Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage ~ 信息戰爭中使用心理戰爭中國的軍事優勢


Using Psychological Warfare in Information War China’s Military Advantage

Since the eighties of the 20th century, with the development of science and technology and the evolution of war forms, so that the psychological war plug in the high-tech wings. In the information war, the psychological warfare fully demonstrated a series of distinctive features, its status, domain objects and methods of means have undergone major changes, the impact of the war far more than any period in history.

Status is strategic

Psychological warfare has been incorporated into the national strategic areas, to achieve the national strategic objectives of the important form of struggle. At the end of the twentieth century, the drastic changes in Eastern Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Union showed the success of the “peaceful evolution” strategy pursued by the Western capitalist countries headed by the United States. “Peaceful evolution” can be said to be synonymous with “psychological warfare.” Its success has made it more strongly aware that psychological warfare is no longer an adjunct to military struggle, but an important battlefield of strategic importance in international struggle The In view of this, the world in the strategic thinking, all the psychological warfare into the overall strategic structure. In the information war, the psychological war has become the country’s strategic behavior and basic tactics, not only troops and horses did not move, heart war first, and psychological attack and psychological defense throughout the whole, as all-round, all time and space, Level of strategic action, so that the psychological battle to become an important factor leading the war situation.

Psychological warfare of the macro-level has risen to the highest strategic decision-making level of the state and the army, and the psychological attack of the primary target directly to each other’s top strategic decision-makers. After the September 11 incident, under the instigation of the National Security Council, Bush decided to make a public opinion in the international community, the Iraqi as “evil axis”, for its military strike for political pave the way. In this overall decision-making traction, the United States Department of Psychology and Strategy and the control of the “Voice of America”, newspapers, publications, film, television, the International Exchange Department, are their responsibilities, from the strategic psychological war straight Refers to the Saddam regime, with a view to leading international public opinion, for the military action to create a suitable environment.

Psychological warfare has become an important factor in leading the war situation, the outcome of the war has a pivotal role. The most representative of the recent information war mainly four: 1991 Gulf War, the 1999 war in Kosovo, the 2001-2002 war in Afghanistan and the 2003 war in Iraq. The four wars are exactly the same in the strategic use of the psychological warfare. The United States is an important part of the military’s high-intensity psychological warfare as an indispensable part of the military strategy. The intensity, scope and time of the military strike are as limited as possible within the limits of politics, and even every military action Not only to consider the military value, but also to consider the political and psychological values, every stage of the war, to assess the psychological effects of the enemy, and then decide the next stage of military strike to achieve the military goals and political and psychological goals coincide. These four wars, not only to show people the psychological war is “war before the war, after the war of war”, but also to fully demonstrate the great power of psychological warfare and to play a major role in the war.

The field is broad

The psychological warfare in the information war has transcended the boundaries of military struggle and has become a well-planned and comprehensive strategic action in various fields such as politics, economy, military affairs, diplomacy, culture and religion.

Looking at the information war in recent years, we can clearly see that the United States is not political, economic, diplomatic, military, cultural and religious and other areas of the psychological war as a whole, so that the psychological battle became a veritable “psychological encirclement and suppression ”

The object of the war of information warfare has also completely broken through the scope of the traditional warfare against the military. “The whole purpose of mental warfare is to encourage emotions in foreign groups and people to influence their attitudes or behavior in order to support the goals of the United States.” That is to say, the psychological warfare of information war Object range, has been extended to both the enemy combat forces, but also against the enemy of the people, and even the psychological warfare to the war with the object of friendly countries and regions, pointing to neutral countries and neighboring countries and neighboring countries and the entire international community. Information war in the psychological war also bear the education of their own military and civilian, to maintain the heart to the same and psychological stability of the task.

