Category Archives: Chinese Military Characteristics & Development Trends of Cognitive Domain Operations and Warfare

Chinese Military to Emphasize Operational Use of Language Confrontation in Cognitive Domain Operations



The traditional style of language confrontation is a form of game in which the two parties in the struggle focus on specific issues or goals at a specific time and in a specific context, using language as the main medium of expression. In the context of cognitive domain operations, with the upgrading of Internet technology, the rapid development of modern communication technology, the innovation of emerging social media, and the improvement of natural language processing technology, coupled with human beings’ advances in cognitive science, linguistics, and communication With the new progress made in the fields of science, psychology and other fields, people have a deeper understanding and new understanding of language confrontation.

Language confrontation is becoming increasingly precise. The narrative style of discourse is the key to influencing cognition. Cognitive domain operations in the era of intelligence can conduct big data-based analysis of the audience, and through large amounts of text collection and data mining, we can find various opinions, tendencies, and positions that were previously invisible or easily ignored due to limited human power. and demands. By making good use of cognitive computing, you can better choose language types, voice patterns, discourse skills, narrative design, optimize the narrative perspective, theme, style, and the personal emotions, values, ideologies, and standpoint evaluations contained in the narrative, and more We should take into account the differences in communication modes of different languages ​​and cultures, so as to achieve the best, fastest and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. At the same time, cognitive protection can also be provided in a foreseeable and targeted manner.

Language text design customization. Cognitive domain operations fundamentally require the use of information to exert influence, and the unique discourse used in the information text is the main basis for cognitive influence. To target the cognitive domain of people in a specific country or region, we must skillfully use the discourse expressions in the other party’s language and culture, and conduct in-depth research on the stories, myths, proverbs, aphorisms, etc. expressed in the other party’s language, especially the popular topics on the other party’s social media. , characters and their discourse characteristics, and is good at using authentic and novel language expressions of cross-cultural cognition to create a contagious language atmosphere of emotional identification. On this basis, we strive to make innovative expressions, fully grasp the different cognitions and needs of the other audience, organize multi-dimensional discourse power, and design texts in multiple languages ​​to form new impressions and cognitions based on cognitive resonance.

The main style of language is popular. Language is the “cannonball fired at thought” in cognitive domain warfare. The use of language that is creative, expressive and in line with the laws of modern communication can cover a wide range of people and win more audiences. Therefore, popularizing the language subject style is the central link that determines the effectiveness of cognitive domain confrontation, and is also a key factor in winning recognition and winning hearts and minds in cognitive domain operations. Young people are the most active group of people in future wars and are also the main force in cognitive confrontation. The discourse forms and expressions that young people like to hear and see are the key to gaining the advantage of language confrontation in the cognitive domain.

Modeling the effects of language confrontation. Language confrontation in cognitive domain operations requires an in-depth study of the opponent’s main cultural environment, main cognitive narrative models, main cognitive shortcomings and weaknesses, and the characteristics of social media communication discourse, and masters its long-term cognitive models and the connotation of textual expressions. Rules etc. Based on artificial intelligence, modeling and analysis of the cognitive effects of language confrontation on different groups of people will help to conduct timely effect assessments, accurately grasp potential problems, and discover the fulcrum of strength. For example, it is difficult for general qualitative fuzzy assessments to grasp the micro-propagation effect of individual flexible maneuvers and the point-shooting effect of a single “discourse sniper”. The use of modeling analysis methods can provide relatively accurate conclusions. In addition, modeling analysis can also create strategic planning methods for language confrontation that combine long-term and present, macro themes and micro themes, agenda setting and random communication, drips of water piercing the stone and floods, and tolerance and tolerance with active release, which is better. to exert the combat effectiveness of language confrontation.


語言對抗的傳統樣式,是鬥爭雙方在特定時間、特定背景下,圍繞特定議題或目標,以語言為主要表達媒介的賽局形式。 在認知域作戰背景下,隨著網路科技的更新換代、現代通訊科技的快速發展、新興社群媒體的推陳出新,以及自然語言處理科技的提高,再加上人類在認知科學、語言學、傳播 學、心理學等領域所取得的新進步,人們對於語言對抗有了更深入的理解與全新的認知。

語言對抗日益精準化。 話語的敘事方式是影響認知的關鍵。 智能化時代的認知域作戰,可以對受眾進行基於大數據的分析,透過大量文本收集和資料挖掘,尋找以往因人工力量受限而看不到或易被忽略的各種觀點、傾向、立場 及訴求。 運用好認知計算,可以更好地選擇語言種類、語態模式、話語技巧、敘事設計,優化敘事的視角、主題、風格以及敘事所蘊含的個人情感、價值觀念、意識形態、立場評價,更 好地顧及不同語言文化傳播模式的差異,以達到最好最優最快、最精準的打擊與反擊。 同時,也能夠有預見、有針對性地做好認知防護。

語言文本設計客製化。 認知域作戰從根本上需要利用資訊來施加影響,其訊息文本所採用的獨特性論述是認知影響的主要依賴。 針對特定國家、特定地域人群的認知域作戰,要嫻熟運用對方語言文化中的話語表達形式,深入研究用對方語言表達的故事、神話、諺語、格言等,特別是對方社交媒體上流行的話題 、人物及其話語特點,善於運用跨文化認知的道地而新穎的語言表達,營造出富有感染力的情感認同語言氛圍。 在此基礎上,努力做好創新表達,充分掌握對方受眾的不同認知與需求,組織多維話語力量、設計多種語言文本,使之依托認知共鳴形成新的印象與認知。

語言主體風格大眾化。 語言是認知域作戰「射向思想的砲彈」。 富有創意、充滿表現力、符合現代傳播規律的語言運用,可以接觸廣大的人群、爭取更多的受眾。 因此,實現語言主體風格大眾化,是決定認知領域對抗成效的中心環節,也是在認知領域作戰中贏得認同、贏得人心的關鍵因素。 青年是未來戰爭中最活躍的人群,也是認知域對抗的主體力量。 青年喜聞樂見的話語形式和表達方式,是獲得認知域語言對抗優勢的關鍵。

語言對抗效果模型化。 認知域作戰的語言對抗要深入研究對手的主要文化環境、主要認知敘事模式、主要認知短板和弱點以及社交媒體的傳播話語特點,掌握其長期形成的認知模式、文本表達的內在 規律等。 基於人工智慧,對語言對抗作用於不同族群產生的認知效果進行建模分析,有助於及時展開效果評估,準確掌握潛在問題,發現力量支點。 例如,一般定性模糊評估難以把握個人靈活機動的微小傳播作用以及單一「話語狙擊手」的點射作用,採用建模分析手段則可以提供相對準確的結論。 此外,建模分析還可以為語言對抗創造長遠與當下結合、宏大主題與微觀主題結合、議程設定與隨機傳播結合、滴水穿石與大水漫灌結合、包容隱忍與積極釋放結合的戰略統籌手段,更好 地發揮語言對抗的戰鬥力。


认知域作战中的语言对抗. 解放军报.

