Category Archives: China’s Military Organization – Intelligence

China Military Review: Special Operations Forces: The “strategic dagger” of US Foreign Military Operations // 中國軍事評論特种作战部队:美对外军事行动的“战略尖刀”


来源:解放军报   Since World War II, special operations on its unique flexibility, efficiency, asymmetry, is increasingly becoming an important means to safeguard the strategic interests of the United States the way to deal with the threat of challenges. In recent years, the US military special operations forces is the task type from traditional warfare to expand the area of ​​non-traditional field of battle, much to replace conventional forces to become the protagonist of battlefield information, acts as a US foreign military operations “strategy knife” of the situation.

    War sharpening “of the United States Blade”

Although modern special operations began in World War II, but its position fully aware of the role of the US military and is widely used in the practice of war after World War II. In almost all previous local wars and regional conflicts in the United States to intervene, or can be hidden or US Special Operations Forces found the figure, during record and failure of innovation and development have become the US military special operations “grindstone” so special operations the “United States of Blade,” the increasingly sharp.

Vietnam War can be said that the US large-scale, long the first attempt of special operations. During the war, US special operations forces are widely assumed to wipe out the guerrillas, special reconnaissance, sabotage attack, trainers and other “counter-insurgency” operations, and implementation of the attack, such as Vietnam prisoner of war camps Shanxi operations. Although the injustice of war and strategic guidance mistakes, tactical advantage the US has never been able to get the special operations strategy into a winning situation, sadly had to withdraw troops from Vietnam, but special operations forces in the war revealed adaptability, mobility, concealment, but be sure to get high-level US military, and has been the focus used in subsequent wars and armed conflicts.

In 1980, in order to rescue the detained American Embassy in Iran, more than 60 staff, 97 US special operations long-range raid from Cairo to Tehran. Since the aircraft suddenly encountered sandstorms and failures in the course of action, combined with ill emergency plan, the US military was forced to cancel plans. But the US military did not lose heart, but pay more attention to the lessons learned on the basis of a strong push development of special operations. April 1987, the US Special Operations Command was officially established, special operations forces govern the land, sea and air belongs marks SOF as an independent fighting force officially on the United States in war.

Subsequently, the invasion of Panama in 1989 action, the 1991 Gulf War, the war in Afghanistan in 2001, the 2003 Iraq war and the 2011 war in Libya, the US military will be more and more frequently used for special operations forces and strategic direction of the main season for completion one by one “mission impossible.” Especially in the war in Afghanistan, with the help of advanced information technology tools, the US special operations forces to work independently, creatively objective guidance, penetration strike, buy com collapse, US forces defeated the Taliban regime in a short time to achieve the purposes of war.

US special operations forces continue to promote the development, almost “every battle will be special,” The reason is: First, responsive, compiled capable, able to quickly respond to local emergencies and asymmetric threats; the second is action concealed, sudden strong often the enemy unexpectedly, with minimal resources quickly achieve strategic goals, action to reduce the risk; Third flexible means of warfare, as campaign “global strike” strategic concept important choice; four is better able to fight with other forces joint operations, conventional and unconventional forming closely integrated combat system.

 Great support system under the “sword easy road”

With the evolution of new military revolution in depth, US Special Operations increasingly showing the non-contact combat, to fight the elite fighting from the contact-scale operations, from strategic weapons platform support to support the system, from traditional areas to new areas of the rapidly evolving situation, special combat troops because it can carry out specific tasks to perform conventional forces should not be difficult to complete or to become military to defeat the enemy “killer.”

Trend direct command and control strategy. US Special Operations command and control consists of national and theater-level combat troops and three grade levels. Under normal circumstances, the national command authorities, Special Operations Command, Command theater, theater of military services under the command or function Command commander level performed by operational control. With the mandate of privacy, sensitivity continues to improve, more and more stressed by the US military strategic level special operations were “direct” type vertical command, enhanced controllability operational flexibility. For example, in 2011, and the residence of the US military in Pakistan killed Osama bin Laden raid, Obama and his decision-making team thousands of miles away from the White House situation room, through remote video, real-time synchronization command. This action fully reflects the strategic nature of special operations.

Special blitz highlighting system support. “Tactical operations, strategic support; elite action, system support; local action, global support” has become a significant feature of the US military special operations. Still killed Osama bin Laden, “Neptune Spear” raid, for example, in this battle, on the surface of the US military deployed only four helicopters, 24 “Seal” commandos, it took less than 40 minutes to kill al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden summit. But behind both heaven 35 satellites and more than 40 aircraft to provide a strong information security, there collusion aircraft carrier battle groups at sea, on land as well as support for two military bases in Central Asia, as well as various support ten thousand security personnel. This is a typical “large system support elite action” reflects the profound new form of war in the information age.

Towards a comprehensive joint operations. The US military believes, “joint” is one of the special nature of warfare requires the full participation of the military services and the depth of collaboration. Currently, the US Special Operations not only achieved with the Air Force from the “sensor to shooter” joint, greatly improving its “spike” combat capability, but also to break the union with CIA covert operations, the CIA intelligence-gathering capabilities and special operations forces strike capability combine complementary advantages. Especially after Afghanistan “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US military special operations but will work with conventional forces from the joint campaign sink to the level of the tactical level, to achieve integrated operations teams level. According to statistics, code-named “Mountain Storm” military implementation of the 2004 crackdown, the US special operations troops with conventional forces conducted 62 joint tactical operations, 40 of which action is implemented in the company level, in action 22 battalion level performed.

The effect of a strike action to pursue the enemy. US Special Operations always attached importance to a direct attack on the enemy’s high-value targets in an attempt to speed up the process of speedy combat strategic objectives. From the recent local wars practice, often other US Special Operations Leadership Summit and pre-emphasis as targets, the implementation of the so-called “decapitation attack” by the sudden rapid surprise attacks, to “lock on”, a hit enemy’s strategic effect. For the first time on the war in Iraq from Saddam to use such tactics, the war in Libya Gaddafi trick, while not directly reach the goal, but the US military special operations against enemy decision-making psychological shock is immeasurable, greatly shaken each other’s will to resist, played a “strike hard” and “soft kill” double effect. It is envisioned that the US military this “sword pay” type of special operations will also continue to unfold.

 Efforts to forge “global power”

Currently, the US has special operations, combat drones and network operations as of great importance for the future operations of the “New Trinity” power, to focus on building, hoping to build a responsive, both small and hard, multi-dimensional and multi-functional special war “global power.”

Strengthening overseas deployment, to expand the number scale. Recently, the US significantly reduced military presence overseas, but the number of overseas US Special Operations forces have been continuously increased, but also a significant increase in the deployment of the number of countries and regions. According to reports, the end of the Bush administration, the US Special Operations Forces deployed in about 60 countries worldwide, to increase to 75 by 2010. As of 2015, the United States Special Operations Forces have been deployed to the world’s 135 countries. To meet the growing demand of the task, in the various branches of the background of widespread layoffs, the US special operations forces increased rather than decreased, the number from 2001 to 2014, 3.3 million to nearly 70,000 people, an increase of about one times, of which 80% deployed overseas. American executives believe scale special operations forces deployed abroad, will significantly improve the ability of US military intervention in global affairs in particular to respond to emergencies.

Optimizing operational grouping, build new units. In order to meet the diverse nature of the war on terror style, US special operations forces structure adjustment pace has accelerated noticeably. In recent years, the focus adjustment is: narrow special operations group size to achieve power “downsizing”; to add a new task forces have been established in the Civil Command, irregular warfare and psychological warfare wing brigade, enhance the combat capability of non-traditional areas, to achieve carry out the task “diversity”; optimization special operations units grouped according to the type of task, we will act flexibly experts, communications specialists, psychologists, explosives experts and other personnel mixed grouping of different expertise, improve the ability to adapt to complex battlefield, combat units to achieve “synthesis of . ”

Comprehensive update equipment, enhance the quality of new combat capability. In recent years, the US military continued to increase investment, research and development of new special operations equipment: First, “Individual Combat System”, mainly by the laser range finder, cameras, environmental sensors, ballistic computer and target tracking device component, with automatic transmission and shielding against was behind the target function, improve the combat capability independent of man; the second is a remote delivery tool to improve special operations MC-130H aircraft and purchase V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft, airborne accurate terrain-following radar, navigation systems and high-speed aircraft resistance, enhance special operations forces behind enemy lines and remote mobile penetration; the third is a new concept weapons, the main enemy is the destruction of electronic equipment computer viruses, electromagnetic pulse weapons. These new weapons once the troops will enable the US military special operations means richer, more diverse mission areas.XX

Not every commandos wore green berets

– Special Forces decryption

Chronicles Dazhaoweibin

In American terms, “special operations forces” (Special Operation Forces) and the “Special Forces” (Special Forces) are two concepts exist simultaneously. The former US Special Operations Command is under the jurisdiction of all forces referred to, including the Army Special Forces, 75 commandos, Navy Seals, “Delta” Force and SEAL Team 6; the latter refers specifically to the Army Special Forces, known as “Green Beret hat “forces. The force is due to Kennedy personally authorized to wear with other branches of the military are not the same Green Beret named.

It has a long history with the CIA origins very well. In 1952 the US created its first “Green Beret” troops, is to OSS (the predecessor of the CIA), “Jed fort” under the leadership of troops as a template. During World War II, “Jed fort” team was ordered to enter the territory of France, Belgium and the Netherlands were occupied, providing weapons and supplies for the resistance groups area, and act as the Supreme Allied Command with contact channels. Responsible for the formation of the force, Colonel Allen Burbank was a veteran of the Office of Strategic Services, the CIA after playing for, has a wealth of experience in covert operations. The task force was originally given is: Suppose the Soviet occupation of Western Europe, they will remain in the Soviet front organization behind the unconventional war. So far, unconventional warfare remains one of the core tasks of the Special Forces.Since the task often requires secrecy in times of peace or war before it started to prepare, and execute peacetime area of ​​responsibility belongs to the CIA’s covert operations mission, so often we need to work with the CIA when the Special Forces carry out such tasks or simply placed under the leadership of the CIA. CIA Special Operations agents are often recruited from the Special Forces veterans, it is not surprising.

