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China’s PLA & Future Unconventional Warfare // 中國軍隊的未來非常規戰爭


Over the past decade, the United States has coped with a large number of unconventional warfare challenges. In Afghanistan, for example, at the beginning of 2012, a total of nearly 432,000 in Afghanistan, anti-riot troops, including US soldiers nearly 90,000 people, nearly 30,000 NATO soldiers, the Afghan national security forces of nearly 300,000 people, near the Afghan local police forces 12,000 people. In addition, the United States to this end spends more than 100 billion US dollars, the deployment of a large variety of advanced platforms and systems. On the other hand, “the Taliban” organization to deploy troops in between 20,000 to 40,000 people (the ratio of anti-riot troops to 1:11), the annual cost amounted to between 100 million to 200 million (with a consumption of anti-insurgency operations funds ratio of 1: 500). In addition, the Afghan insurgent groups from the main use of improvised explosive devices to the Internet using asymmetric warfare strategy and tactics. The ability to “Taliban” organization with limited resources to maintain a longer period of insurgency, highlighting the unconventional warfare challenges facing the United States. Accordingly, this report focuses on the following three questions:

• What is the United States may face challenges in the future unconventional warfare?

• What strategies best suited to address future challenges?

• Which existing cases or model can support these strategies effectively deal with unconventional warfare challenges?

And “terrorism”, “insurgency” is very similar to that, “unconventional warfare” has a variety of definitions. From the practical sense, unconventional warfare violent struggle for the national and NGO legitimacy and influence specific populations carried out.Unconventional threats include the use of guerrilla warfare, terrorism, sabotage, criminal activities and other activities rebel insurrection way countries and organizations. This article begins with a brief discussion of unconventional warfare threats, including threats from national and NGO’s. Then, the paper summarizes the United States in the fight against violence and support the insurrection could take unconventional warfare strategy. Finally, the “village stability operations,” US special forces in Afghanistan (Village Stability Operations, VSO) as an example to discuss.

 First, unconventional warfare challenges

What is the future of the United States could face unconventional warfare challenges?Period of the next decade, the United States will likely face a variety of unconventional warfare challenges, including terrorist groups (such as al-Qaeda and Hezbollah), drug trafficking organizations (such as the Mexican “cartels” drug cartels), global violence Activities Group (such as anarchist Group) NGO. In addition, the United States also faced for some countries (such as Iran) for their own purposes and the formation of unconventional warfare threats from some countries (such as Mexico) due to a result of weak dominance.These network threats, adaptability is gradually improving, and has leveraging cyberspace open up recruitment, intelligence gathering, training, spread propaganda, obtain funding and new ways to implement action.

To illustrate the future threat, it is necessary to highlight the al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations, and now they have been a big hit because of some mysterious and gradually disappear. Future threat posed by al Qaeda and its affiliated organizations might cause depends on several factors: Some countries support the weak rule of force surviving leadership structure, North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia and other regional and local organizations. According to current trends, al-Qaeda is likely to save important leaders (with the possible exception of Pakistan), the ruling power in some countries will remain weak government, al-Qaeda will be local support in some countries. Al Qaeda may target as always: the overthrow of the monarchy more than one regime to establish pan-Islam (near enemy, or “throw into confusion the enemy within”), against the United States and its allies (the far enemy, or “anti-foreign enemies”). However, these trends are not yet clear how this will develop. For example, al-Qaeda as a global activity may be more dispersed bases in Pakistan to its core strength in Iran (Iran-Qaida), Yemen (AQAP), Somalia (Islamic Youth Corps), North Africa (Islamic Maghreb organizational relationships weaken organized base cloth) or other areas. This dispersion will enable the development of al-Qaida along the Syrian strategist Abu Arz • Lane (Abu Mus’ab al-Suri) envisaged way, more involved in the “individual jihad” and “small terror cells.”

Pan-Islamic movement al-Qaida means the United States will need to support the forces against them in many foreign areas. Al Qaeda affiliated organizations and global allies distribution shown in Figure 1. This figure highlights the future al-Qaida may support insurgent groups of countries. In some countries (such as Saudi Arabia), Al-insurgency operations have been launched to try and fail, but they might try again. In other countries (such as Yemen, Iraq), al-Qaeda has helped the insurgent groups. The figure in black-Qaida would support or continue to support the insurgency in the country. Of particular note is that for some African countries (such as Nigeria, Egypt) and Middle Eastern countries (such as Jordan, Iran), Al-Qaeda would seize every opportunity to support the insurgency.


In addition to these threats, the United States war effort unconventional future will be affected by a variety of other challenges. include:

• inter-agency cooperation. Inter-agency collaboration between some organizations seem to have improved, such as the United States Special Operations and CIA. But among a number of other organizations, such as the Department of Defense and the State Department, the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and other government agencies, inter-agency cooperation is still in a chaotic state. Whether it is still in Yemen, these challenges often result in the relationship between the military and government institutions in Afghanistan in the tensions of the strategic, operational and tactical levels.

• Vietnam syndrome. In Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as some of the challenges that may occur in Korea and Taiwan in the conventional military friction, may make some people ignore the importance of the US military future of unconventional warfare. As John • Nagel (John Nagl) In his counter-insurgency war in the study concluded, and on post-Vietnam era: “The US military believes the United States should not be again trapped in counter-insurgency operations, rather than face the US military counterinsurgency doctrine It was the fact that the failure in Vietnam. “unconventional warfare will not only extremely important for the foreseeable future, but there is a need to” should be how to stop the insurgency “and other topics for further research.

• The health of the US troops. More than a decade of fighting, it has made deep unconventional warfare quagmire of American forces extremely heavy. Officers have had to deal with their families are exposed to tremendous pressure, after the creation of stress disorder (PTSD), wars and countless other creative challenges.

• technical challenges. Future, insurgents and terrorist groups will make greater use of the Internet and social media field communication contact forum, spread propaganda, recruit personnel, to complete other tasks. Figure 2 indicates the 2015 global Internet traffic trends. Overall, Internet traffic will be 32% CAGR growth rate, that is until 2015 devices access to the Internet will be twice the total global population. By 2015, Internet traffic Wi-Fi technology and mobile devices will be 54% of the flow of Internet traffic and wired devices will total 46% of the total traffic. This growth will not happen in the West, but at a faster rate occurred in Latin America, the Middle East and Africa. These developments will likely insurgency operations and tactics have a significant impact, make it easier for the insurgents to recruit staff, spread propaganda and communications links.

Figure 2. 2010--2015 global Internet traffic

Figure 2. 2010–2015 global Internet traffic [Save to album]

Second, the strategy

What strategies best suited to address future challenges? US Department of Defense “Quadrennial Defense Review Report 2010” and “2012 Strategic Assessment” are briefly mentioned in unconventional warfare. But if we insist on the “strategy” is defined as “the use of armed forces and other tools to achieve military and political objectives,” then reports those are not summed unconventional warfare strategy. US Department of Defense publication “unconventional war: against unconventional threats” against unconventional warfare was more substantial research, but still focused on the United States on how to implement the joint operations of the armed forces should a military campaign in the future, rather than questions about the strategy. Due to the lack of unconventional warfare strategy in these assessments, we must seek the answers to elsewhere. The following outlines a few examples I.

(A) counter-insurgency

There are two major counter-insurgency strategy for US unconventional war.

1. Population center strategy: The first strategy is the population center strategy in Field Manual 3-24, and other resources proposed. Field Manual 3-24 from the British in Malaya, France extracted a lot of cases the best practical significance of military operations in Algeria. In these and other cases, the counterinsurgency is governance.However, in the most recent cases, the external forces is difficult to force the local government to make the necessary political change. As the American experience in Vietnam and Afghanistan as external forces can not force local governments to become legal regime. In addition, the deployment of large numbers of foreign troops is not always successful.

2. Indirect strategy: In some cases, the best way might mainly focus on the proposal, indirect strategic equipment and support local conventional and unconventional forces and organizations above. Such assistance, including foreign internal defense (Foreign Internal Defense) and unconventional warfare, has historically become the US Special Operations task forces and intelligence agencies. In the 1950s, the United States and the Philippines since 2001, in the 1960s in Thailand, the early 1990s and the 21st century, Colombia’s aid work, weakening relative success or defeat insurgent groups. In each case, the approach adopted in the USA are indirect rather than a direct way. Indirect way means that the US personnel To combat forces in the host country provide advice and support. Although this support sometimes include tactical leadership issues, but its focus has always been to help the host country instead of the United States against the enemy elements.

(Ii) riot

In other years, the United States might need to support insurgent groups, you may have to select one of the following two strategies.

1. Maoist insurgency strategy: The first strategy is that the United States can choose Mao guerrilla strategy in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the United States had this strategy against the Soviet Union. Such a strategy, a considerable part of the national organization of the population, the government has brought enormous consumption. While Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy is to target against the armed forces and their support networks, but the goal is the collapse of the morale of the attacker, but not necessarily the other’s combat strength. Goal of the strategy is not to ensure the rapid defeat the government. As Mao Zedong pointed out, the objective of the strategy is to consume the enemy to make the final surrender, that “the enemy advances, we retreat to the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack the enemy retreats, we pursue.”

Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy includes three sequential advance and overlapping phases. The first stage is to establish a political and military structures riots among the general public. As Mao summed up: “The main feature is to rely on the people’s guerrilla fronts and other organizations to establish their own.” One of the main objectives of the first phase is to mobilize as many people to participate in sports. When Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy implemented in the rural uprising also began for urban riots. If the riots can be gradually achieved support and access to initial victory, then enter the second phase, the main feature of this phase is the most long guerrilla war and the gradual expansion. For more victory, guerrilla warfare will enable the Government military morale, no fighting, and gradually betrayal. So, the war entered the third phase, namely the collapse of the enemy. Riots changed to government collapsed for the purpose of large-scale conventional attack maneuver.

2. Conventional insurrection strategy: the United States can choose the second strategy is routine riot strategy, the United States against “Taliban” in 2001 adopted this strategy in action. This strategy, skip the first two stages of Mao Zedong’s guerrilla strategy, mainly in conventional military action against each other. Elements of the strategy include the use of armed forces to capture or destroy the enemy’s armed forces, so as to control its population, territory, city or important industrial center and communications center.Objective of the strategy is a decisive action or series of actions, by defeating the enemy on which to resist the physical strength to win the war. For example, the riot troops could move forward, seizing strategic facilities the defense side, such as the capital, the communication center or base, while the defender will also take action to confront. Thus the two sides will launch a campaign or a series of battles, until the formation of a party or a political agreement to admit defeat.

Three, efficient sample

Development “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police force is one of the recent anti-insurgency operations in the most efficient mode. After three years, the United States Special Operations Forces have been in the majority of rural development in this model. Their goal is to help the Afghan people conscious action, reconstruction of traditional security institutions, economic development and consistent with Afghan history, culture and informal management. In essence, the “village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces will have joint and inter-institutional features. Since 2009, “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan and US troops deployed in Afghanistan into the rural Afghanistan to help the local community of security, management and development, and enable them to better coupled to the central government. “Village stability operations” and Afghan local police forces according to the point quickly flourish throughout the country, the ultimate success of the “Taliban” to recapture the territory.


According to recent US experience in unconventional warfare and future threats, following several issues should be considered:

(A) Organization: According to current threats and challenges, the United States Special Operations Forces Command (SOCOM) should be in the fight against the terrorists, insurgents and other unconventional threats of war to play a front-line “defense” role. Although the US economy is more serious, we should continue (if not increase) investment in the future projects, such as the “village stability operations,” local police forces and the Afghan project.

(B) the health of the US troops: As unconventional warfare deployed US soldiers and their families have been treated countless pressures. The possibility of these threats continue to evolve, and the deployment of troops, means that the US Defense Department needs to continue to strengthen the soldiers and their families for the physical and mental health programs. March 2012 occurred in Kandahar, Afghanistan, US soldiers shot and killed civilians, had a negative impact on the US unconventional warfare operations, but also from the broader sense, is not conducive to US foreign policy.

(C) Training and education: especially for US conventional forces, the unconventional warfare military training of a temporary ad hoc in nature. In some core US military agencies, such as the US Army War College, unconventional warfare military training is relatively good. However, the current unconventional warfare military training and investment in danger of being weakened, so some departments and agencies might consider unconventional warfare military training obsolete. After the Vietnam War, and things like that happen, it would be a very serious mistake.

(D) Inter-agency cooperation: Congress may consider supporting one pair of unconventional warfare campaign experience of cooperation across agencies work assessment efforts as they perform operations against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq for cross-agency team made same. Inter-agency cooperation and did not complete the play should have the performance, we should consider an objective, analytical assessments.

Unconventional warfare struggle is a long-term activity, which will continue to be a global battlefield, will extend from the United States, Britain long coastline to Yemen, Pakistan deserted hilltop. This struggle will continue for decades, rather than months or years, this is a concept for most Westerners can not easily handle.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

過去十年內,美國應對了大量非常規戰爭挑戰。以阿富汗戰爭為例,至2012年初期,阿富汗境內共有近432000名反暴亂部隊官兵,其中包括美國官兵近90000人、北約組織官兵近30000人、阿富汗國家安全部隊近300000人、阿富汗地方警察部隊近12000人。另外,美國為此每年花費超過1000億美元,部署了大量各種先進的平台和系統。另一方面,“塔利班”組織部署部隊在20000人至40000人之間(與反暴亂兵力之比為1:11),每年花費額為1億至2億之間(與反暴亂行動資金消耗之比為1:500)。另外,阿富汗暴亂組織主要運用從使用簡易爆炸裝置到因特網作戰的不對稱戰略和戰術。 “塔利班”組織利用有限資源維持較長時間的暴亂活動的能力,凸顯了美國所面臨的非常規戰爭挑戰。因此,本報告主要關注如下三個問題:
和“恐怖主義”、“暴亂活動”極為相似的是,“非常規戰爭”擁有各種定義。從實踐意義上說,非常規戰爭是國家和非政府組織為特定人群的合法性和影響力而進行的暴力鬥爭。非常規威脅包括運用游擊戰、恐怖主義、陰謀破壞、犯罪活動和暴動叛亂等活動方式的國家和組織。本文首先簡要討論非常規戰爭威脅,包括來自國家和非政府組織的威脅。繼而,本文總結了美國在打擊暴亂和支持暴動時可以採取的非常規戰爭戰略。最後,本文以美軍特種部隊在阿富汗進行的“鄉村穩定行動”(Village Stability Operations,VSO)為範例進行探討。
為說明未來威脅,有必要突出強調基地組織及其附屬組織,目前他們因遭到巨大打擊而有些神秘的逐步消失。未來由基地組織及其附屬組織造成的威脅可能會取決於以下幾項因素:領導結構的倖存,北非、中東和南亞等地區國家薄弱的統治力,地方組織的某些支持。根據當前趨勢,基地組織很有可能將保存重要領導人(巴基斯坦可能例外),某些國家政府的統治力將依然薄弱,基地組織將在某些國家得到地方性支持。基地組織的目標也可能一如既往:推翻多個政權建立泛伊斯蘭教王權(近敵,或者說是“攘內敵”),對抗美國及其盟友(遠敵,或者說是“抗外敵”)。但是,這些趨勢將如何發展尚不明朗。例如,基地組織作為一種全球性活動可能更加分散,在巴基斯坦的基地核心力量與其在伊朗(伊朗基地組織)、也門​​(阿拉伯半島基地組織)、索馬里(伊斯蘭青年軍)、北非(伊斯蘭馬格里布基地組織)或者其他地區的基地組織關係弱化。這種分散,將使基地組織沿由敘利亞戰略家​​阿布•阿爾蘇里(Abu Mus’ab al-Suri)所設想的方式發展,更多地捲入“個人聖戰”和“小細胞恐怖行動”。
•越戰綜合症。在伊拉克和阿富汗以及在可能發生於朝鮮和台灣的常規性軍事摩擦中的一些挑戰,可能會使美國軍界部分人忽視未來非常規戰爭的重要性。如約翰•納格爾(John Nagl)在他反暴亂戰爭研究中所總結到的,關於越戰後時代:“美國軍隊認為美國不應當再次自陷於反暴亂作戰,而不是直面美國軍隊反暴亂作戰原則在越戰中遭到失敗這一事實。”不但非常規戰爭對於可預見的未來仍將極為重要,而且還有必要對“應當如何制止暴亂活動”等議題進行更進一步的研究。
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量2
圖2. 2010-2015年全球互聯網流量[保存到相冊]

2.間接戰略:在一些案例中,最好的途徑可能會將主要著力點放在建議、裝備和支援當地常規和非常規部隊和組織之上的間接戰略。這種援助,包括國外內部防禦(Foreign Internal Defense)和非常規戰爭,已經歷史性地成為美國特種作戰部隊和情報機構的任務。美國在20世紀50年代以及自2001年開始對菲律賓、20世紀60年代對泰國、20世紀90年代和21世紀初對哥倫比亞的援助工作,相對成功地削弱或者擊敗了暴亂集團。在每一案例中,美國所採用的都是間接途徑而不是直接途徑。間接途徑意味著美國人員要向作戰中的主辦國部隊提供建議和支持。雖然這一支持有時也會包括戰術領導力問題,但其焦點始終是幫助主辦國而不是美國元素對抗敵人。
“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的發展是近期反暴亂行動的最有效模式之一。此前三年,美國特種作戰部隊一直在廣大農村發展這一模式。他們的目標是幫助阿富汗人民自覺行動起來,重建傳統性安全機構、經濟發展和與阿富汗歷史、文化相一致的非正式管理。在本質上,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊就具有聯合性和跨機構性的特點。自2009年開始,“鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊部署阿富汗和美國兵力進入阿富汗農村,幫助地方群落的安全、管理和發展,使他們更好地聯結於中央政府。 “鄉村穩定行動”和阿富汗地方警察部隊的根據點很快在整個國家內蓬勃發展,最終成功從“塔利班”手中奪回了領土。
(二)美國部隊的健康度:由於非常規戰爭部署,美國官兵及其家庭已經處理了無數壓力。這些威脅的可能性繼續發展以及兵力部署,意味著美國國防部需要繼續加強針對官兵及其家庭的身體和心理健康項目。 2012年3月發生於阿富汗坎大哈省的美國士兵槍殺平民事件,為美國非常規戰爭行動帶來了負面影響,而且從更廣泛的意義上說也不利於美國外交政策。



China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare 中央军事委员会解放军演练电磁环境下红蓝双方攻防对抗作战

China’s Central Military Commission Directs PLA to Conduct Force on Force Electromagnetic Warfare


2010年12月19日 07:04


Winter season, a confrontation exercise started somewhere in the south.