Chinese Military Strategic Aims Focusing on the Cognitive Advantage Which is Becoming the Winning Advantage in High-End Warfare

中國軍事戰略目標聚焦認知優勢 正成為高階戰爭制勝優勢


Cognition is the process by which people obtain, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually attracted attention from all countries. With the development of the technological revolution and the expansion of warfare practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerated evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming a fundamental driving force in the evolution of warfare. Technology changes the form of warfare and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become A sign of maturity in driving cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies such as cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, and artificial intelligence will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Humanity is entering the era of universal communication, and global cyberspace is becoming highly interconnected. The Internet has become a battle space for all-round competition between state actors and non-state actors. Communication disputes and communication wars have become part of the level of high-intensity military operations. At present, major countries in the world are deploying at the forefront of cognitive technology and launching cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control human brain networks, information networks and social networks; through deep calculations, actuarial calculations, clever calculations, etc., they aim to maximize Gain control over people’s cognitive world and cognitive domains.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the era of intelligence, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication has given way to more online communication, various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The spatial domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep ground, while the logical domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and counter-blockade, dominance and counter-dominance around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare. Using information as ammunition to fight for control of international discourse has become the main method of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of winning in small battles or even without fighting through comprehensive gaming methods such as cognitive warfare. Attack and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released. .

Cognitive superiority is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of conduct in war is the lifeblood of the military. From a cognitive perspective, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the greater the freedom of action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in wars, commanders have begun to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time to help commanders get rid of cognitive overload and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantages will dominate decision-making advantages, and decision-making advantages will dominate action advantages. Cognitive advantages have four key indicators: stronger information acquisition capabilities, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling capabilities, and higher capabilities to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with new characteristics of data-driven intelligent communication and traditional military operations have been highly coordinated and integrated. This combat style that integrates virtual and real operations has stronger combat effectiveness than pure military operations, fundamentally changing traditional combat methods. Change. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become the fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the frontier of gaming to win the war. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control of cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field, and concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion are being introduced. , has appeared frequently in the field of cognitive warfare research abroad. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict fields” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theoretical innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars. Cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation. Cognitive technology will accelerate cognitive warfare and become an important “tipping point” for the intelligent military revolution. As new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are being incubated at an accelerated pace, perhaps future warfare will take on a surprising new situation.


認知是人們獲得、加工及應用資訊和知識的過程。 當前,認知域逐漸成為角逐的新戰場,認知戰也逐漸受到各國重視。 隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的拓展,認知戰正呈現加速演變趨勢。

認知科技正成為戰爭演進的基本動力。 科技改變戰爭形態,也改變認知戰方式。 如果資訊網路的大規模普及,推動了資訊域成為作戰域,資料和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊域成熟的標誌,那麼認知科技的大規模應用,認知技術不斷迭代發展,將成為 推動認知戰成熟的標誌。 未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等方面技術,將折射出認知技術對社會認知對抗、軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。 人類正進入全民傳播時代,全球網路空間正納入高度連動,網路已成為國家行為體和非國家行為體全面博弈的作戰空間,傳播之爭和傳播之戰已成為高烈度軍事行動層面的一部分。 當前世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,開展認知技術競賽,透過建模和分析,謀求滲透控制人腦網絡、資訊網絡和社會網絡;透過深算、精算、妙算等,旨在最大限度 把握人們的認知世界和認知域的控制權。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。 智慧時代,人類溝通方式正發生複雜深刻變化。 離線交流更多讓位於線上交流,各種新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地。 因此,未來戰爭的作戰域將不斷拓展,空間域從陸海空天網向深空、深海、深地拓展,而邏輯域則從物理域向資訊域、認知域拓展。 戰爭不再侷限於傳統戰爭的實體威脅,而是轉向大眾媒體、科技進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。 圍繞傳播平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰爭奪的焦點,以資訊為彈藥進行國際話語控制權爭奪成為當今認知對抗的主要方式。 在混合戰爭視角下,意識形態宣傳與灌輸、價值觀與文化的滲透、傳統的輿論心理與法律攻防與資訊網絡戰等,都成為認知戰的重要面向。 混合戰爭可透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,實現小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的,而認知領域攻防將是一場不間斷的、常態化的鬥爭,作戰效能也將持續累積、逐步釋放 。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的勝利優勢。 戰爭行動自由是軍隊的命脈。 從認知維度來看,對戰場環境、作戰對手認知越深,行動越自由,相對優勢就越大。 但隨著戰爭中作戰資料指數級成長,指揮人員開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境,擁有資訊優勢並不等於擁有認知優勢。 人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向,就是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮人員擺脫認知過載,快速形成認知優勢。 在智慧化戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢主導行動優勢。 認知優勢有4個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的突發事件處理能力和更高的開發應用新技術新知識的能力。 例如,以數據驅動的智慧傳播為新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動已經高度協同與融合,這種虛實一體的作戰樣式具備了比單純軍事行動更強的作戰效能,使傳統作戰方式發生根本性 改變。 認知優勢的連動與疊加,將加速推進作戰效能轉化,成為戰爭制勝的根本優勢。

認知理論正成為打贏戰爭的博弈前線。 認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。 目前,認知空間的滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的爭奪激烈,認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念 ,已高頻度出現於國外認知戰研究領域。 外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“交織的衝突領域”中的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。 顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點,認知理論已成為理論創新前沿領域,認知科技將加速推進認知戰成為智慧化軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。 由於認知戰的新技術、新理論、新樣式正處於加速孵化之中,也許未來戰爭將會呈現出令人驚詬的全新景況。




作者李明海 单位:国防大学国家安全学院战争与危机应对训练中心

Chinese Military Exploring Ways to Win Cognitive Domain Operations


中國軍網 國防部網 2022年9月1日 星期四


Judging from the latest local war practice, cognitive domain operations have become an important variable that profoundly affects the direction of war. In cognitive domain operations, all parties compete fiercely for control of public opinion, information guidance, and cognitive shaping. There are not only physical confrontations, but also competitions in virtual space, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of “technology +” in the digital era. Exploring the way to win in cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for controlling the initiative in cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Seizing control of the brain has become the ultimate goal of cognitive domain operations

The brain is the material basis of all thinking activities and the command center that influences and controls human behavior changes. Feeling, perception and consciousness constitute the three aspects of the world that the brain reflects. How to win the right to control the brain has increasingly become the focus of research and attention by all warring parties in the field of cognitive domain operations.

Actively fight for sensory control. Feeling is the reaction caused by the characteristics of objective things in the human brain, and is the basis for various complex psychological processes. With the rapid development of brain science, molecular biology, neurochemistry and other disciplines, humans have gradually gained the ability to intervene and control the brain at the physiological level. According to foreign experimental results, inhaling oxytocin will make people more trusting of others and more empathetic, thereby affecting a person’s prosociality and moral performance. In future operations, the warring parties will use physical stimulation such as sound, light and electricity, or chemical drugs to act on the target’s hearing, vision, smell and other sensory systems. They may even directly act on the human brain to stimulate the target’s brain. Specific emotional reactions can achieve cognitive influence and control on the physiological level.