Clear division of responsibility area worldwide. “Green Beret” troops now compiled five active duty brigades and two by the National Guard usually responsible for the supervision of trained reserve brigade. Five active-duty brigade Total Posts a million people, are responsible for the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Americas and Europe in five regions, corresponding to the formation of the US theater setting.According to their topography, political ecology, military deployment, the local language and customs of their respective areas of responsibility, etc., to carry out targeted training.Some troops were deployed in a long-term task of the region belongs to the friendly countries to better combat environment where the familiar. Under the big division, and each brigade has a very fine internal division of labor. A Special Forces squad as the basic combat unit, and its 12 members are familiar with the operations, intelligence, weapons, engineering, medical, communications expertise in one of the six, and by cross-training to master one to two additional expertise.

Ability comprehensive, one play multiple roles. Compared to the commando skills to the extreme to show “Delta” force and “SEAL Team 6”, “Green Beret” troops skill players is more comprehensive and balanced, they not only have excellent commando skills, but also possess a the US military called a “diplomatic warrior” skills that language and culture skills, interpersonal skills and political sensitivity. Due to the wide implementation of anti-terrorism, reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, unconventional warfare task, they have to play a role not only heroic commandos, more mature, alert and flexible intelligence agents, coaches and diplomats. In the recruitment process, the “Green Berets” force requirements should recruit must go through foreign language skills tested, along with social communication, military training, weapons, operational and organizational aspects of directing talent. Taking into account the language and cultural skills through short-term training is difficult to obtain, often targeting special forces in recruiting those with an ethnic minority background or appearance, with skilled foreign language ability. Shortlisted players to accept the harsh physical and fighting skills, while also learning psychological warfare course and language intensive training to ensure that they are trained to play multiple comprehensive ability and quality possible.

Frequent use of the name rarely made public. Since the formation of the “green beret” troops will be frequently used, but in view of the confidentiality of their duties, as well as its inherent low profile style, the message about these tasks rarely made public, it is difficult to see in newspapers. For example, in the late 1950s, they have been sent to Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, South Korea, Indonesia and other places, for the training of local forces; in 1967 was sent to Bolivia, Bolivian Army responsible for training camp do not move, and to assist them killed the central figure of the Cuban revolution, Che Guevara; in 1989 a large-scale invasion of Panama participated in the “just cause” to overthrow Noriega regime. After the Cold War, the United States authorities for their use continues unabated. “Desert Storm” operation, they were deployed in advance to Kuwait and Iraq depth zone, execute several months of secret reconnaissance missions provided an important headquarters for the coalition military intelligence; aggression in Afghanistan “Enduring Freedom” operation, they had a beard riding a mule, local people dressed in costumes, under air fire support, the leadership of the Northern Alliance armed overthrow of the Taliban regime.

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史志达 赵蔚彬

在美军术语中,“特种作战部队”(Special Operation Forces)与“特种部队”(Special Forces)是同时存在的两个概念。前者是美军特种作战司令部下辖所有部队的统称,包括陆军特种部队、75突击队、海豹突击队、“三角洲”部队和海豹6队等;后者则专指陆军特种部队,即“绿色贝雷帽”部队。该部队因被肯尼迪亲自授权佩戴与其他兵种不一样的绿色贝雷帽而得名。






China’s PLA core mission is winning local wars in conditions of informationization



In order to win local wars under conditions of informatization, vigorously strengthen military struggle preparation, is a successful experience and important way to guide army building, our army is a major strategic task. Supremely important strategic task. People’s Army Central Military Commission established in accordance with the decisions and arrangements, preparations for military struggle toward a new journey stride forward.

Walking preparations for military struggle rational development road

New China came nearly 60-year history. For decades, the country was much larger rivals, dangerous, but always to stand up, continue to grow and live. There are a lot of successful experience, a very important one is to rely on comprehensive solid preparations for military struggle. It can be said, precisely because of the people’s army “ready”, was created a homeland security steel wall, the guardian of the people’s happiness and peace, prosperity and security of the economic and social development. Recalling decades stormy journey preparations for military struggle, glory Aureole achievements, we should also clearly see that not enough scientific areas. For example, many units ready for Military Struggle, the guiding ideology too much emphasis on specific threats, over-reliance on “the situation stimulus” caused suddenly strong suddenly weak level of combat readiness and combat effectiveness of the construction fluctuated, military preparations did not struggle to maintain autonomy and healthy sustainable development.

Different things when it moves, it is something different equipment variants. Currently, preparations for military struggle and stands at a new historical starting point. National security situation is undergoing complex and profound changes, on the one hand, traditional security threats and non-traditional security threats we face are increasing, the world’s major powers in my peripheral geostrategic competition intensified, neighboring countries, political turbulence, regional security environment, there are many hidden dangers domestic ethnic separatist forces and their activities is rampant, affecting national security instability, increasing uncertainty, preparations for military struggle facing unprecedented challenges; on the other hand, the international unilateralism setback, the financial crisis delayed the expansion of global hegemony, Taiwan situation has eased, I eased pressure on the main strategic directions, preparations for military struggle facing unprecedented opportunities.This opportunity is not only strategic, but also historic. How to seize the opportunity to make good use of the opportunity and momentum forward, the current preparations for military struggle to answer practical proposition. After 30 years of reform and development, army building a qualitative leap, the synthesis of troops, higher level of information, science and technology-intensive, quality and efficiency features more obvious preparations for military struggle with Keziliyong rich results and advancing the jump basic conditions. Into the new century, Hu focused on the special requirements of the party of national defense and army building, giving the army the “three offers, a play,” the historical mission, stressing that “in order to enhance our military must win local wars under information age conditions core, and constantly improve the ability to respond to multiple security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks. ” This series of major strategic thinking, adjust the point of preparations for military struggle to expand the mandate of the contents of preparations for military struggle.Scientific concept of development of this important guidelines established for military combat preparations put a higher demand good seek fast, according to a comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development and people-oriented standards, there are many ideas need liberation, a lot of work need to innovate, many aspects need to be improved.

Advance preparations for military struggle in the new situation, because of the situation must change, because of the situation set policy, based on a new starting point, to seek new development. Should be based on the threat of grasping ready to strengthen all-round “threat awareness” and “enemy concept,” war is not far away and do not fully understand the only one of the grim reality, unswervingly push forward preparations for military struggle. Should be prepared based on the task grasp the fundamental task of the military is to fight and ready to fight, the battle can not fight a hundred years, but not a moment to relax ready, you must follow the standard effective functioning of the mission, to promote a comprehensive and systematic preparations for military struggle. Should be based on the ability to catch ready, out of the enemy carried away by emergency preparedness passive mode, active design of future wars, there are plans to increase planned to respond to multiple security threats and accomplish diverse military tasks ability, steadily push forward the scientific military preparations struggle.

In major breakthroughs improve the quality of preparations for military struggle

Unfocused no strategy, no emphasis on difficult to break. Make full use of important strategic opportunities, to seize the key content to seek a breakthrough, not only to follow the objective requirements of preparations for military struggle inherent laws, it is an urgent need to comprehensively improve the combat capability of the armed forces.

Practice basic military training as a peacetime army, and combat effectiveness is the basic way of development, is the most direct and most effective preparations for military struggle.We must further enhance awareness of the importance of military training, military training to effectively attach strategic position, really big catch in the army military training, training vigorously promote the formation of a new upsurge in transition. Joint training should seize the key to the combat effectiveness, strengthen joint awareness, improve the quality of the joint, improve joint training and regulations, improve the mechanism of joint training, promoting joint military training from form to substance. Should be training in complex electromagnetic environments as an important entry point and the starting point, and actively explore the organization and command training, research and technological measures for an effective way to combat training and weapons training, operational use, accelerating military training under conditions of mechanization to military training in conditions of informationization change. Training mission should be subject to the carrier, active configuration set up similar to actual battlefield environment, explore the combat training, field based training and base training, simulated training and network training as the main way to really, hard, in fact, test standards to test than pulling mechanism for the implementation of the path of combat training, enhance training effectiveness. Should actively carry out non-war military operations training to improve forces to carry out non-war military operations expertise, empowerment troops accomplish diverse military tasks.

People are fighting the various elements of the most active and most active element, talent preparations for military struggle preparation is the most important and the most difficult to prepare. Outcome of a war depends on the battlefield, but the link was to decide the outcome in the usual competition, in which the focus is talent. Currently, the key is to highlight the joint operations command personnel and high-level professional and technical personnel two “strategic starting point”, traction and promote the overall development of qualified personnel capacity building. Protruding joint operations command personnel training, establish and improve strategic and operational focus on training to improve pattern-level commanders around the joint operations to improve personnel training system, the reform of teaching contents and methods of joint operations, commanding officers to increase job rotation and cross-training, step up joint operational command emergency personnel training, strengthen and improve measures. Outstanding high-level professional and technical personnel training. Follow focus, both in general, to seize the lead, lead the overall principle, focus on training across disciplines planning to organize major research projects of leading scientists, to promote discipline capable of directing talents academic technology innovation and development, equipment and technology to solve complex security technical expert personnel problems, and provide a strong intellectual support information technology.

