when Beijing wants, such as during the 2008 Olympic torch relay.”
According to the official website of ‘Overseas Chinese Office’, its major responsibilities include, “To study and formulate the guidelines, policies and regulations concerning overseas Chinese affairs, as well as to supervise and check their implementation; and to conduct research and study on the development of overseas Chinese affairs both domestically and abroad, to provide the information to the Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC)
Established in 1956, the ISTIC is officially a premier scientific research institute of China. But that is a façade. Its real task is to collect technologies and related information from all over the world in whichever manner it is possible. If one can read between the lines, the official website of ISTIC gives ample indications about the real work it does. The website says, “ISTIC has established long-term and stable business cooperation relations with relevant research institutions in the United States, Canada, Japan and other countries and regions, and has become an important platform for international cooperation and exchange in the field of science and technology information in China.”
George Soros and Chinese spy agency worked together as comrades.
George Soros’ history with the Chinese reveals his hypocrisy as he presents himself as a champion of democracy.
George Soros, the US-based controversial billionaire, and the Chinese premier spy agency Ministry of State Security (MSS) have worked hand in glove in the 1980s where Soros provided substantial funding to MSS through Economic System Reform Institute (ESRI) and China International Culture Exchange Center (CICEC).
It appears that Soros was playing a ‘double game’ by pursuing the Western interests to infiltrate China while also forging a close partnership with Chinese intelligence network and top bosses of the Chinese Communist Party. The apparent reason was an opportunity that he must have seen to benefit from China’s economic growth in the 1980s.
But this partnership fell apart with the change in the Chinese regime after 1989. Several representatives of Soros’ entity ‘China Fund’ were arrested by the Chinese authorities post- Tiananmen square massacre in 1989. The Chinese authorities accused them of working for the US’ Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Soros’ China Fund and the Ministry of State Security
Soros started making overtures to China in the 1980s. He first identified and handpicked Liang Heng, a bestselling author in 1984 to set up his shop in China. Heng had become famous after publishing his memoir Son of the Revolution’ that was a personal account of how China was opening to the West and the purges carried out at regular intervals by the Communist Party China (CPC).
Liang connected Soros with important people in the Chinese establishment. The façade kept for this whole initiative was that Soros wanted to help China to carry out reforms.
By that time, he had already set up ‘Open Society Foundations’, a funding arm known for instigating coups, political upheavals, and chaos in various countries through a web of well-funded non-Governmental organizations (NGOs). But given the fact that bets were very high in China, Soros decided to set up a separate entity which would work only in China.
In 1986, Soros set up ‘China Fund’ with a $1 million endowment. Through Liang’s network, the China Fund initially partnered with a Chinese think tank Economic System Reform Institute (ESRI).
In October 1986, Soros opened the China Fund formally in a signing ceremony at Beijing’s Diaoyutai State Guesthouse. This was his first trip to China.
Soros struck gold by roping ESRI as it was close to the premier Zhao Ziyang, who became the Party’s general secretary the next year. Zhao’s personal secretary, Bao Tong, was also known for helping the China Fund-ESRI joint venture whenever they needed to get through the Chinese bureaucracy.
Behind the façade of helping China to shape reformist economic policies, the China Fund started spreading its tentacles very fast. Within a year of its establishment, it set up an artists’ club in Beijing and an academic unit at Nankai University in Tianjin. Within the first two years of arriving in China, Soros’ China Fund gave hefty grants for at least 200 proposals. However, as the Fund started pushing the envelope too far by funding research on sensitive topics like the notorious ‘Cultural Revolution’ that had resulted in torture and deaths of millions of Chinese in 1960s, alarm bells started ringing in Chinese official circles and Zhao Ziyang had to step in despite his support for Soros and China Fund.
Alex Joske says in Spies and Lies: How China’s Greatest Covert Operations Fooled the World, “In the face of complaints from Party elders about the China Fund, Zhao Ziyang ceded its control to new management. It wasn’t a fight he wanted to pick, nor one he could dare to. Zhao agreed to sever ties between the ESRI and the China Fund, bringing in the China International Culture Exchange Center (CICEC), a group under the Ministry of Culture, as its new partner institution.
Things weren’t all bad, or so it seemed. CICEC had the backing of senior Party leaders, including (present Chinese president) Xi Jinping’s father, and served as one of the only official channels for cultural exchanges with the outside world. Its strong ties to officialdom could insulate Zhao and the China Fund.”
Soros travelled to China in February 1988 to sign a revised agreement with Yu Enguang, a Chinese spy master who was a high-ranking official of the MSS. CICEC itself was a front for the MSS. It would be too naïve to accept that Soros didn’t know about this ‘open secret’ though he tried to defend himself later by pleading ignorance about this fact.
Soros got along well with Yu Enguang at a personal level. The latter secured Soros a rare meeting with the top leadership of CCP in Beijing. Soros, reconfirmed his commitment to bankroll joint operations of China Fund and CICEC. The new Chinese co-chair of this project Yu Enguang.
According to Joske, Yu Enguang was the pseudonym of the Chinese spy master Yu Fang. ‘Among his comrades in the MSS, Yu Fang was just as respected as ‘Yu Enguang’ was by the targets he cultivated. At some point in his career, he headed the agency’s important central administrative office, and in the early nineties helped secure the passage of China’s first National Security Law, which expanded and codified MSS powers. The authors of several MSS publications, marked for internal distribution only, thank him for advising on and improving their drafts. He also oversaw MSS production and censorship of histories, TV dramas and movies about spies, which were designed to build public awareness and support for the MSS’s mission.’
