Chinese Military Exploration of Key Points of Intelligent Warfare

中國軍隊對智慧戰爭要點的探索

現代英語音譯:

  ● Accelerating the development of military intelligence is the choice of the times to seize the commanding heights of military strategic competition and win future wars.

  ●The extensive use of smart weapons has become the new protagonist on the battlefield, which will inevitably give rise to new combat styles, profoundly change the traditional combat power generation model, and subvert the traditional combat winning mechanism.

  ● To scientifically advance the development of military intelligence, the top priority is to explore the winning rules of intelligent warfare.

  The report of the 19th CPC National Congress clearly requires the acceleration of the development of military intelligence. At present, major countries in the world regard artificial intelligence as a disruptive technology that “changes the rules of the game” and accelerate the preparation for intelligent warfare. To seize the commanding heights of future military strategic competition and do a good job in intelligent warfare research, the first thing to do is to recognize and grasp the winning rules of intelligent warfare, and provide scientific needs and strong traction for promoting the development of military intelligence. Intelligent warfare is an autonomous warfare supported by a cloud environment. The winning of warfare follows both the general winning mechanism and its own new characteristics and laws.

  Deep understanding of the battlefield

  War activities are extremely complex, but they can generally be divided into two categories: cognitive domain and action domain. War cognition includes perception, understanding, judgment, decision-making, as well as beliefs and values. In cold weapon and hot weapon warfare, cognitive behavior is basically completed by humans. In information warfare, computer technology and network technology have expanded the ability of weapon systems to recognize and understand the battlefield, but have not changed the situation where the war cognitive system lags behind the action system.

  In intelligent warfare, smart weapons of various forms become the protagonists, and their common understanding of the battlefield becomes a prerequisite for the coordinated actions of combat elements and combat units. In wartime, relying on dispersed intelligent reconnaissance and early warning equipment, battlefield situation information can be obtained in real time, and massive information can be intelligently analyzed and processed. The situation information can be uniformly managed in a combat cloud mode, and situation information can be distributed and shared according to authority as needed. A joint battlefield situation map with unified time and space benchmarks and consistent standards and specifications can be constructed to provide a unified background for smart weapons to jointly understand and understand the battlefield situation. Moreover, smart weapons themselves are embedded with massive basic data. In wartime, they can accurately understand the enemy and battlefield conditions by comparing and analyzing the real-time battlefield situation with their own databases.

  The substantial improvement in war cognition has changed the situation where the war cognition system has long lagged behind the action system. It can be said that if we cannot deeply understand the battlefield, we cannot organize and implement intelligent warfare. The party that has an advantage in understanding the battlefield can usually take the initiative on the battlefield.

  Flexible and friendly human-computer interaction

  The organization and implementation of intelligent warfare relies on smart weapons to accurately understand the commander’s intentions and organize actions according to instructions. With the emergence and application of new concept computers such as neural network computers, optical computers, and biological computers, with the support of intelligent technologies such as voice recognition and text and graphic recognition, the human-computer interface of the command information system is highly intelligent, and the art of command and military strategy are deeply integrated into the human-computer interaction system, expert knowledge base system, and weapon intelligent guidance system. The expert system supported by the multidisciplinary knowledge base makes the human-computer exchange interface more convenient, flexible, and effective.

  In wartime, the intelligent human-computer interactive command platform uses key technologies such as intelligent algorithms, big data, and cloud computing to effectively break through the limitations of human analytical capabilities, ensure that commanders can quickly and accurately judge and predict the development of the war situation, and assist commanders in selecting combat plans and making combat decisions. Through friendly human-computer interaction, commands are automatically transmitted to the corresponding command objects, directly controlling the combat actions of smart weapons. Smart weapons understand the commander’s intentions through their own intelligent terminals, and efficiently execute human commands, achieving a good integration of humans and smart weapons.

  Swarm intelligence cross-domain collaboration

  The protagonists of intelligent warfare are smart weapons of various forms. The key to the coordination of combat operations and the effectiveness of the combat system lies in the coordination and linkage between smart weapons. Although today’s unmanned combat systems have a certain degree of intelligence, their coordination still mainly relies on human instructions to organize and implement, and it is difficult to implement self-organized coordination between platforms.