Soldiers rapidly guiding the iron law of war, under conditions of informationization more emphasis on “speed advantage.” Rapid response capacity has become an important indicator to measure the army’s combat readiness and combat capabilities. Should sound an agile and efficient emergency command mechanism. In recent years, the basis of summing up our military to accomplish diverse military tasks practical experience, grasp curing and conversion-related outcomes, the establishment of emergency response mechanisms and improve the regulatory system, improve the mechanism set up to develop response plans, organize relevant study and training, to ensure that if something happens quick response, efficient command, correct action. Should establish advanced and reliable command information system. In accordance with good interoperability, responsive, security and information sharing requirements established in the end longitudinal, transverse to the edge of the information networks and integrated one, simple hierarchy of command system, relying on information technology to improve emergency response command and rapid response capability. Grasp the strategic delivery of capacity-building characteristics and laws, focusing on the development of strategic transport aircraft (ship), military helicopters and new aircraft, and consider traffic battlefield, explore the establishment of smooth and efficient command and management mechanism, the overall advancement of the strategic transportation capacity building.

Security is a combat. Modern warfare combat operations at any one time, against all the system, comprehensive security have become increasingly demanding. Promoting military struggle preparation, must comprehensively improve the combat support, logistics and equipment support and other comprehensive support capabilities. Our military has historically focused on promoting the coordination of combat forces and combat support forces, reconnaissance, early warning, command and communications, mapping navigation, meteorology and hydrology, engineering, chemical defense and other support to improve the ability to achieve overall synchronization. However, with the continuous expansion and development of the situation changes in battlefield space combat support capability system began to appear new “short board” must be filled as soon as possible to form the overall advantages of joint operations full-dimensional battlefield. Logistics focus is to improve the level of modernization. In accordance with the requirements of the development, the steady implementation of the logistics reform, to promote the integration of the security system to protect the way to the community development, support means to move information, logistics management to scientific change, and promote sound and rapid development of the logistics building. Focusing on strengthening security equipment supporting construction. Improve the capability of independent innovation, accelerate the construction and development of new weapons and equipment, and constantly optimize the structure of armament systems.Focusing on supporting systems and equipment, and security systems supporting supporting construction, improve the equipment series, universal, standardized level, and gradually promote the formation of the organized system equipped to combat and support capabilities, accelerate the establishment of military and civilian production, integrating the armed forces weapons and equipment research and production system and maintenance support system, and further improve the integration of military and civilian equipment development path.

Adhere to scientific development and innovation of military struggle preparation path

Advance preparations for military struggle in the new starting point, we must adhere to the scientific concept of development as guidance, the practical application of the requirements of the times thinking, to explore the development path of innovation and preparations for military struggle.

Continue to emancipate the mind, reform of the army in the tide of the overall advancement of military preparations struggle. The more in-depth preparations for military struggle, the more touches concept of development, institutional mechanisms, policies and systems and other aspects of deep-seated contradictions and problems, and promote the greater the difficulty. The fundamental way to solve these problems, is to continue to emancipate the mind, deepen reform of national defense and army building. Strategic objectives of military reform is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war, which point preparations for military struggle is the same. Preparations for military struggle is the leading military reform and traction, military reform is an important part of preparations for military struggle and optimized conditions, both unity of purpose, mutually reinforcing. Thus, under the new situation to promote the preparations for military struggle, must be combined with promoting defense and military reform, to improve the combat effectiveness as a starting point and goal of reform, with the standards and unify thought reform measure reform measures, testing the effectiveness of reform, promote reform in preparations for military struggle.

Strengthen scientific co-ordination, in the process of modernization of the armed forces to coordinate the promotion preparations for military struggle. Military modernization is a big system, military struggle preparation is the key indeed affect the whole body. Well prepared for military struggle, will be able to provide clear and specific requirements for the overall development of our military modernization construction, provide real starting point, forming a huge traction force. Must stand on military modernization development overall perspective, the effective co-ordination with the main good times, far and near, and built with an equal relationship, the process of preparations for military struggle becomes strengthen military modernization process, the process of military modernization into service the process of preparations for military struggle, so that the two complement each other to promote the coordinated development.

Leading Position of Information, in the mode of generating combat transition to push ahead with preparations for military struggle. Currently, information technology is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat, is also changing all aspects of army building. Promoting military struggle preparation, must quickly adapt to this new situation, take the initiative out of the mindset of mechanization to strengthen the concept of information-led, focusing on scientific and technological progress to improve combat effectiveness, explore innovative adaptation of information requirements of the military concept of war, military technology, military organization and military management, focus on improving the training of military personnel, weapons and equipment development, the level of information the best combination of people and weapons, accelerate the transformation of military training, and gradually establish an effective mechanism to combat the new generation and improve and promote preparations for military struggle to achieve a qualitative leap.

Prominent real traction in accomplishing diversified military tasks to accelerate preparations for military struggle. Practice tells us that no matter how the evolution of the international situation, how to expand the Functions of the Army, how onerous diverse military tasks, containment and win wars, preservation of peace is always the most important functions of the army and winning conditions under local war always is the core mission of our military. Only with the core military capabilities and accomplish diverse military tasks have a solid foundation. We must always take to improve the core military capabilities in the first place, aimed at promoting the fundamental function fully prepared, ready to do more hands without “one-track mind,” not ready to classify “one size fits all”, without further preparation, “superficial”, trying to force the ability to adapt to various conditions, to cope with various situations and accomplish diverse military tasks.

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Source: PLA Daily

Originally Published 2009年01月08日

Chinese Military Reshuffle Carries Deep Significance

02FEB2016 Beijing, People’s Republic of China


China on Monday inaugurated the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) five new theater commands. The northern, southern, eastern, western and central theater commands replace the seven previous military area commands. The change from “military area command” to “theater command” carries more weight than the change from “seven” to “five.”

The essence of the theater commands is clear. The commands are prepared for combat and winning wars, about which the military and the public share a deep understanding. With such a military system, China’s peaceful development will be more serious and gain more respect from the outside.

It has been decades since the PLA was involved in a war. The outside world focuses more on the Dongfeng ballistic missile and the construction of aircraft carriers than about the military itself. The Chinese army has not made much impression on the world.

Perhaps some would prefer the Chinese military to keep a low profile, and it is even better that they advocate peace. The establishment of the five theater commands heralds a revolutionary change, highlighting the fundamentals of the military and the troops.

From now on, the strength of the Chinese military not only exists in historical documents or rests upon newly developed weapons, but also in its determination for victory and in its preparations.

The more powerful the PLA grows and the more capable it is of engaging in a war, the country will embrace a peaceful rise all the more. This will contribute to the nation’s peaceful rise, otherwise the outside world will only consider that peace is only our compulsory choice. If this happens, the peace of China and the world will face a dangerous future.

A major power will attract all kinds of opportunities for the world’s development and can share in global wealth distribution. But without corresponding military might, instability may brew. The security of a big power relates to the security of the whole world. That a big power is capable of fighting in a war but not obsessed in launching wars fits the common interests of all mankind.

Frankly speaking, the strength of the Chinese military can ensure the country is not intruded on by foreign troops, but it is not enough to promote fair competition and the evolution of order in a globalized era. Some external forces do not accept China’s rise. If such sentiments spread with military aid without restraint, it will hurt China’s security and world peace. There needs to be a tipping point where China is more secure, but how to find the tipping point is a subtle issue.

The Chinese military will shoulder heavier responsibilities in the future. China is close to the historical mission of a national rejuvenation. We are facing an unprecedented landscape, hopes and risks. The PLA will play a key role in helping the Chinese people pass the transition period smoothly and helping the world release some external grievances due to the power shifts of major countries.

Original Source: HERE

China Military Focus of Main Effort in Information Warfare: Electromagnetic Spectrum

来源:解放军报作者:郝嘉 周宁 周任飞责任编辑:张硕

● electromagnetic spectrum owned by the state, is the core of strategic resources for national development, promote social progress

● direct support operations of the electromagnetic spectrum, is building computerized armed forces and winning the information war of the central nervous system

Soul of the information war: the electromagnetic spectrum


Electromagnetic spectrum resources for humanity, as indispensable as water and sun. Information age, the electromagnetic spectrum is changing the world, changing the way people live

Core Tip

Electromagnetic spectrum exists in war by land, sea, air, space the whole time and space, is the only ideal medium capable of supporting mobile operations, decentralized operations and high intensity warfare. Important support elements of the electromagnetic spectrum management as joint operations, throughout the operational readiness, operational planning, operational implementation of the entire process, the role of command and control, intelligence and reconnaissance, weapons guidance, early warning and detection, navigation and other operational elements of the whole, is to improve the combat Important basic capabilities directly related weapons and equipment play information Operational Effectiveness.

Electromagnetic spectrum Past and Present

The physical world there is such a strange phenomenon, alternating current generated in the surrounding space alternating magnetic field, electric field and magnetic field variations mutual contacts to form an alternating electromagnetic field, and can spread from the wave source which produces the distance, this planted in the space at a constant speed of alternating electromagnetic field propagation is electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum, it is by electromagnetic waves lined up according to wavelength or frequency, a formed structure from zero to infinity pedigree, which 0-3000 gigahertz frequency range of radio waves.

Back in October 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. However, the future Queen of Spain, six months before he heard the news, unfortunately sudden and devastating. April 14, 1865, US President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated 13 days after the news spread was known industry’s most advanced British government, coping strategies are overtaken by events. Electromagnetic time unknown, human nature can not enjoy its magic.

