Chinese Military Exploring the Strategy of Winning Superiority in Information Warfare
In the era of information warfare, due to changes in the mechanism of winning wars, the strategy of winning with the inferior to the superior has also changed accordingly. Under the new situation, exploring the new characteristics, new laws, and new strategies of informatization warfare to win the war with the inferior has very important practical significance for winning future wars.
Information has become the dominant factor in winning a war, and the victory of the inferior is concentrated in seizing information superiority
As information technology is widely used in the military field, informationized weapons and equipment have become the main weapons on the battlefield. Information flow will determine material flow, force flow and energy flow, and become the dominant element of combat effectiveness, penetrating every corner of the battlefield. Competing for information superiority and linking multidimensional forces such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity have become the focus of confrontation in informationized warfare. Taking the information combat system as the primary target of using troops, finding the weak parts of the opponent’s information system, concentrating on destroying them, and making the opponent’s intelligence information system and command and control system paralyzed or unable to operate normally has become an important way for the inferior equipment to defeat the strong enemy. By striking information targets, one hair can affect the whole body and even directly achieve the purpose of war.
The more the party has the advantage of information technology, the more afraid the disadvantaged party will adopt asymmetric means of confrontation. As someone pointed out: our practice of using information as the focus of operations can become our strength, but it is also easy to become a vulnerable weakness. Therefore, aim at the weaknesses and weaknesses of the powerful enemy’s informationized combat platform, concentrate elite weapons and trumpet weapons and equipment, avoid the enemy’s sharp edge, take a slanted sword, and attack its weak links, such as comprehensively using information attack, navigation countermeasures, photoelectric interference and other means to destroy enemy information Even if only one or two of the network system, reconnaissance and early warning system, command and control system, and navigation and positioning system are successful, it can disrupt its overall structure and combat order, effectively paralyze its combat system, and finally achieve the effect of four or two.
System confrontation has become the basic law of victory in war, and the superiority of the inferior is highlighted by the weakening and deprivation of the enemy’s systematic combat advantages
In informationized warfare, the integration, complementarity, and interdependence of the various services and arms have increased, and the confrontation between the combat systems of the two hostile parties has become increasingly prominent. War is no longer a confrontation of single functions between combat units, but a systemic confrontation based on the comprehensive integration of various combat units and combat elements. The overall function of the combat system has a major impact on the success or failure of a war. In the face of an enemy with systemic advantages, it is very difficult to rely on a single force and a single means to achieve victory over the superior. Whether it can weaken and deprive the combat advantages of a powerful enemy system has become a key link in information warfare to achieve victory over the superior.
The practice of several local wars in recent years has proved that the party with inferior equipment can effectively destroy the key targets of the enemy’s combat system by developing and using some advanced weapons and combining them with other weapons and equipment when there is a “generational difference” in the overall combat capability. It is entirely possible to cause a powerful enemy’s overall operational dysfunction or paralysis. The larger and more sophisticated the combat system of a strong enemy in information technology, the easier it is to expose its vulnerable side. Once it is destroyed, it will often cause serious consequences. During the Iraq war, the U.S. military was shocked by the fact that GPS precision-guided weapons lost their accuracy after being interfered by the Iraqi army’s GPS jammers. During the Kosovo War, the soldiers and civilians of Yugoslavia used flexible and diverse computer network warfare, which also caused NATO’s computer network system to be attacked and paralyzed many times.
Quick decision has become the basic requirement for winning a war, and more emphasis is placed on immediate linkage to form a local advantage over the enemy by using the inferior to win the superior
The depreciation of the space factor and the sharp increase in the value of the time factor in the informationized battlefield lead to the acceleration of the combat rhythm, the shortening of the duration of the war, and the significant enhancement of the quick decision of the war. Although the basic combat procedures and information flow have not undergone fundamental changes, the processes of discovering targets, making decisions, issuing orders, and troop actions are carried out almost simultaneously in real time. The U.S. military’s book “Awe and Fear–The Way to Quickly Conquer the Enemy” pointed out that when talking about the quick victory of information warfare: “From a technical point of view, the speed here includes the formulation of combat plans, combat determination, and deployment and use of troops. Everything requires the troops to respond quickly in the shortest possible time.” In the Afghan war, it took about 19 minutes for the U.S. military to go from the “discovery-location-aiming-attack-assessment” kill chain, while it only took 10 minutes in the 2003 Iraq war about.
At the same time, various information-based weapons can carry out rapid and deadly long-range precision strikes, making the disadvantaged party form a passive situation where they cannot be seen, relied on, grasped, or hit. In exchange for room for maneuver in battles and battles; through long-term local gathering of superior forces and annihilating the enemy, accumulating small victories into big victories, it becomes more difficult to finally realize the growth and decline of the enemy and our forces. We must pay attention to the function of network aggregation, select and deploy new quality and elite forces, adopt modular organization, building block combination, task combination and other force formation methods, use multi-dimensional distribution, network chain combat configuration, and use link cycle linkage and leapfrog Response methods such as direct linkage, synchronous parallel linkage, sequential connection linkage, etc., realize network aggregation efficiency, system linkage, and multi-dimensional response to obtain local strength advantages against the enemy.
