来源：解放军报 Since World War II, special operations on its unique flexibility, efficiency, asymmetry, is increasingly becoming an important means to safeguard the strategic interests of the United States the way to deal with the threat of challenges. In recent years, the US military special operations forces is the task type from traditional warfare to expand the area of non-traditional field of battle, much to replace conventional forces to become the protagonist of battlefield information, acts as a US foreign military operations “strategy knife” of the situation.
War sharpening “of the United States Blade”
Although modern special operations began in World War II, but its position fully aware of the role of the US military and is widely used in the practice of war after World War II. In almost all previous local wars and regional conflicts in the United States to intervene, or can be hidden or US Special Operations Forces found the figure, during record and failure of innovation and development have become the US military special operations “grindstone” so special operations the “United States of Blade,” the increasingly sharp.
Vietnam War can be said that the US large-scale, long the first attempt of special operations. During the war, US special operations forces are widely assumed to wipe out the guerrillas, special reconnaissance, sabotage attack, trainers and other “counter-insurgency” operations, and implementation of the attack, such as Vietnam prisoner of war camps Shanxi operations. Although the injustice of war and strategic guidance mistakes, tactical advantage the US has never been able to get the special operations strategy into a winning situation, sadly had to withdraw troops from Vietnam, but special operations forces in the war revealed adaptability, mobility, concealment, but be sure to get high-level US military, and has been the focus used in subsequent wars and armed conflicts.
In 1980, in order to rescue the detained American Embassy in Iran, more than 60 staff, 97 US special operations long-range raid from Cairo to Tehran. Since the aircraft suddenly encountered sandstorms and failures in the course of action, combined with ill emergency plan, the US military was forced to cancel plans. But the US military did not lose heart, but pay more attention to the lessons learned on the basis of a strong push development of special operations. April 1987, the US Special Operations Command was officially established, special operations forces govern the land, sea and air belongs marks SOF as an independent fighting force officially on the United States in war.
Subsequently, the invasion of Panama in 1989 action, the 1991 Gulf War, the war in Afghanistan in 2001, the 2003 Iraq war and the 2011 war in Libya, the US military will be more and more frequently used for special operations forces and strategic direction of the main season for completion one by one “mission impossible.” Especially in the war in Afghanistan, with the help of advanced information technology tools, the US special operations forces to work independently, creatively objective guidance, penetration strike, buy com collapse, US forces defeated the Taliban regime in a short time to achieve the purposes of war.
US special operations forces continue to promote the development, almost “every battle will be special,” The reason is: First, responsive, compiled capable, able to quickly respond to local emergencies and asymmetric threats; the second is action concealed, sudden strong often the enemy unexpectedly, with minimal resources quickly achieve strategic goals, action to reduce the risk; Third flexible means of warfare, as campaign “global strike” strategic concept important choice; four is better able to fight with other forces joint operations, conventional and unconventional forming closely integrated combat system.
Great support system under the “sword easy road”
With the evolution of new military revolution in depth, US Special Operations increasingly showing the non-contact combat, to fight the elite fighting from the contact-scale operations, from strategic weapons platform support to support the system, from traditional areas to new areas of the rapidly evolving situation, special combat troops because it can carry out specific tasks to perform conventional forces should not be difficult to complete or to become military to defeat the enemy “killer.”
Trend direct command and control strategy. US Special Operations command and control consists of national and theater-level combat troops and three grade levels. Under normal circumstances, the national command authorities, Special Operations Command, Command theater, theater of military services under the command or function Command commander level performed by operational control. With the mandate of privacy, sensitivity continues to improve, more and more stressed by the US military strategic level special operations were “direct” type vertical command, enhanced controllability operational flexibility. For example, in 2011, and the residence of the US military in Pakistan killed Osama bin Laden raid, Obama and his decision-making team thousands of miles away from the White House situation room, through remote video, real-time synchronization command. This action fully reflects the strategic nature of special operations.
Special blitz highlighting system support. “Tactical operations, strategic support; elite action, system support; local action, global support” has become a significant feature of the US military special operations. Still killed Osama bin Laden, “Neptune Spear” raid, for example, in this battle, on the surface of the US military deployed only four helicopters, 24 “Seal” commandos, it took less than 40 minutes to kill al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden summit. But behind both heaven 35 satellites and more than 40 aircraft to provide a strong information security, there collusion aircraft carrier battle groups at sea, on land as well as support for two military bases in Central Asia, as well as various support ten thousand security personnel. This is a typical “large system support elite action” reflects the profound new form of war in the information age.