Just started fighting, “blue” group on electronic jamming to capture a group of unidentified electromagnetic signals.

Due operator eager to interfere when the signal was a commander of an emergency stop. He concluded that this group of signals is issued by the “Red Army” senior command authority, premature interference might arouse his suspicions. Right on cue, when the “Red Army” attack battle, they suppress this band in real time, effectively disrupting the “Red Army” combat deployment.

The Commander, General Miaosuan, of the “Blue Army” commander, that army outstanding commanding officers, the head of the Guangzhou Military Region regiment Xie Jinbo.

More than 60 million units of information data, witnessed his dedication and hard

The different kind of exercise summary, attracted the attention of the organizers of a number of exercises: “a certain type of equipment, depending on the conditions under conditions of less than two kilometers through, the interference effect is reduced by 13% ……” opened this up to 14 million words of summary reports, data everywhere so to speak, has changed the traditional reporting “heavy qualitative description, quantitative analysis of light,” the chronic illness.

These years, with the information technology and new equipment to allot troops, Xie Jinbo keen to find, sometimes combat environment, the nuances of equipment performance data are likely to affect the outcome of the war. In one exercise, since some stations no good equipment to control the temperature, humidity, resulting in interference to fail.

Moreover, to improve combat capability-based information system, it is also inseparable from the construction of the battlefield database. In contrast to many of the training 谢金波 found in advance into a battlefield data information technology equipment, compared with no injection data of “bare metal”, the highest combat effectiveness actually thousand fold difference.

Xie Jinbo deeply felt, each data is a valuable resource, he began a long, hard data acquisition. On one occasion, in order to obtain a certain type of equipment interference in different terrain conditions data distance, Xie Jinbo has spent more than two years, after several training, practice exercises, and finally collect the relevant data together. In recent years, in order to gain valuable operational data, he often worked day and night, tirelessly, nearly 300 days a year to soak in the training field.

Today, more than 60 million units of information data added to the database in the regiment of information technology equipment for command and decision automation solidify a solid foundation. Meanwhile, dozens of main equipment in the operating parameters of a variety of conditions are constantly refreshed, the regiment as a basis for improvement and innovation in more than 50 kinds of tactics and training methods.

Let new equipment enter onto the “battlefield,” have courage to play

July 2009, the Central Plains some ancient battlefield. Army fielded some type information equipment unit of soldiers gathered here, in the invisible space heated game.

Military leader far away in Guangzhou was very worried: 谢金波 and his forces can accomplish the task drill? You know, the regiment fielded only 14 days this equipment, this exercise they cannot participate.

At first, the military solicit the views of the regiment, led by Xie Jinbo insisted on participating. Organs Staff Recommendation: Even through emergency training, the soldiers also only master the basic operating, while sister unit has also been fitted out in the shortest one and a half, we have accumulated a wealth of coaching experience, and if a hit on units and individuals are negative.

Getting remark, Xie Jinbo eyes stare: equipped with new equipment as is the future battlefield to defeat the enemy, if you cannot make new equipment onto the “battlefield”, this is our soldier’s dereliction of duty.

In this drill, Xie Jinbo day to lead the troops to engage in combat, in the evening, led cadres backbone fumble summary, truly a “fight a battle further.” Just a few more than 40 days, the soldiers not only mastered this new equipment, but also several times in the walkthrough cornered his opponent. Finally, the regiment was named “advanced unit in the exercise.”

In this exercise, he proposed an idea to give the headquarters of heads and experts highly recognized. He led troops prepared this type of equipment operation manuals and Tactics methods, training materials issued by the headquarters of the army as a similar force. Three years, under the leadership of 谢金波 team constantly explore new equipment group training method summary, prepared more than 30 sets of textbooks, teaching Van and user manual, which is the headquarters of promoting the use of five sets; research and development of the three sets of simulation training software The signal automatic identification software, which obtained two military scientific and technological progress prize.

Xie Jinbo familiar people call him “isolated situation.” This is because in training he always trying to force opponents to find out the problem, just a defeat.

Two years ago, Xie Jinbo that neighbor a unit fielded a new equipment, he immediately with a “gauntlet” to the unit. Thereafter, they are back to back through a field exercise, a powerful increase the combat effectiveness of the two forces.

In recent years, the group has several units and 10 Army, Air Force, Navy established a joint training relationship, master a set to adapt to new equipment, tactics and close combat in a variety of complex conditions emergency support experience.

Usually “seeking abortion” as is undefeated wartime. Because of the technical performance of the equipment war fraternal units more familiar with the training he often felt recruited opponents hard enough, he would for ourselves, “made” opponents.

In 2008, Xie Jinbo well-established group “Blue Army” units, and personally served as commander. Under his leadership, our in-depth study of each of a regional war since the Gulf War, from operational to tactical training principles guiding ideology, means of attack, an action an action before, one would like to set a scenario to pull, so that the “blue army” soon He entered the role as military training of “grindstone.”

In a time of “seeking lost” experience, the team’s fighting again and again to give rise. In recent years, various types of exercises held superiors, they times and successfully complete the task.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

























Original Source: 解放军报

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace – 威懾的網絡空間中的中國軍事機密

Chinese Military Secrets of Deterrence in Cyberspace


January 6th 2016

China’s National Defence University


Given the recent People’s Liberation Army (PLA) restructuring and renewed emphasis on strategic forces and cyberwarfare units it is no surprise that military experts in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) are discussing how to use military force in cyberspace effectively.

when the opposing sides have the ability to ensure invade destroy the other network when you can bring two-way network containment, the two sides have, under certain conditions, to comply with and do not attack the other network rules of the game, forming an invisible safety valve, even will form international networks and do not attack each other customary agreements or conventions, cyberspace became strategic areas can generate a huge deterrent effect. After following the nuclear deterrence deterrence in cyberspace, began to enter the strategic vision of the big country politicians and military strategist. Research cyberspace deterrence characteristics, type and use points, a must consideration and necessary action network power, network and strong army.   China Military Online publication Yuan Yi of PLA Military Academy of Sciences, said the article, along with human society’s dependence on cyberspace continues to deepen, cyberspace has become the “fifth dimension of human production and life of the” second class living space “and military confrontation battle space. ” States initiative, control over the right to speak about the world of cyberspace in a fierce competition, competition in cyberspace has reached a level of survival, fate of the country and the success of the military struggle of human solidarity. Thinking of cyberspace deterrence capacity building of great practical and theoretical value.   First, analyze the pros and cons of deterrence in cyberspace   cyberspace deterrence refers to various actions taken in cyberspace, cyberspace display paralyze enemy control, and cross-domain control of the enemy’s determination and strength of the physical space through cyberspace to achieve deterrence enemy, the enemy stops, stopping the enemy, stop the enemy in the form of a strategic deterrence purposes. Cyberspace and physical space has compared to the “actual situation biphasic” network warfare, compared with the traditional style of warfare has unique nature determines the advantages and disadvantages of deterrence in cyberspace are very obvious.

(A) Advantages of cyberspace deterrence.   Deterrence advantage of cyberspace, mainly reflected in: First, become more civilized and humane way of deterrence. Compared with nuclear and biological weapons, physical, biological, chemical destruction mechanism-based, direct killing and destruction effects of network warfare weapons is far smaller than the former, usually does not cause permanent damage and pollution of the natural environment, it will not cause a lot of people casualties, and trigger a humanitarian disaster. Second, the cost of deterrence to cost-inefficient. Network warfare weapons to viruses, Trojan horses and other software-based, relatively low cost, low technology threshold, and damage caused by the effect has been amazing. Cyber ​​Defense broad area, are very hard to improve network security level of a grade each input costs increase exponentially. Low-cost network attack and defense of the high cost of network contrast, making the network attack and defense presented “spear shield thin” features, network warfare weapon which is called “poor atomic bomb.” Third, diverse practical means of deterrence. A variety of network warfare weapons, cyber-attacks target pluralism, the decision has diverse cyberspace deterrent to choose from. Network attack effect to a certain extent is recoverable, if used properly implemented, the initiation and escalation of the war to promote war risk is relatively small. In a sense, the deterrent value of nuclear weapons is much greater than the actual value, and network warfare weapons is both practical value and deterrent value. Fourth, deterrence using reusable flexibility. “Nuclear threshold” Once across the full nuclear war will break out, both sides in the nuclear balance of mutual destruction will fall into the state, easily a nuclear deterrent against non-nuclear countries in particular, nuclear deterrence, but also lead to international condemnation, these factors which greatly limits the use of the nuclear deterrent. The cyberspace deterrence Flex, controllable power characteristics, which can be determined according to the change and the need for military struggle situation, timely regulatory deterrence strength, the initial use, full use, repeated use, with strong flexibility.

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(B) Lack of deterrence in cyberspace

Cyberspace is insufficient when it comes to a deterrent effect, mainly reflected in the following:

First, the credibility of the deterrent effect has not been fully verified. The credibility of nuclear deterrence has been verified in actual combat. However, as of now, the war in the true sense of the network have not really broken out. People cyberwarfare amazing destructive power, more of a speculation and worry, the real power of cyber warfare only after the actual test, we can really convincing.

Second, the reliability of the means of deterrence is not too high. Cyberwar is a dynamic process two sides of continuous interaction network attack and defense, the network against complex, highly technical characteristics, determine the effect of cyber warfare attacks with greater uncertainty, and there may not achieve the desired objective of the operation, so that the deterrent effect greatly reduced. For example, when you attack the enemy in cyberspace combat deter enemy if promptly take all effective means of defense, it will increase the difficulty of one’s own cyber-attacks and reduce the destructive effect, and even lead to the failure of the attack.

Third, deterrence scope for further improvement in controllability. Virus weapons as an important weapon cyber warfare, the spread of resistance, controllability is poor, affecting relatively wide range, it is difficult for the enemy to launch specialized computers and networks, highly targeted attacks. If you cannot control its effective scope, it will spread to a third-party neutral countries and even make itself a victim, thus using viral weapons are “legislator” of the suffering. Four is selectively limited deterrence object. Nuclear deterrence for any country is clear and effective, and the degree of information in cyberspace deterrent effect of a great relationship with the enemy. Cyberspace deter high degree of information is extremely effective countries, and for that information infrastructure is weak, not strong network dependent LDCs, the effect is difficult to play, or even completely ineffective. Five is relatively complex organization deterrence implementation. Various nuclear countries in the world are all focused on the implementation of the strategic nuclear forces unified management, command and control of the highly centralized organization and implementation of nuclear deterrence when action can be accurately controlled to each combat unit, very well organized and implemented. The organization and implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, to be involved in reconnaissance, attack, control, prevention and other support forces, personnel, large scale, and scattered in different departments and units of the military, the organization is very complex and not easy to form a joint force.

Second, the main types of cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace includes the following; there are cyberspace technology test deterrence measures, deterrence in cyberspace display equipment, network space and cyberspace combat exercise deterrence. There are four types of deterrence operations. Among them, the first three are shown in form of deterrence, the latter is the real deterrent.

(A) Technical trial deterrence in cyberspace

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Cyberspace technology test of deterrence, is in the field of cyber warfare, regularly carry out new operational concepts early exploratory trials, new attacks and tactical mechanism confirms test results, new technologies weaponization practical tests, and through the media and disclose to demonstrate their strong information technology infrastructure research capabilities, and network warfare capability into the enormous potential to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Currently, the network attack and defense technology is still rapid development, a key breakthrough technology, cyberspace and often have a significant impact on operations, or even lead to revolutionary change. Who is the first to occupy the strategic high ground network attack and defense technology, who will be able to achieve significant advantages in the future network warfare.

(B) Deterrence in cyberspace equipment display.

Equipment display deterrence in cyberspace, is planning to develop cyber warfare equipment development, technology development, targeting all stages of development testing, stereotypes production, appropriate disclosure network warfare equipment models, performance, features needed, parameters and development progress, etc., in order to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Its methods are mainly two: one is by the defense white paper, diplomatic communiques and newspapers, periodicals, websites and other large-scale public disclosure of authoritative media from official sources, the implementation of explicit deterrence; the other is through a network of social media or other unofficial channels, deliberately leaked equipment relevant circumstances, the implementation of implicit deterrence. Cyberspace equipment display deterrence, one can fictitious new mechanism, the new concept of the new cyber-warfare equipment, and render their unique combat capability; on the other hand can be deliberately exaggerated the combat effectiveness of the existing network warfare equipment. There are virtual reality, real There are virtual, the implementation of a policy of ambiguity, so that the other lost in one’s own truth and strength, fear and psychological fear. For example, the US military’s “chute” airborne network attack system electrical integration has been repeatedly put into practical use, its hostile air defense system of the country pose a serious threat, but the basic principle, the working mechanism, tactical and technical indicators have neither publicly disclosed, nor by his country fully grasp cracks, has been shrouded in secrecy, it is difficult to distinguish the actual situation, played a very good deterrent.

(C) Cyberspace exercise deterrence.

In cyberspace combat exercise deterrence, is the way real soldiers or virtual exercises launched in cyberspace, and through various media channels to combat potential rival to show their cyber capabilities, strength and determination to achieve deterrence opponent’s goal. Cyberspace war exercises and military exercises can be divided into two kinds of virtual exercises. The former is usually the country or jointly with allies, generally joint military exercises in cyberspace defense action-oriented. In recent years, the United States and its allies held a number of “Cyber ​​Storm” series of network warfare exercises, and “Schriever” series of space – cyberspace exercise, a good show cyberwarfare mobilization strength, overall defense level, and the implementation of network warfare determination. The latter is usually the national large-scale integrated network Range held generally exercise the power of the military professional network warfare offensive action-oriented.

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(D) Operations in cyberspace deterrence.

Deterrence in cyberspace operations, refers to a particular network targets Attack effect to make sure to deter fighting a real opponent deterrence. The timing of its use are two: First, when one’s own perceived enemy is about to wage war on one’s own, the focus of one’s own choice of enemy defenses against network-critical objectives targeted, preventive, dissuasive deterrence; the second is when the enemy When the party through one’s own network launched probing attacks, the implementation of deterrence in cyberspace, one’s own need for effective retaliatory, punitive deterrence immediately. Network warfare operations deterrent effect of a variety. For example, infiltration and sabotage the enemy telecommunications network, the phone sends a large number of people to its anti-war message enemy; the enemy to attack the power grid, causing the enemy’s major cities short of blackouts; broadcast television network to attack the enemy in one’s own prime-time spots a special video program, and so on.

Third, the use of elements of deterrence in cyberspace.

Cyberspace deterrence general use requirements are: deterrence of war combined with strength, combat capability and determination to demonstrate, and strive to reflect the small war deterrence to ensure deterrence fine fight, with little cost to achieve deterrence purpose. Specifically, you should do the following.

(A) Both peacetime and wartime, long-term preparations, “Rome was not built in a day.” The successful implementation of cyberspace deterrence, peacetime and wartime needs, will be carried out in the usual full detailed preparation. First, we must conduct a comprehensive and thorough network reconnaissance. Requires intelligence reconnaissance and surveillance technology, wireless surveillance and reconnaissance wired combined network enemy targets long-term sustainability of the network reconnaissance, and gradually find out the basic situation of the enemy network, draws its network topology map, especially soft and hard analysis to find out the enemy Vulnerability member system. The second is to carry out a large number of effective strategies presets. Using hacking tools, through the use of loopholes in the system or other measures to decipher passwords, secret penetration into enemy various types of networks, leaving the back door, set the stepping stones, planted logic bombs and Trojans, cyber-attacks aside for the future launch breakthrough. Third, pre-network defenses are prepared. When the enemy to implement cyberspace deterrence, adjust the network’s own defense deployment in advance, so that the enemy attack path predesigned expected use of system vulnerabilities to attack the program scheduled to be executed difficult to implement, or to implement greatly reduced, to minimize the enemy Network revenge losses.

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(B) Careful decision-making.

Control the intensity of decision-making   Sun Tzu said: “Lord, not anger and Xingshi, will not be indignant caused the war.” Cyberspace deterrence strategy game behavior between countries, especially real deterrence and sensitivity, we must do rational, beneficial, section, must not because deterrence “threshold” low abuse indiscriminate use, or their effect may be counterproductive. Cyberspace real deterrent to combat the strength of the control of demanding. On the one hand, if the intensity is too small, an enemy government and people will not have fear, not achieve the desired deterrent effect, the person may also take the same means to implement anti-deterrence, eventually leading to confrontation upgrade, make one’s own deterrence fail. On the other hand, if the intensity is too large, to the enemy causing huge economic losses and casualties caused by the international community to condemn and enemy government, people’s hatred, it could lead to the use of conventional enemy forces massive retaliation, possibly even nuclear states will be spent on nuclear power, so not only can not deter war ended, it will play the role of the fuse of war.

(C) Unity of command, well-organized.

Military organizations implement deterrence in cyberspace, to centralized command, unified planning, improve collaboration. First, the well-organized force. Unified organization of military reconnaissance, attack, defense, control four forces, actively coordinate military forces the parties to form a joint force cyberwarfare. In particular, to organize and coordinate the civil non-professional cyber warfare forces especially patriotic hackers, cannot appear “rashness” phenomenon, so as not to lead to friction, misfires, causing cyber warfare upgrades, or premature disclosure attack intentions, a handle , resulting in uncontrollable situation or action fails. Second, the precise and appropriate choice target. Should affect a wide selection, easy to produce significant deterrent effect of the goal. For example, the ratings ranking of radio and television channels, access to a huge amount of portals, many users of wireless communication networks. You cannot select innocuous, the impact was small, and the public indifference to attack targets, easily mistaken for network security incidents ordinary hackers manufactured not achieve the desired deterrent effect. Also, consider the constraints of international law and the laws of war, you cannot select targets could easily lead to a humanitarian catastrophe, try not to choose the network destination railway, aviation, financial, medical and other sectors, so as not to provoke the international community and other public condemnation and resentment.