In 1888, German physicist Hertz experiment is successful, humans finally touch the existence of electromagnetic waves. In 1901, as the “father of radio” Marconi trans-Atlantic radio communication test is successful, humanity has entered the era of electromagnetic radio communications sweeping the globe. In 1912, after the Titanic wreck, the United Kingdom, the United States and other maritime powers mandatory over a certain tonnage of the vessel must be installed radio stations, in order to protect the safety of life at sea. During World War I, the war all the major powers use radio communication to pass information and commands.

Since then, radio broadcasting, navigation, remote after another, to the development and progress of human society has brought great changes. Electromagnetic wave as an important carrier of information transmission, dash in land, sea, air, space four-dimensional space, accelerate the coming of the information age.













Electromagnetic spectrum is a national resource strategy

Electromagnetic spectrum is the only human transmission of information over wireless media, owned by the state, land, forest, mineral and other resources, as it is both a scarce natural resource in the areas of economic development, national defense and social life indispensable , irreplaceable core strategic resources.

At present, humans can use the radio spectrum in the 275 gigahertz or less, mainly concentrated in the range of 30 Hz to 40 gigahertz, but most are in the 3 gigahertz or less, high-quality resources is extremely limited.Therefore, the world has become intense competition for them.

Frequency satellite orbit resources, for example, known as the 80% share of the “golden navigation frequency”, the US GPS and Russian GLONASS navigation system first to seize the countries in the world have to compete for the remaining resources.

Electromagnetic spectrum is widely used in the economic, military and other fields, combined with the scarcity of resources prominent contradictions, it gradually from the back to the front, electromagnetic space and the game become the world compete for important battlefield.

Each year, the US President issued specifically concerning electromagnetic spectrum “presidential memorandum”, leading the electromagnetic spectrum policy and national army. The British government published its “21st Century Spectrum Management” white paper, clearly the introduction of spectrum pricing, spectrum auction, spectrum trading and other means to encourage the efficient use of spectrum resources development and new technologies.

The study reports that the electromagnetic spectrum can contribute each year to 3-5 percent of the total national economy. From 1995 to 2011, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries for the development of the third and fourth generation mobile communication network, spectrum auction value of $ 130 billion. Russia, France, Germany, Japan, Australia and other countries competing to improve the relevant laws and regulations, maintain the electromagnetic spectrum space to maximize their national interests, strongly promote the electromagnetic spectrum resources market and internationalization.

Manage electromagnetic space “traffic light”

Although the electromagnetic spectrum is present in the natural space, invisible, but it does not mean that the State, organizations and individuals are free to use occupied.

With modern urban traffic management have great similarities, at the technical level, the electromagnetic frequency spectrum management major from, space, time three-dimensional expansion, which is vividly called electromagnetic space “traffic lights.”

Currently, the international scope of the electromagnetic spectrum management mainly through the establishment of an international organization, signed an international agreement to allocate spectrum to resolve unified. States also set up frequency spectrum management and monitoring of the site, and to divide the spectrum resource use.

According to statistics, a US infantry division of about 70 radar, radio station 2800, a Russian motorized infantry division of about 60 radar, radio station 2040 to ensure so much electronic equipment to work smoothly, you need a strong power and spectrum management mechanism. After the baptism of several local wars, the US military high command from the field to have a specialized division of spectrum management agencies from the Department of Defense, the Joint Staff to the armed services, has established a complete set of joint campaign spectrum management system, formed a mature management mechanism.

According to the US Army website reported, the United States developed a new Joint Tactical Radio System, which contains the spectrum defragmentation technology, is not a continuous spectrum of debris re-polymerization, to achieve the integration of resources to meet the needs of purpose. European development of the “Spectrum pool” technology, but also the integration of free spectrum resource collection, and dynamically allocated based on customer needs, improve efficiency in the use of the spectrum.

Now, the world’s major countries are seeking to develop spectrum sharing technology, without changing the existing spectrum allocation rules, through technical analysis tools simulate actual combination, so that different systems can share the same frequency band compatible. In addition, many countries and organizations through the use of advanced signal transmission technology, using a frequency equipment to improve the level of technology, and other means to control the transmission frequency, both to avoid the deterioration of the electromagnetic environment, but also to achieve efficient use of spectrum.

“The 21st century will be the era of the spectrum war”

Traditional air and sea superiority play, must be based on the electromagnetic advantage, losing electromagnetic power, will lose control of the air, sea control, electromagnetic space and space has become, ground and ocean coexistence fourth dimension battlefield. It can be said that the future of information warfare, who won the electromagnetic power, grasps the initiative on the battlefield. Former Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff Thomas Muller said: “If a third world war, the winner will be the most adept at controlling the use of the electromagnetic spectrum and the party.”

Faced with escalating competition in the world of the electromagnetic spectrum, the US military has issued a joint spectrum vision, strategic planning and the Department of Defense Spectrum “Spectrum war” and other top-level strategic guidance documents, and to take away from the crowded band, the development of high-end spectrum, etc., developed microwave , laser, electromagnetic pulse weapons, etc., to actively seize the spectrum.British forces widely promote the use of intelligent and efficient radio modulation techniques to improve spectrum utilization efficiency of a wireless communication system.

In order to obtain the advantages of the spectrum in the future information warfare, Europe and the United States armed forces through the establishment of specialized agencies electromagnetic compatibility, the use of advanced simulation techniques to develop quality indicators management system, develop joint spectrum management system, etc., to improve battlefield electromagnetic spectrum management capabilities.

In recent years, cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum sensing, frequency control simulation deduction, emerging electromagnetic environmental adaptability analysis of new technologies, to the military electromagnetic spectrum management development has brought great opportunities and challenges. Experts predict that the future will share a common electromagnetic spectrum management towards spectrum resources, spectrum efficiency analysis and refinement of embedded dynamic spectrum management, direction and progress.




















Classic examples of the electromagnetic spectrum

In 1914, the US Navy Atlantic Fleet in the first trial under the state of war radio communication equipment, results strongly spark near neighbor ship transmitters interference interrupt all radio communication, the participants had to make time allocation plan, assigned to the United States for two hours domestic radio transmitter, the other four countries 1 hour each. Thus, the Washington-based headquarters to an interval of 4 hours to its armed forces on the battlefield contact again.

In 1967, the US “Forrestal” aircraft carrier in the implementation of a particular military mission, carrier F-4 “Phantom” fighter ship radar beam is irradiated by the interference, the aircraft hanging space rocket was accidentally fired ignition, hit ship an a-4 “Skyhawk” attack aircraft fuel tank, causing a chain explosion, causing heavy casualties.

April 1980, the US Joint Task Force and local school Rangers joint implementation embassy hostage rescue mission in Iraq. In its way to evacuate due to a communication device and the Rangers are not compatible with the frequent collaboration errors, resulting in a helicopter and transport aircraft collided, eight commandos were burned to death and four serious burns.

May 4, 1982, the Falklands War, the British naval weapon known as a symbol and pride of the fleet, “Sheffield” cruiser by satellite communication and radar systems are not compatible, can only start work in turn, the result was Argentina “Super flag “aircraft launched the” flying fish “missile sunk.

June 9, 1982, the fifth Middle East war, Israel intercepted prior use of the Syrian army radar and “Sam” spectral parameters of the missile launch, just 6 minutes will be stationed in the Bekaa Valley which cost $ 2 billion in 19 “Sam” air defense missile sites completely destroyed. In the next two days of combat, Israeli fighter planes and electronic jamming aircraft with combat, created a miracle in the history of air combat.

After April 21, 1996, the Russian war in Chechnya, the hunting group through special electronic warfare, electronic signal war zone to collect, monitor, cell phone signal reconnaissance to Dudayev, was analyzed to confirm, and lock the phone signal coordinate system, cruise warplanes fired missiles on Dudayev was “targeted killings.”

May 2011, the US Navy Seals and Special Air Service regiment battle the implementation of “Neptune Spear” initiative. SEALs use of “Land Warrior” soldier system, and joint operations center for situation analysis and sharing of intelligence, special operations group UAV crew via satellite communication system commando operations return the White House and the Pentagon. Throughout its action, the US military weapons systems use spectrum resources covering all channels, in just 40 minutes, successfully kill Osama bin Laden.








People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

People’s Republic of China: People’s Liberation Army General Officer Changes for New Military Commands

China on Friday, January 1st, 2016 unveiled further details of one of its largest military reforms, launching three new bodies of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), including an army command, an upgraded missile force and a special force for space and cyber wars. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who also heads the Central Military Committee (CMC), on Thursday conferred military flags to the commanders of the three bodies, namely the PLA Army General Command, the PLA Rocket Force and the PLA Strategic Support Force, at their inauguration ceremony in Beijing. This is part of China’s key reforms aimed at enhancing the Communist Party of China’s (CPC) leadership over the military, and boosting the PLA’s combat capabilities by establishing a modern military system.


Newly Assigned PLA Generals of the Strategic Rocket and Support Forces

PLA’s New General Officer Assignments

[Pictured above starting with back row]

Army Commander Li Zuocheng (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Army political commissar Liu Lei (former political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Lieutenant General Peng Bo (formerly the Lanzhou Military Region Deputy Commander)

Major General You Haitao (formerly the Nanjing Military Chief of Staff Region Deputy Commander)

Major General Ronggui Qing (formerly the Chengdu Military Region Commander)

Major General Shi Xiao (former deputy political commissar of the Lanzhou Military Region)

Major General Wu Gang (former deputy political commissar of the Nanjing Military Region, the Discipline Committee)

Major General Liuzhen Li (former General Armament Department of the Army equipment research)

Major General Zhangshu Guo (formerly the Beijing Military Region Political Department)

Major General Han Zhiqing (former Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Major General Gao Bo (former chief minister of Minister of Joint Logistics Department of the Jinan Military Region)

Senior Colonel (Brigadier General Select)Lu Rong Yi (ordered to command the Ministry of Scientific Research)


People’s Liberation Army Command

The army used to be supervised by four headquarters – the General Staff Headquarters, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The establishment of the Army General Command puts the control directly under the Central Military Commission. It is a major measure to improve the leadership and command system, the Ministry of National Defense said earlier.