  In the future intelligent warfare, there will be a large number of smart weapons on land, sea, air and space. It is impossible to organize and coordinate efficiently by relying solely on rear personnel. It is necessary to rely on real-time sharing of battlefield situation information between weapon platforms and random self-organization and coordination according to the development and changes of battlefield situation. In order to ensure mutual understanding and linkage between smart weapons, unified combat rules are usually preset on the platform, such as unified rules for attack, maneuver and protection, and unified rules for communication and information distribution and sharing. With the further development of computer software and hardware technology, the expert system knowledge base of smart weapons contains tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of rules. In wartime, with the changes in enemy situation, our situation and battlefield environment, especially the development of enemy and our offensive and defensive actions, different combat scenarios will trigger corresponding combat rules. Smart weapons take corresponding reconnaissance, attack and protection actions according to unified rules to avoid mutual interference or even conflict. At the same time, through a highly accurate time system, a unified time benchmark is established to provide a unified benchmark for the combat operations of smart weapons in different spaces, support the optimization of smart weapons and autonomous coordination, and achieve intelligent group coordination.

  Human control for timely intervention

  Intelligent warfare is not completely autonomous warfare of smart weapons. People are always the planners, organizers and implementers of warfare. The selection of combat objectives and targets is judged and decided by people, and smart weapons carry out various actions based on the commander’s intentions. Because artificial intelligence can only partially think like humans, smart weapons lack human rational judgment and standards of right and wrong. As long as there are problems in the command and control link, it is possible to violate the commander’s intentions or even lose control, leading to a passive situation in the war. Similar incidents happen from time to time. In October 2007, three “Sword” robots of the 3rd Mechanized Infantry Division of the US Army did not replace the software in time. During the mission, one robot actually aimed its gun at the operator. Because it was completely out of control, it had to be destroyed in the end.

  In future intelligent warfare, once the battlefield situation undergoes major changes, or the original combat objectives have been achieved, commanders must timely and accurately intervene in the reconnaissance, attack, and protection operations of smart weapons to ensure that smart weapons are always under human control and are controlled to achieve combat objectives according to the commander’s intentions.

  Distributed Autonomous Action

  Smart weapons are the main body of direct confrontation between the enemy and us, usually far away from the rear commanders and technicians. Moreover, the pace of intelligent warfare has accelerated unprecedentedly. The human brain cannot cope with the ever-changing battlefield situation, and some actions need to be handed over to smart weapons. In wartime, smart weapons embedded with artificial intelligence technology can accurately and continuously track targets in a rapidly changing battlefield environment, autonomously detect, autonomously process battlefield situation information, autonomously identify enemies and friends, and autonomously and flexibly use ammunition loads.

  At the same time, through unified standard protocols and sharing mechanisms, a cloud environment with multi-dimensional coverage, seamless network links, random user access, on-demand extraction of information resources, and flexible and fast organizational guarantees is formed to realize “data warehouse”, “cloud brain” and “digital staff”, providing full coverage of cloud environment support for smart weapons. Smart weapons in different spaces become a node of the information network under the connection of information technology, and are no longer isolated and helpless. Supported by a large system, smart weapons integrate reconnaissance, identification, positioning, control, and attack, and can “kill” in seconds when discovered. During combat, with the development of the battlefield situation and combat needs, smart weapons in different spaces act autonomously. Whoever is suitable, whoever is dominant, whoever is advantageous, whoever launches, dispersed firepower, information power, mobility, and protection power are accurately released at the most appropriate time and the most appropriate place. Focusing on unified combat objectives, a combat power generation link of “situation sharing-synchronous collaboration-focused energy release” is formed to organize combat operations autonomously.

  Remote Focused Technical Support

  Smart weapons rely on high-tech technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks. Their combat effectiveness is inseparable from the stable operation of operating systems and software, as well as technical experts and support personnel in the rear. The organization and implementation of intelligent combat operations will greatly reduce the dependence on traditional support such as materials and transportation, and the focus of support will be on intelligence, knowledge, information, networks, software, etc.

  On the battlefield, the size of troops and weapons has decreased, while the technical support forces such as software design, network control, information resources, and equipment maintenance have increased unprecedentedly. In wartime, remote focused technical support should not only emphasize technical pre-storage and pre-positioning, but also rely on perception and response technology to integrate the perception system, control system, computer and user terminal of the entire battlefield space to form an interconnected and integrated technical support network. In particular, the artificial intelligence technology embedded in smart weapons and rear support facilities can be used to obtain the operating status of smart weapons in real time, discover their technical failures and support needs in a timely manner, update the support plan in real time, and distribute technical support needs to the support units; the rear technical support forces can “consult” the front-end smart weapons through the network to implement remote function recovery and technical information support.

