Category Archives: Chinese Military Views – 中國軍事觀

People’s Republic of China’s Ten Major Military Principles and Dialectical Opposition Intent for Adversaries

中華人民共和國十大軍事原則與辯證對敵意圖

現代英語音譯:

July 28, 2022 08:14 Source: People’s Liberation Army Daily

People’s Liberation Army Daily – China Military Network

Editor’s note

The Ten Military Principles are our Party’s scientific summary of the practical experience of the People’s Army in combat during the revolutionary war years. They are a concentrated reflection of Comrade Mao Zedong’s profound military thought and the commanding art of using troops like a god. They embody the basic principles and tactics of the People’s War strategy and tactics. The methodological principle of seeking truth from facts is full of materialism and dialectics, and has vitality that spans time and space. It is the historical responsibility of our generation of soldiers to continue to inherit the winning magic weapon of the people’s army. Of course, all military principles are moving forward. Today, when intelligent warfare has gradually become a new form of warfare, this article focuses on the ten major military principles, summarizes and sorts out the dialectical implications and enlightenment of the times in nine aspects, and provides readers with reference.

Strategic contempt and tactical attention

Operational judgment is the prerequisite for planning operations. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that we must despise the enemy strategically and attach great importance to the enemy tactically. Strategic contempt and tactical attention are a complete idea. The first is to strategically despise the enemy, dare to fight against them, and dare to win. At the same time, we must pay attention to the enemy tactically, adopt a cautious attitude, and pay attention to the art of struggle. If you cannot see the weak side of the enemy and cannot despise the enemy strategically, then paying attention to the enemy tactically may become a fear of the enemy; if you ignore the strong side of the enemy and ignore the enemy tactically, despising the enemy strategically will become underestimating the enemy. Recognizing the dual nature of struggle and preventing one tendency from overshadowing the other is the key to defeating the enemy. The victory in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea was a victory in which our army despised the enemy strategically and paid attention to the enemy tactically. It was a victory in which our army had the courage to fight and was good at fighting.

In today’s era, a century of changes and a century’s epidemic are superimposed on each other, and the strategic game between countries has become more intense. We must always remain clear-headed and determined, defy all dangers and difficulties, organically combine strategic contempt for the enemy with tactical attention to the enemy, and deal with the enemy. Be fully prepared for all possible situations, be neither afraid of nor underestimate the enemy, dare to fight and be good at winning.

Careful preparation and cautious initial battle

Combat preparation is the basis for winning the battle. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we should never fight an unprepared battle or a battle that we are not sure of; he called for caution in the first battle, believing that the victory or defeat in the first battle would have a great impact on the overall situation of the war, and it would be especially important for the army at a disadvantage or in a defensive position. Long-term war practice tells us that the more complex and difficult the situation, the more detailed the preparation for combat is to analyze the strength and situation of friends and foes, and to put ourselves in their shoes and analyze what the opponent will think and do. In particular, we should strive to be prepared for every battle, anticipate the most difficult and dangerous possible situations, and strive to be sure of victory under the contrasting conditions between the enemy and ourselves. The Battle of Yijiangshan Island was our army’s first three-service joint operation. The planning of the battle lasted for several years, and the preparation for the battle lasted for more than 2 months. It is an example of careful preparation and cautious initial battle.

In today’s era, China, which is at a critical stage of development from big to strong, faces complex and diverse challenges. This requires us to strengthen the concept of combat readiness, improve the ability to win, be prepared for war at any time, and truly carry out construction, development, and preparation for war in accordance with the standards of war. We must anticipate the most difficult and complex situations and treat such situations as The starting point for all combat preparations is to make sufficient and detailed preparations and formulate a comprehensive plan for integrated implementation, so as to achieve the goal of winning if we do not fight and win if we fight.

Destroy enemies and capture places

The purpose of combat is the core of implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that the main goal be to annihilate the enemy’s effective forces and not to defend or capture cities and places. He vividly pointed out that for a person, it is better to cut off one of his ten fingers than to hurt him; for the enemy, it is better to annihilate one of his divisions than to defeat his ten divisions. When the enemy is large and we are small, the enemy is strong and we are weak, it is generally impossible to achieve the two goals of annihilating the enemy and seizing the place at the same time. Only after annihilating the enemy’s effective strength can the place be finally defended or captured. Therefore, annihilating the enemy is a means to seize territory, and seizing territory is the result of annihilating the enemy. Therefore, annihilating the enemy should be the first priority, and consolidating the territory second. During the Yan’an Defense War, the Party Central Committee resolutely withdrew from Yan’an, and while annihilating the effective strength of the Kuomintang army on a large scale, it realized the strategic concept of “save people and lose land, and save both people and land”.