Methods show diversity

From the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, the war in Afghanistan to the war in Iraq, the United States not only attached great importance to “heart war” and “war” closely, but also in the psychological warfare will be used in a variety of ways to complement each other, complement each other , Thus greatly enhancing the effectiveness of psychological warfare. 9.11 after the incident, the United States to fight the psychological war, for the war on terror to lay the foundation of public opinion. The United States on the day of making a decision to send troops in Afghanistan, the State Council set up a “propaganda group”, the use of domestic major media, repeated rendering of the United States in the “9.11” loss, widely for the people to form a terrorist The On the eve of the military strike, the US Department of State has set up a “public relations team”, responsible for the full implementation of national propaganda strategy. After the war began, for the support of international public opinion, the United States in Washington, London and Islamabad established three “wartime press room”, the timely release of the so-called “real and reliable” battlefield information, and the Taliban propaganda to compete. The US Department of Defense has also set up a “strategic information office”, specifically concocted false information, through a variety of ways to pass abroad. In the implementation of military strikes, strengthen the deterrence of the enemy. First to deploy troops to push to change. In a short period of 20 days, within 500 km of Afghanistan, the assembly of five aircraft carrier formation, 18 million combat troops, 550 combat aircraft, from the air, the ground basically blocked the whole territory of Afghanistan, its intention is to Strong military pressure to force the Taliban unconditionally to meet the demands of the United States. Then, continuous blow to fried change. The US military every day out of hundreds of fighters on the Taliban strategy and tactical goals for continuous bombing. In the air raid, the US military intends to use a variety of powerful psychological deterrent effect of new weapons, such as AC-130 laser attack aircraft, this aircraft carrying a new laser weapons, it can be said that the light flash, that is, ashes, The Afghan army is called “the light of death”. US Department of Defense officials have made no secret that the main intention is not to completely eliminate the Taliban military forces, but to strive to defeat its morale, weaken its psychological affordability, triggering “internal chaos and fission.”

Means to show high technology

High-tech makes the psychological warfare endless. In the recent wars, the United States has made use of satellite positioning and direction finding, television broadcasting technology, computer information processing technology, network technology, signal simulation and distortion technology, audio and video technology and other high-tech means to improve the psychological warfare comprehensive combat effect The According to incomplete statistics, in the Iraq war, the United States used military and civilian satellites up to 160, compared with the Gulf War increased by 23. The US news media is through these communications satellites to the domestic and the world launched a large number of favorable to the enemy is not conducive to the enemy’s war information and images. Now, people can use computer graphics synthesis technology, easy to create such as “a country army in the enemy capital square lined up”, “a country leader and the enemy leaders secret talks, shake hands” and other fictional photos or television pictures, to Suddenly these “information bomb” fired at each other’s military and civilian, to destroy the other side of the military and civilian defense line. People can use the audio and video technology to simulate the voice of the head of the enemy and battlefield commander, issued a wrong command of the war, so that the enemy decision-making mistakes, command into chaos, and can use these high-tech means to adjust their military and civilian psychology, inspire morale. In 1993, the United States in the Somali Marine Corps in the implementation of peacekeeping missions, suffered some setbacks. Once, the wind, the dust storm suddenly, the troops suddenly chaos up. At this critical moment, the American Army forces suddenly appeared on a head of up to 150 meters of Jesus image, the US soldiers saw after kneeling, and some frightened, and some burst into tears, that God is really with them, they Somali warfare is “the will of God” and is “fighting for God”. Later, this image exists for a full five minutes to disperse. It is said that this is the United States psychological warfare forces with laser holographic imaging system projection to the air image, to improve the morale of the troops. The United States also attaches great importance to the use of network technology, network infiltration, information and psychological attacks. Network transmission speed, in a very short period of time, heart war information up to front-line officers and men, up to the warrior family, can affect the highest decision-making body, under the ordinary people, its influence is self-evident. In the Iraq war, the United States even organized “hackers” experts to crack the Iraqi military high-level characters e-mail password, send a large number of e-mail, but also directly call the Iraqi high-level mobile phone, the implementation of psychological deterrence and inducement. There is a recent report that the US military engaged in a “666” computer virus, the virus into the computer, you can make the screen repeated an image, people repeatedly see this image, will produce some inexplicable potential awareness, leading to nerve Disorder, hallucinations and even death.

Power show professional

In contemporary times, the developed countries in the world not only attach great importance to the use of psychological warfare, but also pay special attention to strengthening the psychological warfare from all levels.