Third, the precise control of the process. Before implementing cyberspace deterrent against, to issue a warning to the enemy hit by extensive propaganda campaign, declared to the world the justice of one’s own actions, to gain the understanding and support of international public opinion. To highlight the deterrent effect, can one’s own network announced high-profile target enemy to attack, then break the enemy defense layers of the network, implement firm and effective network attacks, and finally, if necessary, but also on the effect of timing recovery network attacks to demonstrate one’s own superb network attack techniques and tools, so that policy makers and the public to produce enemy off guard, overwhelming psychological frustration, thereby forming a strong deterrent effect.

(D) Actual situation, focusing on strategy.

Sun Tzu said, “it can and cannot be shown, and illustrates it with no”, applied to cyberspace deterrence, summed up the gist of “show undeclared, declared and not shown.” “Show undeclared”, is the use of cyber-attacks is difficult to track the location of this, cyber-attacks on specific targets, but not announced is that of one’s own, both showing one’s own ability, but also makes the enemy, although suspicion is that as one’s own, but no evidence, not be pursued. “Vision does not show”, is publicity or inadvertently disclose one’s own research or advanced network warfare equipment fictional models, performance, features, deliberately exaggerate their operational effectiveness, falsehoods, actual situation, make the enemy unable to figure out the true strength of one’s own to produce a deterrent effect. Network warfare operations traceable having difficulty tracing, forensics complex features, the initiator can either admit to be denied, or put the blame on civil hackers.

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Original Source: www.crntt.iw/888

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.


Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)


People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces


Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.


Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate 中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China

Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate



China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).


The following highlights at a few key sectors:

A General Staff

General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.

Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.

General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.

A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.

General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.

Second section of the General Staff

Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.

Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, ​​the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, ​​and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)

General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.

A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.

Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.

Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.

Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.

Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.

Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.

Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.

Section II has the following departments:

Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.

Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.

Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.

Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.

In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.

Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.

In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.

Three of the General Staff

Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.

Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.

Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.

Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of ​​prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.

Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.

Four General Staff

Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.

There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.

In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:

◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)

◎ Confidential telephone network

◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)

◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)

Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:

◎ Underground fiber-optic network

◎ Communications satellite

◎ Microwave Communication

◎ Shortwave radio stations

◎ Automatic command and control network

General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:

  1. from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
  2. The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
  3. Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
  4. From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
  5. from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
  6. from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change

General Staff Guard Bureau

People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.

General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.

General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.

In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.

General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).

Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.

Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.

8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.

However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.

General Staff Guard Bureau leaders

SECRETARY: Cao Qing in

Deputy Director:

Major General Li Hongfu

Major General Yan Min

Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard

Major General Zhao Jiang stay

Major General Sun Yuan Gong

Major Jiangguang Qing

Major General Zhou Dongsheng

Major General Ye your new

The leaders of the Central Military Commission

CMC leadership


Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong

Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian

Former Chief of Staff

Zhou Enlai and chief of staff

Marshal Xu Xiangqian

Marshal Nie

Su Yu

Huang Kecheng general

Lo Jui-ching generals

Yang Chengwu

Admiral Huang Yongsheng

Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff

Admiral Yang Dezhi

Chi Haotian

Zhang Wannian

Fu Admiral

Liang Guanglie

Chen Bingde

Admiral Room Feng Hui

Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff

Nanjing Army Command College

Shijiazhuang Army Command College

Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)

Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)

Shenyang Artillery Academy

Zhenjiang Institute of boats

Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)

Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)

Chongqing Communication Institute

Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)

Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}

Army Missile Academy (Langfang)

Nanjing University of technology & Engineering

Anhui Artillery Academy

Bengbu Tank Institute

Xi’an Communication Institute

Luoyang Foreign Languages ​​Institute

Zhangjiakou Communication Institute

Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College

Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)

Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)

Beijing Army Aviation Academy

National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment


Original Mandarin Chinese:






一部在職能上相當於五角大樓Joint Staff的J-3。假設解放軍正在擬定一份正式的作戰計劃,或者突發事件的應變計劃,那麼這就是一部幹的活。如果現在日本突然在釣魚島挑起事端,那麼,負責處理就是一部的事情,2001年,南海軍機相撞,就是由一部直接指揮事態處理的。還有神州1號到6號飛船的發射、回收,都由總參一部參與指揮、調度。














檔案局 收藏海外的公開出版物。它的一個下屬單位就是軍事誼文出版社,該公司負責翻譯和重新出版其他國傢的軍事雜志。

機要局 負責處理、傳達和收藏機密文件,也負責為文件制定密級。

綜合局 為工作人員提供後勤服務,如交通、辦公設備、娛樂中心和飲食。

警衛局 負責中央軍委委員和各總部領導的人身安全。在二部各機構的安全工作中它還享有司法權。












四部裡還設有一些局,分別對陸海空三軍部隊在業務上提供指導,對直屬該部的電子對抗部隊和雷達兵部隊進行垂直領導,或負責一些對口研究所的工作。主要包括西南電子研究所(即成都第29研究所),負責雷達幹擾發射臺的研發。總參第54研究所,該所專門”為電子對抗與雷達兵部研制分析雷達脈沖參數的數字電子情報信號處理器。” 合肥第36研究所,負責研發通信幹擾發射臺。此外,總參四部還有自己的軍事院校,其中包括安徽合肥解放軍電子工程學院。





















總參警衛局是正軍級編制,下設8個正師級單位,負責人是上將軍銜,與總參謀長平級。局長兼任中央辦公廳第一副主任(正部級) ,副局長包括常務副局長均為少將。負責具體指揮協調各位國傢領導人的安全。












顏 敏少將

馬金虎少將 負責全國人大常委會委員長吳邦國警衛









副主席:范長龍 許其亮

委員:常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和


周恩來 兼總參謀長

徐向前 元帥

聶榮臻 元帥

粟裕 大將

黃克誠 大將

羅瑞卿 大將

楊成武 上將

黃永勝 上將

鄧小平 兼總參謀長

楊得志 上將

遲浩田 上將

張萬年 上將

傅全有 上將

梁光烈 上將

陳炳德 上將

房峰輝 上將


























Original Source:


China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争

China’s Strategic Support Forces & Winning Information Warfare – 中國网络战部队 Chinese Cyber Forces 建设信息化军队、打赢信息化战争


December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.CPC Central Committee General Secretary and State President and CMC Chairman Xi Jinping granted to the Army flag, rocket forces, strategic support troops and caused precepts. This is Xi Jinping will flag solemnly granted Takatsu strategic support troops commander, political commissar Liu Fu Company. Xinhua News Agency reporter Li Gangshe

People, Beijing, January 5 (by Qiu Yue) December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army leadership organization, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main strategic support mission task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and will integrate with the armed actions and rocket forces, and throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support troops is to maintain national security of the new combat forces, is an important qualitative growth of our military combat capability, mainly to strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support troops, military help to optimize the structure, improve the comprehensive support capabilities. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong, modern strategic support units.

Yin 卓介绍 that strategic support mission task force is to support the main battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battlefield can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support task force include: Return on target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation action, as well as the Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means of management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission . “These are decisions on the future of our military battlefield victory of the ability to obtain new areas.”

In times of war, reconnaissance forces cyberspace can help grasp the movements of the enemy army, Assistance Force to develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory. In peacetime, with the national level of information increasing, safety electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in the private sector application, the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities, these facilities for our socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of a lot of hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation, such as important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to implement a network attack, which requires that we must be equipped with the appropriate defenses. Strategic support troops in the protection of the country’s financial security of nuclear people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support troops is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic forces will support reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, digital ocean, digital construction and other aspects play an important role in the earth, and will provide strong support for the joint operations battlefield various branches of the military, in order to achieve the objectives under win local wars in conditions of informationization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support troops are not a separate fighting force, it will work with armed, rocket forces and other branches of the military action integrated to form an integrated joint operations, strategic support troops fighting throughout the whole process, penetration every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Origianl Mandarin Chinese:

2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平向陆军、火箭军、战略支援部队授予军旗并致训词。这是习近平将军旗郑重授予战略支援部队司令员高津、政治委员刘福连。新华社记者 李刚摄

人民网北京1月5日电 (邱越)2015年12月31日,中国人民解放军陆军领导机构、中国人民解放军火箭军、中国人民解放军战略支援部队成立大会在北京八一大楼隆重举行。新成立的战略支援部队颇为神秘,这究竟是一支什么样的军事力量呢?军事专家尹卓在接受人民网采访时表示,战略支援部队主要的使命任务是支援战场作战,使我军在航天、太空、网络和电磁空间战场能取得局部优势,保证作战的顺利进行。它是联合作战的重要力量,将与陆海空和火箭军的行动融为一体,贯穿整个作战始终,是战争制胜的关键力量。






Original Source:

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy 国家信息化战略中的军民结合

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy


“中辦發〔2006〕11號各省、自治區、直轄市黨委和人民政府,中央和國家機關各部委,解放軍各總部、各大單位,各人民團體: 《2006—2020年國家信息化發展戰略》已經黨中央、國務院同意,現印發給你們,請結合實際認真貫徹落實。”


國 務 院 辦 公 廳

China Communist Party

“Affecting all Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Communist Party of China, all committees and governments, central ministries and state organs, the People’s Liberation Army headquarters, major units, and people’s organizations:” This 2006–2020 National Informatization Development Strategy applies effective immediately”

[Foreign military and civilian strategy [1] ]

(A) legal form of integrating the armed forces to implement the strategy

The United States and other developed countries attach great importance to integrating the armed forces of institutional strengthening to the people, as a national strategy and to promote it in the form of legislation. After the Cold War, according to changes in the international situation, the US Congress and the Department of Defense issued a “National Defense Authorization Act ( 1993 ) “and” streamlining of the Federal Acquisition Act ( 1994 ), “affirmed the principle of legal form of military and civilian integration. The United States has enacted the “Defense transition strategy”, “National Security Strategy of Science and Technology ( 1995 ) “and” National Defense Science and Technology Strategy ( 2000 ) “, the strategic goal is:” to create a both to meet military requirements and meet the business needs of advanced national technology and industrial base. ” US Department of Defense in 2003, released in a new version of DOD5000.1 , stressing that “give priority to civilian products, technology and services”, provides that “to the extent feasible, the task can be modified requirements to facilitate civilian products, technology and services,” the procurement . British Ministry of Defense in 2001 for the promulgation of the 21 century national defense science and innovation strategy, clearly the long-term development of national defense science and technology point of view, the Ministry of Defence must attract the world advanced technology in the civilian sector to participate in defense research and development, accelerate weapons Update pace. French 1994 annual defense white paper also clearly announced that “the defense industry to consider the direction of the dual-use and military research and civilian research to combine as far as possible.”

(B) to promote the development of dual-use technology from both the investment and organization

The main countries in the world to start and accelerate new revolution in military affairs and military information technology, which is to implement the military strategy of the important people skills background. US Department of Defense in 1995 and published in “dual-use technology, aimed at obtaining affordable cutting-edge technology of the national defense strategy” and proposed to have important military needs but also has the potential transfer of dual-use technology, do need government intervention, clear by the government to invest in development. In 1998 the US Department of Defense promulgated the “National Defense Authorization Act”, asked the military to increase investment in the development of dual-use technology, and provides dual-use technology sharing principle of project funds. From the 20 century, 90 years began, the United States has implemented a variety of special programs to support the development of dual-use technology. In recent years, a substantial increase in the US defense budget, the 2007 fiscal year reached 5064 billion US dollars, compared with 2003, an increase of one-third of the defense budget in the 30-40% invested in the defense industry, it is worth noting that the US Department of Defense 20 Century 90 ‘s end total annual investment in IT is about 500 billion dollars in 2006 increased in 742 million US dollars, focus on supporting the development of dual-use of information technology. US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) attaches great importance to the development and application of dual-use technology, which is half of the office responsible for the development of dual-use technology.

In order to facilitate the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States in 1993, including the establishment of the armed forces and the Ministry of Commerce, the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (year NASA ) and the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) and other units’ defense technology transition committee ” . The United States also developed a joint research and development agreement ( CRADA ), to support the development of federal technology transfer to the private sector, encouraging joint investment with industry to develop dual-use technologies and projects. If we say that the era of mechanization technologies accounted for all military and civilian technology military equipment 30-40% , then the era of military and civilian integration of information technology will account for 80-90% . In enhancing the economic competitiveness of key technologies and key defense technologies listed in the US Department of Defense Department of Commerce elected in respect of about 80% overlap. British Ministry of Defense and Trade and Industry jointly invest in the development of dual-use technology, including a number of areas, including aviation, the British set up a special bureau defense technology transfer, scientific research institutions engaged in management of civil defense projects and funding contracts, using competitive mechanisms to encourage having strong technical force of civilian institutions to develop military technology. France through the implementation of the space program, space program, nuclear programs and electronic, information and communication plans a number of projects to develop dual-use technology. Japanese defense procurement is mainly aimed at using defense contracts as a means to promote the development of advanced technologies, especially having a civilian or dual use of advanced technologies.

Accelerate the development of dual-use technologies in the military, while information technology and services in the national economy, resulting in huge economic benefits, a study reported that the US Congress, the second application of space technology, each invested one dollar, we can produce seven dollars efficiency [2] . 2006 early American NASA Goddard Space Flight Center will be awarded the development of a simple, safe and low cost of the patent license single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing method of ISM company, formed a production capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these Nanotubes can be widely used in various fields of medical, fuel cells, video displays, solar batteries, etc., to promote the economic development of the United States [3] .

Management and equipment procurement mechanisms (iii) the reform of research projects, encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment

Civilian high-tech enterprise innovation system and a flexible, quick response, the results of many. Supporting civilian enterprises to develop products for the military, it has become the guidelines of the US military. 2003 introduced the “defense industrial transformation roadmap,” emphasized the need to change the main contractor control defense market situation, through the bidding and government procurement forms to encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment, guide and encourage enterprises to master the innovative technology into the civil defense thereby forming the size of both, the new defense market structure of many vendors. For example, the US communications equipment maker Motorola Inc. have independent military communications equipment manufacturing sector, both the production of Boeing civil aviation with the machine also produces military aircraft, Lockheed – Martin, the company’s main business is system integration, aviation, aerospace and technical services, are dual-use technology. To support SMEs, the United States has enacted the Small Business Innovation program. The US scientists, engineers, nearly half of military-related research, about one-third of enterprises and military production, whereas the Ministry of Defence orders for the total order amount accounts for 90% . British military research facilities management reform measures, encourage the use of military research facilities in the civilian sector technology development. France set up an integrated project team from the Department of Defense Weaponry Department, the military services Staff, industry composition, management of weapons and equipment procurement program development and projects. French Defense Weaponry Department promptly inform the military to SMEs development plan, acquisition plan set aside 10% for small and medium enterprises, to encourage them to participate in the competitive procurement of weapons and equipment. German weaponry annual plan by the General Armament Department operations departments, the services bureau, defense technology and industry cooperation Acquisition Department developed together. Germany developed a “Federal Republic of Germany ordered assignments principles” clearly defined weaponry defense contractor general contractor in the task, the task must be assigned to military orders to subcontractors by means of competition, in the form of legislation to protect small and medium enterprises to participate in defense research mission competition. Note that the Japanese government has the military capacity to foster private enterprise, the Japanese are eligible to receive military orders of enterprises has reached two thousand, basically formed a technologically advanced, wide range and great potential of military research and production system. Russia’s two ways to establish the defense industry system integration of military and civilian, in the implementation of the defense industry group, the formation of large-scale military company at the same time, part of the military enterprises demutualization, privatization, so that military enterprises retain the core military production capacity at the same production civilian.

A greater proportion of military production undertaken by civilian enterprises, contribute to the formation of military bidding competition mechanism, thereby reducing costs, improving quality and production of military enterprises to civilian products companies face appeared, facilitate international technical exchange and absorption of foreign advanced technology. Military through purchase orders, to strengthen cooperation with the civilian high-tech enterprises, to provide abundant funds or venture capital, which has become a developed country WTO era important mode of government to support their strategy of industrial development, enhance international competitiveness, in addition, military and technical performance of the process of challenging requirements, promote the growth of civilian high-tech enterprise technological innovation and high-quality scientific and technological talents. The development of civilian high-tech enterprises to grow, for the defense industry has laid a solid foundation, also contributed to the national economic development, and enhance the strength of the country.

(Iv) open defense procurement, maximize the use of civilian norms and standards

In order to promote the development of civil-military integration, many countries have carried out reforms to military standards, the equipment acquisition process and vigorously promote the use of civil standards and commercial specifications. US forces continue to pursue the reform of military standards, based on the past all military standards and specifications to conduct a comprehensive clean-up review, the repeal of the 4000 military specification remainder (including single-piece specification) and 300 remainder military standards, adopted the 1784 item civilian standards ( non-governmental standard), the equipment acquisition process, limit the use of military norms and standards, not only does the civil standard is available to meet the military requirements when considering the use of military standards, and the use of military standards must be approved or existing civilian standards can not. UK Equipment Acquisition management, not to military standards and military specifications and performance-based specifications proposed procurement requirements, given enough freedom and flexibility contractor. Japan 1999-2002 years, a total amend or repeal the military technical standards and technical specifications 10231 , accounting for all military technical standards 74 percent . In 2003 , the Defense Agency also proposed in its new weapons and equipment procurement policy making, instead of using civilian technology standard about 18,000 entries Defense Agency dedicated military standards and norms.

US defense scientist famous Gansler estimate, the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States Department of Defense Department of Defense procurement could save the equivalent of the total annual fee of 20% or more. Although the US military R & D expenditure of the United States the proportion of total funding from the last century, 60 years of 50% is reduced to the current 15% , but the US military technology but gained rapid development, mainly due to integrating the armed forces of the new system.

[To change the information into a new military and civilian military features, integrating the armed forces]

A new era of international competition, information into the characteristics of modern military equipment is becoming one of the core content of the new revolution in military affairs of States. An information era notable feature is the combination of surface defense economy and social economy more widely, military technology and civilian technology deeper degree of integration, association technological innovation and new revolution in military affairs increasingly tight. Developed countries have the information technology as a strategic national research priorities, the United States and Japan in the field of R & D investment in information separately account for the total R & D investment of 40% or more, the United States Department of Defense 2005 budget on science and technology information systems and sensors accounted for 35.7% .