Effective competition for perceptual suppression. Perception is a psychological process formed on the basis of sensation and reflects the overall image and surface connection of objective things. Among them, the individual’s attitude, motivation, interest, as well as past experience and future expectations are the key variables that affect the individual’s perception of the perceptual target. During wartime, warring parties aim at the target’s psychological doubts, weaknesses, and needs, seize favorable opportunities, and use specific information to emotionally influence, mentally induce, or disrupt the target’s perception in order to increase the target’s perception of the target. The expectation of war risks weakens their will to resist and their determination to fight, thereby achieving the purpose of subduing the enemy with a small war, less fighting or even no fighting.

Comprehensive competition for the right to shape consciousness. Consciousness is realized through psychological processes such as feeling, perception, and thinking, and is manifested as the unity of knowledge, emotion, and intention. The fundamental purpose of war is to force the enemy to surrender. Judging from the war practice at home and abroad in ancient and modern times, in order to win the right to shape consciousness, the warring parties will do their best to mobilize all available military power and comprehensively use political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other means to carry out political disintegration and diplomatic measures against the enemy. Isolation, guidance of public opinion, and declaration of legal principles can trigger rational thinking, ethical resonance, or value recognition of target individuals or groups, thereby changing their worldview, outlook on life, and values, forming a relatively stable and long-term cognitive influence or control, thereby achieving “complete victory.” “the goal of.

Controlling information becomes the key to cognitive domain operations

The weapon and ammunition of cognitive domain operations is information. Mastering the initiative in the generation, identification, acquisition, dissemination and feedback of information is the key to gaining battlefield advantage in the cognitive domain.

Actively implement strong psychological stimulation to promote information penetration. Modern warfare is fierce and complex, with various elements of confrontation unfolding in multi-dimensional and multi-domain contexts, and fighter jets fleeting. The forces and methods acting in the cognitive domain must keep up with the development and changes of the battlefield situation, and make extensive use of strong psychological stimulation methods such as subliminal information implantation, acousto-optical electromagnetic psychological nuisance damage, and non-contact emotional control to take the initiative to induce the target. The subject’s emotions, will, thoughts, beliefs, etc. appear chaotic, confused or radically changed, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling and influencing the cognitive system of the target subject.

Extensive use of intelligent algorithms to achieve accurate push. As the Internet penetrates into every aspect of human life, everyone will leave massive amounts of data and information online. During wartime, warring parties will use modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to analyze the target’s social data, trajectory data, financial data, online shopping records, search records, personal communication records and other network data. The information is deeply mined and associated to achieve a “cognitive portrait” of the target object, and the target object’s interest preferences, behavioral trends, interpersonal relationships and value orientations are systematically analyzed, thereby three-dimensionally grasping the characteristics of relevant individuals or specific groups. Then, with the help of intelligent algorithm technology, personalized and customized cognitive information is accurately pushed to the target object, thereby affecting the target object’s attitude, emotion and value judgment towards the war, thereby promoting the realization of one’s own combat objectives and political intentions.

Effectively aggregate social support systems to achieve overall linkage. The social support system is the material and spiritual help and support that a person can obtain from others in his or her social network. It is a key factor that affects and determines the emotional support and cognitive direction of an individual. It can be said that for the success of cognitive domain operations, it is crucial to obtain the support and assistance of the target’s social support system. With the help of modern information technology, we can effectively connect to the target’s relatives, friends, classmates, partners and other specific social relations. By exerting targeted influence on the above-mentioned relations, we can gain the understanding, support and trust of the other party, and mobilize the specific relations to When the target object exerts influence, it is easier to win the trust and acceptance of the target object, and it is easier for the target object to undergo cognitive changes, thereby achieving the purpose of cognitive influence and control on the target object.

Virtual space becomes the main battlefield for cognitive domain operations

With the continuous expansion of human virtual space, virtual space is becoming the main battlefield of modern warfare, especially cognitive domain warfare, which determines the outcome of future wars to a certain extent.

Emerging communication forms have become new means of warfare in the cognitive domain. With the continuous development of mobile Internet technology, emerging communication forms represented by social media have gradually become a new platform and mainstream position for cognitive confrontation. Judging from recent local wars, the status and role of social media has become more and more prominent. All warring parties use personal blogs, forums and other platforms to publish battlefield pictures, videos, and comments in real time, which has not only become a global mobile online media terminal. It has also become the main battleground for the value perception game among different countries and different factions around the world. Emerging communication forms such as social media, with their unique decentralization and interactivity characteristics, have broken the information monopoly and information control in traditional communication methods and spawned numerous product styles. While meeting people’s information needs, they are also Unknowingly changing people’s perceptions. It is foreseeable that social media will play an increasingly prominent role in cognitive domain operations in the future.

Cyberspace has become a new space for cognitive domain operations. Under the conditions of informatization and intelligence, the threshold of network technology has been greatly reduced, making it possible to watch the game in real time around the world. Modern warfare has developed from “living room warfare” in the television era to “handheld warfare” in today’s all-media era. Online live broadcast is more intuitive and richer than any form of battlefield reporting, and “global synchronicity” has become a prominent feature. Through live broadcasts on the Internet, videos and pictures of fierce battles between the two warring parties, as well as numerous burned tanks and armored vehicles, as well as homes destroyed by the war and refugees fleeing their homes, can be visually displayed. People can see the micro-state of individual civilians and soldiers on both sides through the Internet. The “transparency” of the battlefield makes any attempt to conceal the truth and false statements more and more difficult. But on the other hand, the emergence of technologies such as intelligent voice cloning and video portrait simulation replacement means that what people see may not necessarily be “as seen” and what they hear may not be “as heard”. Cognition under online live broadcasts Domain operations add more room for possibility and imagination.

The intelligent network army has become a new force in cognitive domain warfare. The development of information networks has broken through the authenticity limitations of interpersonal communication, and it is difficult for us to determine whether the other end of the network is a real person. Based on the needs of large-scale interaction, intelligent, automated, and large-scale cyberspace robots are emerging. They are widely active in every corner of cyberspace. These intelligent network armies have the capabilities of intelligent recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. They are tireless and work around the clock. Intelligent network armies are becoming an important force in future cognitive domain operations. Judging from the current development trends of related technologies, major countries and even business organizations in the world are focusing on the potential prospects of network robots in group penetration, live broadcast follow-up, shaping public opinion, and managing network crises. In the flexible guidance of network intelligent robots, Increase research and development efforts on key technologies such as automatic acquisition of technology groups, automatic cultivation and group penetration, and provide intelligent and efficient technical support for public opinion guidance, cognitive shaping, and behavioral guidance and control by discovering and effectively utilizing the behavioral patterns of network users.


