Russian Ministry of Defense set up information operations forces to deal with Western networks – psychological attacks // 俄國防部組建信息作戰部隊 應對西方網絡-心理攻擊
With the Russian and Western cyber space in the game is becoming increasingly fierce, especially in the 2018 Russian presidential election near the background, the Western countries for Russia’s network and information / psychological attacks increasing. To this end, Russia to strengthen the network and information security construction. At the end of 2016, the revision of the new edition of the Russian Federation Information Security Theory. February 27, 2017, Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou announced the formation of information operations forces, accelerate the construction of information combat forces, clear its functional mission.
First, the new theory clearly set up the purpose of information combat forces and their functions
December 6, 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin approved the new version of “Russian Federation information security theory.” It points out that the main objectives of information security in the field of defense include the implementation of strategic containment and prevention of military conflicts caused by information technology, the improvement of the Russian armed forces information security system, the development of information confrontation forces and equipment, the forecasting, inspection and evaluation of the Russian armed forces Threats in the field of information; elimination of information / psychological effects aimed at destabilizing national history and patriotic traditions.
The formation of information combat forces is one of Russia’s important initiatives to achieve these goals. First of all, the Russian information combat forces is to contain and prevent the field of network information conflict or the main force of war. Second, the formation of information combat forces is the Russian armed forces information security system construction and the Russian new military reform an important step, will take into account the strength of construction and equipment development. Once again, the information warfare forces ensure that Russian armed forces are protected from cyber attacks and information security threats, ensuring wartime command and control and operational capability. Finally, the information warfare forces will also confront and counter the Western countries of the anti-Russian information penetration and psychological impact, to maintain the fighting morale and national stability.
Second, the troops named on the network attack and information penetration of the “two-handedly”
Russian Defense Minister Shao Yigu pointed out that the main functions of the information combatants include: centralized management of network operations; protection of Russian military networks and nodes, military command systems and communications systems from hackers; to ensure reliable access to information; Russian military capacity to expand its ability to act in cyberspace; against the Western anti-Russian information / psychological propaganda and penetration.
Russian military experts believe that the future of military struggle in the information combat objectives not only include the armed forces allegation system, the government administrative system and the financial system and other hard targets, more strategic is the soldiers and public psychology and other soft targets. An attack on the implementation of soft targets such as soldiers and people can lead to dislocation and disintegration. Information combat forces should not only have to protect their own side and attack each other hard targets and other capabilities, but also have to confront and oppose the enemy information / psychological attack and penetration. At present, countries with network dominance use different means to implement information operations against different objectives. For the use of special information weapons, such as computer viruses, information bombs, logic bombs, computer chips that are given special missions, explosive devices that generate electromagnetic pulses, UHF generators, and electronic biological weapons. And for the soldiers and the public psychological and other soft targets, create provocative or intimidating false information and spread through the information media to achieve military and political purposes.
Therefore, Russia will be named the “information combat forces” rather than the network combat forces fully embodies the scope of its combat both soft and hard targets.
Third, the integration of active elite forces and the recruitment of new forces simultaneously
The force will integrate the existing Russian armed forces network operations, electronic reconnaissance and electronic confrontation and other departments and functions, while absorbing the Ministry of Internal Affairs and security system of network information security and related experts, including mathematicians, programmers, engineers, cryptographers , Communications experts, electronic confrontation experts, translators and so on.
Russian military arms and institutions in 2013 has set up a “technology even”, and from college graduates in the recruitment of professionals, which is the key components of the military system / unit reserves and training professionals specializing in technology research and development and information security team. According to statistics, this force mainly includes the Air Force’s second science and technology even the space and defense forces of the third technology even under the Army’s fifth technology even, under the Military Academy of Sciences, the seventh technology even Wait. Each with 2 to 3 rows, each with about 20 people. To the air days of military science and technology, for example, the troops regularly recruit college graduates, give priority to the use of computer security, communications systems, information security, special radio systems, cryptography, electronic optoelectronic special equipment and other professionals, by the Air Force Academy of Military Academy training and education The center is responsible for training new people.
Fourth, the force commander has not yet determined, Gracimov is the most likely candidate
Russian Defense Minister Shaoyou clear, information warfare force commander will be general rank. Western countries believe that the Russian armed forces, the current chief of staff, Mr. Grazimov served as the commander of the information operations the possibility of the largest. He has proposed the Russian version of the “mixed war” concept, and received the approval of President Putin. He pointed out that “the current principle of war itself has undergone substantial changes, the realization of political and strategic objectives of the non-military means of the status of a series of events show that the effect of non-military means sometimes more than the use of weapons.” In his description of the “civil war in Ukraine” and “the spring of Arabia”, he pointed out that the information / psychological warfare could “turn a peaceful and prosperous country into a brutal armed struggle in months or even days”. March 4, 2017, Grazimov in military academy, asked the Russian Academy of Military Sciences to intensify the study of the new model of confrontation between countries and effective counter-measures. In addition, the West speculated that Gerasimov’s another reason is that he has served as the Russian armed forces network information warfare the highest commander. In 2010, the Russian Armed Forces commanded a powerful message / psychological offensive, and it was Gracimov who had recaptured the Crimea.
At present, the Russian Defense Ministry official website has not yet put information warfare troops, and the existing army, air force, navy and strategic missile soldiers, airborne soldiers of these five arms tied. The forces become separate forces or scattered in the existing five arms and key sectors are not yet known. However, the formation of information combat forces is not only a key step in the construction of Russian network information security forces, but also an important step in the reform of the Russian army in the context of the increasingly fierce network security of information security and the increasingly complex environment of security. Information operations forces will defend Russia’s cyberspace and information in the field of soft and hard targets, to achieve their own attack and defense functions, maintaining national network security and political and military security.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著俄羅斯與西方在網絡空間的博弈日趨激烈，特別在2018年俄總統大選臨近的大背景下，西方國家針對俄羅斯的網絡和信息/心理攻擊日益增多。為此，俄羅斯加強網絡和信息安全建設。 2016年底，修訂頒布新版《俄羅斯聯邦信息安全學說》。 2017年2月27日，俄國防部長紹伊古宣布組建信息作戰部隊，加快推進信息作戰力量建設，明確其職能使命。
俄國防部長紹伊古明確，信息作戰部隊司令將是大將軍銜。西方國家認為，俄武裝力量現任總參謀長格拉西莫夫大出任信息作戰部隊司令的可能性最大。他曾提出俄版“混合戰爭”概念，並得到普京總統的認同。他指出，“目前的戰爭原則本身已發生實質性改變，實現政治和戰略目標的非軍事手段的地位在上升。一系列事件表明，非軍事手段的效果有時超過了使用武器”。他在對“烏克蘭內戰”和“阿拉伯之春”等事件的描述中指出，信息/心理戰能夠將“一個祥和繁榮的國家在幾個月甚至幾天之內變成殘酷武裝鬥爭的戰場”。 2017年3月4日，格拉西莫夫在參加軍事學術會議時，要求俄軍事科學院加緊研究國家間對抗的新模式及有效反製手段。此外，西方推測格拉西莫夫的另一原因是，他此前一直擔任俄武裝力量網絡信息作戰的最高指揮官。 2014年指揮俄武裝力量發動強大信息/心理攻勢，兵不血刃收復克里米亞的正是格拉西莫夫。