(A) information technology in all areas of civil industrial technology is the most easy to achieve also the people’s army also

Information industry is large in scale compared to other industrial sectors and technology updates quickly, there is no other information technology fields like civil industry as more people realize also the military also. The United States since 1999 years has launched the “fast bird”, “Ikonos” and other dual-use high-resolution satellite, in 2001 in Afghanistan, “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US “fast bird” and “Yi Kenuo Sri Lanka “satellite to 20 US dollars / km ² price to US Department of Defense provides photographic reconnaissance image related operations area. IT-based civilian battlefield information network in the Iraq war also played an important role, via satellite, drones and other airborne sensors to obtain information on a computer map updated every friendly and enemy positions every five minutes. The Pentagon claims that China and the US Air Force, the war in Iraq, the extent of information the Navy reached 70% , ground forces also up 50 percent or more. US information technology has made ​​such rapid progress, China has played an important role in military technology.

(B) in the civilian market-wide test of IT applications in the military low-cost and reliable utility

Dedicated to the military use of information technology, although in training and military exercises, but without a real baptism after the test is limited. Civil information products market is large, hundreds of millions or even billions of people subjected to extensive tests using its technology, fierce competition in the market also contributed to accelerate its improvement and perfection, easy-to-use products, the cost to decline rapidly. From the military GPS and the Internet is a good example, which after a civilian market competition and popularity improvement to mature and reliable and cost-effective way reflect the greater value in military applications.

(C) Information technology can rapidly increase the combat effectiveness of military applications

Performance information weaponry is much higher than the mechanized weaponry, but the development of high risk, high investment, an increase in its cost of IT accounts for a large proportion. Many civilian high-tech product development of low cost, standard upgrade quickly, just put a small amount of money to improve its performance can meet the requirements of military systems, make full use of civilian IT achievements can significantly reduce costs. United States, Britain, Japan and other developed countries in the development of information technology weaponry and equipment system, especially when a variety of military information systems, directly from the market civilian technology sector and corporate purchasing high-tech equipment, such as communications equipment, all kinds of computers, all kinds of computer software, security anti-virus software, satellite image analysis equipment to minimize the risk of national defense research and development investment. US Department of Defense contractor is due to the direct use existing commercial software and hardware, greatly reducing development time information Weapon System.

In addition, the use of information technology to transform and upgrade weapons systems is rapidly effective measures to improve the combat effectiveness. A typical weapon system development cycle for up to 7-15 years, the high cost of its replacement. The typical development cycle civilian IT hardware and software business a few months to a few years, mobile phones and PC replacement is faster, with a civilian rapid development of information technology to transform weapons and equipment, only a few funds, Every few years the performance of existing weapons and equipment will be able to a higher level, thereby prolonging the service life. Western countries show a measure of existing mechanized weaponry information transformation, the development time and cost required, roughly equivalent production of new weaponry 1/4 to 1/3 .


(D) The information construction in the military use of civil IT and products beneficial to the national defense mobilization

Army civilian information technology products through the use of these technologies to deepen understanding, familiar with the use of these products, once wartime there is a need to quickly collect a large number of civilian products, and in the armed forces of these products can be quickly effective. US troops in 95 percent of the computer is in the civilian military communications conducted online, with commercial networks linked up to 15 million units changed hand, the Iraq war, the US military also requisitioned and rented some commercial satellites and civilian information networks, in order to bridge the information transfer capability deficiencies. IT complexity it becomes replace the faulty equipment maintenance module, civilian technology products helps to reduce the use of troops and equipment spare parts inventory. In addition, the use of civil information technology products also provide the possibility for civilian IT enterprises to participate in military equipment maintenance, thus reducing maintenance costs of troops and equipment. 2003 , the United States in the Iraq war, has with the world’s four 10,000 manufacturers signed a 50 million copies of material support contract, “the contractor battlefield” socialization of military logistical support.

(E) The development of intellectual property in the competition for civil defense information technology helps improve information security

IT field of international, market-oriented walking in front of other areas, competition is quite fierce patents, the United States, Japan and other developed countries to ten in 2005 by the end of the cumulative patent applications in China in 46.27% concentrated in the field of information. Many IT even basic technology is also likely to be used in the military field, the developed countries are often incorporated into this limit exports of the column, especially China, and therefore unable to equip our troops or through the introduction of foreign advanced weapons systems procurement. At a critical time in international politics, the military situation changes, do not rule out the possibility of the introduction of certain key parts weaponry stuck or certain functional failure exists. On the other hand, China’s civilian IT through international competition, hard work, has been the rapid development, the domestic IT companies are also corresponding increase innovation capability, some of the technology has reached the world advanced level, such as third generation mobile communication TD-SCDMA . In order to compete and reduce costs needs, many domestic enterprises have developed information technology products dedicated chip, to change the long-standing dependence on foreign chip status, while developing the capability to rapidly increase, to undertake the task of developing national defense to lay a good foundation dedicated chip . These chips use civilian high-tech and specialized in military equipment in the army would avoid the kinds of information security with its own technology.

(F) make full use of local advantages of network professionals prepared to deal with cyber warfare preparation

Information is double-edged sword, information technology to improve the combat capability of the armed forces but also requires special attention to the information network security. An essential feature of cyberwarfare is asymmetric, low cost and easy to attack and attack and hard to defend, particularity cyber warfare means will lead to future war ” civilians ” trend, “hackers” may become a war hero. To prevent ” network’9.11′ incident , ” President George W. Bush early in 2002 on the release of the first 16 numbers , ” National Security Presidential Directive , ” the history of the formation of the US military is the world’s first network hacker troops – cyber warfare capabilities constitute the Joint Command, The Army and Navy also have a computer emergency response unit, the Air Force is responsible for the implementation of the establishment of a network of Air Force attack these troops from the world’s top computer experts and ” hacker ” , and currently has formally incorporated into the order of battle in Las Vegas on the largest computer exhibition, former US Assistant Secretary of Defense Sihamoni had in his speech on the ” hacker ” who said: ” If you considered the rest of his life to doing, make sure you do not forget the Department of Defense. ” In addition, the US military also hired some hackers specialize in computer vulnerability testing. 2004 In September , the US set up by 28 international industry consortium composed of major companies specialized home – NCW Industries Alliance, to strengthen the military and civilian aspects of the field of information technology coordination.

(G) make full use of scientific and technological resources of a strong army and civil service

It was reported that the US Air Force in terms of the lack of high-tech professional officer Capt up to two-thirds of the Army Navy also facing the same problem. US Department of Defense, NASA and other very seriously the role of the United States Academy of Engineering and universities and other research institutions and companies in the defense consulting RAND research and personnel training. According to foreign military experts estimate that the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other major developed countries developing high-tech weapons and equipment information required for 80-90% from local businesses, 10-20% from their military research institutes that the basis of dual-use items and technology sector may bear the civil, defense, science and technology department and the military technology sector specializing in purely military projects, and overall system project. US military reconnaissance plane EP-3 electronic information system consists of a variety of functional equipment components, many of them readily available on the market and are not necessarily technologically advanced products, but its integrated performance of the system on a higher level, visible integrated innovation You can increase the value.

The total amount of scientific and technical personnel and research and development staff accounted for the world’s first and second place, to make good use of the intellectual resources will significantly enhance our military’s strength in the balance of forces. Establish civil-military integration of scientific and technological innovation system, the development of military and civilian science and technology co-ordinate the project and reasonable deployment of dual-use items, do not repeat and can complement each other to achieve the optimal combination of scientific and technological resources of the country, at the same time vigorously develop local resources by means of force personnel to ensure national defense construction in a strategic initiative. The Central Military Commission in 2007 issued a “attract and retain high-level military professional and technical personnel provisions”, the increased focus on the introduction and use of high-quality human resources community efforts to further improve the policy mechanism innovation. System established academicians, academicians hired as technical adviser, full use of the state’s top talent and intelligence resources to better serve the army major decision-making advice, major scientific research and high-level personnel training; in preparation for military struggle and closely related major research projects (project) and key disciplines, a chief expert positions, for the community to hire high-level professional and technical personnel.

[Seize the opportunities of information technology, to promote civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces]

China’s national defense scientific research and industrial system is set up on the basis of the planned economy, the planned economy of management concepts and tools still play a leading role in the management and self-contained closed hinder the establishment of a market-oriented philosophy, is not conducive to cooperation and innovation culture the formation, performance assessment indicators of military units rely on the lack of industrial development and promote the civil requirements or mission, in research programs and equipment procurement in military and civilian disjointed. Since reform and opening, the defense industry began with the development of a single military structure structure change, the nuclear industry, shipbuilding industry, information industry to the military and civilian, to benefit from the transfer of military technology to civilian use, the radiation leading role in the defense industry to the local economy and society significantly enhanced, but these transfers have not yet risen to the institutional level. On the other hand, our country has grown to a group of innovative and industrial capacity of civilian high-tech enterprises, capable military mission, but the lack of demand for military communication channels norms, policies and regulations related to the imperfection of reason, basically it less involved in national defense tasks. If there are no civilian technology sector urgent national security needs, it is impossible to obtain in the areas of national defense and security level of strong support, it is difficult to play a greater role in supporting the civilian sectors to support and not to assume the task of training defense, nor conducive to its development and growth. Compared with developed countries, China’s military and civilian from positive interaction and coordinated development goals are still many gaps, more prominent is the lag corresponding laws and regulations and institutions. Military and civilian national behavior and reflects the will of the state, not only to rely on technological innovation, but also to rely on innovation and institutional innovation to achieve.

In the CPC Central Committee and State Council in 2006 issued in ” 2006-2020 National Information Development Strategy “, pointed out the global information technology are causing profound changes in today’s world, reshaping the world political, economic, social, cultural and military a new pattern of development. Accelerate the development of information technology, it has become the common choice of all countries. And clearly put forward the development of China’s information technology strategic approach – the overall planning, resource sharing, deepen the application, seek practical, market-oriented, based on innovation, military and civilian, safe and reliable.

In the implementation of the national development strategy, we need to learn from foreign ideas, to address the constraints of institutional issues from military and civilian regulations, coordination mechanisms, standards and procurement policies and other strategic height. The current need to establish and improve the bidding system, the formation of fair and equitable competition, maximize the use of mature private standards, guidance and encouragement to master innovative technology enterprises, especially small and medium sized companies to enter the defense sector, so as to form a new multi-vendor defense industry system, led military mission to enhance the level of civilian development, adding vitality to economic development, to achieve military and civilian interaction.

In an important experience in promoting foreign military and civilian aspects of the information is from the start. Revolution in military affairs in the world today, is the rapid development of information technology and its wide range of applications in the military field for direct power, high-tech advantages of local wars in conditions of informationization to be achieved, relying solely on national defense science and technology sector and the military system itself to be ineffective, soldiers and civilians combined, integrating the armed forces is the key, information technology is one of the important starting point. In the task of industrialization, information technology integration and development of our country with the military mechanization and informatization complex development goals, information technology has become a very good combination of points overall economic construction and national defense construction. In particular, most of the reform of the State Council, gave birth to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, not only from the organic unity of the organization will be industrialization and information management, and the civilian industry and the defense industry closely, from the institutional to seize information strategic opportunity to strengthen civil-military integration provides an important guarantee. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology at the same time implementation of national information technology and new industrial development strategy, will give full consideration to the development needs of the defense industry and the development of weapons and equipment, the establishment of military and civilian national level to promote policies and coordination mechanisms to promote industrialization, information technology and defense comprehensive and coordinated development and enhance the independent innovation capability of science and technology industry, and actively explore market-oriented approach combining military and civilian, military and civilian industries planning to achieve convergence between supply and demand docking and resource sharing [4] , two-way play the leading role, promoting the national economy and national defense modernization.

Seventeenth Party Congress report pointed out that “national defense and army building, we must stand on national security and the development of strategic height, overall economic development and national defense building” . “To attain the building computerized armed forces and winning the information war strategic objectives, accelerate composite development of mechanization and information, and actively carry out military training under conditions of informationization, build a modern logistics, intensify training a large number of qualified military talent, effectively change the mode of generating combat. ““Reform of the defense industry to adjust and of weapons and equipment procurement, improve weapons and equipment developed by independent innovation capability and quality benefits. Establish and improve military and civilian, combine military weaponry and equipment research and production system to the people, military personnel training and military security system , adhere to thrift and hard work, out of a Chinese characteristics, civil-military integration path of development. “Discuss these important military and civilian strategic approach is to achieve scientific development. We must seize the opportunities of information technology, integrating the armed forces to do this great article, make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

Original Mandarin Chinese:





世界主要國家啟動和加速推進新軍事變革和軍隊信息化建設,這是推行民技軍用戰略的重要背景。美國國防部於1995年發表《兩用技術,旨在獲取經濟可承受的前沿技術的國防戰略》,提出了對有重要軍事需求同時又具有轉移潛力的兩用技術,確實需要政府介入的,明確由政府進行投資開發。 1998年美國國防部頒布的《國防授權法》,要求軍方必須加大對兩用技術開發的投資,並規定了兩用技術項目經費的分攤原則。從20世紀90年代開始,美國還實施了多種專項計劃,支持軍民兩用技術開發。美國近年來大幅度增加國防預算,2007財年達到5064億美元,比2003年增加了1/3,國防預算中30-40%投資到國防工業,值得注意的是,美國國防部20世紀90年代末每年對信息技術的投資總額約為500億美元,2006年增至742億美元,重點支持軍民兩用信息技術的開發。美國國防部國防先進技術研究計劃局(DARPA)十分重視軍民兩用技術的開發和應用,其半數辦公室負責軍民兩用技術的發展。

為了推動軍民一體化的實施,美國於1993年成立了包括三軍和商務部、能源部、運輸部、國家航空航天局(NASA)以及國家科學基金會(NSF)等單位的“國防技術轉軌委員會” 。美國還制定了聯合研究和發展協議(CRADA),支持聯邦開發的技術轉讓給私營部門,鼓勵與工業界聯合投資和合作開發兩用技術項目。如果說機械化時代軍民技術結合占到全部軍事裝備技術的30-40%,那麼,信息化時代軍民技術融合將會占到80-90%。在美國國防部推選的國防關鍵技術與商務部列出的提高經濟競爭力的關鍵技術中就有約80%是重疊的。英國國防部與貿工部聯合投資開發包括航空領域在內的多項軍民兩用技術,英國還專門成立國防技術轉化局,管理民用科研機構從事國防項目的合同和經費,採用競爭機制,鼓勵具有較強技術力量的民用機構開發軍用技術。法國通過實施航天計劃、航空計劃、核能計劃和電子、信息與通信計劃等多項計劃來開發軍民兩用技術。日本國防採購主要著眼於利用國防合同作為一種手段,促進先進技術特別是具有民用或兩用用途的先進技術的發展。

發展軍民兩用技術在加速軍隊信息化建設的同時,服務於國民經濟,產生巨大的經濟效益,美國國會一份研究報告稱,航天技術的二次應用,每投入1美元,能產出7美元的效益[2]。 2006年初美國NASA戈達德航天飛行中心將所開發的一種簡單、安全且費用較低的單壁碳納米管製造方法的專利許可權授予ISM公司,形成了單壁碳納米管生產能力,這些納米管可廣泛應用於醫療、燃料電池、視頻顯示器、太陽能電池等各個領域,推動了美國經濟的發展[3]。


民用高新技術企業創新體系機制靈活,反應快,成果多。扶持民用企業為軍方開發產品,已成為美軍方的指導方針。 2003年出台的《國防工業轉型路線圖》強調,必須改變主承包商控制國防市場的局面,通過招標和政府採購形式鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的民用企業進入國防領域,從而形成大小兼備、眾多供應商的新型國防市場格局。例如,美國的通信設備生產商摩托羅拉公司就有獨立的軍事通信設備生產製造部門,美國波音公司既生產民航用機也生產軍用機,洛克希德-馬丁公司的主營業務就是系統集成、航空、航天和技術服務,都是軍民兩用的技術。為了扶持中小企業,美國還專門製定了小企業創新計劃。目前美國的科學家、工程師中有近半從事與軍事有關的研究,約有1/3的企業與軍工生產有關,而訂貨量約佔國防部總訂貨量的90%。英國改革軍用科研設施管理辦法,鼓勵民用部門利用軍用科研設施進行技術開發。法國成立了由國防部武器裝備總署、軍種參謀部、工業界組成的一體化項目小組,參與武器裝備採辦計劃的製定和項目的管理。法國國防部武器裝備總署及時向中小企業通報軍品發展計劃,專門留出採辦計劃的10%給中小企業,鼓勵他們參加武器裝備採辦的競爭。德國的武器裝備年度計劃是由總裝備部各業務局、各軍種局、國防技術採辦總署和工業界一起合作制訂的。德國製訂了《聯邦德國訂貨任務分配原則》,明確規定武器裝備的總承包商在承包國防任務後,必須用競爭手段向分包方分配軍工訂貨任務,以法規形式保護中小型企業參與國防科研任務的競爭。日本政府注意扶植有軍工生產能力的民間企業,日本有資格接受軍品訂貨的企業已達兩千餘家,基本形成了一個技術先進、門類齊全、潛力巨大的軍事科研生產體系。俄羅斯從兩方面建立軍民一體化國防科技工業體制,在實行國防工業集團化、組建大型軍工集團公司的同時,將部分軍工企業股份化、私有化,讓軍工企業在保留核心軍工生產能力的同時生產民品。



為了推動軍民一體化的發展,許多國家都紛紛對軍用標准進行了改革,在裝備採辦過程中大力倡導利用民用標準和商業規範。美軍不斷推行軍事標準改革,在對過去所有軍用標準和規范進行全面清理審查的基礎上,廢止了4000餘項軍用規範(含單篇規範)和300餘項軍用標準,採納了1784項民用標準(非政府標準),在裝備採辦過程中,限制使用軍事規範和標準,只有在確實沒有民用標準可用,或現有民用標準不能滿足軍事要求時才考慮使用軍用標準,而且使用軍用標準必須經過批准。英國在裝備採辦管理中,不以軍用標準和軍用規範而以性能規範為主提出採購要求,給予承包商足夠的自由度和靈活性。日本1999-2002年間,共修改或廢止軍事技術標準及技術規範10231項,佔所有軍事技術標準的74%。 2003年,防衛廳在其製定的新武器裝備採辦政策中又提出,用民用技術標準取代約18000項防衛廳專用的軍品標準和規範。