Joske adds, “Ironically for a man who helped bring Chinese intelligence history into the public sphere, Yu’s true legacy is an official secret. Official references to his achievements are brief and elliptical. The authoritative People’s Daily eulogized him in 2013, an honor only a handful of intelligence officers receive: ‘In his sixty years of life in the revolution, Comrade Yu Fang was loyal to the Party, scrupulously carried out his duties and selflessly offered himself to the Party’s endeavors, making important contributions to the Party’s state security endeavor.’ The article also noted that he’d been a member of the National People’s Congress, China’s national legislature.”
Thus, Soros was dealing with a top-ranking Chinese intelligence official. Initially, this partnership was going off well. In fact, MSS was using Soros’ money to fund its operations under the garb of cultural exchange programs carried out by CICEC.
Incidentally, the official website of the CICEC, when accessed currently, doesn’t show any link it had in the past with Soros and the China Fund. It talks about its focus on ‘cultural exchange programs, which is a common phrase used frequently by the Chinese intelligence agencies to give legitimacy to their spy operations. The CICEC holds cultural festivals across the world and officially claims to be working to create support for China’s ‘One belt, one road’ initiative. Incidentally, CICEC was set up in 1984, a year after MSS came into existence and it was just a couple of years old when Soros’ China Fund forged a partnership with it. It was well-known to China watchers right since its inception that CICEC was a front for the MSS. It is difficult to apprehend that Soros didn’t know about this!
Everything was going well for Soros’ China Fund till Tiananmen square happened in 1989. Chinese authorities suspected that the China Fund played an active role in fueling demonstrations at Tiananmen square that ended in a massacre of thousands of people by Chinese authorities. Meanwhile the Tiananmen square massacre also led to a purge within the party as CCP’s general secretary Zhao Ziyang was not only replaced but was also put under house arrest.
With the arrest of Zhao as well as his secretary Bao Tong, both of whom backed Soros and his China Fund, the Chinese authorities began their crackdown. Soros immediately shut the shop leaving many of his Chinese associates in the lurch and at the mercy of Chinese authorities.
MSS, in its updates to the top party bosses, days before the Tiananmen massacre happened gave details about the role of China Fund as a CIA front in fueling these demonstrations.
According to The Tiananmen Papers, a huge cache of internal CCP reports related to the massacre, that was leaked later, the MSS told the party bosses, “Our investigations have revealed that Liang Heng, the personal representative of the (China Fund) chairman George Soros, was a suspected US spy. Moreover, four American members of the foundation’s advisory committee had CIA connections.”
“According to the MSS’s narrative, Soros showed his ‘true colors’ by asking Yu to close the fund in May 1989 once he realized that supporters of reform were being purged,” observed Joske.
Soros co-chaired the China Fund-CICEC partnership with a top-level Chinese spy master Yu Enguang (also known as Yu Fang). The MSS used the funds provided by Soros’ China Fund to finance many of its operations. Had there not been an internal turmoil in the Chinese Communist Party throwing Soros’ supporters in the Chinese establishment out of power, Soros would have been working closely with an authoritarian Chinese government and continued to play the ‘double game’ ultimately benefiting his business interests from both sides. This history of Soros with the Chinese also exposes his double speak as he claims to be the champion of democracy!
What a Chinese spy agency the Ministry of State Security disrupts the world
MSS was set up in 1983 to bring together multiple agencies which were already functional so that Chinese spy networks could work more cohesively as well as ruthlessly.
China’s premier spy agency Ministry for State Security (MSS) has been on the forefront of setting up and running a ruthless global espionage and counter-espionage network.
MSS was set up in 1983 to bring together multiple agencies which were already functional so that Chinese spy networks could work more cohesively as well as ruthlessly.
Officially the proposal to set up this agency was brought by Zhao Ziyang at the first session of the sixth National People’s Congress (NPC) on June 20, 1983. The NPC can be broadly termed as the Parliament of China.
Ziyang proposed the establishment of a state security ministry “to protect the security of the state and strengthen China’s counterespionage work.” The NPC approved it and voted to appoint Ling Yun as the first minister.
The inaugural meeting of the MSS was held on 1 July 1983 to announce the formal establishment of the. The opening speech was delivered by chairman Chen Pixian of the ‘Central Political-Legal Commission’ one of the key bodies of CCP. He categorically said, “Doing state security work well will effectively promote socialist modernization and the cause of realizing the unification of the motherland opposing hegemonism and defending world peace.” The Chinese intent was clear: MSS would be its ace espionage and counter-intelligence agency.
Since President Xi Jinping took over the reins of the Communist Party of China (CCP) and the Chinese establishment in 2012, MSS has been endowed with even greater authority and its sphere of influence has increased significantly. In Xi Jinping’s scheme of things, Chinese espionage agencies, especially MSS, lead from the front to change the existing world order.
Since the remit of China’s intelligence agencies is much broader than those of Western nations, they need more resources, and Xi Jinping has made sure they receive them, say Clive Hamilton and Mareike Ohlberg in Hidden Hand: Exposing How the Chinese Communist Party is Reshaping the World.
Roger Faligot (Chinese Spies: From Chairman Mao to Xi Jinping) has written, there has been a “formidable increase in the authority of the Chinese intelligence apparatus, specifically since 2017”.
The MSS indulges in all kinds of dubious clandestine activities including sabotage, industrial espionage, theft of technology. It has created several fronts in the form of think tanks and trade and cultural bodies to carry out such activities. The prominent among them are China Institute of Contemporary International Relations, China Reform Forum and Chinese Association for the Promotion of Cultural Exchange and Cooperation.
Structure of MSS
Last known, MSS has 18 bureaus spread over at least four compounds in Beijing serving as their headquarters and then they have provincial and other local networks within China as well as a global network. The functions of many of them are not yet known. China Institute of Contemporary International Relations is the public façade of 11th bureau of MSS. Peter Mattis and Matthew Brazil have painstakingly gathered some details about these bureaus in ‘Chinese Communist Espionage: A Primer’ such as:
“ • First Bureau: “secret line” operations by MSS officers not under covers associated with Chinese government organizations.