Through a joint command and combat system, the Central Military Commission will be able to directly lead the army, the navy, the air force and rocket force, which will largely enhance the efficiency during wartime, said Song. At a Chinese military conferral ceremony, President Xi said the move to form the Army General Command, the Rocket Force and the Strategic Support Force is a major decision by the CPC Central Committee and the Central Military Commission to realize the Chinese dream of a strong military, and a strategic step to establish a modern military system with Chinese characteristics. It will be a milestone in the modernization of the Chinese military and will be recorded in the history of the people’s armed forces, according to Xi.

The Central Military Commission has also released a guideline on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after Xi ordered a military administration and command system overhaul at a key meeting. According to the guideline, a new structure will be established in which the CMC takes charge of the overall administration of the PLA, the Chinese People’s Armed Police and the militia and reserve forces, while battle zone commands focus on combat and various military services pursue development. The military reforms, which will involve massive restructuring and regrouping, are expected to “make major breakthroughs” and achieve concrete results by 2020, according to the CMC.

PLA Cyber and Space forces


Yang did not get into much detail about what the Strategic Support Force is, but said it is a force which combines the strategic, basic and support resources of the country’s new type of combat forces. But Song said this new force is mainly aimed at providing resources capable of protecting China’s cyber and space security. Song said the establishment of the Strategic Support Force shows the Chinese leadership’s vision of building a military that can meet the challenges of not only traditional warfare but also of new warfare centered on new technology.

PLA Rocket Force

Analysts said the establishment of the PLA Rocket Force is an upgrade of the previous Second Artillery Force, which operates strategic as well as conventional missile weapons.

The upgrade places the rocket force on an equal footing with the army, navy and air force, said Song Zhongping, a military expert. The name change to the Rocket Force from “Second Artillery Force” also shows China’s determination to enhance military transparency. It will also impose strong strategic deterrence, he said. The Defense Ministry on Friday stressed that the establishment of the Rocket Force does not mean a major change of its nuclear policy. Reiterating its no-first-use nuclear weapons policy and defensive nuclear strategy, spokesperson Yang Yujun said at a press conference that China’s nuclear policy remains consistent, and China always keeps its nuclear capability at the minimum level required for safeguarding its national security. “We will strive to build a strong and modern Rocket Force,” he said.


Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate 中華人民共和國國防部揭秘中國總參首長

Ministry of Defence in the People’s Republic of China

Demystifying China’s General Staff Directorate



China’s People’s Liberation Army General Staff, subordinate to the Communist Party of China Central Committee. The Central Military Commission, is the organization which leads China’s national armed forces; it is a building and military operational command of the supreme command of authority. After streamlining under Xi Jinping’s recent modernization and adjustment, the Office of the General Staff now has an Operations Division, a Ministry of Information, the third section, is the Ministry of Information, which includes military training, a military affairs department, an equipment procurement department, a mobilization section, artillery, armor, combat engineering, anti-chemical warfare unit , electronic warfare radar units, Department of Political Affairs, Confidential Bureau of Surveying and Mapping Bureau, Foreign Affairs Bureau, Aviation Authority, and the military authority over other departments within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).


The following highlights at a few key sectors:

A General Staff

General Staff is considered a “General Staff Operations Department,” and is the ultimate operational military authority under China’s Central Military Commission, General Staff of the sequence is the “boss.” One is the most crucial of the General Staff, a division of the army all military commands are issued by one. He is the headquarters of the army during the war, when the war broke out, he was the representative of the country’s Central Military Commission, commander of military operations, and it also serves as the country’s highest military command, from the first place in the hierarchy of the General Staff.

Bai Jianjun incumbent Minister Major General Staff Operations Department, served as the Jinan Military Region deputy commander of the 54th Army, in March 2008, Marshall became the first 20 Army commander led his troops in May to participate in earthquake relief. 2009 appointed Minister of the General Staff Operations Division. There are five deputy minister one, are Major General, the direct leadership of the Chief of Staff Admiral Room Feng Hui.

General Staff of the General Staff is one of the largest department, under the jurisdiction of eight regular division level of bureau-level units, including the operational plan bureau, war Environment Agency, Joint Operations Bureau, Bureau of combat logistics organization, the Special Operations Bureau, the Bureau of the strategic objectives, readiness Bureau the exercise of the Authority. Two units would be under the jurisdiction of more to go, this section of the generals there are dozens of people, there is a joke, just throw a big stone, you can killed several generals. Liang Guanglie, chief of general staff came out after the reform, the US Joint Chiefs of Staff learning system, has been prepared to adjust. The military services, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, the Strategic Missile Forces (Artillery) – were in combat with a corresponding portion of the armed services bureau, in peacetime, the military services bureau responsible for tracking the corresponding daily activities of the military services, and to the Central Military Commission report. And in wartime, is responsible for coordinating the activities of the various military services.

A functional equivalent of the Pentagon’s Joint Staff J-3. Suppose the PLA is preparing a formal war plan, or emergency contingency plans, then this is a dry live. If Japan is now suddenly on the Diaoyu Islands to stir up trouble, then, is the one responsible for what, in 2001, the South China Sea military aircraft collided, is a direct command of the situation by the process. Also on the 1st to the 6th Shenzhou spacecraft launch, recovery, participation by a command of the General Staff, scheduling.

General Staff on duty 24 hours a belonging department, the command post located near the Summer Palace in northwest Beijing Yuquan Hill, commonly known as “Western Hills command post”, hundreds of meters deep underground command post by the elevator and out, can withstand nuclear attack; the Chinese people PLA land, sea and air, the Second Artillery Corps combat nerve center, similar to the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center. Its own communication center, information center, operations center, and other functional allegations. In wartime can act as a “national war command center” role. Western Hills command post with similar national readiness command center, the country there are many.

Second section of the General Staff

Two is the General Staff of the General Staff “intelligence unit”, is responsible for collecting, analyzing military and political intelligence, and the General Staff and the General Political Department of the three are considered military intelligence system. In a way, its strategic intelligence work and the Ministry of State Security (MSS) has partially overlap. Two main “customer” is the leadership of the General Staff, the Central Military Commission, the Department of Defense, branches of the military headquarters, the military-industrial leadership, and troop commander.

Major General Yang Hui is the incumbent minister of the General Staff bipartite, who has worked in Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia, the former Soviet Embassy, ​​the Russian Embassy and Kazakh embassy, ​​and later served as vice minister of the General Staff of three, 31 Army deputy commander and concurrently he was appointed Russia Eastern Europe, Central Asia Institute, vice president, director of the Anti-Terrorism Research Center, China International Strategic Studies, Senior Fellow, adjunct professor of the Nanjing Institute of International Relations. Major General Yang Hui network warfare specialists. (Note: The latest data, Vice Minister Chen Friendship promoted bipartite minister)

General Staff consists of more than two bureau-level units.

A game in which the General Staff bipartite intelligence gathering is mainly responsible for Hong Kong and Taiwan. Of course, it is also responsible for important goals worldwide. The following inning with five offices: Guangzhou work at work at Beijing, Tianjin work at work at Shanghai, Shenyang work place. These work all over the place in this city in the name of certain offices appear. For example, work at Guangzhou, the Guangzhou Municipal People’s Government is the fifth office. Beijing Working People’s Government of Beijing Office called several offices. Now head of bipartite work at Beijing, the original military attaché in Russia. This is based on the geographical distribution of five configurations are also engaged in the work of the secret intelligence operations overseas. For example, Shenyang is responsible for intelligence gathering work in Russia, Eastern Europe, Japan, and the Guangzhou office work also seems to be responsible for intelligence gathering its adjacent areas. Its primary goal is to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions people. Shanghai and Nanjing at work at work are responsible for Western Europe and the United States.

Second, the General Staff Department of the Second Board, also known as “tactical intelligence bureau”, the PLA’s seven military regions (Guangzhou, Lanzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, Jinan, Beijing, and Shenyang) each under the jurisdiction of the military intelligence unit, is being at the division level. These two sectors directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Second Board of Management. Primarily responsible for providing tactical intelligence to seven military forces and coordinate their work.

Two military intelligence officers of the General Staff Department of Military Strategy in order to meet demand and sent intelligence, belonging to the General Staff bipartite three innings, commonly known as military attaché office, there are more than four hundred employees, by geographical region and the importance of the Special Envoy of the collection activities is subdivided into seven groups. Military personnel gather intelligence on major foreign arms technology, the scale of war, military doctrine, economic and policy aspects. A lot of this information can be obtained from public sources, but sensitive technology in general must also be taken in order to obtain confidential manner. The main way to get there is the General Staff Intelligence bipartite three ways: First, in various capacities as a cover for sending military personnel to a foreign intelligence; the second is the analysis of military intelligence from foreign publications; third is sent to the embassy military attaché. Chinese embassies were sent by the military attaché bipartite General Staff, and not by the Foreign Ministry or the Ministry of Defence. Attaché is military personnel, the highest level is the military attaché in the United States, is the military level, the rank of Major General. Some military attaché stationed in other countries is a positive military level, some deputy corps, but in most countries the military attaché, were positive at the division level, which is the colonel.

Two military personnel have specialized training institutions, training programs including espionage skills and language ability. Two former Minister General Staff Major General Luo Yudong served as president of the Nanjing Institute of Foreign Affairs. Nanjing Foreign Affairs College now renamed the People’s Liberation Army Institute of International Relations, the predecessor of the PLA 793 hospital School of Foreign Languages, Luoyang and Nanjing after the Cultural Revolution moved from Zhangjiakou, is divided into two colleges. That’s two intelligence skills training and language skills of school.