從最新的局部戰爭實踐來看,認知域作戰已成為深刻影響戰爭走向的重要變因。 認知域作戰中,各方圍繞輿論掌控、資訊引導、認知塑造等展開激烈爭奪,不僅有實體對抗,更有來自虛擬空間的較量,展現出數位時代「技術+」的顯著特徵。 探尋認知域作戰制勝之道,對於掌控認知域作戰主動權、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。


大腦是一切思考活動的物質基礎,是影響和控制人類作出行為改變的指揮中樞,而感覺、知覺和意識則構成了大腦反映世界的三個面向。 如何贏得控腦權,日益成為交戰各方在認知域作戰領域研究與關注的重點。

積極爭奪感覺控制權。 感覺是客觀事物的特性在人腦中引起的反應,是形成各種複雜心理過程的基礎。 隨著腦科學、分子生物學、神經化學等學科的快速發展,人類開始逐步獲得在生理層面對大腦進行幹預和控制的能力。 根據國外實驗結果顯示,吸入催產素會讓人更信任他人,更能產生共感,進而影響一個人的親社會性和道德表現。 未來作戰,交戰各方透過利用聲光電等物理刺激,或化學藥物作用於目標對象的聽覺、視覺、嗅覺等感覺系統,甚至將上述影響直接作用於人的腦部,在目標對像大腦中激發出 特定的情緒反應,可實現對其在生理層面的認知影響和控制。

有效爭奪知覺抑制權。 知覺是在感覺基礎上形成的,反映客觀事物的整體形象和表面連結的心理過程。 其中,個體的態度、動機、興趣,以及過去的經驗和未來的預期,是影響個體對知覺目標知覺的關鍵變項。 戰時,交戰各方透過瞄準目標對象心理上的疑點、弱點、需求點,抓住有利時機,借助特定的訊息,對目標對象的知覺進行情感影響、心智誘導或攻心瓦解,以增加目標對象對 戰爭風險的預期,削弱其抵抗意志和作戰決心,從而實現小戰、少戰甚至不戰而屈人之兵的目的。

全面爭奪意識塑造權。 意識是透過感覺、知覺、思考等心理過程實現的,表現為知、情、意的統一。 戰爭的根本目的是迫使敵人屈服。 從古今中外的戰爭實踐看,為了贏得意識塑造權,交戰各方會盡其所能,調用一切可以調用的軍事力量,綜合運用政治、經濟、文化、外交等手段,對敵人實施政治瓦解、外交 孤立、輿論引導、法理宣示,引發目標對象個體或群體的理性思辨、倫理共鳴或價值認同,進而改變其世界觀、人生觀、價值觀,形成較為穩定長遠的認知影響或控制,從而實現「全勝 」的目的。



主動實施強烈心理刺激,助推訊息滲透。 現代戰爭對抗激烈複雜,各種對抗要素在多維多域立體展開,戰機稍縱即逝。 作用於認知域的力量與手段必須緊跟戰場態勢發展變化,廣泛藉助閾下訊息植入、聲光電磁心理滋擾損傷、非接觸式情緒控制等強烈心理刺激手段,主動出擊,以誘導目標 對象的情感、意志、思想、信念等出現混亂、迷惘或激變,進而達成對目標對象認知系統控制與影響的目的。

廣泛運用智慧演算法,實現精準推送。 隨著網路滲入人類生活各個層面,所有人都會在網路上留下大量資料資訊。 戰時,交戰各方會藉助大數據、雲端運算、物聯網、區塊鏈等現代資訊技術,對目標對象的社交數據、軌跡數據、金融數據、網購記錄、搜尋記錄、個人通訊記錄等網路數據 資訊進行深度挖掘關聯,實現對目標對象的“認知畫像”,系統分析出目標對象的興趣偏好、行為趨勢、人際關係以及價值取向,從而立體掌握相關個體或特定群體的特徵。 而後藉助智慧演算法技術,將個人化客製化認知訊息向目標對象實施精準推送,進而影響目標對象對戰爭的態度、情感以及價值判斷,進而助推己方作戰目的與政治意圖的實現。

有效聚合社會支持系統,實現整體連結。 社會支持系統,是一個人在自己的社會關係網絡中所能獲得的、來自他人的物質和精神上的幫助和支援,是影響和決定個體獲得情感依賴和認知走向的關鍵因素。 可以說,認知域作戰能否成功,獲得目標對象社會支持系統的支持和協助至關重要。 借助現代資訊技術,可以有效關聯到目標對象的親人、朋友、同學、合作夥伴等特定社會關係人,透過對上述關係人施加針對性影響,取得對方的理解、支持和信任,動員特定關係人對 目標對象施加影響,更能贏得目標對象的信任與接納,更容易使目標對象產生認知改變,進而達成對目標對象的認知影響與控制的目的。



新興傳播形態成為認知域作戰新手段。 隨著行動互聯技術的不斷發展,以社群媒體等為代表的新興傳播形態逐步成為認知對抗的全新平台和主流陣地。 從近幾場局部戰爭來看,社群媒體的地位作用越來越突出,交戰各方透過借助個人部落格、論壇等平台即時發布戰場圖文、錄影和評論跟帖,不僅成為全球行動網媒終端 的共議話題,也成為全球不同國家、不同勢力派別價值認知賽局的主陣。 社群媒體等新興傳播形態以其獨特的去中心化及互動性特點,打破了傳統傳播方式中的資訊壟斷與資訊控制,催生了眾多的產品樣態,在滿足人們資訊需求的同時,也在 不知不覺中改變人們的認知。 可以預見,未來認知域作戰中,社群媒體的地位角色將會越來越突出。

網路空間成為認知域作戰新空間。 在資訊化智慧化條件下,網路技術的門檻大大降低,全球即時觀戰成為可能。 現代戰爭已從電視時代的“起居室戰爭”,發展成今天全媒體時代的“掌上戰爭”。 網路直播比任何形式的戰地報道都更直觀更豐富,「全球共時性」成為突出的特點。 透過網路直播,交戰雙方激戰的影片、畫面和眾多燒毀的坦克、裝甲車,以及被戰火毀壞的家園、逃離家園的難民都可以直觀地呈現出來。 人們可以透過網路看到一個個具體的平民、雙方戰士的微觀狀態,戰場的「透明化」讓任何試圖掩蓋真相的努力和不實的虛假陳述變得愈來愈困難。 但另一方面,智慧語音克隆、視頻人像模擬替換等技術的出現,讓人們看到的不一定“誠如所見”,聽到的也不一定“真如所聽”,網絡直播下的認知 域作戰增添了更多可能和想像的空間。