Second Bureau: “open line” operations by MSS officers using diplomatic, journalistic, or other government-related covers.
Fourth Bureau: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau.
Fifth Bureau: Report Analysis and Dissemination.
Seventh Bureau: Counterespionage Intelligence Bureau, gathers information and develops intelligence on hostile intelligence services inside and outside China.
Eighth Bureau: Counterespionage Investigation, runs investigations to detect and apprehend foreign spies in China.
Ninth Bureau: Internal Protection and Reconnaissance Bureau, supervises and monitors foreign entities and reactionary organizations in China to prevent espionage.
Tenth Bureau: Foreign Security and Reconnaissance Bureau, manages Chinese student organizations and other entities overseas and investigates the activities of reactionary organizations abroad.
Eleventh Bureau: China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, performs open-source research, translation, and analysis. Its analysts also meet regularly with foreign delegations and spend time abroad as visiting fellows.
Twelfth Bureau: Social Affairs or Social Investigation Bureau, handles MSS contributions to the CCP’s united front work System (also known as United Front Works Department-UFWD, which is another major espionage network of Chinese government and CPC).
Thirteenth Bureau: Network Security and Exploitation (also known as the China Information Technology Evaluation Center, manages the research and development of other investigative equipment.
Fourteenth Bureau: Technical Reconnaissance Bureau, conducts mail inspection and telecommunications inspection and control.
Fifteenth Bureau: Taiwan operations linked to the broader Taiwan Affairs work system. Its public face is the Institute of Taiwan Studies at the China Academy of Social Sciences.
Eighteenth Bureau: US Operations Bureau for conducting and managing clandestine intelligence operations against the United States.”
There is hardly any information about the real work done by the third, sixth, sixteenth and seventeenth bureau of the MSS.
According to an online report by China Digital published in 2015, the MSS had a strength of 100,000 ‘spies’. Around 60,000 of them worked within China while 40,000 of them were working in other countries for China.
Explaining this mammoth size and the massive expansion of MSS, Mattis and Brazil elaborated, “The expansion occurred in four waves. The original departments (or those created within the first year) appeared to be the municipal bureaus or provincial departments of state security for Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Liaoning, and Shanghai. A second wave appeared shortly thereafter between 1985 and 1988, including Chongqing, Gansu, Hainan, Henan, Shaanxi, Tianjin, and Zhejiang. The third wave from 1990 to 1995 completed the expansion of the ministry across the country at provincial levels, bringing in Anhui, Hunan, Qinghai, and Sichuan provinces.161 The fourth wave of MSS expansion was vertical. The provincial-level departments either took over local public security bureaus or established subordinate municipal or county bureaus. For many local PSB officers, they were police one day and state security the next. When MSS minister Jia left in 1998 for the MPS, the MSS was a nationwide organization at every level.”
“From the national level to the local levels, the MSS and its subordinate departments and bureaus report to a system of leading small groups, coordinating offices, and commissions to guide security work while lessening the risk of politicization on behalf of CCP leaders. At present, the two most important of these are the Political-Legal Commission and the Central State Security Commission.”
Clive Hamilton and Mareike Ohlberg have mentioned in Hidden Hand: Exposing How the Chinese Communist Party is Reshaping the World, “It was reported in 2005 that the FBI believed the MSS had set up around 3000 front companies to conceal its activities. The MSS has various arms engaged in economic espionage and it has ‘embedded itself deep in major financial and commercial organizations, particularly in Shanghai and Hong Kong’. Not all economic espionage is state directed. Chinese nationals are known to set up firms that take orders from companies in China to obtain and supply specific pieces of intellectual property from their competitors in the West, usually by identifying an employee willing to provide such secrets.”
Bloody Purge within MSS
While MSS has successfully infiltrated many spy agencies of other countries, it also suffered a major setback when in 2010, it was revealed that there are several Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) moles working in China and MSS for the American agency.
This led to a bloody purge within MSS. The CIA assets were exposed because of a botched-up communication system of the US spy agency. It reportedly used the same equipment in China which it was using to communicate with its operatives in the middle east. But the Chinese spy agency was much more efficient than the middle east and the CIA underestimated its tech capability. MSS was able to crack this communication network. According to various reports, anywhere between one dozen to two dozen operatives of the CIA were rounded up and executed over a period of two years by the MSS. The CIA did manage to take out many of its ‘assets’ but it had to suffer a major loss.
According to a report published in the journal Foreign Policy in 2018, “It was considered one of the CIA’s worst failures in decades: Over a two-year period starting in late 2010, Chinese authorities systematically dismantled the agency’s network of agents across the country, executing dozens of suspected US spies.”
Recruitment and working pattern.
One of the key methods deployed by MSS is to use the Chinese diaspora to create assets in other countries. Its first bureau plays a significant role in this regard. A survey done by the US-based Centre for Strategic Studies gives an indication about MSS’ approach towards espionage. This survey listed 160 publicly reported instances of Chinese espionage directed at the United States since 2000. According to the survey report:
42% of actors were Chinese military or government employees.
32% were private Chinese citizens.
26% were non-Chinese actors (usually U.S. persons recruited by Chinese officials)
34% of incidents sought to acquire military technology.
51% of incidents sought to acquire commercial technologies.
16% of incidents sought to acquire information on U.S. civilian agencies or politicians.
41% of incidents involved cyber espionage, usually by State-affiliated actors.
According to Hamilton and Ohlberg, “Ego, sex, ideology, patriotism, and especially money is all exploited by China’s intelligence services to recruit spies. In 2017 an FBI employee, Kun Shan Chun (Joey Chun), was convicted of supplying information about the bureau’s organization and operations to Chinese agents, in exchange for free international travel and visits to prostitutes. Among those who spy for China, ideology is a factor mainly for people of Chinese heritage (unlike during the Cold War, when Westerners spied for the USSR for ideological reasons). Beijing also deploys the threat of punishment of family members in China if a target refuses to cooperate.