Second, under the jurisdiction of the Department of the General Staff also have many intelligence analysis bureau, responsible for specific geographical targets deep intelligence analysis: If the bipartite four innings responsible for understanding the CIS and Eastern Europe, political and military policy, five innings for the US and Western countries Analysis of intelligence gathering; and the sixth inning put the focus on neighboring Asian countries and China. Five innings during political and economic analysis of the main advantage of open channels to obtain publications. Analysts bipartite in the United States often have to work for many years in the United States, because this particular study enjoy high reputation in China intelligence circles. At the same time it may take considerable time and effort to develop the language ability of the analyst, so that he can identify the cultural and political information publications in the United States and Europe reflected. Five innings two favorite sources of information is the US Congress and the RAND Corporation report file.

Bipartite seven innings for the Science and Technology Bureau, is responsible for military weapons research, design and development of intelligence. Seven foreign intelligence aimed at future military science and technology, and domestic weapons development unit has close ties, can play a significant role in weapons development process. Qiju existing six research institutions belong to the Agency’s Management: includes fifty-eighth Institute of espionage equipment development, production and technical assistance equipment seagulls electronic equipment factory, Beijing electronics factory, fifty-seventh Institute, North Jiaotong University Computer center and where your own computer center.

Two and a bureau of arms control, specifically designed to deal with foreign ballistic missile defense systems and arms control issues. Since the Foreign Ministry has a department in charge of arms control and disarmament, the People’s Liberation Army and he set up a similar department. And the arms control mechanism is provided under the two, it is because the work of intelligence and foreign affairs at the General Staff of the interior is made with a deputy chief of staff to charge.

Section II has the following departments:

Archives Collection publications abroad. It is a subordinate unit of military Yi Wen Press, the company responsible for the translation and re-military magazine published in other countries.

Secret Service is responsible for handling, conveying and collection of confidential documents, is also responsible for the development of security classification of documents.

Provide comprehensive logistics services for office staff, such as transportation, office equipment, entertainment centers and diet.

Guard Bureau is responsible for the safety of the Central Military Commission and the headquarters of leadership. In the second section of the security agencies also enjoy judicial powers.

In addition, the name of the General Staff publicly bipartite research institution “International Institute for Strategic Studies”, which is past the Beijing International Institute of Research. So that both experts and scholars Strategic Research Institute, is the second unit of the General Staff officer. For example, in the period after Chen Shui-bian, the Taiwan Strait tensions, often published by a young scholar to speak against Taiwan Xin Qi, which is the second portion of the General Staff of a scholar. Staff Intelligence bipartite level is much higher than the Ministry of National Security, as it has been extended from the Red Army era to the present, therefore, there is China’s CIA (US Central Intelligence Agency) said.

Second section of the General Staff intelligence officers who are basically three: dense industrial and commercial dry, anchored. The first man is of the General Staff of full-time military personnel bipartite, is in the preparation of such a person in the circle is called the “secret work” professionally trained. The Ministry of State Security and Public Security of these people are called “dense dry”, but also in public security or national security establishment in the interior. The second man is half in the series, in the circle is called the “commercial dry”, saying that they are ‘half in the series “because their names on the computer intelligence unit, but the staff did not enter the military system. The administrative establishment such as one called Zhang Peng, whether it is an accident in Guangdong beat up, robbed, or open the underground brothel, as long as there is no dead, police came when Zhang Peng, Peng can say: You I cannot move, I was engaged in intelligence, a certain person. In addition, if Peng exit, than People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration can only take six thousand Hong Kong dollars in Hong Kong when the Chinese citizens to the provisions of carry sixty ten thousand Hong Kong dollars and then caught by Customs, customs Peng will tell people, you cannot move me, I was the mouth of intelligence, is a certain person. Then customs will likely make a phone call to the authorities to ask. And because Peng’s name is on the mouth of computer intelligence, there a check and said: Peng is our people after such confirmation, the customs then you can only put people to put money.

In fact, the second man inside, and can be divided into two categories: one is relatively close to the “secret workers” are both on the list of military computers, has officially made the uniforms. Also, there is a salary nominally, the Central Military Commission is Rehang. If this person is indeed engaged in intelligence work because of the expense, then the money will be handed over to the man’s family. This may usually receive no wages, but the state will retain a person for this. Another person is not doing intelligence, it can be said of such people into the intelligence sector is purely to be able to rely on the usual relationship between the two portions for trading a lot of money. Because everyone knows that Chinese military authorities have called exemption chapter, there is an absolute privilege exemption of imports of goods. A third person is called “anchored”, which most people in the community. The vast majority of these people who are affiliated to a number of foreign military in the local offices below. For example: the Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department of identity at the local level is the “Guangdong Provincial People’s Government fifth office”, the head of sub-director and political commissar. The original five-run political commissar called Fu Jun, vice minister-level equivalent of Guangzhou Military Intelligence Department, he turned out to be the Director of Personnel Department of the Guangzhou Military Region.

Three of the General Staff

Three General Staff, also known as “listening unit”, is responsible for interception, processing and transfer of foreign radio communication signal propagation. That is through a border and coastal areas in the numerous “listening post” in intercepting electronic intelligence work. Former intelligence officers monitoring 24 hours a day listening to foreign television, and now adds support for Internet surveillance. This is somewhat similar to the US National Security Agency (NSA). “Network Control Center” section of the three located in Haidian District. General Staff is currently estimated at three hundred thousand persons responsible for monitoring all international calls. All international calls on recording equipment in advance to enter some key words, such as the names of some of the Chinese leaders, some sensitive event name, as well as some of the taboo words, when the recorder is sensitive to these terms, it will automatically jump up, then monitor staff will immediately check this phone to track listening, and three also intercepted faxes overseas.

Three overseas has many listening posts, in 1992 the Government of Myanmar agreed to set up a listener Chinese station on the Andaman Islands, to monitor the Indian Ocean. 1994 Lao government agree China Champasak Province in southern Laos (Champasak) listens to establish three stations, one in Khong. 1999 Chinese in Cuba located on Lourdes (Lourdes) in a project to expand cooperation listens station, the station was originally established by the Soviet Union.

Three is also responsible for domestic military network communication listener work, any wired and wireless communication links cannot avoid this listener’s ears network between the military regions, which helps to combat security checks.

Similar to the second section of the General Staff, General Staff three in seven military also has subsidiary bodies, regional anti-military regions responsible for intelligence gathering and processing backbone listens station is the headquarters of three military regions to operate directly under the jurisdiction of the General Staff Department of the three management. The commander of military regions and staff have no right to intervene in the three institutions to expand their area of ​​prevention work. There is no affiliation between its stationed with the provincial military and large military. These listeners stand personnel, budget, establish respectfully the responsibility of the three Department of the General Staff. Listening station military regions have different functions and objectives of the region, such as: the Lanzhou Military Region, responsible for three innings in signal communication with the Russian side of the listener, and shoulder the important mission of the Russian missile attack early warning. The department should belong to three eight innings, the “former Soviet Union responsible for intercept electronic communications signal”, Central Asian republics also the council’s target range, the listener object is the Sino-Russian border areas. Three 12th Bureau is mainly responsible for the “identification and tracking of foreign satellite – the US military satellites.” A facility located 12 Bureau of Xichang.

Three minister Major General Wu Guohua, political commissar: Major General Wang Yongsheng.

Four General Staff

Four General Staff as “electronic radar countermeasure unit”, established in 1990, is mainly responsible for electronic warfare, including electronic intelligence, electronic warfare, and radar control and so on. Minister of the General Staff had accounted for four flat Major. In recent years, the PLA and electronic warfare tactics Jizhen been strengthened. Before the formation of the General Staff of four electronic warfare is a duty two portions. In addition to the implementation of the policy content of the PLA electronic warfare theory prescribed, four also provides electronic defense to strategic objectives, such as the Western Hills in Beijing military command and control center of the C4I system. In providing electronic protective measures to important national goals, and also in charge of the General Staff of four electronic warfare units army down to the division level units belong. Also manages and signals intelligence and electronic warfare operations leading naval and air forces, such as airborne intelligence-gathering system, the Navy shipboard facilities.

There are also a number four innings, armed forces troops to provide guidance on business respectively, directly under the Department of Electronics and radar troops against troop’s vertical leadership, or their counterparts responsible for some of the work of the Institute. Including the Southwest Research Institute of Electronic (i.e. 29 Chengdu Institute), responsible for the development of radar jammer station. 54 Institute of General Staff, that the special “for the development of electronic warfare and radar unit radar pulse parameters analyzed digital signal processors electronic intelligence.” 36 Hefei Institute, responsible for the development of communication jammer. In addition, the General Staff as well as its own four military academies, including Hefei PLA Electronic Engineering Institute.

In addition to managing the PLA’s military communications systems outside the General Staff Communication Department also full communications infrastructure modernization drive in China has played a leading role. Mainly includes the following items:

◎ Military telephone network (non-secret)

◎ Confidential telephone network

◎ Army data communications network (probably above the “army of public data exchange network”)

◎ Field communications system, which “integrates sound, light, electrical signals, the use of aerial, underground, submarine data link.” (As tactical / operational network system, the integration of optical fiber communications, and satellite communications.)