Towards a comprehensive joint operations. The US military believes, “joint” is one of the special nature of warfare requires the full participation of the military services and the depth of collaboration. Currently, the US Special Operations not only achieved with the Air Force from the “sensor to shooter” joint, greatly improving its “spike” combat capability, but also to break the union with CIA covert operations, the CIA intelligence-gathering capabilities and special operations forces strike capability combine complementary advantages. Especially after Afghanistan “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US military special operations but will work with conventional forces from the joint campaign sink to the level of the tactical level, to achieve integrated operations teams level. According to statistics, code-named “Mountain Storm” military implementation of the 2004 crackdown, the US special operations troops with conventional forces conducted 62 joint tactical operations, 40 of which action is implemented in the company level, in action 22 battalion level performed.
The effect of a strike action to pursue the enemy. US Special Operations always attached importance to a direct attack on the enemy’s high-value targets in an attempt to speed up the process of speedy combat strategic objectives. From the recent local wars practice, often other US Special Operations Leadership Summit and pre-emphasis as targets, the implementation of the so-called “decapitation attack” by the sudden rapid surprise attacks, to “lock on”, a hit enemy’s strategic effect. For the first time on the war in Iraq from Saddam to use such tactics, the war in Libya Gaddafi trick, while not directly reach the goal, but the US military special operations against enemy decision-making psychological shock is immeasurable, greatly shaken each other’s will to resist, played a “strike hard” and “soft kill” double effect. It is envisioned that the US military this “sword pay” type of special operations will also continue to unfold.
Efforts to forge “global power”
Currently, the US has special operations, combat drones and network operations as of great importance for the future operations of the “New Trinity” power, to focus on building, hoping to build a responsive, both small and hard, multi-dimensional and multi-functional special war “global power.”
Strengthening overseas deployment, to expand the number scale. Recently, the US significantly reduced military presence overseas, but the number of overseas US Special Operations forces have been continuously increased, but also a significant increase in the deployment of the number of countries and regions. According to reports, the end of the Bush administration, the US Special Operations Forces deployed in about 60 countries worldwide, to increase to 75 by 2010. As of 2015, the United States Special Operations Forces have been deployed to the world’s 135 countries. To meet the growing demand of the task, in the various branches of the background of widespread layoffs, the US special operations forces increased rather than decreased, the number from 2001 to 2014, 3.3 million to nearly 70,000 people, an increase of about one times, of which 80% deployed overseas. American executives believe scale special operations forces deployed abroad, will significantly improve the ability of US military intervention in global affairs in particular to respond to emergencies.
Optimizing operational grouping, build new units. In order to meet the diverse nature of the war on terror style, US special operations forces structure adjustment pace has accelerated noticeably. In recent years, the focus adjustment is: narrow special operations group size to achieve power “downsizing”; to add a new task forces have been established in the Civil Command, irregular warfare and psychological warfare wing brigade, enhance the combat capability of non-traditional areas, to achieve carry out the task “diversity”; optimization special operations units grouped according to the type of task, we will act flexibly experts, communications specialists, psychologists, explosives experts and other personnel mixed grouping of different expertise, improve the ability to adapt to complex battlefield, combat units to achieve “synthesis of . ”
Comprehensive update equipment, enhance the quality of new combat capability. In recent years, the US military continued to increase investment, research and development of new special operations equipment: First, “Individual Combat System”, mainly by the laser range finder, cameras, environmental sensors, ballistic computer and target tracking device component, with automatic transmission and shielding against was behind the target function, improve the combat capability independent of man; the second is a remote delivery tool to improve special operations MC-130H aircraft and purchase V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft, airborne accurate terrain-following radar, navigation systems and high-speed aircraft resistance, enhance special operations forces behind enemy lines and remote mobile penetration; the third is a new concept weapons, the main enemy is the destruction of electronic equipment computer viruses, electromagnetic pulse weapons. These new weapons once the troops will enable the US military special operations means richer, more diverse mission areas.XX
Not every commandos wore green berets
– Special Forces decryption
■ Chronicles Dazhaoweibin
In American terms, “special operations forces” (Special Operation Forces) and the “Special Forces” (Special Forces) are two concepts exist simultaneously. The former US Special Operations Command is under the jurisdiction of all forces referred to, including the Army Special Forces, 75 commandos, Navy Seals, “Delta” Force and SEAL Team 6; the latter refers specifically to the Army Special Forces, known as “Green Beret hat “forces. The force is due to Kennedy personally authorized to wear with other branches of the military are not the same Green Beret named.