UFWD: ‘Magic weapon’ in China’s espionage arsenal
The UFWD’s work is inspired by the Leninist theory of uniting with lesser enemies to defeat greater ones
Chinese President Xi Jinping
One of the key constituents of the global Chinese Spy Network is the United Front Work Department (UFWD). It is entrusted with coordination and operational aspects of ‘united front’ activities. The Chinese initially defined ‘united front’ more as a concept. Later it set up UFWD to carry out these activities as the nodal agency.
The UFWD’s work is inspired by the Leninist theory of uniting with lesser enemies to defeat greater ones. Since its founding, this has been a key element of the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) strategy to consolidate its hold on power, both domestically and internationally.
The UFWD’s first deployment was to join and subvert the then ruling Nationalist government, the Kuomintang, in the early 1920s. A 2018 research report by US-China Economic and Security Review Commission explained it further, “The CCP then formed an alliance of convenience with the Kuomintang to discourage it from trying to wipe out the fledgling CCP while uniting their efforts against Japan.”
According to Gerry Groot, senior lecturer at the University of Adelaide and renowned expert on the United Front, this campaign evolved into a systematic effort to recruit “fellow travelers,” mostly “famous intellectuals, writers, teachers, students, publishers, and businesspeople who were not necessarily Communists.”
The modus operandi of the UFWD is one of the least discussed issues in the public domain when it comes to Chinese covert operations. It is not surprising as UFWD operates through a complex web of organizations which act as a front for united front work.
There are thousands of organizations which work for UFWD under the garb of cultural, educational, commercial, and philanthropic organizations. Alex Joske explains the philosophy behind UFWD in his groundbreaking expose of Chinese intelligence operations Spies and Lies, “Party leaders since Mao Zedong have referred to the united front as one of their three ‘magic weapons’. Together with armed struggle and efforts to strengthen Party organization, the two other magic weapons, the CCP credits the united front work with major contributions to its victory in 1949, China’s modernization and subsequent economic development.”
The key task of UFWD is to build a global network of influencers and ‘operators’ who manipulate the global narrative by hook or crook. The UFWD specifically brings into its spy net intellectuals, local community leaders, religious and ethnic figures, journalists, academia, and business magnates.
According to Joske, recent cases from around the world have shown, the (Chinese Communist) Party seeks to insert itself into segments of diaspora communities and then mobilize them as political influence. Co-optees can be used to suppress dissidents, make political donations, mentor political candidates and staffers, and otherwise apply pressure in support of Beijing’s interests.
In a 2020 research paper on UFWD, ASPI said, “There’s no clear distinction between domestic and overseas united front work: all bureaus of the UFWD and all areas of united front work involve overseas activities. This is because the key distinction underlying the United Front is not between domestic and overseas groups, but between the CCP and everyone else. For example, the UFWD’s Xinjiang Bureau plays a central role in policy on Xinjiang but is also involved in worldwide efforts to whitewash the CCP’s internment of an estimated 1.5 million people in Xinjiang, primarily ethnic Uyghur Muslims, as an anti-terrorism and vocational training effort.”
The UFWD follows the directions given by an important CCP body known as the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The latter is led by a member of the CCP’s Politburo Standing Committee.
According to the latest information available, UFWD has a presence across all provinces in China, in all its embassies abroad, in foreign universities and in various international trade organizations as well as in civil society also. According to the ASPI report, “Internally, the department has 10 leaders, at least six of whom hold ministerial rank or higher. It has 12 bureaus, half of which were created after 2015. Bureaucratic changes in 2018 that brought overseas Chinese affairs under the UFWD’s ‘unified management’ also injected dozens if not hundreds of officials with substantial overseas experience into the department. Jinan University, Huaqiao University and the Central Institute of Socialism in Beijing are all subordinate to the UFWD and carry out research and training to support its efforts. Additionally, the UFWD runs dedicated training facilities, such as the Jixian Mountain Estate, which is a complex in the outskirts of Beijing used for training China Overseas Friendship Association cadres.”
Organizations such as the China Overseas Friendship Association, are part of the ‘united front system’. At least two such organizations held special consultative status as non-governmental organizations in the UN Economic and Social Council. According to an ASPI report, “In 2014, an official from one of them, the China Association for Preservation and Development of Tibetan Culture, was barred from a UN human rights hearing after he intimidated a woman testifying about her father, political prisoner Wang Bingzhang.”
The 12 bureaus of UFWD
UFWD’s 12 bureaus deal with separate tasks. Here is how the work has been distributed to them:
First Bureau: Minor Parties Work Bureau (Oversees China’s eight democratic parties) Second Bureau: Deals with Ethnic Affairs Third Bureau: Deals with Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan Fourth Bureau: Deals with business persons and private companies Fifth Bureau: Non-Affiliated and Minor Party Intellectuals related work Sixth Bureau: Targets urban professionals such as employees of foreign companies Seventh Bureau: Handles Tibet related issues Eighth Bureau: Handles issues related to Xinjiang province Ninth Bureau: Overseas Chinese affairs (regional responsibilities) Tenth Bureau: Overseas Chinese Affairs (Media, Cultural and educational activities) Eleventh Bureau and Twelfth Bureau: Issues related to religion
Xi Jinping and UFWD
Though UFWD has always been used by the CCP as a key element of its spy network, Xi Jinping pushed it to a new high after he took over as Chinese President in 2012. In 2015, Xi declared in an important central united front work meeting, “The United Front … is an important magic weapon for strengthening the party’s ruling position … and an important magic weapon for realizing the China Dream of the Great Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation.”
