Chinese Military Anti-Satellite Weapons Development
神舟十二號伸出機械臂的相關圖片傳出後，美媒隨即對相關信息進行了新一輪的報導，同時指出“這可能與神舟十二號的指揮官所言相同”。 美國太空軍之前就說過，中國可以俘虜美軍，衛星也是一樣，早在今年4月，美國太空軍司令部司令詹姆斯·迪金森將軍就在媒體鏡頭前公開宣稱，中國已經研製出 一顆配備大型機械臂的衛星，而中國正試圖將這顆衛星用於軍事目的，用來“抓取”美軍衛星。
理論上，哪裡有衛星，哪裡就有反衛星技術。 人造衛星分為三種，一種是科學衛星，一種是技術實驗衛星，第三種是應用衛星。 按用途可分為民用衛星和軍用衛星，軍用衛星又分為通信、氣象、偵察、導航、大地測量、攔截衛星等。
在現代戰爭中，天空對地面始終保持著巨大的作戰優勢。 人造衛星的出現，將這種優勢延伸到了外層空間。 在未來的戰爭中，誰能控制太空，誰就擁有戰爭的主動權。 成為各國軍事競爭的焦點。
人造衛星，特別是軍用人造衛星，由於速度快，每秒可飛行七八公里，90分鐘可繞地球一圈； 他們視野開闊，視野開闊，同樣的視角是飛機觀察的數万倍； 限制很少，可以自由飛越地球上的任何區域，在給己方帶來極大便利的同時，也給敵方帶來了巨大的潛在威脅。
因此，自1960年代以來，以美俄為代表的世界軍事強國都致力於研製“帶導反衛星”、“帶衛星反衛星”、“反衛星”等反衛星武器。 與能量”。 將其作為控制空間、消除威脅、奪取制空權的重要武器。
反衛星技術是指從地面、空中或外太空攻擊敵方衛星的軍事技術。 目前，反衛星技術主要有核能反衛星技術、直升式動能反衛星技術、定向能反衛星技術和同軌反衛星技術。 核能反衛星技術殺傷距離大，技術門檻低，但因其產生的附帶傷害巨大，實用價值不大。 直升式動能反衛星技術可以看作是反導技術的延伸，是軍事強國廣泛採用的具有精確制導技術的反衛星手段。
以激光武器為代表的定向能反衛星技術和俘虜同軌反衛星技術不易產生空間碎片，可將低、中、高軌道衛星全部納入攻擊範圍， 具有很大的作戰應用潛力，已經獲得。 世界各國受寵，競相發展。 與此同時，電子對抗、網絡攻擊等隱蔽、隱形的衛星軟殺傷技術也逐漸顯現出鋒芒。
共軌反衛星武器發射到目標衛星的軌道上，對其進行跟踪，然後利用動能或核爆將其摧毀。 其作用距離遠，殺傷半徑大，即使在武器本身製導精度較差的情況下也能摧毀目標。 但它的缺點是精度低，反應慢，從發射到銷毀需要數天時間； 另外，核彈的附加殺傷效果大，容易對己方衛星造成威脅； 而且一旦使用，就有引發核戰爭的危險。
定向能反衛星是指利用激光、粒子束、高功率微波束等武器，以高能激光束、粒子束、微波束照射目標衛星，使其完全毀壞或使敏感電子元器件失效 並失去工作能力。 .