Technological factors are becoming more and more important in war, and the victory of the inferior depends on the close integration of people and technology
Information technology, especially disruptive technology, has triggered revolutionary changes in weaponry, organizational structure, and combat styles, and has become a direct driving force for the transformation of information warfare. Information warfare relies on the combination and application advantages of weapon platforms to realize domain linkage and cross-domain control. The proportion of technology-intensive arms and new-quality combat forces continues to increase. The concept of inferior superiority is facing challenges. However, information-based weapons and equipment put forward higher requirements for the quality of personnel. The organic combination of information-based weapons and equipment and high-quality personnel has become a key factor in winning a war. When the disadvantaged party confronts a strong enemy, it is even more necessary to do more in terms of human subjective initiative. enough articles.
In the man-machine system composed of man and weapon, the scientific and technological content of weapons and equipment is increasing day by day, and the trend of intelligence is becoming more and more obvious. The political, theoretical, military and technological literacy of commanders has become the key factor for winning an information war. General Sullivan of the U.S. Army once said: “Even in the information age, it is still people who dominate war operations. Changes in technology, equipment, and force structure will not lead to the disappearance of courage, selflessness, camaraderie, and leadership. “Information warfare has not changed that people are the decisive factor in the outcome of a war. How to make full use of strengths and avoid weaknesses for the party with inferior weapons and equipment, give full play to the effective combination of people and technology, and make up for technological disadvantages has become a key factor in defeating an enemy with superior equipment.
The contest of intelligence and strategy has become an important aspect of winning a war, and the strategy of using the inferior to win the superior exists in the active role
If a weak army wants to defeat a strong enemy, simply competing in military strength is tantamount to hitting a rock with an egg – there is no advantage at all; simply competing in equipment technology is tantamount to using its own strengths to defeat the enemy’s strengths – always being passive; Competing with external support is tantamount to discarding the decisive role of internal factors-willing to seek defeat with inferiority. What ultimately depends on the inferior to the superior? Relying on the active role of self-consciousness, relying on intelligence and strategic competition, this is the fundamental factor to realize the transformation from weak to strong, and the inferior to the superior.