First, the establishment of a scientific and effective organization and leadership institutions. Now, many countries in order to effectively carry out psychological defense and external implementation of psychological operations, have established a corresponding psychological warfare organizational system. The United States is the most complete system of psychological warfare, the commander of the body by the President of the psychological warfare counsel, chief of staff of the joint meeting of the psychological warfare, the Ministry of Defense of the General Office of the Department of psychological operations; middle institutions by the Joint Command and the theater headquarters of the psychological war department; The lower body consists of psychological war camps and psychological warfare groups. The state and the armed forces have unified their organization and coordinated mental warfare work from top to bottom, serving not only for military struggle but also for international and domestic political struggle.

Second, the establishment of psychological warfare research and think tank institutions. The United States and some Western countries and military personnel attach great importance to the study of psychological warfare, and the establishment of research institutions, specializing in psychological warfare theory and technology research. But also pay attention to play the role of civil “think tank”, the use of universities, research institutions and a variety of senior specialized personnel for the psychological warfare service.

Third, the establishment of professional psychological warfare forces and training of psychological warfare professionals. The US military has a large number of psychological warfare troops, allocated in the land and sea and air forces, including the army has four psychological battle groups, 12 psychological war camps, 22 psychological warfare, the Navy has a psychological warfare brigade, the Air Force has a special operations The wing is used to support the psychological warfare. At the same time, also set up a special psychological warfare institutions or professional, training professional psychological warfare talent. In the war in Afghanistan, the US military to the two most combat capability of the psychological warfare force – Air Force 193 Special Combat Wing and the Army 4th psychological war brigade, deployed in Uzbekistan and Pakistan, the use of various means to start the Taliban The battlefield psychological attack, such as flight radio, cast leaflets, block the Taliban news channel. Iraq war, the US military used almost all of the current psychological warfare forces, but also mobilized and organized a folk psychological strength. The Air Force Psychological Warfare Force is equipped with EC-130E psychological warfare aircraft, from time, space, audio-visual, electromagnetic and other dimensions of the release of psychological warfare information; the Army psychological warfare forces are mostly proficient in Arabic, by telephone, e-mail, And so on to lobby the Iranian specific figures, but also with the Iraqi people and soldiers in general face to face dialogue and exchange.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

心理戰已被納入國家戰略範疇,成為實現國家戰略目標的重要鬥爭形式。 20世紀末期,東歐劇變和蘇聯解體,顯現了以美國為首的西方資本主義國家推行的“和平演變”戰略取得成功。 “和平演變”可以說是“心理戰”的代名詞,它的成功,使人們更加強烈地認識到,心理戰已不再是軍事鬥爭的輔助性手段,而是國際鬥爭上具有戰略意義的重要戰場。有鑑於此,世界各國在戰略思維中,無不把心理戰納入整體戰略結構之中。在信息化戰爭中,心理戰已成為國家的戰略行為和基本戰法,不僅兵馬未動,心戰先行,而且把心理進攻和心理防禦貫穿全程,作為全方位、全時空、多領域、多層次的戰略行動,使心理戰成為主導戰局走向的重要因素。
心理戰的宏觀策動層次已上升為國家和軍隊的最高戰略決策層,並將心理戰的首要攻擊目標直接指向對方的最高戰略決策者。 9·11事件之後,布什在國家安全委員會的策動下,決定在國際進行輿論布勢,將伊拉克列為“邪惡軸心”,為其進行軍事打擊作政治鋪墊。在這一總的決策牽引下,美國務院心理戰略局和控制“美國之音”、報紙、出版物、電影、電視的國際交流署,都各司其責,從戰略上將心理戰的鋒芒直指薩達姆政權,以期主導國際輿論,為軍事行動營造適宜的環境。