我國從2005年開始進行反衛星試驗，前期主要以測試武器的功能為主。 雖然起步較晚，但並沒有落後。 在反衛星導彈和人造衛星方面取得了顯著成果。
2007年1月11日，我國在西昌衛星發射中心發射了一枚SC-19，又名DN-1。 導彈攜帶一枚動能彈頭，以每秒8公里的速度摧毀軌道高度。 長863公里、重750公斤的“風雲一號”氣象衛星已經報廢。 這是我國首次成功攔截人造衛星。 從此，我國正式進入反衛星技術領域。
隨後，我國先後研製了二代DN-2和三代DN-3兩種新型反衛星導彈，並分別於2013年5月和2017年7月23日進行了兩次成功試驗。DN的研製成功 -1、DN-2、DN-3反衛星導彈已實現低、中、高軌道全覆蓋，人造衛星基本在我國反衛星導彈的打擊範圍內。 技術已進入世界一流水平。
除了反衛星導彈，我國還研製了一顆衛星用於反衛星實驗。 衛星配備機械臂，可以改變軌道，對其他衛星進行全方位探測。 應用方便靈活。 技術開發的最新成果。
發展微型衛星，發揮反衛星能力。 現代微型衛星研製週期短、建設成本低、系統投資少、抗毀壞能力強、設備更新快。 它可以移動到地球同步軌道上的任意位置，甚至可以圍繞其他衛星進行近距離作戰和發動攻擊。 它有很大的潛力。
目前，以美國為首的軍事強國在反衛星武器研製上已經從裝載普通炸藥的“殺手”衛星和“微型尋的導彈”轉變為新概念武器。 定向能武器已經成為反衛星武器。 武器是新利器，其中激光反衛星武器是最具威懾力和最有效的武器。 激光反衛星武器的發展重點是陸基和天基反衛星技術。 軟硬結合，更加註重電子對抗等軟殺傷手段的運用。 傳統電子乾擾等軟殺傷技術的創新、發展和應用，通過研製可逆非物理反衛星武器，在一定時間內乾擾、欺騙或阻止目標衛星執行有效功能。 時間。 國家高度重視並不斷開發該領域。
Modern English Translation:
2021-06-24Source: People’s Political Consultative Conference
After the related picture of Shenzhou 12 extending its mechanical arm came out, the US media immediately carried out a new round of reports on the relevant information, and pointed out at the same time that “this may be the same as what the commander of the US space force said before. China can capture the US military. The same is true for satellites. As early as April this year, General James Dickinson, commander of the U.S. Space Force Command, publicly declared in front of media cameras that China has developed a satellite equipped with a large robotic arm, and China is trying to use this satellite for military purposes. Used to “grab and capture” US military satellites.
So, what is anti-satellite technology?
In theory, where there are satellites, there is anti-satellite technology. There are three types of artificial satellites, one is scientific satellites, the other is technology experiment satellites, and the third is application satellites. According to the purpose, it can be divided into civilian satellites and military satellites, and military satellites are divided into communication, meteorology, reconnaissance, navigation, geodetic, interception satellites, etc.
The reason for anti-satellite
In modern warfare, the sky has always maintained a huge combat advantage over the ground. The emergence of artificial satellites has extended this advantage to outer space. In future wars, whoever can control space will have the initiative in war. It has become the focus of military competition among various countries.
Artificial satellites, especially military artificial satellites, fly seven or eight kilometers per second because of their fast speed, and can circle the earth in 90 minutes; they have a wide field of vision and a wide field of vision, and the same viewing angle is tens of thousands of times that of aircraft observation; there are few restrictions and they can fly over freely Any area on the earth, while bringing great convenience to one’s own side, also brings huge potential threats to the enemy.
Therefore, since the 1960s, the world’s military powers represented by the United States and Russia have been committed to the development of anti-satellite weapons such as “anti-satellite with guides”, “anti-satellite with satellites” and “anti-satellite with energy”. Take it as an important weapon for controlling space, eliminating threats, and seizing control of the sky.
Anti-satellite technology refers to military technology that attacks enemy satellites from the ground, air or outer space. At present, anti-satellite technologies mainly include nuclear energy anti-satellite, direct-ascent kinetic energy anti-satellite, directed energy anti-satellite, and co-orbit anti-satellite technology. Nuclear energy anti-satellite technology has a large killing distance and low technical threshold, but because of the huge collateral damage it produces, its practical value is not great. The direct-ascent kinetic energy anti-satellite technology can be regarded as an extension of the anti-missile technology, and it is an anti-satellite method widely used by military powers with precision guidance technology.
The directed energy anti-satellite technology represented by laser weapons and the captive co-orbit anti-satellite technology are not easy to generate space debris, and can include all low-, medium-, and high-orbit satellites in the attack range, which has great potential for combat application and has been obtained. Countries all over the world are favored and competing for development. At the same time, hidden and invisible satellite soft-killing technologies such as electronic countermeasures and network attacks are also gradually showing their edge.
Generally speaking, there are four types of anti-satellite tactics: co-orbit, direct ascent, directed energy, and electromagnetic interference. It is mainly realized by anti-satellite satellites and anti-satellite missiles and anti-satellite electronic jamming stations.
Co-orbital anti-satellite weapons are launched into the orbit of the target satellite, track it, and then use kinetic energy or nuclear explosion to destroy it. It has a long range of action and a large killing radius, and it can still destroy the target even when the guidance accuracy of the weapon itself is poor. But its disadvantages are low accuracy, slow response, and it takes several days from launch to destruction; in addition, the additional damage effect of nuclear bombs is large, and it is easy to pose a threat to one’s own satellite; and once used, there is a danger of triggering a nuclear war .