智慧化網路軍團成為認知域作戰新生力量。 資訊網路的發展突破了人際溝通的真實性限制,我們難以確定網路另一端是不是真實存在的人。 基於大規模互動的需要,智慧化、自動化、規模化的網路空間機器人正異軍突起,它們廣泛活躍於網路空間的各個角落。 這些智慧化網路軍團具備智慧辨識、智慧應答甚至類腦思考的能力,並且不知疲憊、全時無休,智慧化網路軍團正成為未來認知域作戰的重要力量。 從當前相關技術發展趨勢來看,世界各主要國家甚至商業組織,正在把目光投向網路機器人在群組滲透、直播跟評、塑造輿論態勢、管控網路危機等方面的潛力前景,在網路智慧機器人柔性引導 技術群自動取得、自動培育和群組滲透等關鍵技術上加強研發力度,透過發現並有效利用網路使用者行為規律,為輿論引導、認知塑造、行為導控提供智慧、高效的技術支援。

孫志友  孫海濤

Chinese Military Decisions and Perspectives Supporting Cognitive Confrontation


中國軍網 國防部網

2022年12月6日 星期二


Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its role. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of cognitive domain combat, the spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there had been no Allied Forces, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the “Operation Overlord Plan” strategy of “building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses secretly”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military actions in the physical domain, and then the specific military actions in the physical domain realize the material transformation of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, but without the implementation of the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our military’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough, and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of conjoining warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, but did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness.

現代戰爭根據物質形態的特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域和認知域。 這三個領域相互作用,形成軍事對抗的場域和土壤。 認知域操作雖然發生在認知領域,但其操作支援往往跨越各領域。 戰爭實踐表明,隨著物理領域硬打擊效能的增強,往往可以加速認知形成,認知實現更能滿足作戰需求。


當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界。 相互連結的不同物體的集合極大地增強了獨立個體單獨行動的功能。 認知域操作從來都不是認知載體之間孤立的操作。 將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合,與整個作戰體系緊密結合,才能充分發揮戰鬥力。

認知的起點。 存在決定意識。 思維和認知不是天上來的仙女,而是現實世界的真實或曲折的反映。 離開了物質世界的基礎,思考和認知就會失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的基礎、決策和行動的準確性,使人難以信任、認知、依賴。 即使是最迷幻的科幻戰爭,仍然會參考真實的作戰目標、具體的作戰目標以及相應的作戰路徑。 因此,情報偵察分析成為指揮組織部隊、規劃不可或缺的重要環節。 「沒有調查就沒有話語權」被視為決策必須遵循的金科玉律。 戰場模擬模擬已成為作戰行動成功的重要一步。 歷史上,大部分功將的作戰指揮和經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,都是建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析的基礎上的。 沒有現實世界的硬派支撐,「人類一思考,上帝就笑」。

認知效應的基礎。 認知領域作戰的一條黃金法則是,認知層面的軟實力必須有實體層面的硬實力支撐,才能確保並強化其作用。 強大的軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上的持續勝利是贏得認知戰爭的核心支撐。 如果美國沒有超強的綜合國力和優越的技術的高壓壓力,其「星際大戰計畫」可能無法真正發揮作用。 認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的支撐,永遠不會產生疑、迷、震懾、克敵的良好效果。 要掌握思維認知的主動權,掌握認知域作戰的主動權,不僅要加強認知本體建設,提高直接運用策略和技術手段加強自我保護、幹預和影響對手的能力。思維和認知,還積極努力在物理領域利用軍事行動在物理領域的傳導效應,增強思維和認知。

認知實現的起點。 馬克思主義認為,理論一旦掌握了群眾,也就成為物質力量。 從認知域戰鬥的角度來看,認知上層建築層面的精神創造並不會自動轉化為物質力量。 只有依附於一定的物質載體和實踐把握,才有可能實現精神到物質、意識的轉變。 實現的關鍵飛躍。 正如二戰時,如果德軍沒有繞過馬其諾防線,突破阿登森林,向法國腹地發起奇襲,就不可能展現「德軍認知成就」的先見之明。曼斯坦計畫」; 同樣,如果沒有盟軍,軍隊在東西兩進的諾曼第成功登陸,也未能凸顯出「霸王計畫」「明修棧道、暗藏倉庫」策略的巧妙之處。 思維認知透過人傳遞到物理領域的具體軍事行動,再由物理領域的具體軍事行動實現齒輪的物質轉化



物理領域軍事打擊支持認知攻防所採用的手段和方式,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般法則。 基本方式可分為增強支援、確認支援和變現支援。

增強支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊加強了思維和認知的形成和發展。 思維認知雖然依賴認知載體本身的品質,但如果沒有物理領域軍事行動的支持,就很難實現。 物理領域軍事行動在認知領域最基本的作用就是為思考認知的形成與發展提供堅實的支持。 思考和認知只有建立在真實的身體行動的基礎上,才能穩定、深遠。 例如,朝鮮戰爭初期,朝鮮人民軍勢不可擋時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島戰局、地理、天氣特點,準確預測了美軍登陸,尤其是當時美軍和韓國軍隊的各種行動等等時間地點。 同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇偉也根據志願軍的後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,對「拜拜攻勢」做出了判斷,用「磁性戰術」與我作戰。 這些都是物理領域的戰鬥對思維認知的形成與發展的增強。

確認類型支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊證實了預設的思維、預知和預判。 認知攻防不僅發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。 戰爭是「生死之地,生存之道」。 如果一個人的認知決策無法在實踐層面得到多方位的驗證,那麼輕舉妄動就是對戰爭最大的不負責任。 革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層始終處於整體戰略的掌控之中,賦予第一線指揮官依照整體戰略方向原則酌情行動的權力。 這是對戰略思維的正面肯定。 二戰期間,盟軍利用「虛假事實」進行誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍對歐洲大陸盟軍登陸地點的誤解,最終以最小的成本成功登陸諾曼第。 這是一次反擊。 確認。

實施支援。 為思維、認知、判斷和決策的實現提供直接的物質支持。 思維和認知必須轉化為改變世界的實際結果。 作用於對手的思維和認知不是終點而是新的起點。 接下來,必須透過「巧手」和「勇敢的心」在物質世界中付諸行動。 換句話說,簡而言之,就是為思考認知的價值實現提供直接的身體行動支撐。 這正如諸葛亮的巧妙計劃,但沒有「五虎將」等蜀漢將士的實施,只能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 無論“OODA”循環的前三部分運行得多麼高效,如果缺少執行環節“A”,那麼這將是一個“死循環”。 同樣,我軍指揮決策的結果也取決於官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性執行。 執行的品質和效率直接決定指揮決策的執行效果。 就此而言,執行層面的身體動作具有極為重要的現實意義。


思考和認知必須依靠身體動作的支持,這是不依賴人的意志的客觀規律。 加強思考認知與身體打擊的溝通互動,使我們的思維和決策更加具有針對性、客觀性和可操作性,從而更好地將認知優勢轉化為行動優勢和製勝優勢,是一項極其重要的任務。 。