(Editors: Huang Zijuan, Wang Jiquan)

現代國語:

要點提示

●加速軍事智慧化發展,是搶佔軍事戰略競爭制高點、打贏未來戰爭的時代選擇。

●智慧兵器大量運用,成為戰爭舞台的新主角,必然催生新的作戰樣式,深刻改變傳統戰鬥力生成模式,顛覆傳統作戰制勝機理。

●科學推動軍事智慧化發展,當務之急是探究智慧化作戰的致勝法則。

黨的十九大報告明確要求,加速軍事智慧化發展。目前,世界主要國家都把人工智慧視為「改變遊戲規則」的顛覆性技術,加速推動智慧化作戰準備。搶佔未來軍事戰略競爭制高點,抓好智能化作戰研究,首當其衝的是,認清和把握智能化作戰的製勝規律,為推進軍事智能化發展提供科學需求和有力牽引。智慧化作戰是依托雲環境支撐的自主作戰,作戰制勝既遵循一般制勝機理,也有其自身新的特點規律。

深度認識與理解戰場

戰爭活動極為複雜,但整體上可歸為認知域和行動域兩大類。戰爭認知包括感知、理解、判斷、決策,以及信念和價值等。在冷兵器、熱兵器戰爭中,認識行為基本上由人完成,資訊化戰爭中,電腦科技、網路科技拓展了武器系統認知和理解戰場的能力,但沒有改變戰爭認知系統落後於行動系統的狀況。

智能化作戰中,形態各異的智慧兵器成為主角,其對戰場的共同認識與理解,成為作戰要素、作戰單元協同行動的前提條件。戰時,依托分散部署的智能化偵察預警設備,實時獲取戰場態勢信息,並對海量信息進行智能化分析、處理,採取作戰雲模式對態勢信息進行統一管理,按需按權限分發共享態勢信息,建構時空基準統一、標準規範一致的聯合戰場態勢圖,為智慧兵器共同認識、理解戰場態勢提供統一的背景。而且,智慧兵器本身嵌入了海量基礎數據,戰時,其可透過即時戰場態勢與自身資料庫的比對、分析,實現對敵情、戰場情況的準確認知。

戰爭認知能力的大幅躍升,改變了戰爭認知系統長期落後於行動系統的狀態。可以說,不能深度認識和理解戰場,就不能組織實施智能化作戰。在認識和理解戰場上具有優勢的一方,通常能掌握戰場主動權。

靈活友善的人機交互

智能化作戰的組織實施,依靠智慧兵器準確領會指揮員的意圖,依照指令組織行動。隨著神經網路電腦、光電腦、生物電腦等新概念電腦的出現和運用,在語音識別和文字、圖形識別等智慧技術的支援下,指揮資訊系統人機介面高度智慧化,指揮藝術和軍事謀略深度融入人機互動系統、專家知識庫系統和武器智慧導引系統中,多學科知識庫所支援的專家系統使人機交換介面更為方便、靈活和有效。

戰時,智慧化人機互動式指揮平台,綜合運用智慧演算法、大數據、雲端運算等關鍵技術,有效突破人類分析能力的局限性,確保指揮者快速、準確地判斷和預測戰局發展,輔助指揮員備選作戰方案,定下作戰決心。透過友善的人機交互,指令自動傳遞到相應的指揮對象,直接控制智慧兵器的作戰行動,智慧兵器通過自身的智能終端,領會指揮員的意圖,高效地執行人的命令,實現人與智慧兵器的良好融合。

群體智慧跨域協同

智能化作戰的主角是形態各異的智慧兵器,作戰行動協同以及作戰體系效能發揮,關鍵在於智慧兵器之間的協同與連動。今天的無人作戰系統雖然具備一定的智能,但其協同也主要依靠人的指令組織實施,平台之間很難實施自組織協同。