The direct-ascent anti-satellite missile means that the anti-satellite missile does not enter the orbit of the target satellite, but only relies on the small tracker on the missile to directly find the target satellite when the target satellite passes over the sky, and directly destroys it.
Directed energy anti-satellite refers to the use of weapons such as lasers, particle beams, and high-power microwave beams to irradiate target satellites with high-energy laser beams, particle beams, and microwave beams to completely destroy them or disable sensitive electronic components and lose their ability to work. .
Electromagnetic interference anti-satellite is the use of satellite electronic interference technology to prevent communication between satellites and ground stations, thereby achieving the purpose of invalidating satellites. This is the earliest, most common, and most basic anti-satellite tactic.
my country’s anti-satellite technology
The Soviet Union was the first country to develop satellite technology, and the United States was the first country to develop anti-satellite technology. The history of world anti-satellite technology is basically a battle between the two countries.
my country started to conduct anti-satellite tests in 2005. In the early stage, it mainly focused on testing the functions of weapons. Although it started late, it did not lag behind. Remarkable results have been achieved in anti-satellite missiles and satellites.
On January 11, 2007, my country launched an SC-19, also known as DN-1, at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The missile carried a kinetic energy warhead and destroyed the orbital altitude at a speed of 8 kilometers per second. The “Fengyun-1” meteorological satellite, which is 863 kilometers long and weighs 750 kilograms, has been scrapped. This is the first time that my country has successfully intercepted an artificial satellite. Since then, my country has officially entered the field of anti-satellite technology.
Afterwards, my country successively developed two new anti-satellite missiles, the second-generation DN-2 and the third-generation DN-3, and conducted two successful tests in May 2013 and July 23, 2017. The successful research and development of DN-1, DN-2 and DN-3 anti-satellite missiles have fully covered low, medium and high orbits, and artificial satellites are basically within the strike range of my country’s anti-satellite missiles. Technology has entered the world-class level.
In addition to anti-satellite missiles, my country has also developed a satellite for anti-satellite experiments. The satellite is equipped with a mechanical arm, which can change orbits and perform all-round detection of other satellites. It is convenient and flexible in application. The latest achievements in technological development.
In order to compete for space superiority and ensure national security, the struggle for anti-satellite weapons and satellite defense will intensify. At present, anti-satellite technology is mainly developed in the following aspects: the combination of anti-satellite and anti-missile, and the development of missile defense system to further improve the anti-satellite capability of kinetic energy weapons.
There is an inseparable relationship between ballistic missile defense systems and kinetic energy anti-satellite weapons, because weapons capable of intercepting ballistic missiles outside the atmosphere all have anti-satellite capabilities to a certain extent. The development of missile technology to promote the development of anti-satellite technology is one of the current international anti-satellite trends.
Develop micro-satellites and exert their anti-satellite capabilities. Modern micro-satellites have a short development cycle, low construction costs, low system investment, strong anti-destruction capabilities, and fast equipment updates. It can move to any position on the geosynchronous orbit, and can even perform close operations around other satellites and launch attacks. It has great potential.
At present, the military powers headed by the United States have changed from the idea of ”killer” satellites loaded with ordinary explosives and “miniature homing missiles” to new concept weapons in the development of anti-satellite weapons. Directed energy weapons have become anti-satellite weapons. Weapons are new sharp weapons, and among them, laser anti-satellite weapons are the most deterrent and most effective weapons. The development of laser anti-satellite weapons focuses on ground-based and space-based anti-satellite technologies. Combine soft and hard, and pay more attention to the use of electronic countermeasures and other soft killing methods. The innovation, development, and application of traditional electronic jamming and other soft-kill technologies, through the development of reversible non-physical anti-satellite weapons, can interfere with, deceive, or prevent target satellites from performing effective functions within a certain period of time. Countries attach great importance to and continue to develop field of.
At present, complex aerospace technologies such as autonomous approach and rendezvous and docking have been applied to anti-satellite weapons. Rendezvous and docking technology solves this problem.
(The author is a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the chief engineer of a certain department in the northern theater)
Original Chinese Source: http://www.cppcc.gov.cn/zxww/2021/06/24/ARTI1624501659719410.shtml