More than 40,000 new personnel were recruited for different wings of UFWD within a few years of Xi taking over the reins of CCP. Xi’s specific focus on UFWD shouldn’t surprise those who know his background. Xi Jinping’s father Xi Zhongxun was known for carrying out UFWD missions in Tibet. One of his key assignments was to influence the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama. As a Politburo member he supervised the UFWD work in the 1980s. Xi rose in the party by climbing through CCP ranks in Fujian province which is known to be a hotbed of united front activities targeting Taiwan. In 1995, he wrote a paper on united front work in the Chinese diaspora. He advocated several new ideas in this paper regarding UFWD which he started implementing in 2012 and expedited it further after the 2015 conference of united front work.
The result is evident. Countries like Australia, US, Canada have exposed how Chinese have been using their spying arms like UFWD to create a deep Chinese state in their countries especially in their political and policy making sphere.
What Jamie Watt, a contributing Columnist to The Toronto Star, wrote in his column on 23 February 2023, would aptly explain the lethalness of Chinese ‘magic weapons’ such as UFWD. Commenting on how incriminating evidence has come out regarding Chinese interference in Canadian elections benefitting Justin Trudeau’s party, Watt wrote: “Just this past week, the Globe and Mail reported news from CSIS that Canadian politicians, government officials, business executives and Chinese Canadians all have been prime targets of Chinese government espionage. This espionage has deployed blackmail, bribery, and sexual seduction. The range and nature of the tactics used are usually reserved for spy novels, but national security experts now deem China’s espionage infrastructure to go far deeper than even the Soviet’s efforts at the height of the Cold War.”
Watt sounds an alarm bell about Canada which explains how Chinese espionage works through organs like UFWD, “It is time that we understand our politicians have proven incapable of addressing Chinese state influence. Chinese aren’t just at our gates, they own them. And they’re standing idly by flipping us the bird.”
A US State Department report on China’s Coercive Activities Abroad specifically highlights the role of UFWD as it says, “The CCP’s United Front Work Department (UFWD) is responsible for coordinating domestic and foreign influence operations, through propaganda and manipulation of susceptible audiences and individuals. The CCP’s United Front permeates every aspect of its extensive engagements with the international community. It targets the highest levels of Western democracies; creates a permanent class of China lobbyists whose primary job is to sell access to high level Chinese leaders to corporate America. The United Front has also penetrated deeply into state, local and municipal governments through a myriad of front organizations such as the CCP’s sister-cities programs, trade commissions, and friendship associations.”
This report also reiterates that China considers UFWD to be its ‘magic weapon’ used by China to dominate the world and manipulate the global narrative.
Chinese Military intelligence: How a mammoth war machine plays spy games across the globe.
India remains one of the primary targets of the Chinese espionage network. And Chinese military has a significant role to play in this game of cloak and dagger.
One of the key elements of the Chinese espionage network is the military intelligence that it has been able to keep under wraps. What we are witnessing is a new avatar of Chinese Military intelligence under President Xi Jinping who as a head of the Central Military Commission directly controls the Chinese military.
He started restructuring the Chinese military in 2015-16 and that also included revamping of the Chinese military intelligence network. Peter Mattis explained the importance and implications of this exercise of Chinese espionage network in China reorients strategic military intelligence (Janes, 2017), “On 26 November 2015, Chinese president Xi Jinping announced the first significant revision of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) since its reorganization during the 1950s, when the PLA transformed from an army fighting a civil war to one capable of protecting a nation-state. The reforms removed the Soviet-inspired system of general departments, established a new division of labour, and realigned the PLA organizationally to better fulfil the Military Strategic Guidelines that state the goal of winning informationized local wars.”
“Many elements of the PLA’s modernization effort in the past 25 years have had strictly military implications, but this round of reforms reaches far beyond the Chinese military to reshape how the leadership receives information. To reinforce the Central Military Commission’s (CMC’s) control over operational forces and provide better battlefield intelligence support, the PLA created the Strategic Support Force (PLASSF). The new force consolidated much of the PLA’s technical collection capabilities to direct them towards supporting military operations.”
Chinese Military Intelligence Arm: Joint Staff Department
The Chinese military intelligence arm has been innocuously named as Joint Staff Department (JSD). Earlier it was known as 2PLA or second department of the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) General Staff Department. The JSD came into existence around seven years ago.
According to Clive Hamilton and Mareike Ohlberg (Hidden Hand: Exposing How the Chinese Communist Party is Reshaping the World), “The Intelligence Bureau of the CMC Joint Staff Department is not only responsible for military intelligence but also has a history of extensive activity in civilian domains. It draws on military attachés and signals intelligence to gather intelligence. The Joint Staff Department has its own think tanks — the China Institute for International Strategic Studies, which focuses on research, and the China Foundation for International and Strategic Studies, which engages in academic and policy exchanges. Its Institute of International Relations (now part of the National University of Defense Technology) trains military attachés and secret agents.”
Structure of Chinese Military Intelligence Apparatus
The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) controls the PLA through its Central Military Commission. President Xi Jinping has been the chairman of the CMC ever since he came to power in 2012.
According to a US Congressional Research Report published in June 2021, China’s current military modernization push began in 1978 and accelerated in the 1990s. Xi Jinping, the General Secretary and “core leader” of the CCP, Chairman of the CCP’s Central Military Commission, and State President, has continued to make military modernization a priority and has linked military modernization to his signature issue: the “China Dream” of a modern, strong, and prosperous country.
‘In 2017, Xi formalized three broad goals for the PLA: (1) to achieve mechanization of the armed forces and to make significant progress toward what the United States would call a “networked” force by 2020; (2) to “basically complete” China’s military modernization process by 2035; and (3) to have a “world-class” military by 2049, the centenary of the establishment of the PRC. Xi has initiated the most ambitious reform and reorganization of the PLA since the 1950s, to transform the military into a capable joint force as well as to further consolidate control of the PLA in the hands of Xi and the CCP.’
Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology (ICIT), a Washington-based think tank has worked extensively on detailing the structure of Chinese military intelligence through their senior fellow James Drew and Researcher Scott Spaniel. According to Scott and Spaniel, “The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Joint Staff Department (JSD) replaced the General Staff Department on January 11, 2016, as part of Xi Jinping’s military reforms. It manages most military and covert operations. The JSD, as a division of the PLA, is dedicated to warfare. The duties of the PLA JSD include PLA Operations Command, Recruitment, Mobilization, Formation, Training, and Administration.”
Second and Third Department
The JSD has three departments which work in coordination to conduct various intelligence operations. These departments deal respectively with electronic intelligence, human intelligence, and signal intelligence. The section within the PLA’s Joint Staff Department that deals with conventional human intelligence (HUMINT) is known as ‘Second Department’.
James Scott and Drew Spaniel estimated in their 2016 book, China’s Espionage Dynasty, that this department had around 30,000–50,000 agents around the world. Their primary task is to collect useful, relevant, and confidential information and send it back to China.
‘A common misconception is that agents of the Chinese government are “sloppy”; however, agents of the second department who serve as high level spies or handlers are rarely caught. Rather, low-level assets, often belonging to the overt structure, are more often detected by foreign intelligence agencies.’
The Third Department which is entrusted with the task of signals intelligence (SIGNIT). According to Drew and Spaniel, “The Third Department is the largest intelligence agency in the Chinese government, consisting of an estimated 250,000- 300,000 linguists, technical staff, and cyber soldiers. There are at least four known Research Institutes (56, 57, 58, and 61) under the Third Department. Within the 61 Research Institute are approximately 20 bureaus that launch cyberattacks. The Third Department intercepts phone calls, launches cyberattacks, and monitors communications. Much of its efforts involve hacking devices and exfiltrating targeted data. The Third Department may launch obvious cyberattacks, such as DDoS or ransomware attacks, against target systems to mask the activity of Second Department operatives.”
The Fourth Department is responsible for electronic intelligence (ELINT) operations. Its prime focus is on intercepting satellite and radar data. The operatives of Fourth Department are experts in altering, jamming, or spoofing of signals.
“It is believed that the Fourth Department research direct methods of disabling enemy communication networks. State-Sponsored APTs (i.e., Chinese state sponsored advanced persistent threats) can be identified based on their choice of targets, their proclivity for cyberespionage, and the language settings on the keyboards used to develop the malware, and their connections to other campaigns. Some groups, such as APT 1 (Unit 61398), APT 2 (Unit 61486) and APT 30 (Unit 78020) can be linked to specific units within the Third Department. Other APTs remain less defined.”
PLA Unit 61398
In May 2014, five officers of the PLA who belonged to its unit ‘61398’ commonly known for cyber espionage and cyberattacks were indicted by a US court. Several cyber security firms have reported about the clandestine operations of this unit which is one of the key parts of the Chinese Military Intelligence apparatus. This unit primarily targets countries with flourishing democracies as they are a perfect antidote to the Chinese authoritarian system. Hence along with several other countries, India has also been one of their targets. Several cyberattacks on the Indian establishment are believed to have been carried out by this unit. It is reportedly headquartered in Datong Avenue of Pudong district in Shanghai. There has been a consistent spurt in its activities.
The Chinese military intelligence is committed to pursue the so-called vision of Xi Jinping and peddle a pro-China global narrative. China Institute of International Studies (CIIS), a front form the Chinese military intelligence network, carried a detailed comment on India. Authored by Lan Jianxue, Director of the Department for Asia-Pacific Studies at CIIS, this is what Chinese military intelligence conveyed, “Noticeably, the connotation of the so-called Asian Century, as understood by the United States, is not quite the same as that understood by the Chinese. The expression “Asian Century” was coined by former Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1988. Deng pointed out that no genuine Asian Century can come until China, India and other neighboring countries are developed.
It is clear the United States remains one of the primary targets of the Chinese espionage network. And the Chinese military has a significant role to play in this game of cloak and dagger.
The modernization of national defense and the army is a strategic task for building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. The “Outline” focuses on basically realizing the long-term goal of socialist modernization by 2035 and the century-old goal of building the army by 2027. It makes a strategic deployment for accelerating the modernization of national defense and the army, which fully embodies the overall development and security of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core. The strategic determination and far-reaching strategic planning to enrich the country and strengthen the army. We must resolutely implement the deployment requirements of the “Outline”, and strive to create a new situation in the modernization of national defense and the army at a new historical starting point with greater efforts and greater actions.
1. A deep understanding of the characteristics of the era of national defense and military modernization
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Chairman Xi has focused on the realization of the Chinese Dream and the dream of strengthening the military. He has created and formed Xi Jinping’s thought on strengthening the military. Historic achievements have been made in the modernization drive. The ideological and political foundation of our army has become stronger, the organizational form has been reshaped and reconstructed, the development level of national defense technology and weaponry has been significantly improved, the integrity of the military personnel has been strengthened, breakthroughs have been made in the construction of the rule of law, and the military construction has further focused on preparing for and fighting wars. Innovation drives transformation, and military strategic capabilities have leapt sharply. But we must also see that there is still a gap between our military’s modernization level and national security needs, and compared with the world’s advanced level. Our military’s ability to fight modern warfare and the ability of cadres at all levels to command modern warfare need to be improved urgently. During the ” 14th Five-Year Plan ” period, the international strategic situation and national security environment are facing new and major changes. It is necessary to adapt to the new requirements of the national development strategy, security strategy and military strategy, accelerate the modernization process of national defense and the military, and effectively safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests. .