軍隊通過使用民用信息技術產品加深了對這些技術了解,熟識這些產品的使用,戰時一旦有需要可以迅速徵集大量民用產品,而且在部隊中這些產品能迅速發揮效用。美軍中95%的軍事通信是在民用網上進行的,與商業網相聯的計算機達15萬台之多,伊拉克戰爭中美軍還徵用和租用了部分商業衛星和民用信息網絡,以彌補信息傳輸能力的不足。信息技術的複雜性使其裝備的維修變為故障模塊的更換,民用技術產品的採用有利於減少部隊裝備備件的庫存。另外,民用信息技術產品的使用也為民用信息技術企業參與部隊裝備維修提供了可能,從而也降低了部隊裝備的維修費用。 2003年,美國在伊拉克戰爭中,先後同全球4萬個生產商簽訂了50萬份物資保障合同,“承包商上戰場”實現軍隊後勤保障的社會化。




信息化是雙刃劍,軍隊的信息化建設在提高作戰能力的同時也需要特別關注對信息網絡的安全防護。網絡戰的一個基本特點是不對稱性,攻擊成本低且易攻難守,網絡戰手段的特殊性將導致未來戰爭的“平民化”趨勢,“黑客”有可能成為戰爭的主角。為了防止出現“網絡’9·11’事件”,布什總統早在2002年就發布了第16號“國家安全總統令”,組建美軍歷史上也是世界上第一支網絡黑客部隊——網絡戰聯合功能構成司令部,陸軍和海軍也各有電腦應急反應分隊,空軍則建立了專門負責實施網絡進攻的航空隊。這些部隊由世界頂級電腦專家和“黑客”組成,目前已經正式編入了作戰序列。在美國拉斯維加斯最大的計算機展覽上,美國前助理國防部長莫尼曾在演講中對“黑客”們說:“如果你們考慮過餘生要幹些什麼,請務必不要忘記國防部。”此外,美軍還僱用一些黑客專門從事計算機漏洞測試工作。 2004年9月,美國成立了由28家專業化大公司組成的國際工業財團——網絡中心戰工業聯盟,加強信息技術領域方面的軍民協調。









黨的十七大報告指出,“國防和軍隊建設,必須站在國家安全和發展戰略全局的高度,統籌經濟建設和國防建設”。 “堅持科技強軍,按照建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭的戰略目標,加快機械化和信息化複合發展,積極開展信息化條件下軍事訓練,全面建設現代後勤,加緊培養大批高素質新型軍事人才,切實轉變戰鬥力生成模式”。 “調整改革國防科技工業體制和武器裝備採購體制,提高武器裝備研製的自主創新能力和質量效益。建立和完善軍民結合、寓軍於民的武器裝備科研生產體系、軍隊人才培養體系和軍隊保障體系,堅持勤儉建軍,走出一條中國特色軍民融合式發展路子”。上述重要論述是實現軍民結合科學發展的戰略方針。我們要抓住信息化的機遇,做好寓軍於民這篇大文章,在全面建設小康社會進程中實現富國和強軍的統一。

Original Source(s)



People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department” 鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department”  鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

Within the People’s Republic of China is the little known “Central Investigation Unit”, this cadre generates strategic intelligence for economic, military and Communist Party leadership strategic decision-making.

The following article comes from the Communist Party of China News website and the Chinese Military portion of


Original Modern English (loose translation):

Recently we saw a material, referred to the Party after the founding of new China an institution called the “Central Investigation Department,” but not too clear on the presentation. Asked colleagues around, it was said “in tune unit” is the former “central social unit”, it was considered by the restructuring from. So, it really is what kind of organization? What are its main functions? When it is established? Could the experts answer?

Daxing District, Zhang Xinyu Readers

Speaking of the central social unit, people still know the big end, and for the Central Investigation Department, is known to only a handful, and some even thought that the central social unit which consists of the establishment of Sino-Japanese War came directly reorganization. History, however, is not true.

First, the “Central Investigation Department” is not the “central social unit

Central Social Department in 1939 to set up the “Central special working committee”, management and leadership intelligence and security work, stating that “the CPC Central Intelligence Department,” outside “the CPC Central Committee Working Committee enemy territory”, but in the preparation of new China namely revocation of the occasion. However, the Central Social Work Department revoked, defending section included in the Ministry of Public Security (normalized before the government established the Central Military Commission formed), is set to change the intelligence part of the Liaison Department of the Central Military Commission, former Secretary-General of the Central Social Department 邹大鹏 minister, and former Central Minister of Social Affairs, when he was minister in charge of the Central Military Commission General Intelligence Department of LI.

October 1949, the third meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee adopted 邹大鹏 Director of Intelligence, to August 1952, due to intelligence agencies Administration revoked the Seventeenth Meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee approved the Department dismissed 邹大鹏length and level of the Deputy Director of 王少春. These show that the intelligence agencies after the founding of New China in the Ministry of Personnel and the Central Social closely linked, and in the affiliation by the CPC Central Committee and State Council on site were transferred to the Central Military Commission. However, the State Council’s Information Department only existed for three years, after intelligence work has focused on the Central Military Commission.

Central Investigation Department at the Central Social Department is not being withdrawn directly established on its basis, but in the Central Military Liaison Department of the Army transferred from within the party sometimes formed together. According to the 2001 book “Yang Shangkun diary” recorded February 23, 1955, when he was Deputy Minister Liaison Department of Lo long, green and Secretary-General Ma times wait until Mao Cheng Yang Shangkun place on “liaison department of ‘fate’ problem ‘ . February 28, Yang Shangkun about when he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA LI “On the section on the political situation where the problem.” LI advice is: “entirely on the good organization within the party, you can set up one.” About the name and personnel issues of this section, Yang Shangkun contained in the diary: “name for ‘investigation unit’, Comrade Enlai Interested by the gram farming and Minister for unified management. “Subsequently, Yang Shangkun reported the matter to the Zhou Enlai. March 4, Yang Shangkun to Zhou Enlai at the “political situation the organization’s decision to participate in the” discussion, “decided to separate the military from the Central Military Commission, the party set up a ‘research department’, by the gram farming and Minister Zhou reported by the Secretariat decision. “That night, Secretariat meeting held in the office of Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai decided to agree on the establishment of the Ministry of the opinion survey, reported Chairman Mao Zedong decided. April 8, Yang Shangkun recorded in his diary: “The central and the President has approved the establishment of the Central Investigation Department of the LI was appointed by the minister, please contact the Department of the Central Military Commission of existing transfer system into the CPC Central Committee..” And contains: “to be in After the formal transfer of 1 July. ”

Second, the “Central Investigation Department” is to adapt to the actual needs of the construction and the establishment of new China, is an exploration and development on the organizational structure of the military.

Central Investigation Department to “investigation” is named, is the nature of intelligence work by the party under the leadership of the decision, but also with the CPC Central Committee issued the “Decision on investigation and study” on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding, in order to strengthen research, realize intelligence work from the collection of alert and defend the military strategic intelligence gathering intelligence to turn the inseparable. At that time, the central authorities set up the Central Investigation Bureau of Investigation, under a Ministry of Information, etc., whose function is to collect political, military, economic, cultural and social class relations and other aspects of domestic and foreign materials, to research, that the central work Direct assistant. Central Investigation Department inherited this work is the “investigation” of history and tradition and the basic spirit and adapt to the actual needs of the construction of the new China and in the organizational structure of an exploration and development.

On the working mechanism of the Central Investigation Department, Yang Shangkun in his diary records, daily work by his contact with the LI, big things consult Deng Xiaoping resolved. LI is the first Secretary of the Central Investigation Department was established. Incumbent Minister of tone in the hole after LI. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the ministry also failed from the impact. June 13, 1969, the Central People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department of the decision by the Second Investigation Department took over, gradually returning to normal until after 1971. To 1983, in view of the Central Investigation Department of historical issues in the “Cultural Revolution”, as well as adapt to the new situation of reform and opening up of intelligence work, the central government decided to revoke the unit formed, and its main body, with the Ministry of Public Security’s counterintelligence department and other parts of the relevant units merged to form the Ministry of National Security.

Third, the “Central Investigation Department” on the front to provide decision-making information secret for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee and his assistant staff

Central Investigation Department of the existence of nearly 30 years, as the organizers and perpetrators of the specific period since the new Chinese intelligence work, through painstaking research, on major issues related to the party and national security interests, and often at a critical moment provide decision-making information for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee staff and assistants.

First, the anti-peaceful evolution, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. After the founding of New China, the anti-peaceful evolution related to the new Chinese regime and consolidate the party’s ruling position, on this issue, Mao Zedong attached great importance to study the political situation in the United States, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. In autumn 1958, the US Congress elections, the ruling Republican Party defeated Democrats. On the US domestic political situation after the elections, the Central Investigation Department to write a report, noting that in the case of a severe economic crisis, the United States within the ruling class and national conflicts intensified, people from all walks widespread fear of war, internal political atmosphere bright side development. November 27, Mao Zedong when reviewing this report, will be subject to “political climate in the United States for the better development”, and instructed to say: The Central Investigation Department of the analysis is very interesting, at the same time he was appointed charge d’affaires in the British Embassy official township British diplomatic situation and analyze the situation in Western Europe is similar is a good article. He added: “In short, the Western world for the better day by day in terms of change, direct and indirect allies allies in the development of the proletariat.” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Mao’s comments on the issuance and the Central Investigation Department The analysis report.

Second, in the development and expansion of patriotic united front staff played a role. The mid-1960s, the Central Investigation Department involved in the fight on behalf of the former Kuomintang government of President Li Tsung-jen Nanjing returning to work, and staff play an important role. July 9, 1965, the Central Investigation Department in writing to return to the central reporting jen comments on issues raised could be considered two options: First, do not need to enter the country on a statement to be issued a statement after returning to discuss; two I agree to enter the country on a written statement at the airport and met with reporters, but the statement is issued in advance with domestic suppliers properly. July 12, Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “like a second program for the better, the manuscript beforehand good providers, there is no harm.” July 20, Mrs. Li Tsung-jen kai Guode Jie arrived in Beijing, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen at the airport welcome, which bore the original, Zou Dapeng, like Feng hyun, head of tune also meet personnel of the column.

In short, the Central Investigation Department in secret front for the new construction and development of China made a historic contribution to the party and the country’s intelligence has accumulated rich historical experience.

Original Mandarin Chinese:



大兴区读者 张新宇
















Source: 战略决策情报支撑

Major PLA Structural Announcements on a weekend?

Is anyone else out there wondering why China would make significant military announcements when the USGOV isn’t paying attention?


China upgrades missile force, adds space and cyber war forces

China on Friday unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars.

Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing.

This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.

Rocket force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert.

The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said.

The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy.

Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security.

“We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.

Cyber and space forces

Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces.

But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security.

Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

Army command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department.

The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song.

At Thursday’s conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics.

It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting.

According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development.

The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

Xinhua contributed to this story

The General Command of Army Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.

The PLA Rocket Force Badge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.

The PLA Strategic Support ForceBadge. Photo source: weibo account of “yangshixinwen”.

China’s Military Industry – 12 stocks worth reviewing

China’s Military Industry – 12 stocks worth reviewing

Category: Research institutions: Thailand Securities Co. Researcher: Benedict Hui, Guo Hao Date: 2015-10-08

China Nuclear Power Vision: The reason why the future of nuclear power is good, because it is not subject to the constraints of traditional domestic economic cycle, while executive power is coming to strongly promote things. To achieve the 2030 non-fossil energy sources accounted for 20% of target, nuclear power installed capacity will require 150 million to 200 million kilowatts, the next 15 years to build each year 10-15 million-kilowatt nuclear power generating units. This building is a great strength, because the Qinshan nuclear power plant since 1991 and has total domestic power generation nuclear power generating units put into operation, but 26 units. Conservative estimates now and the end of 2020 intends to start building nuclear power plants to 30 units, averaging approximately six, in addition if inland nuclear icebreaker (possibility of a large), the more the number of starts;

Technological catch-up, the efficiency of repression, the share of overseas expansion: Whether it is 1995 textile exports, the export of electromechanical products in 2005, or the export of nuclear power in 2015, are in fact Chinese technical standards in the cost efficiencies brought about essentially Global market share expansion. Although there is not much difference in the economic essence, but technically is leaps and bounds. China Manufacturing 2005 is the end of the world to catch up with the trend of the manufacturing sector, 2025 is made in China to catch up with high-end manufacturing. World Nuclear Association estimates that 2015–2030 years overseas in around 160 new nuclear power plants, investment $ 1.5 trillion, a huge market space. One of Hualong situation from signing, the Chinese technology to countries in Asia obviously attractive future with the promotion and CAP1400 Hualong One independent technology matures, China’s nuclear power in the global market share is expected to be further improved;

Nuclear main pump housing – casting industry the highest technical: should flow in 2014 namely, the production of China’s first nuclear CAP1400 blasting a stainless steel valve body, and then again to complete the CAP1400 nuclear localization of the main pump housing. Pump housing is one of the core components of the main pump and the nuclear island, manufacturing is extremely difficult, represents the highest technology in the world casting production. Prior to the domestic nuclear power plant main pump casing has been monopolized by overseas foundry, should flow to achieve import substitution has entered the post-production stage, becoming the third generation nuclear power main pump unit housing the only domestic suppliers;

Spent fuel and neutron absorbing material huge market: China’s nuclear power development has led to a top-heavy nuclear spent fuel reprocessing nuclear power plant construction than the broader market, we estimated 2015 domestic capacity of spent fuel unloaded 625 tons by 2020 could increase to 1450 tons. Much larger global market, in 2015 the world spent fuel discharged amount estimating at 9,442 tons, 15 times the Chinese market. Neutron absorbing material mainly used in the field of spent fuel storage, fuel storage pool grids and storage containers are required to set a neutron absorbing material, it is expected from 2016 onwards neutron absorbing material domestic demand will be explosive growth. Physics Institute should flow together engineering industrial projects expected to be completed in the next year, when the spent fuel storage container with the localization of products will be quickly occupied the domestic market. With the cost advantage of domestic equipment at the same time, the product is expected to enter the domestic market, 15 times the global market blue ocean;

Traditional product cycle end, new business space large: Yingliu traditional business earnings affected by fluctuations in oil prices, the number of US shale gas drilling rig at the bottom of the sharp drop in oil prices imply coming period, already greater than the risk of future opportunities. The new nuclear main pump housing business, neutron absorbing material, aviation engine / gas turbine blades and other projects to benefit from the expansion of the market at the same time, import substitution will occupy the domestic market share, and have the potential to open overseas markets, the growth of broad space. Companies on the performance of new products, good elasticity, fundamentals about to enter the fast climbing period;

Predict trends and investment advice: the future in favor of the company’s stock price positive factors include 1) the nuclear power industry in the fourth quarter a number of catalysts, including nuclear thirteen Five-Year Plan, dense nuclear power projects approved and started ice-breaking progress inland nuclear power, nuclear power and other exports continue to break ; 2) after the market attention on the subject of spent fuel is low, and the enormous market potential of spent fuel will eventually lead to financial concerns, then the valuation premium is expected to expand; 3) If the future of A shares switched from the outflow of funds to the stock of game, then about to break out of the nuclear power industry funds will become the focus of concern, nuclear power is expected to become the subject of high-quality construction market in the stock of game highlights. We believe that in the short term is still a good time to layout positions, taking into account the short-term A-share funds overall environmental stability to be confirmed, temporarily still maintain the company “overweight” rating, to be confirmed after the release of large environmental risks for further increase.

Integrated into electronic : strong growth in the main business transformation and distribution, energy internet layout Weiweitaiguan

Category: Research institutions: Ping An Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Yu Bing Date: 2015-09-21

Performance solid growth, expense control flat: During the reporting period, the company achieved revenues of 407 million yuan, an increase of 33.14%; attributable to shareholders of listed companies net profit 020 million yuan, an increase of 15.31%; fee rate of 32.8 percent during the company, unchanged compared with last year, of which financial expense ratio increased 0.98 percentage points, mainly due to higher interest expenses of bank loans.

Transformation and distribution have been strong primary industry, utilities continue to develop: During the reporting period, the State Grid Corporation of bidding and batch number has declined, tender situation continued centralization, the company seize the national network set to recruit foreign market opportunities and industry the new contract amount of 518 million yuan. 1H15 company substations / distribution of electricity business to achieve revenue 1.38 / 163 million yuan, respectively, an increase of 47.0% / 69.5%, gross profit margin of 40.42% / 36.91%, an increase of 5.89 / -1.98 percentage points. Under the overall investment in the grid field in the first half stage presentation sluggish situation, the company is still the main industry transformation and distribution to achieve rapid growth, market share continued to increase. Public utilities, the company successfully develop Wuhan, Chongqing and other urban water market, market holdings intelligent remote meter break 3 million, the market share ranking first; smart gas solution has been to provide one-stop service for gas customers.

Energy Internet more arrows shot, Zhanyi military field: the report period, the Company together with China Mobile, Lenovo Group to build together the wisdom of energy on public service cloud platform line, becoming the first regional (Shandong Province) Smart Energy Public Service Cloud platform, the platform now has access to cover gas, water, energy and other industrial sectors over 26,000 points of data; collaboration with Intel, Shandong Union City, expanding energy Internet, smart city integrated service operational areas; invest 4,116 million acquisition of Fujian Austria 70% of the shares through a step wins, wins Austrian Mai commitment of 15 to 17 years is not less than the net profit after deduction of non-respectively 0.1 / 0.13 / 017 million yuan, to further improve the urban distribution network operations; have set up the plot into energy, integrated into software company, involved in the establishment of one billion yuan of new energy industry guide funds, short-term and Guangxi Guidong Electric Power DSM micro-grid applications in cooperation, but also because of the change in the situation should be changed under the new situation electricity. Military field, the company set up military cooperation with Beijing long buyout funds; invest 30 million yuan to acquire a 30% stake in Rio Ningbo resources, in order to enter the ultrafine metal powder-based material 3D printing market.

Profit forecasts and ratings: the company expects EPS of 15 to 16 years 0.52,0.78 yuan, corresponding to August 28 closing price of PE were 33.9,22.6 times, we are optimistic about the company’s first-mover advantage and military fields in the energy field of the Internet to expand outreach , to maintain “recommended” rating.

Risk Warning: electricity reform program is lower than expected risk; military business development slow.

Weihai Guangtai : fourth-quarter results would speed; military / civilian UAV leading professional benefit civil-military integration, general aviation

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-10-19

1. Event.

The company issued three quarterly, the first three quarters of 2015 to achieve revenue 908 million yuan, an increase of 29.52%, net profit of 98.8057 million yuan, an increase of 33.92%, EPS of 0.30 yuan.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) Increasing profitability, performance will be further accelerated.