更加積極主動並鞏固您的認知基礎。 思維認識是否正確,從根本上取決於它是否符合客觀現實,是否適用於打擊對手。 只有建立在充分的思考和認知的基礎上

調查研究、實事求是、比較優勢,是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的。 實行絕對的、神聖的、虛無的思想或將軍的天才、智慧、靈感,是唯心主義的、片面的、有害的。 這就要求我們必須努力把思維認識建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析的基礎上,真正了解敵情、我情、他人情,真正知己知彼、知己知彼。應該了解並因地制宜。 相機移動。 同時,要把閱讀無字書與有字書結合起來,把間接理論與不斷發展變化的生活實踐結合,辯證地認識過去的經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為我們自己的經驗教訓。知識。 幫助而不是束縛,協助而不是支配。

更積極主動,強化認知理性。 經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認識來自於實踐,並透過實踐的回饋得到強化。 認知實務經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料。 形成科學認知,需要在意識與物質、思考與存在的反覆碰撞與驗證中進一步去偽存真,以提高認知理性。 認為只有從局部情況、碎片資訊和個別時期才能一勞永逸地獲得真正的知識是錯誤的,甚至是致命的。 在中國古代的赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從常識中得出了連體戰船的認識,即鐵纜可以平衡船體的晃動,但並沒有從實戰效果或連體後果中證實這一點。軍艦。 如果不懂得再造,很容易就會用鐵繩把船綁起來,把自己綁起來,最後落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗。 時代變遷,現代戰場敵情瞬息萬變。 從來沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成就。 它只能從物質中剔除雜質,提取精華,去認知,去物質確認,重新認知。 ,我們能否回歸理性。

更主動地客觀化認知結果。 認知成就只是認知載體中孕育思考和意識的結果。 如果沒有及時有效的物質改造,就會像穿著錦衣走夜路或藏寶藏山一樣,很難展現出自身的價值。 思維和認知是以物理行為為基礎的,最終要依靠物理領域的具體行為才能具體化,轉化為改變主觀世界和客觀世界的實際結果。 這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策和規劃的可操作性,為更順利的物化和轉化打開大門。 同時,要努力提高決策部署執行者的執行能力,使他們能夠正確理解決策意圖,根據具體實際創造性地採取適當的方法,最大限度地落實認知結果和經營決策計劃進行到底。 當好認知結果與戰鬥力銜接轉化的「擺渡人」、「過河橋樑」。


(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute, Academy of Military Sciences)


Chinese Military Characteristics & Development Trends of Cognitive Domain Operations and Warfare



Cognitive domain operations take people’s will, beliefs, thinking, psychology, etc. as direct combat objects, and then affect their decision-making and actions by changing the opponent’s cognition. Entering the era of information-based and intelligent warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become an important form of great power competition, with all parties trying to achieve political goals in a relatively controllable manner. Gaining insight into the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations is of urgent and important practical significance for winning future wars.

At present, the cognitive domain has entered the war stage as an independent domain, and has increasingly become a common domain, a battleground, and a weight for victory in the game between great powers. Analyzing the operational characteristics and development trends in the cognitive domain reflects at least the following eight aspects.

The cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory.

Military confrontation, on the surface, seems to be a confrontation between the hard power of both sides, but on a deeper level, no matter what the nature and purpose of the war, it is ultimately a contest of human wills. The key to victory is the ability to impose your will on your audience. As long as the enemy’s will to fight is deprived and defeated, the war is won. Cognitive domain warfare uses human will, spirit, psychology, etc. as the target of confrontation, strengthening one’s own will while weakening the enemy’s will, thereby achieving the political goal of conquering the heart and mind. In this sense, the cognitive domain is a key area for transforming military advantage into political victory. As the form of war accelerates to evolve towards intelligence, cognitive quality advantages bring decision-making and action advantages, which can not only occupy the commanding heights in morality and legal principles, create a favorable situation of justice and legality, but also achieve small-scale control through hybrid warfare and comprehensive game means. The purpose of fighting or even winning without fighting. Especially in the context of great power competition, the cost of war is high. All parties hope to increase the intensity of competition for cognitive domains and force their opponents to retreat in a “humane” and “economic” manner.

By changing the opponent’s perception, it can change its decisions and actions

The purpose of implementing cognitive attacks is to use an “invisible hand” to control the opponent’s will, making the opponent feel “I can’t” and “I dare not”, thereby achieving the effect of “I don’t want to”. Foreign military practice has shown that cognitive attacks on people’s will, beliefs, thinking, and psychology can be long-term cultural implantation, information suppression in the form of “information ocean + covering one’s mouth to silence”, or preemptive speech. It can also take the initiative to shape and use historical grievances to provoke the outbreak of conflicts. At present, information technology, artificial intelligence technology, and media technology have strengthened their direct effects on the cognitive domain. Using intelligence to generate software, a large amount of cognitive “ammunition” can be created to accurately act on the cognitive layer of combat targets, directly imposing “will” to rivals” and quickly change the strategic situation. Looking forward to the information-based smart battlefield, situational awareness forces and platforms are widely distributed in combat domains such as land, sea, air, and space networks. Cognitive behaviors such as planning, decision-making, and control dominate operations in each combat domain, especially the cognition of human-machine hybrids in future intelligent warfare. Advantages will dominate the battlefield. Cognitive interference, cognitive confusion, cognitive blocking and other means can be used to create a “fog” of war cognition, inducing opponents to misjudge the situation and make wrong decisions and actions.

Cognitive domain operations are full-time offense and defense, full personnel coverage, full use, full domain shaping, and full government action

Cognitive domain operations are all-round, multi-level, hyper-temporal and cross-domain, blurring the boundaries between wartime and peacetime, front and rear, crossing battlefields and national boundaries, transcending the pure military field, and widely penetrating into politics , economy, diplomacy and other social fields, showing the characteristics of “five completes”. Full-time offense and defense, there is no distinction between peacetime and wartime, and there is no difference between the front and the rear. It is expressed as being online all the time and in war all the time. Covering all personnel, anyone, including intelligent robots, may become the target of cognitive domain operations. It is used throughout the whole process of joint operations before and during the war. Before the joint military operation is launched, the cognitive shaping operation has begun and will accompany the military operation and will not stop with the military operation. Global shaping, cognitive shaping runs through all levels of strategy, operations, and tactics, and its scope covers all domains of land, sea, air, and space networks. Cross-domain empowerment has an impact on all-domain operations. As a whole-of-government action, cognitive shaping is naturally strategic and requires consistent and coordinated actions across departments, fields, military and military areas, and levels to achieve the best communication effect.

The key lies in seizing the right to define the nature of the action or activity, the right to dominate the process, and the right to judge the outcome.