(1) National defense and military modernization must provide stronger strategic support for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation
At present, the world’s major changes are accelerating. The impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic is extensive and far-reaching. The strategic game between major powers has obviously heated up. The international balance of power has been profoundly adjusted, and the instability and uncertainty of the international situation have increased significantly. Our country is in a critical stage of development from big to strong. The great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation has ushered in unprecedented historical opportunities, as well as unprecedented risks and challenges. The more we develop and grow, the greater the resistance and pressure we will encounter. As a means of safeguarding national security, the military must give full play to the strategic role of military power building and utilization in maintaining national security, accelerate the development of military power, accelerate the formation of strong strategic deterrence and actual combat capabilities, and ensure the effective fulfillment of military missions in the new era mission and strongly support the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
(2) The modernization of national defense and the military must accelerate the integration of mechanization, informationization and intelligence
The world’s new military revolution is developing rapidly, the degree of informatization of modern warfare is constantly improving, and the characteristics of intelligence are becoming more and more obvious. Unmanned combat systems are heavily used in actual combat, which has a profound impact on the concept, elements, and methods of winning wars. The major military powers are speeding up the construction of an intelligent military system and seeking new advantages in military competition, which has created enormous strategic pressure on us. We must enhance scientific and technological insight and war insight, adhere to mechanization as the basis, informationization as the leading, and intelligence as the direction, promote the integration and development of mechanization, informationization, and intelligence, actively cultivate and incubate new growth poles of combat effectiveness, and promote the process of intelligence. Develop highly developed mechanization and a higher level of informatization, leading the transformation and upgrading of national defense and military modernization.
(3) National defense and military modernization must be deeply integrated into the national modernization strategic layout
my country has become the world’s second largest economy, but its national defense strength is still not compatible with my country’s international status, and it is necessary to take effective measures to speed up the modernization of national defense and the military. Adapting to the development of a new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial revolution, our party has lost no time in proposing major goals such as building a scientific and technological power, a marine power, an aerospace power, and a cyber power. On the one hand, a series of strategic measures have been introduced, which will provide more substantial material and technical support for the modernization of national defense and the army. We must more consciously integrate into the overall layout of national development, make full use of the achievements of national modernization and development and high-quality social resources, promote the sound and rapid development of the cause of strengthening the military, and promote the simultaneous improvement of national defense strength and economic strength.
2. Accurately Grasp the Strategic Task of Accelerating the Modernization of National Defense and the Army
The “Outline” clarifies the overall thinking and objectives and tasks for accelerating the modernization of national defense and the armed forces. In general, we must implement Xi Jinping’s thinking on strengthening the military, implement the military strategic guidelines for the new era, uphold the Party’s absolute leadership over the people’s military, insist on building the military politically, strengthening the military through reform, strengthening the military through technology, strengthening the military with talents, and governing the military according to the law. The integrated development of modernization and intelligence will comprehensively strengthen military training and preparations, improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests, and ensure the realization of the century-old goal of the army in 2027 .
(1) Improving the quality and efficiency of national defense and military modernization
The modernization of national defense and the military has entered a critical stage of transformation and upgrading. It is necessary to organically unify the improvement of quality and efficiency with the acceleration of the modernization process, strengthen the effective supply of advanced combat capabilities, give play to the core role of innovation-driven in the overall modernization, change the concept of development, and innovate the development model , enhance development momentum and ensure high-quality development.
Accelerate the modernization of military theory. The key to the continuous development and growth of the people’s army, from victory to victory, lies in the guidance of the party’s advanced military guidance theory. It is necessary to continue to deepen the study and implementation of Xi Jinping’s thought on strengthening the army, and consciously use the latest achievements of the party’s military guidance theory to solve practical problems in military struggle and army building. It is the distinctive feature and unique advantage of our party to be good at strategic planning and focus on strategic guidance and innovation. It is necessary to thoroughly implement Xi Jinping’s military strategic thinking, in-depth study of the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the mechanism of victory, constantly innovate and develop our military’s warfare and strategic guidance, and improve the military strategic system in the new era. It is necessary to keep up with changes in the form of war and combat methods, strengthen the research on combat issues and the development and verification of combat concepts, and accelerate the construction of an advanced combat theory system.
Accelerate the modernization of the military organization. Reform is always on the way. We must adhere to the same direction, the right path, and the undiminished strength, deepen the reform of national defense and the army, continuously liberate and develop combat effectiveness, and liberate and enhance the vitality of the army. A modern army needs modern management. It is necessary to further promote the military management revolution, update management concepts, optimize management processes, improve management mechanisms, and improve the operational efficiency of military systems and the efficiency of the use of national defense resources. Modern warfare emphasizes systematic warfare and joint victory. It is necessary to speed up the transformation and construction of the armed forces and the armed police force, strengthen strategic forces and combat forces in new domains and new qualities, enrich strategic options, increase strategic weight, and create a high-level strategic deterrence and joint combat system. It is necessary to strengthen the clear orientation of military training and preparation, strengthen joint training, joint support, and joint use of military forces, and improve joint combat capabilities and all-domain combat capabilities based on network information systems.
Accelerate the modernization of military personnel. In the final analysis, modern warfare is a competition for talents. It is necessary to implement the military education policy for the new era, focus on the training of joint combat command talents, new combat force talents, high-level scientific and technological innovation talents, and high-level strategic management talents, and accelerate the forging of high-quality, professional new-type military talents with both ability and political integrity. . It is necessary to improve the three-in-one new military personnel training system of military academies, military training practices, and military vocational education, innovate the development and management of military human resources, improve the system and mechanism of talent identification, gathering, training, and employment, and accelerate the formation of people who are suitable for posts and make full use of their talents. , A vivid situation where talents emerge in large numbers.