Soon the company mid-year report the first three quarters, an increase of 20% -50%, and the actual results in line with our expectations. Enhance the company’s gross margin and net margin were up 1.1pct, 0.9pct, profitability continued to rise.

Since Yingkou new Eagle and sheet effects, the company’s third quarter alone, revenue and performance year respectively 73% and 60% longer. Soon the company full-year results up 40% -80%, reaching 156 million -2 billion, calculated accordingly, the fourth quarter alone, results need to reach 56.76 million yuan -1.01 billion yuan, an increase of 52% -171%, performance will be further accelerated.

(B) The proposed acquisition of the whole of China era, is expected to create “UAV first unit.”

The company previously announced intends to raise not more than 540 million yuan for the acquisition, the increase of the whole era and put UAVs China (1.5 billion) and to supplement working capital, capital increase is completed the company will have a 69.34% stake in the whole of China era.

China Times is the first full-UAV R & D, production and sales and service integration of private enterprises, the main products include fixed wing, helicopter, multi-rotor and other military and civilian UAV and UAV applications, in # 1 of UAV technology invention patent applicant in the main office, after two universities nationwide.

Full Hua era in the field of application services mainly include police, fire, police, marine maritime, electricity, Tianjin TV and other sectors, has been invited as the only private enterprise involved in the PLA at the “Four Seas armed forces’ military exercises, and in August 2015 to participate in “8.12” Shaanxi Sanyo landslides survey relief efforts.

The acquisition agreement, if the whole of China era in actual net profit is higher than the commitment period, total net profit of 92.21 million yuan commitment, then over 50% of the net profit will be used to reward the whole China era, management and staff . Expected 2016 net profit is expected to reach full Hua era 1500-2000 yuan, 2015–2018 consecutive year performance is expected to double the growth.

The company November 28, 2014 with a unit signed a “series UAS development and cooperation agreement,” now have a strong business strength in military UAV. We believe that this acquisition will bring the whole China Times significant industrial chain, market and customer synergies, particularly in the era of all-China military UAV military part of the company’s existing business will bring promoted. After this offering, the company will enter the UAV industry, military business will rapidly development, the company is expected to become a military / civilian professional UAVs leading enterprises, leading to standard consumer UAVs “Dajiang Innovation” (according to media reported Dajiang Innovation’s market capitalization exceeded $ 8 billion).

(C) Military UAV / military integration scarce subject, the rapid development.

Companies series of unmanned aerial vehicles, UAVs primarily for high-speed military supplier, the company is the subject of civil-military integration. UAV aircraft is the future trend, according to planning future fighter United States, Israel, the future will be more than manned aircraft drones. We estimate that over the next 15 years China military UAV market demand for nearly 200 billion yuan, the needs of the civilian professional UAVs over 100 billion yuan, civilian consumer UAVs (domestic demand) over 30 billion yuan.

Domestic listed companies involved in military UAV development business has Hongdu Aviation , Zongshen , Loncin General , Shandong Mining Machinery , Industries and other listed companies have begun to involve unmanned aircraft business, but clearly involves military UAV rarely. In addition, there is only the beginning of many listed companies involved in UAV, some companies just developed only 1-2 prototypes started testing. The company is very scarce military UAV subject, age and the proposed acquisition of the whole of China is the industrialization of the UAV giant, is the quality subject has a production capacity of UAVs.

The company has hired former Xi’an Aircraft International, the aircraft fly through, the aircraft heavy machine Mengxiang Kai, chairman of the independent directors, and Mengxiang Kai has a wealth of experience in the aerospace, military business. We judge the company UAVs, especially the rapid development of the future military UAV business.

(Iv) The inclusion in the defense industry sector MIC Association, is expected to continue over the military expected.

July 7, 2015, the China Association of listed companies to publish a list of the military committee of the Association of National Defence on the military sector, Weihai Guangtai selected. 2014 military company sales income reached 164 million yuan, representing a substantial increase of 88%. Meng Yan, general manager of the State Council special allowance granted in recent years undertaken 12 national projects, military projects 10, presided over the development of a number of products to fill the domestic and international blank. Military aspects of the company actively participate in the development of forward-looking volume, high-value new project, there are several projects have been recognized; some of the key research projects achieved initial results, at the same time to focus on opening up new markets and achieved good development . We determine the company’s future military development will exceed market expectations, bringing double the performance of the valuation increase.

3. Investment advice.

The company has military and civilian UAV + Fusion + GA + smart home, such as multiple themes, military business development will exceed market expectations, benefiting shipping industry development. We determine the company’s future in the military (not just military UAV), fire-fighting equipment in the field continue to overweight, through independent research and development, mergers and acquisitions and other measures to strengthen the company’s position and influence in the fire-fighting equipment, military field; Yingkou new Eagle results will exceed expectations.

Does not consider the non-public issuance matters, is expected to 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.63 / 0.82 / 1.06 yuan, PE is 49/38/29 times; consider this non-public offering of matter (according to 30 yuan issuance price estimates), is expected to 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.61 / 0.84 / 1.10 yuan, PE is 50/37/28 times, has raised the potential for future performance, the recommended duration.

Risk Warning: shipping policy than expected, military business development than expected, lower than expected industry consolidation.

Hite high : a certain type of engine project won the “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” award, the depth of integration of military and civilian benefit

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-10-14

Investment Highlights

1. Event

Company announcement “a certain type of engine engineering” won Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People’s Republic of China, “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” rating for the first prize winner.

2. Our analysis and judgment

(A) Eligible for the “National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award” award

National Defense Science and Technology Progress Award is to reward outstanding contributions in the promotion of scientific and technological progress in the defense units and individuals, to encourage independent innovation, promote the development of national defense modernization and the national economy.

The company’s award-winning project “a certain type of engine project,” the company is in the depth of integration of military and civilian weapons and their supporting product research, production, testing and related work in the scientific and technological achievements. The winning project is the company’s constant pursuit of technological innovation achievements, the company has reflected a high level of technological innovation capability.

(B) Aviation Development: Aircraft engine and control system, the business continued to force helicopter winch

The company has been a traditional aviation maintenance business aviation technical services to an integrated enterprise strategic shift since 2012 air power control system, and the development of the core business to take off, the performance of high growth into the fast lane. The company aeronautical military (mainly for helicopter-related) results accounted for about 60%. The company’s largest customer sales in 2014 amounted to 187 million yuan, mainly for us to judge the development of core military business, revenue accounting for close to 40%.

Aviation new technology development, and manufacturing business segment has formed mass production, a variety of new models in the research, as well as a plurality of pre-research project to comprehensively promote good situation. Certain air power control system is mass production; development work in other multi-model air power control system project is an orderly way; and can meet the needs of multi-use helicopter electric rescue hoist and oxygen systems development project is about to enter flight test phase.

Aviation power core control system as the core of military, technical content and high barriers. According to the company 2014 annual report, the current aviation new technology development, and manufacturing business has become an important business segment for the formation of both mass production, there are a variety of new models in the study, and there are more than a good pre-research project research and production situation.

Currently, the company has successfully developed the technical foundation for a model project on the engine power transfer, carried out on “a new air power control system development and manufacturing projects,” three new models (401,402,403) air power control system derived from research and development.

According to the company announcement, the power control system are the main components of aircraft engines, an essential part of belonging to the whole industry chain, accounting for about 10% -20% of the overall value of the engine. Benefit from the growth of the domestic aviation engine market, power control system market will exhibit steady growth. In addition, the development of civil aviation engine market, military and civilian areas of the market and gradually expand overseas markets for air power control industry will also have some role in promoting.

(Iii) Chip project involves national defense information security, strategic significance

Ltd. The company invested 555 million yuan to acquire a stake in Chengdu-chia stone technology and capital increase, after the transaction is completed, holders of its 52.91% stake. Ka Technology has independently developed an international leading level of the third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit technology from abroad and the second generation of semiconductor integrated circuit technology, which will be put into operation to become the first 6-inch second-generation / third generation The semiconductor integrated circuit production lines, can effectively grasp the market demand, to fill gaps in the market, the market prospect is broad. As a former state-controlled national strategy of information industry companies, this holding company Ka stone technology into high-end chip design industry, is holding a model of mixed ownership private cases.

Hite has been with CLP Section 29 signed a “strategic cooperation letter of intent,” the company and CLP Section 29 will Airborne and testing equipment joint project, development, joint production, among others. The two sides will carry out in-depth cooperation with the other priority.

CLP Section 29 is the earliest establishment, specializing in electronic warfare technology research, a class of the National Institute of Systems Engineering equipment model development and production, over the years been responsible for the national key projects, major basic national, national security and other major engineering tasks, to design and development and production land, sea, air, space, playing a variety of platforms and other electronic information systems equipment. CLP Section 29 and Section 14 (Glarun Technology largest shareholder), CLP Section 38 (Create Electronics major shareholder) par. Hite Holdings Ka by entering the high-end scientific and technological research in the field of semiconductor integrated circuit chip, we determine the Ka stone technology products will be mainly used in the early 29 high-end electronic equipment, the “Made in China 2025” in the field of next-generation IT focus on the development of integrated circuits and special equipment, national defense information related to security, with a high strategic position and importance; market prospects for the future.

Jia Shi registered capital of 1.049 billion yuan of Science and Technology, located in Chengdu Shuangliu County, West Southern Airport Economic Zone within the networking industry park; Hite and four Electronic (29 wholly-owned subsidiaries, the parent company of 29 civilian industry, the Ministry of satellite navigation application standards working group members) shares accounted for 52.91%, 36.61% respectively. Hite high in the holding position, the project is the central enterprises and private enterprises (military enterprises) mixed ownership model in private holdings.

According to “Chengdu Jia Shi Technology Co., Ltd. 6-inch second-generation / third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit chip production line project environmental impact report” The total investment of 2.092 billion yuan. Sichuan Provincial Economic and Information Technology Commission of Sichuan Province has put this project as a strategic emerging industries to support the project.

High power electronic applications Ka-Technology 6-inch second-generation / third generation of semiconductor integrated circuit chips used in microwave and millimeter wave frequencies sophisticated electronic equipment, military applications and motor drive, a wireless communication base stations, high frequency satellite communications, smart phones and wireless communications. Ka Technology For details, see Annex.

(Iv) Common shares of established ocean, explore navigable mixed ownership

Through subsidiaries Hai Teya beauty and Kunmingfeian to its own funds invested 124 million yuan shares of Ocean General Aviation Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as “Universal Ocean”), acquired 31% stake in GM Ocean. Ocean General business scope covers all types of general aviation services according to flight merchant training, aircraft rental hosting, operations and other shareholders except the United States and Kunmingfeian 海特亚, but also including Chang Fei AVIC Jiangxi Kevin technology, Jiangxi Intertek Navigation, Central Asia Property Group and Jiangxi military Sibo general aviation services. Under the agreement, General Board of the ocean by the seven directors, 海特亚 beauty and Kunmingfeian will each nominate a director; in addition, ocean common financial officer will recommend 海特亚 United States.

Further progress in the establishment of the ocean common shares of the company in the general aviation sector of a powerful exploration of mixed ownership, the company is also the depth of integration of military and civilian. Each ocean common shareholders have good industry resources and financial strength, will effectively play their respective advantages in resources, and promote the sound development of ocean common. Meanwhile, the company further deepen the shipping industry layout, the company will optimize aviation industry chain, improve profitability, and expand the company’s shipping industry development.

(V) Aviation Maintenance: large aircraft machine overhaul, Jet / helicopter / engine maintenance Breakthrough

The company’s traditional aviation maintenance business is mainly airborne equipment, two turboshaft engine maintenance business, a leading domestic position. In 2014, the company aviation maintenance business development in both depth and breadth directions were achieved significant results, business scope covers transport aircraft, general aviation aircraft, and helicopters machine maintenance, engine maintenance and Attachment maintenance and technical services.

Tianjin Hite As the first private trunk aircraft overhaul the whole platform (previously domestic-led joint venture with foreign capital), has completed the first phase of the project. The company Tianjin base two hangars have been put into operation, can repair 2-3 frame A320 / B737 series aircraft and three executive jets. January 2015, Tianjin Hite successfully completed Juneyao Airlines B-9978 & B-9957 two A320 family aircraft scheduled inspection and maintenance work for the first time. The company has made CAAC issued by Airbus A320 aircraft 4C inspection maintenance license, is actively apply for A320 aircraft to CAAC 8C inspection maintenance license.

Tianjin base future Phase II, Phase III project after completion, is expected to form 5 hangar, can be nine A320 / B737 aircraft, four executive jets, two wide-body aircraft (B747 / B777, etc.) while the depth of the regular inspection business, will become the domestic large-scale, improve the supporting facilities of third party aircraft maintenance base.

In addition, the company shares of the company, Sichuan Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Company Limited 2015 will achieve the scale of production and profit. Company and Sichuan Airlines Group, Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co., Taikoo (Xiamen) Aircraft Engineering Co., Ltd. joint venture in Sichuan Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Co., Ltd., is specialized in domestic and modification of Airbus aircraft overhaul base. The company is its second largest shareholder, with the completion of the second phase of investment in 2015 will achieve the scale of production and profit.

We determine the future of the company will obtain a large machine repair business development (some models of large aircraft overhaul the whole of about 80 million yuan, aviation maintenance business is usually more than 50% gross margin).

On the aviation maintenance breadth, companies involved in many types of aircraft business aircraft, helicopters, aircraft engines, APU, and many more equipment maintenance.

(1) business jet maintenance: Tianjin should 捷海特 General Aviation Services Limited is a company with the world’s third largest business jet service providers Rui Shiyi, Czech Republic, a joint venture specializing in general aviation services company, after the formal operation in 2014, it has completed 64 sorties regional aircraft, business jets scheduled inspection maintenance and line maintenance tasks.

(2) Helicopter maintenance: base is located in Tianjin, Tianjin Xiangyu Aviation Maintenance Engineering Co., Ltd. is a company approved by the China Civil Aviation specializes in the overhaul of Mi-17 series helicopters. Tianjin Xiangyu will resume operations in 2015, will work with new partners era wing day the company increased the intensity of cooperation, give full play to its advantages in resources in the field of Russian Helicopters, will resume expanding rice series helicopters and helicopter maintenance card production capacity and actively expand nine straight, straight eight, EC-135 helicopter maintenance capability and so on.

(3) aircraft engines, auxiliary power units (APU) repair: steady growth, in 2014 nearly complete overhaul and testing work station engines and auxiliary power unit, and continue to promote the aviation engine maintenance capacity-building efforts, the company has carried out three The new model aero engine maintenance capacity development work. As national ministries approved aero engine maintenance base, the company has built, including the United States GE, SAFRAN, Pratt & Whitney Canada, the United States HONEYWELL, PBS and other Czech factory production seven series of more than 20 types of engines and auxiliary power units (APU) repair capacity, is authorized Czech PBS overhaul base; Pratt & Whitney Canada has been calibrated integrated engine test stand, according to the United States has HONEYWELL, US Hansheng standard construction of an auxiliary engine test stand, for direct -8, straight -9 straight -19, -171 meters, transport -12 to provide engine repair and modernization, for B737, -171 meters to provide auxiliary engine maintenance.

(F) To enter the aircraft dismantling, huge market potential in the aircraft market

The first half of 2015, Tianjin Hite foreign aircraft undertook the first aircraft dismantling work in Tianjin. The proposed dismantling of the aircraft for the Beijing Ji’an aviation asset management company to buy from abroad, 27-year-old machine B767 aircraft, aircraft parts will be renovated after the removal and re-use, completion time of three months. July 6, the aircraft parking bays at the handover ceremony.

Tianjin Hite Aircraft Engineering Company is mainly engaged in large aircraft, business jets depth overhaul of the whole business, the company is a large aircraft carrier machine repair business; the whole overhaul of large aircraft has been eligible for qualification in November 2014 opened. After the dismantling of the task to carry out marking the company’s formal entry into the aircraft market, is another milestone in Tianjin Hite made following the overhaul of civil aircraft machine, and to prepare for helicopter maintenance business jet overhaul after qualification. We believe the future of Tianjin Hite repair business will further diversify the company to large aircraft maintenance strategy to upgrade the machine will steadily fall.

The rapid development of the air transport industry today, the disposal of retired aircraft have become increasingly prominent. It is understood that, because there is no professional dismantling base, China’s retired aircraft dismantling basically have to dispose of the United States. According to some media reports, in the course of our aircraft fly more than 200 aircraft, each year the number of imported 300 increments; 80-100 aircraft each year about retired aircraft, the number of aircraft will be retired after increasing every year. If you take into account overseas aircraft dismantling market, the market bigger.

According to media reports, in the international aviation market, the recycling of used parts is a common pattern, in general, the total price of $ 50 million an aircraft, to use the term, the recovery rate is one tenth, i.e. about $ 5 million after dismantling into parts market, may sell $ 10 million. More importantly, driving around value, such as logistics, maintenance, etc., will create 10 times to 20 times the value of the enterprise.

Dismantling aircraft aviation materials can increase, decrease pressure Spare Parts, resulting in greater economic benefits. China does not rule out the future of the world’s aircraft dismantling, material trading base, aircraft dismantling, after the aircraft market has great potential.

(Vii) Aviation Training: Formation of Kunming, Singapore, Tianjin, three major aviation training base layout

Aviation Training business layout in Kunming, Singapore, Tianjin and three aviation training base. In many fields (air transport, general aviation), many types of aircraft (trunk aircraft, general aviation aircraft, helicopters) covering domestic and foreign aviation training market.

Singapore base by the end of 2014 the company has been completed, the first two simulators have been installed tuning is completed, will be officially put into operation in 2015, will expand in Southeast Asia and West Asia aviation training market. Singapore Airlines is the company’s practice training base of high-quality results “along the way” of the national strategy, the domestic aviation industry is also an important foreign investment projects, the company has completed initial training in the aviation market at home and overseas distribution, the company in the aviation training market competitiveness and possession rate will further enhance the overall strength will be enhanced.

In 2014 the company invested in the construction of Tianjin Free Trade Zone in Tianjin Airport flight safety, layout NORTH aviation training market, upon completion, will have 7-10 analog machines running capacity (including A320, B737 and EC-135 helicopter simulator class D), wherein EC- 135 Level D helicopter simulator is the model of China’s first high-level simulator.