從海灣戰爭、科索沃戰爭、阿富汗戰爭到伊拉克戰爭,美國不僅高度重視“心戰”與“兵戰”的緊密結合,而且在心理戰中還將各種方法綜合運用,使之互為補充,相得益彰,從而大大地增強了心理戰的功效。 9·11事件以後,美國大打宣傳心理戰,為反恐戰爭奠定輿論基礎。美國在做出對阿富汗出兵決策的當天,國務院即成立“宣傳小組”,利用國內各主要媒體,反复渲染美國在“9·11”中的損失,廣泛爭取民心,以形成對恐怖主義的輿論圍剿。軍事打擊前夕,美國務院又成立了“公關小組”,負責全面執行國家宣傳戰略。戰爭開始後,為爭取國際輿論的支持,美國在華盛頓、倫敦和伊斯蘭堡建立了三個“戰時新聞發布室”,及時發布所謂“真實可靠的”戰場信息,與塔利班的宣傳相抗衡。美國防部還成立了“戰略新聞辦公室”,專門砲制虛假信息,通過各種途徑向國外傳遞。在實施軍事打擊中,強化對敵心理威懾。先是調兵遣將,以壓促變。在短短的20天內,在阿富汗周邊500公里的範圍內,集結了5個航母編隊、18萬軍作戰部隊、550架作戰飛機,從空中、地面基本封鎖了阿富汗全境,其意圖是,以強大的軍事壓力威逼塔利班無條件滿足美國的要求。接著,連續打擊,以炸促變。美軍每天均出動上百架戰機對塔利班戰略與戰術目標進行連續轟炸。在空襲中,美國軍有意使用多種具有強大心理震懾作用的新式武器,如AC—130激光攻擊機,這種飛機載有新型激光武器,可以說是光閃之處,即化為灰燼,被阿富汗軍隊稱為“死亡之光”。美國防部官員曾毫不掩飾地說,主要意圖不在於完全消滅塔利班軍事力量,而是力求打垮其士氣,削弱其心理承受能力,引發“內部混亂與裂變”。
高新技術使心理戰手段層出不窮。在近期的幾場戰爭中,美國均利用了衛星定位測向、電視轉播技術、計算機信息處理技術、網絡技術、信號模擬和失真技術、聲像技術等高新技術手段,努力提高心理戰綜合作戰效果。據不完全統計,在伊拉克戰爭中,美國使用的軍用和民用衛星達160顆,比海灣戰爭時增加了23顆。美國的新聞媒體就是通過這些通信衛星向國內和世界發播了大量有利於己、不利於敵的戰爭信息和圖像。現在,人們可以利用計算機圖像合成技術,輕鬆地製造出諸如“某國軍隊在敵國首都廣場上列隊前進”、“某國領導人與敵國首腦秘密會談,握手言和”等虛構的照片或電視畫面,到時突然將這些“信息炸彈”射向對方軍民,以摧毀對方軍民的心理防線。人們可以利用聲像技術模擬敵方國家元首和戰場指揮員的聲音,下達錯誤的作戰命令,使敵方決策失誤、指揮陷入混亂,並可以利用這些高技術手段調節本國軍民心理,鼓舞己方士氣。 1993年,美國駐索馬里海軍陸戰隊在執行維和任務中,受到一些挫折。一次,狂風大作,沙塵暴驟起,部隊一下子混亂起來。在這個關鍵時刻,美軍部隊頭頂上突然出現了一個高達150米的耶穌圖像,美軍士兵見到後紛紛跪下,有的大驚失色,有的痛哭流涕,認為上帝確實與他們同在,他們來索馬里作戰更是“上帝的旨意”,是“為上帝而戰”。後來這個圖像存在了足足五分鐘才散去。有資料說,這是美國心理戰部隊用激光全息成像系統投影到空中的圖像,用以提高部隊的士氣。美國還十分重視利用網絡技術,進行網絡滲透、信息恐怖和心理攻擊。網絡傳播速度快,在極短的時間內,心戰信息前可達前線官兵,後可達參戰者家庭,上可影響最高決策機構,下可及普通民眾,其影響力不言而喻。伊拉克戰爭中,美國甚至組織“黑客”專家,破解伊軍方高層人物的電子郵箱密碼,發送大量電子郵件,還直接撥打伊拉克高層人物的手機,實施心理威懾和誘降。近期有一則報導,稱美軍搞了一個“666”計算機病毒,這種病毒進入電腦後,可以使屏幕反復出現一種圖像,人們反复看到這一圖像,會產生一些莫名其妙的潛在意識,導致神經錯亂、幻覺甚至死亡。

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