Accelerate the modernization of weapons and equipment. Weaponry is an important symbol of military modernization. We must adhere to the basic point of the independent innovation strategy, focus on independent innovation and original innovation in national defense science and technology, strengthen basic theory and basic technology research, accelerate breakthroughs in key core technologies, and firmly grasp the lifeline of development. It is necessary to keep a close eye on global technological innovation trends, accelerate the development of strategic frontier and disruptive technologies, and actively seize the strategic commanding heights of military competition. It is necessary to accelerate the upgrading of weapons and equipment and the development of intelligent weapons and equipment, strengthen the construction of high-tech and new-concept weapons and equipment, and promote the modernization of weapons and equipment to accelerate into the world’s advanced ranks.
(2) Promote the simultaneous improvement of national defense strength and economic strength
Consistent with the country’s modernization process and adapting to the country’s construction of a new development pattern, strengthen the integration and allocation of cross-military, cross-departmental, and cross-field forces and resources, improve organizational management, work operations, policy systems, talent teams, and risk prevention and control systems. Integrate the national strategic system and capabilities to achieve both development and security, enrich the country and strengthen the military.
Do a good job in strategic planning. Coordinating economic construction and national defense construction in the overall national strategy is our party’s long-term successful experience in governing the country. It is necessary to strengthen the connection of strategic planning. The state fully considers military needs when formulating strategic planning. The military development strategy and construction plan implement the overall deployment of the party and the state to ensure that relevant construction arrangements are planned and coordinated. It is necessary to deepen the sharing of resource elements, break down barriers of interest, and improve a smooth mechanism that is conducive to the two-way and efficient flow of superior military and local resources. It is necessary to strengthen the coordination of policies and systems, do a good job in process connection and task coordination, and improve the coupling of military-civilian related policies and systems.
Promote the coordinated development of key regions, key areas, and emerging areas, further revitalize existing resources, optimize incremental resources, and improve the level of resource utilization. Strengthen the implementation of national defense requirements for economic construction projects, promote the reform of air traffic management, and enhance the overall support for economic construction and national defense construction. We must pay attention to relying on the national education system to cultivate military personnel, accelerate the establishment of modern military personnel exchange and use, qualification certification and other systems, and explore the establishment of an orderly exchange mechanism for military and local cadres. It is necessary to combine the construction of major national projects and concentrate on implementing major projects in the field of national defense to better serve the strategic needs of national security development.
Optimize the layout of national defense science and technology industry. At present, my country’s national defense science and technology industry is generally large but not strong, and it is not yet adapted to the requirements of a strong country and a strong army. It is necessary to deepen the reform of the defense science and technology industry system, adjust the structure of military scientific research and production capabilities, and build a defense science and technology industry system with advanced technology, reasonable layout, flexible response, openness and integration. It is necessary to stimulate the vitality of the military product market, promote the reform of market access for weapons and equipment, adjust the price and tax policies of military products, and create a level playing field. It is necessary to speed up the process of standardization and generalization, actively adopt advanced civilian standards in national defense and military construction, and promote the two-way transfer and utilization of advanced military and civilian technologies.
Bring together powerful forces to advance the cause of a strong country and a strong military. Our army is the people’s army, and our national defense is the national defense of the whole people. It is necessary to improve the national defense mobilization system, strengthen coordination in response to emergencies, and build a new pattern of national defense mobilization under the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, with both the military and the local government performing their own responsibilities and closely coordinating. It is necessary to improve the mechanism of strong border defense, the party, the government, the army, the police and the people should work together to build a border governance pattern that is compatible with the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. It is necessary to strengthen national defense education for all, consolidate the unity of the military, the government, the military and the people, and provide strong support for building and consolidating national defense and a strong people’s army.
3. Conscientiously implement the requirements for measures to accelerate the modernization of national defense and the military
During the ” 14th Five-Year Plan ” period, the national defense and military modernization tasks are arduous and arduous. It is necessary to make decisions and deploy in accordance with the “Outline”, gather strength and work hard to ensure the implementation of various tasks.
(1) Give full play to institutional advantages
Give full play to the role of the party in overseeing the overall situation and coordinating all parties, and implement the party’s leadership in all fields and links of economic construction and national defense construction. Unswervingly uphold the Party’s absolute leadership over the military, comprehensively and thoroughly implement the responsibility system of the Chairman of the Military Commission, comprehensively strengthen Party building in the military, and transform the advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics into a powerful force to promote the modernization of national defense and the military.
(2) Focus on being able to fight and win
Adhere to the basic standard of combat effectiveness, pay close attention to changes in the national security situation, always maintain a high degree of sensitivity to the enemy’s situation, and maintain a high level of alertness. Focusing on improving the combat capability of the system, we will forge our strengths, make up for our weaknesses, and strengthen our bases, strengthen the cultivation of fighting spirit, and step up efforts to complete various strategic directions Preparations for military struggles. Coordinate the promotion of military struggle preparations in traditional and new security fields to ensure that once something happens, we can win the battle.
(3) Deepen reform and innovation
Take reform and innovation as the fundamental way to liberate and develop combat effectiveness, keep an eye on changes in the form of warfare and changes in technological development, continue to deepen self-improvement and self-innovation, promote the implementation of reform measures, release reform dividends, highlight originality, innovation and transcendence, and strengthen Forward-looking layout in strategically contested fields, comprehensively promote innovation in military theory, technology, organization, management, culture, etc., and strive to build an innovative people’s army.
(4) Improving the protection of the rule of law
Implement Xi Jinping’s thought on the rule of law, adhere to the principle of governing the military according to the law and strictly, be good at using the rule of law thinking and methods to promote construction and carry out work, strengthen the construction of the military rule of law with Chinese characteristics, build a practical and systematic military legal system, and accelerate the advancement of military governance Fundamental changes have been made in the mode, and the level of rule of law in the modernization of national defense and the armed forces has been continuously improved.
中國網絡衝突討論，信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research