Aviation Training business currently operates a total of five Kunmingfeian simulator, including two A320 Level D flight simulator, three B737 aircraft FFS. The company Singapore base 2 analog machines already in place, there is a base station in Kunming, Tianjin base EC-135 helicopter simulation machine 1 on the way in which the acquisition is expected four new contribution to the performance simulator will begin in 2015. Singapore Airlines training base company plans to invest 580 million yuan, to June 2014 has invested 120 million yuan. January 2015, Hite Singapore flight training center B737-800W and two A320-200 full flight simulator passed the China Civil Aviation Administration and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore initial identification.

The future of the company will also expand aviation training business from the civil aviation field to the helicopter. In June 2013, the company announced the purchase EC-135 helicopter flight simulators and ancillary equipment, a total price of not more than 10 million euros, has signed a contract to purchase intent. The company helicopter training business will be placed Tianjin base.

We determine the number of companies planning simulator future can reach the size of 20 units (about six Kunming, Singapore 6 or so, Tianjin 7-10 units). If each simulator operating 20 hours per day, according to 3000 yuan (or US $ 400-500 / hour) calculated per hour, according to the utilization rate of around 80%, the income of each simulator nearly 18 million yuan, the company Aviation Training gross margin of around 50%.

Aviation training future business if it reaches 20 analog machines, only simulator aviation training services revenue (excluding crew training and other services) to reach 360 million yuan.

(Viii) The aviation finance lease: aircraft machine, engine, flight equipment financing and leasing business is about to break

The company will cover the future of the aviation leasing business machine large aircraft, engines, aircraft timber leasing business.

In 2013 the company funded the establishment of Sichuan Hite Leasing Co., Ltd., began to get involved in aircraft leasing services. July 2014, the company was approved by the Ministry of Commerce, State Administration of Taxation of the National Twelfth domestic financial leasing pilot enterprises, will help the company to optimize the business aviation service business model to achieve diversified development of the aviation industry, and the integration of resources, to Integrated development of aviation technology services direction, to achieve the purpose to promote the company’s main business aviation development. Financial leasing company Aviation Services business is advancing according to plan, the whole aircraft, engines, and aircraft leasing business structure material formed.

(Ix) To raise 1.66 billion ECU to develop new air power and other main industry

The company has completed the set by the matter, the additional price of 20 yuan, issued a total of 8282 shares, the total funds raised 1.66 billion yuan, and the new shares were listed on September 2. The company will expand the air power control system development capabilities.

Fund-raising project of this issue is “Tianjin Hite aircraft maintenance base on the 2nd maintenance hangar construction project,” “new air power control system development and manufacturing projects,” “new aviation engine repair technology development and industrialization projects” “Tianjin Aviation Flight Safety training base construction project” and “add liquidity.”

3. Investment Advice

Expected 15–17 years EPS of 0.16 / 0.36 / 0.56 yuan, PE is 114/51/33 times the expected performance of the company next year after the high-speed growth. The company has more than 50 percent of military accounting, valuation of the company will be the next country Rui Technology, Create Electronics, Aviation moving control , Naoto shares close; maintain “recommended” rating.

Risk Warning: military delivery times of uncertainty, and the new model helicopter winch ECU production time of uncertainty, the issuance of equity dilution thickening performance, integration risk.

Tianqi shares : M Floor, automotive after-market official force

Category: Research institutions: GF Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Luo Libo, Liu Zhijun date: 2015-10-26

The company issued a notice by the China Securities Regulatory Commission mergers and acquisitions of listed companies audit committee review, the company issued shares to buy assets and raise matching funds by connected transaction matters unconditional.

M implement dismantling the whole industry chain layout, automotive after-market official force. The acquisition of 100% stake in Yichang Dili and recovered 66.5% stake in Ningbo officially landed the company in the car dismantling market segment, “the three recycling centers + two + two operators dismantling center platform,” the whole industry chain layout began to take shape, The acquisition landing next year, the three companies will collectively dismantling plate and table, consider the performance commitment and their stake next year (Yichang Lidi net profit of 47 million yuan next year commitment, holding 100%; Suzhou regeneration promised 20 million yuan ; holding 70% recovery of about 20 million yuan in Ningbo, holding 66.5%), with the ability to automate dismantling strengthened after the market next year will form a significant support on performance.

Yellow car out of standard policies, accelerate the dismantling of the window period to come. As of September, the national yellow car out of the amount of 820,000, less than expected. Currently the ministry has increased the policy efforts of the yellow car out, environmental protection and other five departments jointly issued a document to promote the yellow car out of the policy, the implementation of monthly briefings phase-out system. Emission vehicles will be phased out in the next 1–2 years to accelerate the dismantling of scrap car recycling volume will usher in short-term peak.

Main business sufficient orders, next year the main industry is expected to strongly upward. The company’s main business of automotive logistics automation equipment business is currently sufficient orders in hand, up more than 30%, consider the confirmation period and base year, the main industry is expected next year the real positive growth. Coupled with the company automated warehousing business breakthroughs in the electricity business, medicine, cold chain and other areas next year, the main industry is expected to strongly upward.

Investment suggestion: We forecast the company 2015–2017 annual revenues and 2,882 one million yuan for the 1, 999, 2,573, EPS, respectively 0.21, 0.37 and 0.46 yuan. The company has in the field of automotive logistics automation equipment outstanding advantages, has a good industrial layout in intelligent storage systems and vehicle dismantling market, combined with performance and valuation, we maintain the company a “buy” rating.

Risk Warning: automotive automation equipment requirements that affect car sales and investment uncertainty; yellow car out of policy implementation is uncertain; scrap price fluctuations affect profits for dismantling operations.

Xiamen Engineering shares : seize all the way along the core area, the Air shares into the military

Category: Research institutions: State Securities Corp. researcher: After Li Yao Date: 2015-04-08


Vision and action along the way files released, infrastructure interconnection boot priority. Files will determine Fujian and Xinjiang as the core area of ​​the Maritime Silk Road between Asia and Europe, Guangxi and Yunnan respectively and radiation portal area. The same period, the Asian investment bank continued to expand around and under the Boao Forum for Asia held dual catalysis, “along the way” continue to strengthen the concept of regional development.

The evening of March 30, the central bank, the Ministry of Housing, Banking Regulatory Commission jointly issued “on the individual housing loan policy issues related to notice”, to improve the demand for individual housing loans lowered the down payment ratio to not less than 40%. At the same time, the Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation jointly issued “on the adjustment of individual housing transfer business tax policy notice”, significant debt relief for part qualified housing foreign sales business tax levy. With the real estate policy followed deregulation, housing needs to improve usher in a major positive.

Company performance forecast 2014 annual operating results compared with last year, there will be profitable, is expected to achieve attributable to shareholders of listed companies net profit of zero to $ 10 million; total annual government subsidy received by the Company 2014 Total 47,648.56 ten thousand yuan , resulting in a larger increase in operating income.


The core area of the Maritime Silk Road construction machinery enterprises, overseas assembly plant was built to cater to the area all the way: focus on planning the direction of the Maritime Silk Road in the 21st century is over from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean coastal ports in China, extending to Europe, and over the South China Sea to China’s coastal ports South Pacific . The Fujian and Xinjiang have been identified for the 21st century to build the core area of the Maritime Silk Road. Xiamen regional obvious advantages, Xiamen Engineering shares all the way along the core area is located in Xiamen, Fujian Province, currently accounting for 15 percent of export business. The company has established assembly plants in Pakistan, in order to meet all the way along and Fujian FTA construction has laid a good foundation engineering machinery and equipment exports preferred targets.

Guangdong, Fujian and Tianjin free trade zone by the overall scheme, the Xiamen Municipal SASAC key support: March 24, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary Xi Jinping hosted a Politburo meeting by Guangdong, Tianjin, Fujian pilot zones free trade overall program, further Shanghai Free Trade Experimental Area deepen reform and opening up program. FTA second quarter starting gun fired, Fujian FTA much attention at home and abroad, the two programs are expected to be available in the near future official text, FTA listing has officially entered the countdown stage. Xiamen, Xiamen Engineering shares is focused on supporting the manufacturing enterprises SASAC, terms of scale, the company is currently in the second-tier position in the industry, the company’s main products accounted for 60% of revenue loader in the domestic market share of about 16%, ranking the first three levels of the industry. 2010 nine Chinese construction machinery manufacturers, including companies into the top 50 global construction machinery.

AVIC shares, civilian integration model: the aircraft industry with engineering machinery products the core components of hydraulic technology research and development capabilities, AVIC shares Xiamen Engineering shares, in its capacity as the industrial development platform, with its R & D strength, enhance the technological level of construction machinery products extending “Four Wheels” and other key parts of construction machinery industry, but to build aviation maintenance and mechanical base, into military areas greatly enhance the company in the domestic construction machinery core competitiveness. The company is currently doing property transfer, the actual control may become more of AVIC, AVIC systems become the model of civil-military integration. AVIC’s move will strengthen the company’s military background, the general secretary in learning to adapt to the requirements of its mission to accelerate the construction requirements of the equipment system backdrop, company valuation is expected to improve.

Deregulation to promote real estate investment pick up, looking forward to 2015 results appear reversed: investments in infrastructure, equipment investment, mainly in construction machinery. Because of China’s fixed asset investment, especially real estate investment growth slowed, leading to lower purchasing power cranes, excavators, loaders and other construction machinery major products continued to decline, the company’s performance was in a slump. The company’s annual results notice said the company in 2014 net profit compared with a year earlier appeared a turnaround, but mainly from the government subsidy of 476.48 million yuan operating income, results did not show a fundamental improvement.

With the real estate policy followed deregulation, housing needs to improve usher in a major positive. Liberalization of real estate control policies will help real estate new projects starts to rise, thereby stimulating market demand gradually pick up equipment. Judging from construction machinery is expected to benefit from the area all the way to help digest excess capacity and double positive recovery in the domestic real estate investment is expected to decline in equipment sales will tend to narrow this year, industry continues to inventory deleveraging situation also will be in the second quarter improved significantly. We look forward to the construction machinery industry in the second and third quarter results can show substantial reversal.

Looking ahead a few years, the construction machinery industry or market holdings are still a large amount of excess capacity, competition and other issues, the pattern of market reshuffle and survival of the fittest is difficult to avoid. Some enterprises will fully benefit “along the way”, in a favorable position in the competitive landscape changes. The company’s main business market share among the industry forefront loaders, large-scale effects appear. With infrastructure investment is expected to pick up at home and abroad, the company’s main business sales will follow the construction machinery market demand overall stabilized.

Investment advice.

We were the first company earnings forecasts net profit forecast 2015/2016 attributable to the parent company 0.89,2.11 one hundred million yuan, EPS were 0.09,0.22 yuan (after taking into account dilution), to give a “buy” rating, target price of the year 17.7 yuan.

Wisesoft Daily News Review: The image of new business sales, promote the growth of diversified development

Category: Research institutions: Sealand Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Generation Pengju Date: 2015-08-28

Event: newspaper publishing company, achieved total revenue of 82.572 million yuan, representing an increase of 22.30 percent over the same period last year; to achieve operating profit of 15.018 million yuan, representing an increase of 65.79 percent over the same period last year. 2015 January-September attributable to shareholders of listed company’s net profit change interval 1840.3 to 22,084,000 yuan.

Earnings growth in line with expectations and look forward to the military aviation tube large single floor. Company after deduction of non-net profit rose 79.8%. In the context of actively promoting new products, management fees and cost of sales did not grow significantly. Company revenue and profit growth in line with a quarterly forecast. ATC automation project gross margin over 48%. Full-year net profit growth is expected to up to 500%, mainly determined bid 238 million in 2013 ATC automation project landing. Based on past experience of military tenders, we believe that successful project for two years, this year the possibility of large floor.

Diversified development, the image performance of the new product is expected to become the gearbox. 1, the new product controllers experience Level D flight simulator and flight simulator visual systems have sales or bid. With the domestic general aviation open and the rise of a huge domestic market space pilot training in the future. 2, large panoramic interactive experience systems has signed its first contract, using the company’s three-dimensional high-definition LED display, interactive panorama experience programs and a number of graphics technology, the future will be in the country to promote education and science sectors. 3, based on the integration of a new generation of panoramic video aerodrome activity intelligent monitoring and management systems are actively construction and sales. New company image classes with more than 65% of the high gross margins and broad market space, the future is expected to become a new source of power .

3D face recognition test is installed, future industrialization of infinite space. The adoption of Intel’s low-cost sensors, successfully developed the first set of three-dimensional face recognition system and shows in the 2015 Intel Developer Forum. The three-dimensional face recognition system to achieve significant cost reductions and greatly reduced volume. 3D face recognition technology company is different from the traditional two-dimensional recognition, unique technology advantages. The future will be like a three-dimensional face recognition fingerprint recognition, bar code and RFID identification technology, widely used in national defense, public safety, information security, financial payment security and other fields. Future based on national security considerations, the three-dimensional human face requires a full set of equipment and basic software localization. The company first entered the field and occupy technological advantage. The future, as market volume, three-dimensional recognition technology industry is expected to bring huge benefits.

Optimistic about the company’s future, to maintain “overweight” rating. The company has high barriers to high-margin core business of ATC automation, performance and stable high growth. We are optimistic about the future of the company’s current diversified development. Key layout graphic image business, part of the new business gradually force. 3D face recognition enormous future industrial space. 2015 ~ 2017 EPS of 0.33, 0.54, 0.79 yuan, the corresponding PE of 82, 50, 35 times, to maintain “overweight” rating.

Risk Warning: the company’s new products do not reach the expected air traffic control projects delayed or discontinued.

Mastery Power : Boots final landing, to the transition of military information technology and automation, the future will become the core of the military company

Category: Research institutions: Shun Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Zourun Fang, Wangshu Wei Date: 2015-04-22

In line with expectations, first quarter net profit increased significantly.

The company in 2014 operating income of 1.052 billion yuan, an increase of 14.62%, net profit attributable to the parent company of -1659.5 million yuan, down 263%; EPS -0.1 yuan, results in line with expectations. Net profit substantially reduced, mainly due to the decline in gross margin and impairment losses on assets due.

The company in 2015 to achieve 175 million yuan in the first quarter, down 27.86%, net profit attributable to parent company 117 million yuan, an increase of 83.61 percent, in line with expectations.

Traditional main business profitability declined, 15 years is expected to bounce back.

The company in 2014 gross profit margin was 12.84%, compared with last year fell 2.4 percent, gross margin declined mainly due to the overall industry still faces overcapacity, lower prices.

Companies actively promote the traditional main industry upgrading efficiency through downsizing, adjust the product structure to enhance performance, while the new company Jiangsu 苏富松 mold factory, Jiangsu and pass Electric Co., have been successfully put into operation, a new industry to create new long-term growth, 15 Traditional main industry is expected to bounce back.

Full transition of military information technology and automation, will become the core of military companies.

The company continued to promote military information and intelligence equipment transformation. Has signed Weir made Shenzhen billion Information Technology Co. 60% stake in the letter of intent, to enter the radar and the information security market, such as the successful acquisition of the company will become the main platform for the development of military information technology; establishment of Tianjin-Dadar in Tianjin Science and Technology Co., In “artillery multifunction Maintenance Unit” and “light armored vehicle at the sudden rapid” two technology as a breakthrough into the army and armed police vehicle market, and as a major platform for the company’s development of military intelligence. The future of the company will continue to perform military information and intelligence core development strategies and technology integration through mergers and acquisitions and other means.

Recommendation: Buy -A investment rating, 6-month target price of 40 yuan. We expect the company in 2015 –2017 year EPS were 0.35,1,1.25 yuan, the company firmly transformation of military information technology and automation, will continue to promote transformation through mergers and acquisitions and other means.

Risk Warning: Transition not up to expectations, results have fallen sharply

Yaxing anchor : Leading global chain performance inflection point appeared, holding 1.2 billion in cash will actively open a second primary industry

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun, Chen Xianfan date: 2015-04-29

1. Event.

The company released 2014 annual and 2015 quarterly. In 2014 the company achieved revenues 1.528 billion yuan, an increase of 8.46%, net profit attributable to shareholders of listed companies 29.88 million yuan, an increase of 47.34 million yuan, EPS of 0.06 yuan.Company bonus plan for every 10 shares 0.5 yuan increase by transferring 10 shares, cash dividends 0.50 yuan (including tax).

2015 first quarter the company achieved operating income of 415 million yuan, an increase of 8.46%, attributable to shareholders of listed company’s net profit of 30.83 million yuan, down 3.65%, EPS of 0.07 yuan.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) Performance inflection point is now in line with expectations, sustained growth is guaranteed.

The company previously released 2014 annual results notice, actual results in line with expectations. Companies marine business income accounted enhance 4.6pct, along with continued growth in the company’s profitability, in 2015 first quarter consolidated gross margin reached 23.31%, the highest level in nearly four years, an upgrade 1.6pct.

The company plans to complete 2015 annual revenue of 1.65 billion. The company in 2014 to take orders 1.922 billion yuan, an increase of 6.6%, as of December 31, 2014 orders in hand the company 1.516 billion yuan, up 19.8 percent, the company in 2015 sustained growth performance is guaranteed.

(B) 海工系 mooring chain world-class, conquer the world’s five largest customers.

Company Hai Gongji mooring chain product structure upgrade, in 2014 gross profit margin increase 8.64pct.

In 2014 the company achieved Hai Gongji mooring system connector output of 2,000 tons in 2015 plans to increase production to 4000 tons; ultra-high-level R & D R6 mooring chain has entered the pilot phase; the company involved in the development of “ultra-deepwater semi-submersible drilling platform development and application “project won the 2014 annual national science and technology progress awards. The company is actively connected to the mooring system accessories extend outside member.

Company in the world’s top five oil companies have obtained the ocean four (France’s Total, Statoil, Royal Dutch Shell, Petrobras) supplier qualification, Mobil Oil also plans in May to inspect the company certification, the company in the field of mooring chains and attachments Marine Department has reached world-class level; marine equipment industry, the long-term to short-term pressure is good, the company will continue mooring chain business development, and further enhance the market share in the marine field.

(C) Cash on hand of nearly 12 billion, will be actively open a second main industry.