The struggle in the cognitive game involves multiple opposing parties and seems complicated. The key lies in the struggle around the “three powers” in the cognitive domain. First, fight for the right to define the nature of the event. That is, how to view this incident, whether it is just or unjust, legal or illegal. Usually, preemptive definitions are adopted, group alliances are formed to force definitions, information is suppressed and unilateral definitions are used, and issues are set and applied to definitions, etc., to guide and shape the public to form qualitative perceptions. Second, compete for dominance over the event process. That is, how to do something, how not to do it, who did it right and who did it wrong, usually by setting up a trap and other methods, trying to dominate the development direction of the target event according to the state that one’s own side expects. Fast and slow, pause, continue and end. Third, compete for the right to judge the outcome of the incident. That is, how to evaluate this matter, who is the gainer and who is the loser, who is the immediate loser, who is the long-term loser, etc. All parties try to control the outcome of the incident by amplifying the advantages to themselves and the disadvantages to the enemy. The purpose is to use the extended effect of the incident to continue to hurt the enemy and benefit themselves.

Morality and legal principles are the focus of contention between all parties

Military operations have always paid attention to the principle of “discipline and reputation”. Although the shape of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, the essential nature of war as subordinate to politics will not change; the nature of war and the support of people’s hearts are still the key factors that affect the outcome of a war. On the battlefield in the cognitive domain, by occupying the commanding heights of politics, morality, and law, we can win the hearts and minds of the people and moral support, create a public opinion atmosphere in which moral support is abundant, and then seize the opportunity to defeat the enemy. In every war or conflict, whether it is the strong or the weak, the attacker, the defender, or a third party, all parties will try their best to seize cognitive dominance and the initiative of public opinion. They will do everything they can to wrap themselves up with morality, focus on declaring a just position, and try to find ways to defend themselves. Qualify the war, justify the action, eliminate resistance, increase support, and create a favorable situation in which “righteous” fights “unjust”. The strength balance between the two sides in the war is different, and the cognitive confrontation methods aimed at occupying the moral and legal high ground will also be different. Recent wars have shown that when a party has strong soft and hard power, that is, it has strong military strength, many allies and partners, and a large share of international voice, it often declares war in a high-profile manner; when military actions may trigger chain reactions, it is often handled in a vague manner. The word “war”.

Information is the basic “ammunition” for cognitive attack and defense

In the Internet information age, human communication methods continue to undergo complex and profound changes. On-site interactions have gradually given way to online connections. Some large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for the cognitive game and the main channel to influence public cognition. Information is used as ammunition to compete for international network blockade rights and discourse control rights. Becoming one of the main actions in today’s cognitive confrontation. On these platforms, various short videos have become the “first scene” for the public to understand the war situation, and information travels faster than artillery shells. The use and blocking, dominance and regulation of platforms have become the focus of battles in the cognitive domain. All parties strive to spread and amplify their own propaganda, denounce and suppress the other party’s propaganda by manipulating social platforms, forming a “I say more, you say more” There is a situation of “less”, “what I said is right and what you said is wrong” and “only I can say it and you are not allowed to say it”. As users of large-scale social platforms, the public is influenced by and influenced by others in the process of “listening”, “speaking” and even “acting”, and unknowingly becomes the agents and attack props of those behind the scenes.

Military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition

The history of human war shows that military warfare is always the basic support of political contests, while psychological warfare is the effectiveness multiplier of military warfare. What cannot be retrieved on the battlefield cannot be expected to be retrieved at the negotiation table, let alone in the field of public opinion. In modern warfare, cognitive communication operations always go hand in hand with joint military operations. Mental warfare and military warfare influence and support each other. The trend of military warfare becoming mental warfare and mental warfare becoming military warfare is more obvious. From the perspective of war practice, it is absolutely impossible without military strength, but military actions alone are not omnipotent. Multiple victories on the battlefield are not a sufficient condition for victory in war. During the Vietnam War, although the United States “won every battle, it lost the entire war.” At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States fought successive wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, winning battlefield victories but not political victory. By the same token, military victory does not mean winning public opinion, and winning the battlefield does not mean winning strategic victory. In modern warfare, two types of people play an increasingly important role: those who win by writing thousands of lines of code, and those who win by writing thousands of pieces of information. The side with superior numbers and quality of these two types of personnel often has a greater chance of winning.

Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly used directly in warfare

In past wars, the impact and effect on the cognitive domain was mainly transmitted to the cognitive domain level by level through a large number of damaging actions in the physical domain. With the development and breakthroughs in information communications, artificial intelligence, bio-crossover, brain science and other technologies, new cognitive warfare tools and technologies are directly aimed at military personnel. Cognitive countermeasures not only use traditional information warfare weapons, but also use a neural arsenal that targets the brain. By then, machines will be able to read human brains, and human brains will also be able to directly control machines. Intelligent command and control systems can directly provide battlefield situation and decision-making assistance. Realistic cognitive ammunition and precise audience placement will greatly enhance the social impact. Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly being used directly in warfare. The indirect cognition implicit in informatization is gradually transforming into a direct influence and control of people’s cognition. It can be said that with the support of advanced technology, cognitive domain operations can achieve political goals more directly and efficiently by constructing modern network architecture and developing data visualization platforms to quickly understand the information environment and effectively influence target groups.

認知域作戰是以人的意志、信念、思考、心理等為直接作戰對象,透過改變對手認知,進而影響其決策與行動。 進入資訊化智慧化戰爭時代,認知域作戰已成為大國博弈的重要樣式,各方都試圖以相對可控的方式達成政治目的。 洞察掌握認知域作戰特徵及發展趨勢,對於打贏未來戰爭,具有迫切而重要的現實意義。

目前,認知域已作為獨立一域登上戰爭舞台,日益成為大國博弈的常鬥之域、必爭之地、勝戰砝碼。 分析認知域作戰特徵及發展趨勢,至少反映為以下八個面向。


軍事對抗,表面上看來是雙方硬實力的對抗,深層看不管戰爭是什麼性質、何種目的,終歸是人的意志的較量。 勝利的關鍵是將己方意志強加在受眾身上的能力。 只要剝奪、擊潰了敵人的戰爭意志,就意味著贏得了戰爭。 認知域作戰,以人的意志、精神、心理等為對抗目標,增強己方意志的同時削弱敵方的意志,進而達成攻心奪志的政治目的。 從這個意義上講,認知域是軍事優勢轉化為政治勝勢的關鍵領域。 隨著戰爭形態加速向智慧化演進,認知品質優勢帶來決策行動優勢,不僅可在道德、法理上佔據制高點,塑造正義合法的有利態勢,還可透過混合戰爭、綜合博弈手段,實現小戰 甚至不戰而勝的目的。 尤其是大國競爭背景下戰爭成本高昂,各方都希望透過加大認知域爭奪力度,以「人道」且「經濟」的形式,迫使對手知難而退。