未來智慧化作戰,陸、海、空、天智慧兵器雲集,數量規模龐大,完全依靠後方人員不可能高效組織協同,必須依靠武器平台之間實時共享戰場態勢信息,根據戰場態勢發展變化隨機自組織協同。為確保智慧兵器互相理解和連動,平台上通常預置有統一的作戰規則,例如打擊、機動、防護有統一的規則,通訊、資訊分發共享也有統一規則。隨著電腦軟體和硬體技術的進一步發展,智慧兵器的專家系統知識庫含有數萬條乃至幾十萬條的規則,戰時,隨著敵情、我情和戰場環境變化,特別是敵我攻防行動的發展,不同作戰場景會觸發對應作戰規則。智慧兵器依照統一規則,採取相應的偵察、打擊和防護等行動,避免相互之間的互擾甚至衝突。同時,透過高度精準的時統系統,建立統一的時間基準,為不同空間智慧兵器的作戰行動提供統一的基準,支撐智慧兵器優化自主協同,達成群體協同的智慧化。

適時介入的人力控制

智能化作戰並非智慧兵器的完全自主作戰,人始終是作戰的籌劃者、組織者和實施者。作戰目的和目標的選擇,都由人來判斷和決策,智慧兵器圍繞著指揮意圖實施各種行動。因為,人工智慧只能部分像人類那樣思考,智慧兵器缺乏人的理性判斷和是非標準,只要指揮控制環節出現問題,就有可能違背指揮官意圖,甚至失控,導致戰局的被動。類似事件,當前就時有發生。 2007年10月,美軍第三機步師的3台「利劍」機器人,由於沒有及時更換軟體,執行任務中1台機器人竟把槍口瞄準操作員,因完全失去控制,最後只能將其摧毀。

未來智能化作戰,一旦戰場態勢發生重大變化,或者原有的作戰目的已經達成,指揮員必須適時精準幹預智慧兵器的偵察、攻擊和防護行動,保證智慧兵器始終不能脫離人的控制,駕馭其按指揮者意圖實現作戰目的。

分散式自主行動

智慧兵器是敵我直接交鋒的主體,通常遠離後方指揮員和技術人員,而且,智能化作戰節奏空前加快,人腦無法應對瞬息萬變的戰場態勢,需要把部分行動權交給智慧兵器。戰時,嵌入人工智慧技術的智慧兵器,可在瞬息萬變的戰場環境中準確、連續地追蹤目標,自主探測,自主處理戰場態勢訊息,自主辨識敵我,自主靈活採用彈藥載荷。

同時,透過統一的標準協定、共享機制,形成多維覆蓋、網路無縫連結、使用者隨機存取、資訊資源按需提取、組織保障靈活快速的雲端環境,實現「資料倉儲」「雲端大腦」 “數位參謀”,為智慧兵器提供全覆蓋的雲環境支撐。不同空間的智慧兵器在資訊科技的連結下成為資訊網路的一個節點,不再孤立無援。在大體系支撐下,智慧兵器集偵察、辨識、定位、控制、攻擊於一身,發現就能「秒殺」。作戰過程中,隨著戰場態勢的發展及作戰需要,處於不同空間的智慧兵器自主行動,誰合適、誰主導,誰有利、誰發射,分散的火力、資訊力、機動力、防護力,在最恰當的時間、最恰當的地點精確釋放。圍繞統一作戰目標,形成「態勢共享-同步協作-聚焦釋能」的戰鬥力產生鏈路,自主組織作戰行動。

遠距聚焦式技術保障

智慧兵器依託於人工智慧、資訊網路等高新技術,其作戰效能發揮,離不開操作系統、軟體等的穩定運行,離不開後方技術專家及保障人員。智慧化作戰行動的組織實施,對物資、交通等傳統保障的依賴大幅降低,保障的重點將向智力、知識、資訊、網路、軟體等方面傾斜。

戰場上,兵力兵器規模減小,而軟體設計、網路控制、資訊資源、裝備維修等技術保障力量空前增加。戰時,遠程聚焦式技術保障,不僅要突出技術預儲預置,還要依托感知與反應技術,將整個戰場空間的感知系統、控制系統、電腦和用戶終端聯為一體,構成互聯互通、一體化的技術保障網絡。特別是利用嵌入在智慧兵器和後方保障設施中的人工智慧技術,即時取得智慧兵器的運作狀態,及時發現其技術故障和保障需求,即時更新保障方案,向保障單位分發技術保障需求;後方技術保障力量,透過網路對前端智慧兵器進行“會診”,實施遠端功能恢復及技術資訊支援。

(編按:黃子娟、王吉全)

中國軍事原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0329/c1011-29896888.html

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