Currently nearly 1.2 billion yuan cash on hand. The company had purchased about 140,000 square meters of land, in addition to the company before the IPO equity investment projects 30,000 tons of ultra-high-strength remainder of the project R5 offshore mooring chain transformation projects, we judge still more abundant, with sufficient epitaxial conditions for development. The company clearly stated, “Will actively develop second primary industry, planned for the next two to three years to determine, in order to further enhance the company’s size and competitiveness.” We judge the company does not rule out a second extension of the main ways to develop the industry.

3. Investment advice.

The company expects 2015 will be 33.57 million yuan for bad debts reversal, 2015-2017 results will achieve rapid growth, performance flexibility, the future does not rule out the extensional development. 2015-2017 is expected EPS of 0.32 / 0.39 / 0.47 yuan, PE is 50/42/35 times. Excluding cash in hand after the company’s market capitalization is only 1.2 billion yuan 6.4 billion yuan, PB only 2.3 times, with good margin of safety, to maintain “recommended” rating. Risk factors: lower than expected recovery ship anchor chain; oil prices continued to fall; extensional development than expected.

Lijum shares : the proposed acquisition of Chengdu three military aircraft business continued to overweight, resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings

Category: Research institutions: China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Wang Huajun Date: 2015-09-09

1. Event.

The company announced the proposed acquisition of Chengdu Sanhang Electrical Co., Ltd. (hereinafter: “Chengdu Sanhang”) of equity, the company stock since September 8 date for restoration.

According to the company prior to the announcement, the controlling shareholder, actual controller and its shareholders and other persons acting resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings.

2. Our analysis and judgment.

(A) The proposed acquisition of Chengdu three aircraft, military operations continued overweight.

The proposed acquisition of Chengdu Sanhang main business includes the production of aerospace equipment, research and development, aviation aircraft external devices; have “military product quality system certification”, “three secret unit qualification certificate”, “weaponry research and production licenses card “,” equipment manufacturing units registration certificate “and other relevant qualifications required for the production and operation. The company’s aircraft hangar common project was included in 2014 in Chengdu strategic new product development projects subsidized project, the company also was recognized as 2015 Chengdu enterprise technology center.

According to the company announcement, Chengdu Sanhang year 2014 achieved total revenue of 072 million yuan, net profit of 027 million yuan, net profit margin reached 37.5%, strong profitability. The company has basically completed the preparatory work for Chengdu three aircraft acquisitions, ongoing negotiations on transaction programs to communicate with the Chengdu Sanhang shareholders. If the acquisition is successful, on the one hand it is expected to enhance the company’s overall profitability, on the other hand is expected to generate synergies with the previously announced acquisition of Dekun aviation for the company to bring new profit growth point.

(B) The resumption of not less than 5 trading days, 286 million yuan holdings.

According to the company prior to the announcement, the controlling shareholder, actual controller, chairman of Mr. He Yamin and concerted action, Vice Miss He Jia company intends to apply through the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, securities stock to resume trading within five days from the date of trading system by way of auction total holdings of the market value of not less than 250 million yuan of funds to buy company stock.

Shareholders, vice chairman and general manager of Mr. Wei Yong intends to resume trading from the date of the Company’s shares within five trading days the market value of holdings by way of auction by the Shenzhen Stock Exchange securities trading system of not less than 036 million yuan of funds to buy the company’s stock .

The three people currently holds 80.45% of total equity. According to maintaining the company’s share price stabilization program announcement, the above-mentioned three commitments: from July 7, 2015, within 12 months, no holdings of shares of shares held by beneficial monarch, not to transfer or entrust others to manage their holdings of shares Lijun shares.

(Iii) Sufficient cash on hand, will accelerate the transformation of the military, it is expected to become a model of civil-military integration.

The company previously announced will be 370 million yuan in cash to acquire 100% stake Dekun aviation. Dekun Airlines is one of the aircraft industry to fly the most important structural parts Waixiejiagong manufacturing enterprises; products used in many models of military aircraft, large transport aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, missiles, etc., and for the large passenger and cargo aircraft and domestic regional aircraft (ARJ project), China Commercial Aircraft C919 to provide ancillary products.

1.34 billion yuan in cash in hand, major shareholders and persons acting has 65% of the shares of listed companies, the company is expected to create an important platform for the integration of the military service. September 2014 the company announced the proposed shares tomorrow Aerospace (new research shares acquisition targets, supporting the well-known domestic aerospace parts manufacturer). We believe that the company locked the transformation of military areas, and the acquisition of the subject are very good.

We judge the rich companies to track project, the future is likely to continue to accelerate the transformation of the military field, with the acquisition of a larger scale, better performance potential military operations, civil-military integration will become a model.

(Iv) Energy saving equipment little giant, strong profitability.

The company for the cement, mining and grinding system leading enterprises, outstanding profitability, cash generation ability, consolidated gross profit margin for many years maintained at about 50%, net profit margin over 35% for many years. Company old business cement roller press market share ranking first in the world. New Business mines roller mill can reduce power consumption and metal consumption, significantly reducing water pollution, a key state to encourage the development of energy-saving and environmentally friendly products. Expected future mine roller mill will get better development.

3. Investment advice.

Does not consider the extension is expected to 15–17-year EPS of 0.36 / 0.39 / 0.40 yuan, PE is 71/66/64 times; consider Dekun aviation, expected 15 – 17-year pro forma EPS of 0.45 / 0.51 / 0.58 yuan, PE 57 / 50/45-fold. Valuation of the company is expected to move closer to the military unit (military unit 2015 nearly 80 times the average PE). We determine the company’s future will continue to overweight the military business, performance is expected to achieve a larger increase, valuations are expected to move closer to the military unit, to maintain recommended. Risk Warning: shrinking demand for cement equipment, mining and marketing progress than expected, the transition of military progress than expected.

Zongshen Power: the small loan business steadily, UAV production soon

Category: Research institutions: Joaquin Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Zhang Zhongjie Date: 2015-06-19

Investment Highlights

Motorcycle engine industry cyclical adjustment: in 2014 the company issued a motorcycle Mai machine business sales revenue 2.74 billion yuan, an increase of 1.68%, currently SMEs Mai machine business basic motorcycle made in low-profit status, large displacement three-wheeled motorcycle slight increase four-wheel vehicle market is starting Mai. Rural market is still able to maintain a large sales YingYing mold, it is estimated the company in 2015 revenue decline at around 5%. Electric powered car is the future direction of the transformation, in 2015 the trend better estimate sales will grow substantially.

General machinery business to maintain growth momentum: 2014 annual sales of 1.23 billion yuan of general machinery, up 30%, mainly due to increase the company’s export sales, small aircraft in the United States through the larger market, with the growth of the US natural gas production, electrically Mai forces unit as general machinery market is being nurturing. Clear development trend of this business, we expect growth in this business in 2015 more than 20%.

Small loan company business steadily: To take advantage of Zongshen Group and the Company on the downstream industry chain resources, while controlling risk, the company microfinance industry chain around 80% of business conduct, such as household pet Group receivables, in the back section before providing credit risk control. Follow the company also plans to gradually expand in small loans companies on the basis of factoring, P2P, equity investments, the future is expected to achieve 30 billion yuan YingYing mold around. At present, the business development of better, faster earnings growth, future business is expected to become one of the pillars of the four companies.

Sales service market model innovation: Left master company has 575 Direct, the joint venture does not store in the chain, the initial formation of a “service + spare parts sales” business model, take it as a basis, Jian use Lynx and Taobao Internet platform, active sales of all types of end products, in 2014 net profit rose 152%. The company is also trying to intervene car after-market services, not the Internet companies to open two stores in Chongqing, in order to point the online business is expected to quickly carry out.

UAV business will become a new growth point: The company does not Qingdao Wang rivers recently co-invested $ 50 million to establish Chongqing Zongshen Tianyi Aviation Technology Co., Ltd., which the company invested 3,350 ten thousand yuan accounted for 67% stake. The company is actively pushing Zhong Zong project the company’s production area location, production line layout, model selection, sales and service network construction and other related work. Is expected to be in September 2015 to achieve small batch production, the original shareholders of the company Qingdao Wang rivers commitment from 2015 to 2017 the company achieved net profit accumulated less than 132.5 million yuan Ji. Given the broad market prospects UAV business, the business is expected to become a new growth point.

Investment suggestion: We forecast 2015 –2017 company earnings per share were 0.41, 0.51 and 0.71 yuan. We obituary small loan business for the company in good shape, volume sales of UAV operations soon, the company thereby forming a new growth point performance, prospects. “Buy -A” investment rating, 6-month target price of 33.15 yuan, corresponding to 65 times 2016 PE.

Risk Warning: industry does not lead to changes in the company’s fundamentals Ji reach the expected results.

New research shares: Acquisition tomorrow Aerospace approved the text, into the rapid development of the new era

Category: Research institutions: Southwest Securities Co., Ltd. Researcher: Pang Linlin Date: 2015-10-28

Performance Summary: 2015 third quarter, the company achieved operating income of 515.2 million, an increase of 12.44%, operating profit of 90.3 million, an increase of 3.58%, net profit of 85.5 million, an increase of 5.60%; earnings per share 0.095 yuan.

Used main business running smoothly. 2015 changed the agricultural subsidies continued growth, down 100 million yuan, the demand for agricultural products was significantly weaker, agricultural business critical. With excellent product quality, the company first three quarters of revenue growth of 12.44%. Gross margin for the first three quarters of the company 34.12%, down 4.33 percentage points, the expense ratio 14.95%, down 2.32 percentage points (mainly cost of sales rate fell 3.26 percentage points); sales margin of 16.46%, a slight decrease year on year 1.21 percentage points.

Merger reorganization approved by the Commission approval. 2015 companies active epitaxial mergers and acquisitions, the company issued shares and pay cash to buy Shifang City tomorrow Industry Co., Ltd. 100% stake in aerospace, currently the major asset restructuring has received China Securities Regulatory Commission Audit Committee mergers and acquisitions by 2015 October 26 approved by China Securities Regulatory Commission approval. After the completion of the reorganization, the company will become a farm, military dual main listed companies, and the rapid development in agricultural machinery, military two areas.

Tomorrow Aerospace is “people to join the army,” the best subject, there is a performance-than-expected capacity and power. 1. From the production point of view, all current production tomorrow aerospace investment value may reach 4 billion +; 2, from order point of view, with the acceleration of the main models fitted (military aircraft orders into the release), military orders from 2013–2014 years Trial gradually small batches, with high growth potential; 3, from the equipment capacity, the company has formed advanced, large-scale lead, and continues to expand; 4, net profit margin, the company’s gross profit margin remained stable There liters of situation, the financial costs the company after the acquisition of aerospace parts business will be lower than the current 11%, taking into account technical upgrade, orders, and production release of scale brought net profit margin is expected from the current less than 20% increased to more than 25%.

Earnings forecast and rating the following table: earnings forecast considering only farm the main industry. Tomorrow’s Aerospace 2015-2017 annual results for the deduction of non-commitment should reach 170 million yuan net profit (+55.96%), 2.4 million (+ 41.18%) and 400 million yuan (66.67%), the next three years compound annual growth rate of 55%, However, we believe the company than-expected performance in 2017 is very large probability estimate in 2017 is expected to reach 735 million yuan, three-year compound growth rate of over 86%.

Tomorrow, after the acquisition of the aerospace company, people join the army as a clear target, in large-scale development of the people expected to join the army background deserve high valuations, coupled with the re-acquisition of more specific expectations, maintaining a “buy” rating.

Risk Warning: agricultural machinery industry or continue to decline, tomorrow aerospace integration progress and performance or lower than expected and other risks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:



类别:公司研究 机构:中泰证券股份有限公司 研究员:笃慧,郭皓 日期:2015-10-08

中国核电远景:未来核电之所以好,是因为它不受国内传统经济周期制约,同时是行政力量未来要极力推动的事情。要达到2030年非化石能源占比20%的目标 ,届时核电装机规模需要1.5亿至2亿千瓦,即未来15年每年要建10到15个百万千瓦级的核电机组。这个建设强度是极大的,因为从1991年秦山核电站并网发电以来至今国内累计投运核电机组不过26台。保守预估目前至2020年底拟开建核电机组为30台,年均约6台,此外若内陆核电破冰(可能性大),则开工数量更多;







类别:公司研究 机构:平安证券有限责任公司 研究员:余兵 日期:2015-09-21



能源互联网多箭齐发,展翼军工领域:报告期内,公司联合中国移动、联想集团一起打造的智慧能源公共服务云平台上线,成为国内首家区域性的(山东省)智慧能源公共服务云平台,目前该平台已接入涵盖燃气、水务、工业节能等行业超26000个点的数据;与英特尔、山东城联合作,拓展能源互联网、智慧城市综合服务运营领域;投资4,116万元收购福建奥通迈胜70%的股权,奥通迈胜承诺15~17年扣非后净利润分别不低于0.1/0.13/0.17亿元,进一步完善城镇配电网业务;相继成立积成能源、积成软件公司,参与设立10亿元新能源产业引导基金,近期与广西桂东电力在电力需求侧的微网应用合作,更因应了电改新形势下的变局。军工领域,公司与北京久远合作成立军工并购基金;投资3000 万元收购宁波中物力拓30%的股权,进军以超微金属粉末为基础材质的3D 打印市场。

盈利预测与评级:预计公司15~16 年EPS 为0.52、0.78 元,对应8 月28 日收盘价PE 分别为33.9、22.6 倍,我们看好公司在能源互联网领域的先发优势及军工领域的外延拓展,维持“推荐”评级。



类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-10-19
























类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-10-14









公司已由一家传统航空维修企业向综合航空技术服务企业战略转变,2012年以来航空动力核心控制系统等研制业务起飞,业绩驶入高增长快车道。 目前公司航空军品(主要为直升机相关)业绩占比约60%。公司2014年第一大客户销售金额为1.87亿元,我们判断主要为核心军品研制业务,收入占比已接近40%。










根据《成都嘉石科技有限公司6 吋第二代/第三代半导体集成电路芯片生产线项目环境影响报告书》,该项目总投资达20.92亿元。四川省经济和信息化委员会已经把本项目列为四川省战略性新兴产业支持项目。







天津海特作为国内第一批民营干线飞机整机大修平台(之前国内以外资合资为主导),目前已完成第一期项目建设。目前公司天津基地2个机库已经投产,可同时维修2-3架A320/B737系列飞机及3架公务机。2015年1月,天津海特顺利完成吉祥航空B-9978 & B-9957两架A320系列飞机首次定检维修工作。公司已经取得CAAC颁发的空客A320机型4C检维修许可证,正积极向CAAC申请A320机型8C检维修许可。
































类别:公司研究 机构:广发证券股份有限公司 研究员:罗立波,刘芷君 日期:2015-10-26








类别:公司研究 机构:国金证券股份有限公司 研究员:后立尧 日期:2015-04-08















类别:公司研究 机构:国海证券股份有限公司 研究员:代鹏举 日期:2015-08-28








类别:公司研究 机构:安信证券股份有限公司 研究员:邹润芳,王书伟 日期:2015-04-22












类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君,陈显帆 日期:2015-04-29


公司发布2014 年年报和2015 年一季报。2014 年公司实现收入15.28亿元,同比增长8.46%,实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润2988 万元,同比上升4734 万元,EPS 为0.06 元。公司分红预案为每10 股送0.5 元转增10 股,派发现金股利0.50 元(含税)。

2015 年第一季度公司实现营业收入4.15 亿元,同比增长8.46%,实现归属于上市公司股东的净利润3083 万元,下滑3.65%,EPS 为0.07 元。



公司此前已发布2014 年度业绩预告,实际业绩符合预期。公司海工业务收入占比提升4.6pct,公司盈利能力随之持续增长,2015 年第一季度综合毛利率达到23.31%,为近四年最高水平,同比提升1.6pct。

公司2015 年度计划完成营业收入16.5 亿。公司2014 年承接订单19.22 亿元,同比上升6.6%,截至2014 年12 月31 日公司在手订单15.16亿元,同比增长19.8%,公司2015 年业绩持续增长有保障。

(二)海工系泊链全球一流,征服全球前5 大客户.


2014 年公司实现海工系泊系统连接件产量2000 吨,2015 年计划将产量提高到4000 吨;超高级别R6 系泊链研发已进入中试阶段;公司参与研制的“超深水半潜式钻井平台研发与应用”项目获得了2014 年度国家科学技术进步特等奖。公司正积极向系泊系统连接件以外的附件产品延伸。

公司在全球前五大海洋石油公司中已获得四家(法国道达尔公司、挪威国家石油公司、荷兰皇家壳牌集团、巴西国家石油公司)供应商资格认证,美孚石油也计划在5 月对公司进行考察认证,公司在海洋系泊链及附件领域已经达到全球一流水平;海工装备行业短期承压中长期向好,公司系泊链业务将持续发展,并进一步提升在海工领域市场占有率。

(三)手持现金近12 亿元,将积极开辟第二主业.

公司目前手持现金近12 亿元。公司此前购置的约14 万平方米土地,除了公司之前IPO 募投项目年产3 万吨超高强度R5 海洋系泊链技术改造项目的剩余部分项目外,我们判断仍有较多富余,具备充足的外延式发展条件。公司明确提出“将积极开辟第二主业,计划在未来两到三年内确定,以进一步提升公司规模及竞争力”。我们判断公司不排除以外延方式实现第二主业的开拓。


预计公司2015 年将有3357 万元坏账准备冲回,2015-2017 年业绩将实现较快增长,业绩弹性大,未来不排除外延式发展。预计2015-2017 年EPS 为0.32/0.39/0.47 元,PE 为50/42/35 倍。剔除在手12 亿元现金后公司市值仅64 亿元,PB 仅2.3 倍,具有较好的安全边际,维持“推荐”评级。风险因素:船舶锚链复苏低于预期;油价持续下跌;外延式发展低于预期。


类别:公司研究 机构:中国银河证券股份有限公司 研究员:王华君 日期:2015-09-09





















类别:公司研究 机构:华金证券有限责任公司 研究员:张仲杰 日期:2015-06-19


摩托车发动机行业周期性调整: 2014年公司摩托车发劢机业务销售收入27.4亿元,增长1.68%,目前中小型摩托车发劢机业务基本在微利状态,大排量三轮摩托车小幅增长,四轮车市场正在启劢。农村市场还是能够保持较大的销售觃模,估计公司2015年收入降幅在5%左右。电劢车是未来转型方向,2015年态势较好,销量估计会有大幅增长。








类别:公司研究 机构:西南证券股份有限公司 研究员:庞琳琳 日期:2015-10-28







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