實施認知攻擊的目的,就是用一隻“看不見的手”操控對手意志,讓對手感到“我不能”“我不敢”,從而達到“我不想”的效果。 外軍實踐表明,對人的意志、信念、思維、心理實施認知攻擊,可以是長期的文化植入,可以是「資訊海洋+摀嘴封聲」式的資訊壓制,可以是先入為主、搶先發聲 的主動塑造,也可以利用歷史積怨來挑動矛盾爆發。 目前,資訊科技、人工智慧技術、媒體科技強化了對認知域的直接作用,利用智慧生成軟體,可製造大量認知“彈藥”,精準作用於作戰目標的認知層,直接將“意志強加 於對手”,快速改變戰略態勢。 展望資訊化智慧化戰場,態勢感知力量與平台廣泛分佈於陸海空天網等作戰域,規劃、決策、控制等認知行為主導各作戰域行動,尤其是未來智能化戰爭中人機混合的認知 優勢將主導戰場,可以透過認知幹擾、認知混淆、認知阻斷等手段,製造戰爭認知“迷霧”,誘使對手誤判態勢,做出錯誤決策和行動。


認知域作戰呈現出全方位、多層次、超時空、跨領域等特點,模糊了戰時和平時、前方和後方的界限,跨越了戰場和國界,超越了單純的軍事領域,廣泛滲透於政治 、經濟、外交等各社會領域,表現為「五全」特質。 全時攻防,沒有平時戰時之分,沒有前方後方之別,表現為全時在線、全時在戰。 全員覆蓋,任何人甚至包括智慧機器人,都可能成為認知域作戰的目標對象。 全程使用,貫穿聯合作戰的戰前戰中戰後,聯合軍事行動未展開,認知塑勢行動已開始,並且伴隨軍事行動而行,不隨軍事行動停而停。 全域塑造,認知塑造貫穿戰略、戰役、戰術各層,作用範圍涵蓋陸海空天網各域,跨域賦能,對全域行動都有影響。 全政府行動,認知塑造自然具有戰略性,需要跨部門、跨領域、跨軍地、跨層級一致協調行動,以求達到最佳傳播效果。


認知賽局鬥爭,涉及多個對抗方,看似紛繁複雜,關鍵在於圍繞認知域的「三權」展開爭奪。 其一,爭奪事件性質定義權。 即這個事件該怎麼看,是正義的還是非正義的,是合法的還是非法的。 通常採取先發制人搶先定義、建群結盟強行定義、資訊壓制單方定義、設定議題套用定義等,引導塑造民眾形成定性認知。 其二,爭奪事件過程主導權。 即這事該怎麼幹、不該怎麼做,誰做的是對的、誰做的是錯的,通常採取設局布阱等方式,試圖按照己方所期望出現的狀態,主導目標事件發展方向、 快慢、暫停、繼續與終結。 其三,爭奪事件結局評判權。 即對這事該怎麼評,誰是獲利方、誰是受損方,誰是眼前的失利者、誰是長遠的受損者,等等。 各方都試圖透過掌控事件結局的評判權,放大於己有利之處、放大於敵不利之處,目的是利用事件延伸效應,持續傷敵利己。


軍事行動歷來講究「師出有名」。 雖然戰爭形態加速演變,但是戰爭從屬於政治的本質屬性不會改變;戰爭性質和人心向背,仍是影響戰爭勝負的關鍵因素。 認知域戰場上,佔據了政治、道義、法理的製高點,就能夠贏得民心、道義支持,營造得道多助的輿論氛圍,進而掌握制敵先機。 每次戰爭或衝突,無論是強者或弱者,無論是進攻方防守方或第三方,各方都會全力搶佔認知主導權、輿論主動權,千方百計用道義包裝自己、注重宣示正義立場,設法為 戰爭定性、為行動正名,以消除阻力、增加助力,塑造以「有道」伐「無道」的有利態勢。 戰爭雙方實力對比不同,瞄準佔據道德法理制高點進行的認知對抗方式也會不同。 近幾場戰爭表明,當一方軟硬實力均很強大時,即軍事實力強、盟友夥伴眾多、國際話語權佔有率大,常常高調宣戰;當軍事行動有可能引發連鎖反應時,則常常模糊處理 「戰」的提法。


網路資訊時代,人類溝通方式持續發生複雜深刻變化。 現場互動互動逐漸讓位給網路線上連線,一些大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地、影響民眾認知的主管道,以資訊為彈藥進行國際網路封鎖權、話語控制權爭奪成為當今認 知對抗的主要行動之一。 在這些平台上,各種短視頻成為公眾了解戰況的“第一現場”,訊息比砲彈跑得快。 圍繞平台的使用與封鎖、主導與規製成為認知域作戰爭奪的焦點,各方努力透過操控社交平台來傳播、放大己方宣傳,聲討、壓制對方宣傳,形成「我說的多、你說的少 」「我說的對、你說的錯」「只能我說、不讓你說」的局面。 民眾作為大型社群平台的使用者,在「聽」與「說」甚至「做」的過程中,受別人影響,也影響別人,不知不覺地成為幕後推手的代理人和攻擊道具。


人類戰爭史表明,兵戰永遠是政治較量的基礎支撐,心戰則是兵戰的效能倍增器。 戰場上拿不回來的東西,不能指望在談判桌上拿回來,更不能指望在輿論場上拿回來。 現代戰爭中,認知傳播行動總是與聯合軍事行動如影隨形,心戰與兵戰互相影響、互為支撐,兵戰心戰化和心戰兵戰化趨勢更為明顯。 從戰爭實踐看,沒有軍事實力是萬萬不能的,但僅有軍事行動又不是萬能的。 戰場上的多次勝利,並不是奪取戰爭勝利的充分條件。 越戰中,美雖「贏得了每次戰鬥,卻輸掉了整場戰爭」。 21世紀初,美國連續打的伊拉克戰爭、阿富汗戰爭,贏得了戰場勝利,也沒有贏得政治勝勢。 同樣的道理,軍事上的勝勢不等於贏得輿論上的強勢,贏得戰場勝利也不意味著贏得戰略的勝利。 現代戰爭中,兩類人員的角色越來越大,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬行程式碼謀勝,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬條資訊謀勝。 這兩類人員數品質都佔優的一方,取勝的機率往往就大。


過去戰爭中,對認知域的影響和作用,主要是透過物理域的大量毀傷行動,逐級逐層傳遞到認知域。 隨著資訊通訊、人工智慧、生物交叉、腦科學等技術的發展和突破,新的認知戰工具和技術直接瞄準軍事人員。 認知對抗不僅使用傳統的資訊戰武器,也使用以大腦為作戰目標的神經武器庫。 屆時,機器將可以讀懂人腦,人腦也將能夠直接控制機器,智慧指控系統可以直接提供戰場態勢和決策輔助,逼真的認知彈藥和精準的受眾投放將極大增強社會影響效果。 認知對抗技術越來越直接運用於戰爭,原來資訊化所隱含的間接認知,正逐步轉變為直接對人的認知進行影響與控制。 可以說,先進科技的支撐,使認知域作戰透過建構現代網路架構、開發資料視覺化平台,快速了解資訊環境並有效影響目標人群,可以更直接且有效率地達成政治目的。