Subjective initiative is manifested in many aspects for “surviving the superior with the inferior”. Although the “potential” here has a certain relationship with the strength of the opposing sides, it still depends on the degree of the commander’s subjective initiative. Those who plan well gain power, and those who do not plan lose power. The second is to actively plan a series of strategies to actively seize the advantages of opportunities. War is a vigorous confrontation between two sides fighting wits and courage. If the weaker side can make a superior move and make a living in a row, it will surely win the first opportunity. The third is to actively create local advantages and actively establish overall victory. Global strength does not mean local overall superiority, and overall global weakness does not mean local overall inferiority. Concentrating forces to form local advantages will eventually break the comparison of advantages and disadvantages and lay the foundation for overall victory. The fourth is to make the best use of the situation and actively innovate and adapt tactics. Water is impermanent, and soldiers are impermanent. According to changes in the enemy’s situation, we can flexibly innovate and change our own tactics, and constantly change the situation of both the enemy and ourselves, so as to gradually provide conditions for our own side to change from weak to strong.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著信息技術在軍事領域的廣泛應用，信息化武器裝備成為戰場上的主力武器。 信息流將決定物質流、力量流和能量流，成為戰鬥力的主導要素，滲透到戰場的每一個角落。 爭奪信息優勢，聯動陸、海、空、天、電等多維力量，成為信息化戰爭的對抗焦點。 把信息作戰系統作為用兵的首要目標，發現對方信息系統的薄弱環節，集中摧毀，使對方情報信息系統和指揮控制系統癱瘓或無法正常運轉，已成為重要的作戰手段。 以劣裝備打敗強敵的方法。 通過打擊信息目標，一根頭髮絲牽一發而動全身，甚至直接達到戰爭目的。
越是擁有信息技術優勢的一方，就越害怕處於劣勢的一方採取不對稱的對抗手段。 正如有人指出的那樣：我們將信息作為作戰重點的做法可以成為我們的優勢，但也很容易成為我們脆弱的弱點。 因此，針對強敵信息化作戰平台的薄弱環節和弱點，集中精銳武器和喇叭武器裝備，避敵利刃，斜劍攻其薄弱環節，如綜合運用信息攻擊、航海導航等。 反制、光電干擾等手段破壞敵方信息 即使網絡系統、偵察預警系統、指揮控制系統、導航定位系統中只有一兩個得手，也能擾亂其整體結構和作戰秩序 ，有效地麻痺了它的戰鬥系統，最終達到四兩的效果。
信息化戰爭中，各兵種融合、互補、依存度增強，敵對雙方作戰體係對抗性日益突出。 戰爭不再是作戰單位之間單一職能的對抗，而是各種作戰單位和作戰要素綜合融合的系統性對抗。 戰鬥系統的整體功能對一場戰爭的成敗具有重大影響。 面對擁有系統優勢的敵人，僅靠單一的力量和單一的手段，是很難戰勝上位的。 能否削弱和剝奪強敵系統的作戰優勢，成為信息戰制勝制勝的關鍵環節。
近年來的幾次局部戰爭實踐證明，裝備劣勢的一方在存在“代溝”的情況下，通過研製和使用一些先進武器，並與其他武器裝備相結合，可以有效摧毀敵方作戰體系的重點目標。 ”在整體作戰能力上。 完全有可能造成強敵整體作戰失靈或癱瘓。 信息化強敵的作戰體系越大越精密，越容易暴露其弱點。 一旦被破壞，往往會造成嚴重的後果。 伊拉克戰爭期間，GPS精確制導武器在受到伊拉克軍隊的GPS干擾器干擾後，精度下降，令美軍震驚。 科索沃戰爭期間，南斯拉夫軍民使用了靈活多樣的計算機網絡戰，這也導致北約的計算機網絡系統多次遭到攻擊而癱瘓。
戰鬥節奏，戰爭持續時間的縮短，戰爭速決能力的顯著增強。 雖然基本的作戰程序和信息流沒有發生根本性的變化，但發現目標、決策、下達命令和部隊行動的過程幾乎是同時實時進行的。 美軍著作《敬畏與恐懼——速克敵之道》在談到信息戰的速勝時指出：“從技術角度看，這裡的速度包括作戰計劃的製定、作戰 決心，部署和用兵。一切都需要部隊在最短的時間內迅速做出反應。” 在阿富汗戰爭中，美軍從“發現-定位-瞄準-攻擊-評估”殺傷鏈走完大約需要19分鐘，而在2003年的伊拉克戰爭中只用了10分鐘左右。
同時，各種信息化武器可以進行快速、致命的遠程精確打擊，使處於不利地位的一方形成看不見、依靠不了、抓不住、打不著的被動局面。 以換取戰場上的迴旋餘地； 通過長期局部集結優勢兵力殲滅敵人，積小胜為大勝，最終實現敵我力量的消長變得更加困難。 要注重發揮網絡聚合作用，選拔部署新型精銳力量，採用模塊化編組、積木組合、任務組合等兵力編組方式，多維度佈局、網絡鍊式作戰配置、使用鏈條 循環聯動、蛙跳式直接聯動、同步並聯、順序連接聯動等響應方式，實現網絡聚合高效、系統聯動、多維響應，獲取對敵局部兵力優勢。
信息技術特別是顛覆性技術引發了武器裝備、組織結構、作戰方式的革命性變革，成為信息化戰爭變革的直接驅動力。 信息戰依托武器平台的組合和應用優勢，實現域聯動和跨域控制。 技術密集型兵種和新型作戰力量比重不斷提高。 自下而上的概念正面臨挑戰。 但信息化武器裝備對人員素質提出了更高的要求。 信息化武器裝備與高素質人才的有機結合，成為打贏戰爭的關鍵因素。 當弱勢一方面對強敵時，更需要在人的主觀能動性上多做一些事。 足夠的文章。
在人與武器組成的人機系統中，武器裝備的科技含量與日俱增，智能化趨勢越來越明顯。 指揮官的政治素養、理論素養、軍事素養和科技素養成為打贏信息戰的關鍵因素。 美國陸軍將軍蘇利文曾說過：“即使在信息時代，主導戰爭行動的仍然是人。技術、裝備和部隊結構的變化不會導致勇氣、無私、友情和領導力的消失。” “信息戰沒有改變人是決定戰爭勝負的因素。 武器裝備劣勢黨如何揚長避短，充分發揮人與科技的有效結合，彌補科技劣勢，成為以優裝備克敵制勝的關鍵因素。
弱軍欲勝強敵，單純比武無異於以卵擊石——毫無優勢可言； 單純的比拼裝備技術，無異於以己之長克敵之長——永遠被動； 與外援競爭，無異於捨棄了內因的決定作用——以弱求敗。 到底是什麼決定了下位者對上位者的影響？ 依靠自覺的主動作用，依靠智慧和戰略競爭，這是實現由弱變強的根本因素，而
“以弱勝強”的主觀能動性表現在很多方面。 這裡的“勢”雖然與對方的實力強弱有一定的關係，但還是要看指揮官主觀能動性的高低。 計劃好者得勢，計劃不周者失勢。 二是積極謀劃系列戰略，積極搶占先機。 戰爭是雙方鬥智斗勇的激烈交鋒。 弱小的一方若能出高招，連續謀生，必能奪得先機。 三是積極打造局部優勢，積極確立全局勝利。 全球強不代表局部整體優勢，全球整體弱不代表局部整體劣勢。 集中力量形成局部優勢，終將打破優勢劣勢比較，為全面勝利奠定基礎。 四是因勢利導，積極創新調整戰術。 水無常，兵無常。 根據敵情變化，靈活創新和改變己方戰術，不斷改變敵我雙方形勢，逐步為己方由弱變強提供條件。
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