It has a long history with the CIA origins very well. In 1952 the US created its first “Green Beret” troops, is to OSS (the predecessor of the CIA), “Jed fort” under the leadership of troops as a template. During World War II, “Jed fort” team was ordered to enter the territory of France, Belgium and the Netherlands were occupied, providing weapons and supplies for the resistance groups area, and act as the Supreme Allied Command with contact channels. Responsible for the formation of the force, Colonel Allen Burbank was a veteran of the Office of Strategic Services, the CIA after playing for, has a wealth of experience in covert operations. The task force was originally given is: Suppose the Soviet occupation of Western Europe, they will remain in the Soviet front organization behind the unconventional war. So far, unconventional warfare remains one of the core tasks of the Special Forces.Since the task often requires secrecy in times of peace or war before it started to prepare, and execute peacetime area of responsibility belongs to the CIA’s covert operations mission, so often we need to work with the CIA when the Special Forces carry out such tasks or simply placed under the leadership of the CIA. CIA Special Operations agents are often recruited from the Special Forces veterans, it is not surprising.
Clear division of responsibility area worldwide. “Green Beret” troops now compiled five active duty brigades and two by the National Guard usually responsible for the supervision of trained reserve brigade. Five active-duty brigade Total Posts a million people, are responsible for the Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Americas and Europe in five regions, corresponding to the formation of the US theater setting.According to their topography, political ecology, military deployment, the local language and customs of their respective areas of responsibility, etc., to carry out targeted training.Some troops were deployed in a long-term task of the region belongs to the friendly countries to better combat environment where the familiar. Under the big division, and each brigade has a very fine internal division of labor. A Special Forces squad as the basic combat unit, and its 12 members are familiar with the operations, intelligence, weapons, engineering, medical, communications expertise in one of the six, and by cross-training to master one to two additional expertise.
Ability comprehensive, one play multiple roles. Compared to the commando skills to the extreme to show “Delta” force and “SEAL Team 6”, “Green Beret” troops skill players is more comprehensive and balanced, they not only have excellent commando skills, but also possess a the US military called a “diplomatic warrior” skills that language and culture skills, interpersonal skills and political sensitivity. Due to the wide implementation of anti-terrorism, reconnaissance, foreign internal defense, unconventional warfare task, they have to play a role not only heroic commandos, more mature, alert and flexible intelligence agents, coaches and diplomats. In the recruitment process, the “Green Berets” force requirements should recruit must go through foreign language skills tested, along with social communication, military training, weapons, operational and organizational aspects of directing talent. Taking into account the language and cultural skills through short-term training is difficult to obtain, often targeting special forces in recruiting those with an ethnic minority background or appearance, with skilled foreign language ability. Shortlisted players to accept the harsh physical and fighting skills, while also learning psychological warfare course and language intensive training to ensure that they are trained to play multiple comprehensive ability and quality possible.
Frequent use of the name rarely made public. Since the formation of the “green beret” troops will be frequently used, but in view of the confidentiality of their duties, as well as its inherent low profile style, the message about these tasks rarely made public, it is difficult to see in newspapers. For example, in the late 1950s, they have been sent to Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, South Korea, Indonesia and other places, for the training of local forces; in 1967 was sent to Bolivia, Bolivian Army responsible for training camp do not move, and to assist them killed the central figure of the Cuban revolution, Che Guevara; in 1989 a large-scale invasion of Panama participated in the “just cause” to overthrow Noriega regime. After the Cold War, the United States authorities for their use continues unabated. “Desert Storm” operation, they were deployed in advance to Kuwait and Iraq depth zone, execute several months of secret reconnaissance missions provided an important headquarters for the coalition military intelligence; aggression in Afghanistan “Enduring Freedom” operation, they had a beard riding a mule, local people dressed in costumes, under air fire support, the leadership of the Northern Alliance armed overthrow of the Taliban regime.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
在美军术语中，“特种作战部队”（Special Operation Forces）与“特种部队”（Special Forces）是同时存在的两个概念。前者是美军特种作战司令部下辖所有部队的统称，包括陆军特种部队、75突击队、海豹突击队、“三角洲”部队和海豹6队等；后者则专指陆军特种部队，即“绿色贝雷帽”部队。该部队因被肯尼迪亲自授权佩戴与其他兵种不一样的绿色贝雷帽而得名。