Another item on the People’s Liberation Army communication systems include:

◎ Underground fiber-optic network

◎ Communications satellite

◎ Microwave Communication

◎ Shortwave radio stations

◎ Automatic command and control network

General Staff Communication Department has a lot of units and personnel within the establishment in the fixed communication facilities (such as high-frequency communications, microwave communications, satellite communications, telephone switching systems, tropospheric scatter communications) as well as mobile communications equipment strategy. Four General Staff under a lot of maintenance and logistics units within the establishment to the relevant equipment repair, supply, maintenance, testing, calibration, and perform the functions of the General terms. In short, the General Staff Communication Department shouldered the main military mission is: planning and realization of the PLA modernization operational command and administrative communication network. Currently in charge of General Staff Communication Department is to build a telecommunication network to meet the need to fight a “local war under high-tech conditions”. At this point, the communication unit is focusing on achieving “six changes” military communications. These changes include:

  1. from the analog communications to digital communications transformation
  2. The transition from cable to fiber optic cable
  3. Terminal to change from single-use multipurpose terminal
  4. From the electromechanical switching system to an automatic switching system changes
  5. from the single-task network transition to multi-task network
  6. from manual to automated systems management and intelligent system management change

General Staff Guard Bureau

People’s Liberation Army General Staff Guard Bureau is prepared, which is the Central Office Guard Bureau, responsible for directing the Central Guards Regiment, known as 8341 troops.

General Staff Guard Bureau is being prepared corps, under the eight regular division level unit, the person in charge is the rank of general, and Chief of Staff of the same level. Secretary is also first deputy director of the Central Office (ministerial level), deputy director of including Deputy Secretary are Major General. Responsible for specific security command and coordination of national leaders you.

General Staff Guard Bureau is responsible for the defense of the leading organs of the Party Central Committee (Politburo) of the Central Military Commission and a safe. Also included Vice President, Vice Chairman of the NPC, CPPCC vice-chairman, the deputy secretary, Supreme People’s Procuratorate long, Supreme Court president and above leaders. Almost all state leaders living near Zhongnanhai and Zhongnanhai, the General Staff Guard Bureau is undoubtedly high position. A head of the Guards Regiment, awarded the rank, indicating the central importance of this force, for example, if what happened now Zhongnanhai, the Central Guards Regiment to the quick, or stationed in the Beijing suburb of 38th Army to the quick. Thus in 1976, the CPC Central Committee smash gang of four, is the central security group (8341 units) completed. Central Guards Regiment in charge of the central leadership of the security work, which is a very important and very politically sensitive posts, who must fill the position is the central leadership of the most trusted people.

In many army troops designation in 8341 is arguably the most famous. It was in 1953 in the Central Guard Division to form the basis of a group together, was formally established in Zhongnanhai June 9 that year. First built in 8341 when the army only 1,000 people, the main task is to defend the five leaders – Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Chen Yun. Owned by the Ministry of Public ninth inning leadership. The then Minister of Public Security is Lo Jui-ching, Wang Dongxing nine innings of the Secretary, the Deputy Secretary is Zhang Yaoci. During the “Cultural Revolution” 8341 troops replaced by the Central Office leadership, Wang Dongxing specifically responsible for leading, directing. Preparation expanding more than 8,000, the jurisdiction of seven brigades, 36 squadrons. The number of troops has been the equivalent of a division of troops. “913” after the incident, Lin Biao and the gang attempted to use against aircraft bombed Zhongnanhai, the Diaoyutai conspiracy, has set up an eighth brigade, namely cannon brigade, arranged around Zhongnanhai in order to ensure the safety of its over, but not for long on withdrawn. First built in 8341 when the guard unit or the target is more concentrated, mainly in Yuquan Mountain; new Rokkasho, Zhongnanhai, etc., and later expanded to Beidaihe, Tiananmen Square, the Great Hall, Diaoyutai. Due to various reasons, the scope of security is greatly increased during the “Cultural Revolution”, the addition of Changping farm, Beijing Botanical Garden, Garden Village, East Cabinet and other places.

General Staff Guard Bureau under the jurisdiction of departments are: the General Office of Political Affairs, Policy Research Department, the Department (command and coordination center), Ministry of Information Technology, Communications, Training Wing (Cadre Training Group), livelihood security department, construction review Ministry Liaison Department, cadres Force (Guard Battalion), a brigade authorities Service Center (Zhongnanhai) Second Battalion (Great Hall) Third Brigade (new six) four teams (Yuquan Hill) five brigades (Beidaihe) Six Brigade (Special Operations Battalion) Seven Battalion (Cadre Battalion) Eight brigade is (engineering and maintenance team).

Leading security standards are divided into: a guard of the Politburo Standing Committee.

Politburo member, alternate member of the CPC Central Committee, vice chairman of National People’s Congress, State Councilor for the two guards (the Chinese Nationalist Party Chairman Lien Chan to visit the mainland to strengthen the use of two security guards). CPPCC Vice Chairman, Supreme People’s Court, Supreme People’s Procuratorate for the three guards over the leadership after retirement if, based upon the original standard security guards. Provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the main party leaders who also guard the goal, secretary of the country, the city, the state, as the case may determine the level of security, usually three guards and so on.

8341 security work forces very tight organization, the principal leaders of both the division of labor forces, Mao’s guards done by Wang Dongxing, Zhang Yaoci responsible, guards brigade is a brigade, security forces Zhongnanhai A zone is a brigade, a squadron; Lin Biao The guards work by the deputy head Zhang is responsible for, guards brigade is the Second Battalion, Second Battalion of the Guard squadron is a squadron; because Zhou Enlai lived in Zhongnanhai, the guards brigade is also a brigade, a squadron guards brigade three squadrons headed by Yang in. Other Politburo Standing Committee also has specific security brigade and squadron and responsible person. Was responsible for a team of Zhongnanhai and the surrounding area, the Second Battalion in charge of Maojiawan and the surrounding area, the four teams in charge of security in and around the Yuquan Shan, seven brigade responsible for the central directorate Beidaihe resort and the surrounding area, five brigade responsible for the Diaoyutai State and surrounding areas, other Several brigades are mobile brigade. In addition, each security zone has divided into specific perimeter and inner circle, the inner circle is divided into A, B, C area. A person can freely access area B, C area, but B, C zone A zone cannot easily access. In the 1970s to over Beijing’s Great Hall of the people know or see around pulling the cord, there are security guard, pedestrians cannot enter the security zone. Outside the red walls of Zhongnanhai have fixed posts and swimming whistle, of course, plainclothes whistle. Zhongnanhai, the Great Hall in addition to sentry outside the door, door security zone there, an outsider, a stranger is simply to get in. Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and others around the residence and living areas as well as multi-channel guard, unrelated persons, including 8341 troops of some leading cadres without the approval and consent also do not allow access, which is strictly regulated. 8341 cadres and soldiers because of their work out of Zhongnanhai, the Sentinels know can be released, and did not know where the company should be contacted to ensure correct case can be released.

However, this designation in 8341 there was a time back and forth change too. In 1975, when the military forces of the designation by the 4-digit rise to 5 digits, but the central security group is still 4 digits, then 8341 to 57001 by the designation of external, internal and remains unchanged, but Soon forces have received notice of the change callback 57001 8341 until shortly after the death of Chairman Mao in 1976, 8341 before it was changed to 57003, in October 2000 to 61,889 units.

General Staff Guard Bureau leaders

SECRETARY: Cao Qing in

Deputy Director:

Major General Li Hongfu

Major General Yan Min

Ma Jinhu Major General in charge of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee Chairman Wu Bangguo guard

Major General Zhao Jiang stay

Major General Sun Yuan Gong

Major Jiangguang Qing

Major General Zhou Dongsheng

Major General Ye your new

The leaders of the Central Military Commission

CMC leadership


Vice-Chairmen: Xu Liang Fan Changlong

Members: Chang Wanquan Room Feng Hui Zhang Yang Zhao Xia Wu Shengli and Zhang Shi Wei Feng and Ma Xiaotian

Former Chief of Staff

Zhou Enlai and chief of staff

Marshal Xu Xiangqian

Marshal Nie

Su Yu

Huang Kecheng general

Lo Jui-ching generals

Yang Chengwu

Admiral Huang Yongsheng

Deng Xiaoping’s chief of staff

Admiral Yang Dezhi

Chi Haotian

Zhang Wannian

Fu Admiral

Liang Guanglie

Chen Bingde

Admiral Room Feng Hui

Belonging to the Military Academy of the General Staff

Nanjing Army Command College

Shijiazhuang Army Command College

Information Engineering College (Zhengzhou)

Artillery Command College (Hebei Xuanhua)

Shenyang Artillery Academy

Zhenjiang Institute of boats

Engineering Command College (Xuzhou)

Communication Command Academy (Wuhan)

Chongqing Communication Institute

Electronic Engineering Institute (Hefei)

Institute of International Relations (Nanjing}

Army Missile Academy (Langfang)

Nanjing University of technology & Engineering

Anhui Artillery Academy

Bengbu Tank Institute

Xi’an Communication Institute

Luoyang Foreign Languages ​​Institute

Zhangjiakou Communication Institute

Zhengzhou Air Defense Forces College

Sports (communication) College (Guangzhou)

Engineering Institute of Chemical Defense Command (Hebei Changping)

Beijing Army Aviation Academy

National Defense and the National Defense University directly under the Central Military Commission, not to the local college enrollment


Original Mandarin Chinese:






一部在職能上相當於五角大樓Joint Staff的J-3。假設解放軍正在擬定一份正式的作戰計劃,或者突發事件的應變計劃,那麼這就是一部幹的活。如果現在日本突然在釣魚島挑起事端,那麼,負責處理就是一部的事情,2001年,南海軍機相撞,就是由一部直接指揮事態處理的。還有神州1號到6號飛船的發射、回收,都由總參一部參與指揮、調度。














檔案局 收藏海外的公開出版物。它的一個下屬單位就是軍事誼文出版社,該公司負責翻譯和重新出版其他國傢的軍事雜志。

機要局 負責處理、傳達和收藏機密文件,也負責為文件制定密級。

綜合局 為工作人員提供後勤服務,如交通、辦公設備、娛樂中心和飲食。

警衛局 負責中央軍委委員和各總部領導的人身安全。在二部各機構的安全工作中它還享有司法權。












四部裡還設有一些局,分別對陸海空三軍部隊在業務上提供指導,對直屬該部的電子對抗部隊和雷達兵部隊進行垂直領導,或負責一些對口研究所的工作。主要包括西南電子研究所(即成都第29研究所),負責雷達幹擾發射臺的研發。總參第54研究所,該所專門”為電子對抗與雷達兵部研制分析雷達脈沖參數的數字電子情報信號處理器。” 合肥第36研究所,負責研發通信幹擾發射臺。此外,總參四部還有自己的軍事院校,其中包括安徽合肥解放軍電子工程學院。





















總參警衛局是正軍級編制,下設8個正師級單位,負責人是上將軍銜,與總參謀長平級。局長兼任中央辦公廳第一副主任(正部級) ,副局長包括常務副局長均為少將。負責具體指揮協調各位國傢領導人的安全。












顏 敏少將

馬金虎少將 負責全國人大常委會委員長吳邦國警衛









副主席:范長龍 許其亮

委員:常萬全 房峰輝 張陽 趙克石 張又俠 吳勝利 馬曉天 魏鳳和


周恩來 兼總參謀長

徐向前 元帥

聶榮臻 元帥

粟裕 大將

黃克誠 大將

羅瑞卿 大將

楊成武 上將

黃永勝 上將

鄧小平 兼總參謀長

楊得志 上將

遲浩田 上將

張萬年 上將

傅全有 上將

梁光烈 上將

陳炳德 上將

房峰輝 上將


























Original Source:


People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department” 鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

People’s Republic of China’s little known “Central Investigation Department”  鲜为人知的“中央调查部”

Within the People’s Republic of China is the little known “Central Investigation Unit”, this cadre generates strategic intelligence for economic, military and Communist Party leadership strategic decision-making.

The following article comes from the Communist Party of China News website and the Chinese Military portion of


Original Modern English (loose translation):

Recently we saw a material, referred to the Party after the founding of new China an institution called the “Central Investigation Department,” but not too clear on the presentation. Asked colleagues around, it was said “in tune unit” is the former “central social unit”, it was considered by the restructuring from. So, it really is what kind of organization? What are its main functions? When it is established? Could the experts answer?

Daxing District, Zhang Xinyu Readers

Speaking of the central social unit, people still know the big end, and for the Central Investigation Department, is known to only a handful, and some even thought that the central social unit which consists of the establishment of Sino-Japanese War came directly reorganization. History, however, is not true.

First, the “Central Investigation Department” is not the “central social unit

Central Social Department in 1939 to set up the “Central special working committee”, management and leadership intelligence and security work, stating that “the CPC Central Intelligence Department,” outside “the CPC Central Committee Working Committee enemy territory”, but in the preparation of new China namely revocation of the occasion. However, the Central Social Work Department revoked, defending section included in the Ministry of Public Security (normalized before the government established the Central Military Commission formed), is set to change the intelligence part of the Liaison Department of the Central Military Commission, former Secretary-General of the Central Social Department 邹大鹏 minister, and former Central Minister of Social Affairs, when he was minister in charge of the Central Military Commission General Intelligence Department of LI.

October 1949, the third meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee adopted 邹大鹏 Director of Intelligence, to August 1952, due to intelligence agencies Administration revoked the Seventeenth Meeting of the Central People’s Government Committee approved the Department dismissed 邹大鹏length and level of the Deputy Director of 王少春. These show that the intelligence agencies after the founding of New China in the Ministry of Personnel and the Central Social closely linked, and in the affiliation by the CPC Central Committee and State Council on site were transferred to the Central Military Commission. However, the State Council’s Information Department only existed for three years, after intelligence work has focused on the Central Military Commission.

Central Investigation Department at the Central Social Department is not being withdrawn directly established on its basis, but in the Central Military Liaison Department of the Army transferred from within the party sometimes formed together. According to the 2001 book “Yang Shangkun diary” recorded February 23, 1955, when he was Deputy Minister Liaison Department of Lo long, green and Secretary-General Ma times wait until Mao Cheng Yang Shangkun place on “liaison department of ‘fate’ problem ‘ . February 28, Yang Shangkun about when he was Deputy Chief of Staff of the PLA LI “On the section on the political situation where the problem.” LI advice is: “entirely on the good organization within the party, you can set up one.” About the name and personnel issues of this section, Yang Shangkun contained in the diary: “name for ‘investigation unit’, Comrade Enlai Interested by the gram farming and Minister for unified management. “Subsequently, Yang Shangkun reported the matter to the Zhou Enlai. March 4, Yang Shangkun to Zhou Enlai at the “political situation the organization’s decision to participate in the” discussion, “decided to separate the military from the Central Military Commission, the party set up a ‘research department’, by the gram farming and Minister Zhou reported by the Secretariat decision. “That night, Secretariat meeting held in the office of Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai decided to agree on the establishment of the Ministry of the opinion survey, reported Chairman Mao Zedong decided. April 8, Yang Shangkun recorded in his diary: “The central and the President has approved the establishment of the Central Investigation Department of the LI was appointed by the minister, please contact the Department of the Central Military Commission of existing transfer system into the CPC Central Committee..” And contains: “to be in After the formal transfer of 1 July. ”

Second, the “Central Investigation Department” is to adapt to the actual needs of the construction and the establishment of new China, is an exploration and development on the organizational structure of the military.

Central Investigation Department to “investigation” is named, is the nature of intelligence work by the party under the leadership of the decision, but also with the CPC Central Committee issued the “Decision on investigation and study” on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the founding, in order to strengthen research, realize intelligence work from the collection of alert and defend the military strategic intelligence gathering intelligence to turn the inseparable. At that time, the central authorities set up the Central Investigation Bureau of Investigation, under a Ministry of Information, etc., whose function is to collect political, military, economic, cultural and social class relations and other aspects of domestic and foreign materials, to research, that the central work Direct assistant. Central Investigation Department inherited this work is the “investigation” of history and tradition and the basic spirit and adapt to the actual needs of the construction of the new China and in the organizational structure of an exploration and development.

On the working mechanism of the Central Investigation Department, Yang Shangkun in his diary records, daily work by his contact with the LI, big things consult Deng Xiaoping resolved. LI is the first Secretary of the Central Investigation Department was established. Incumbent Minister of tone in the hole after LI. During the “Cultural Revolution”, the ministry also failed from the impact. June 13, 1969, the Central People’s Liberation Army General Staff Department of the decision by the Second Investigation Department took over, gradually returning to normal until after 1971. To 1983, in view of the Central Investigation Department of historical issues in the “Cultural Revolution”, as well as adapt to the new situation of reform and opening up of intelligence work, the central government decided to revoke the unit formed, and its main body, with the Ministry of Public Security’s counterintelligence department and other parts of the relevant units merged to form the Ministry of National Security.

Third, the “Central Investigation Department” on the front to provide decision-making information secret for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee and his assistant staff

Central Investigation Department of the existence of nearly 30 years, as the organizers and perpetrators of the specific period since the new Chinese intelligence work, through painstaking research, on major issues related to the party and national security interests, and often at a critical moment provide decision-making information for the party and the country has become an important work of the CPC Central Committee staff and assistants.

First, the anti-peaceful evolution, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. After the founding of New China, the anti-peaceful evolution related to the new Chinese regime and consolidate the party’s ruling position, on this issue, Mao Zedong attached great importance to study the political situation in the United States, the Central Investigation Department has played an important think-tank role. In autumn 1958, the US Congress elections, the ruling Republican Party defeated Democrats. On the US domestic political situation after the elections, the Central Investigation Department to write a report, noting that in the case of a severe economic crisis, the United States within the ruling class and national conflicts intensified, people from all walks widespread fear of war, internal political atmosphere bright side development. November 27, Mao Zedong when reviewing this report, will be subject to “political climate in the United States for the better development”, and instructed to say: The Central Investigation Department of the analysis is very interesting, at the same time he was appointed charge d’affaires in the British Embassy official township British diplomatic situation and analyze the situation in Western Europe is similar is a good article. He added: “In short, the Western world for the better day by day in terms of change, direct and indirect allies allies in the development of the proletariat.” Sixth Plenary Session of the Eighth CPC Mao’s comments on the issuance and the Central Investigation Department The analysis report.

Second, in the development and expansion of patriotic united front staff played a role. The mid-1960s, the Central Investigation Department involved in the fight on behalf of the former Kuomintang government of President Li Tsung-jen Nanjing returning to work, and staff play an important role. July 9, 1965, the Central Investigation Department in writing to return to the central reporting jen comments on issues raised could be considered two options: First, do not need to enter the country on a statement to be issued a statement after returning to discuss; two I agree to enter the country on a written statement at the airport and met with reporters, but the statement is issued in advance with domestic suppliers properly. July 12, Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai instructed: “like a second program for the better, the manuscript beforehand good providers, there is no harm.” July 20, Mrs. Li Tsung-jen kai Guode Jie arrived in Beijing, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen at the airport welcome, which bore the original, Zou Dapeng, like Feng hyun, head of tune also meet personnel of the column.

In short, the Central Investigation Department in secret front for the new construction and development of China made a historic contribution to the party and the country’s intelligence has accumulated rich historical experience.

Original Mandarin Chinese:



大兴区读者 张新宇
















Source: 战略决策情报支撑