In today’s era, system breaking and precise victory are becoming key words in modern combat theory. We must change the traditional operational thinking of annihilating the enemy and seizing territory, and regard the pursuit of deterrence effects and depriving the enemy of combat power as important operational options. We must step up efforts to forge capabilities and means to seize comprehensive control and take the initiative on the battlefield, so as to destroy the enemy’s key support elements and deprive them of their combat power. The objective material basis for its continued operations and the operational purpose of disintegrating its will to carry out war.

Pay attention to the overall situation and grasp the key points

Combat guidance is the criterion for controlling combat. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that the overall situation and the local part of a war are the unity of opposites. The key to combat guidance is to unify focusing on the overall situation and grasping the key points, “seizing the strategic key point to deploy the campaign, and seizing the operational key point to deploy the battle.” Only in this way can the war situation be effectively promoted in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. In particular, a weak army must follow the objective laws of the development of things, start from the local area, and continue to accumulate the quantity of local victories to cause a qualitative leap and achieve overall changes. In the long-term revolutionary war, our army was good at firmly grasping strategic pivots to promote the development of the war situation, and firmly grasping the main contradictions to promote the transformation of contradictions. Only then did our army turn from passive to active, and from disadvantage to advantage. In the Liaoshen Campaign, our army made comprehensive considerations and decided to “attack Jinzhou first”, which effectively promoted the battle process and won the victory.

In today’s era, wars are becoming more and more hybrid, security threats are complex, diverse and multi-dimensional, and they are characterized by multi-domain linkage. Changes in war practice require us to consider the overall situation and the overall situation in operational guidance, focus on the actual situation on the battlefield, coordinate the struggle in the main strategic direction and other strategic directions, coordinate the military struggle in the traditional security field and the new security field, and coordinate the political, The economic, diplomatic, military, cultural, public opinion and other fronts realize the mutual superposition and accumulation of combat effects, forming an overall emergence of anti-hybrid warfare capabilities and ensuring the strategic goal of complete victory.

Fight weak enemies first and strong enemies later

The focus of operations is the key to implementing operations. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that we must first attack dispersed and isolated enemies, and then attack concentrated and powerful enemies. In the practice of long-term revolutionary wars, our army is often at a disadvantage in terms of quantity, scale and equipment. We must first annihilate the enemies that are isolated, dispersed, weakly defended, and garrisoned in small and medium-sized cities. Then, the enemies that are concentrated, strong, well-garrisoned, and garrisoned in large cities will become weaker. , which creates conditions for the next attack and annihilation. If we attack the strong enemy first, not only will it be difficult to deal with the strong enemy quickly, but the weak enemy will also easily become a strong enemy, which will make us passive. Of course, sometimes when you are really sure, you can also wait for an opportunity to attack a strong enemy first to quickly weaken the enemy’s strategic advantage. In the Battle of Menglianggu, Su Yu made the first attack and completely annihilated the reorganized 74th Division, the “first of the five main forces” of the Kuomintang army. This defeated the Kuomintang army’s key attack on the Shandong Liberated Areas and reversed the strategic situation on the East China battlefield.

In today’s era, war is a confrontation between systems. The fundamental goal of defeating the system is to attack the enemy’s center of gravity and key points. Combat operations must be carried out closely around the enemy’s center of gravity, and the selected targets must be the “keys”, “vital points” and “joints” in the enemy’s entire war system. These enemy targets may be “strong enemies” or “weak enemies” in the traditional sense. However, once they are identified as centers of gravity, all efforts should be concentrated on destroying these centers of gravity in order to paralyze the enemy’s entire combat system and quickly complete the operation. Purpose.

Concentrate and disperse forces

Combat posture is the posture in which troops are deployed. Comrade Mao Zedong demanded that operations must focus on eliminating the enemy’s effective strength and concentrate superior forces to annihilate the enemy one by one. The essence of concentrating superior forces is to use forces intensively to obtain local advantages and initiative against the enemy based on the overall needs of the operation and to ensure a decisive victory in the decisive battle. In traditional wars, the concentration of troops is mainly reflected in the concentration of personnel and weapons, relying on quantitative advantages to make up for qualitative deficiencies. In battles, our army’s consistent thinking is to concentrate its absolutely superior forces, adopt roundabout encirclement tactics, and annihilate enemies one by one. The opposite of concentrated force is decentralization or military egalitarianism. Military egalitarianism may result in having neither an overall strength advantage nor a local strength advantage, making it impossible to control the enemy and to be controlled by the enemy. During the Red Army’s fifth counter-campaign against “encirclement and suppression”, the “six-way division of troops” and “all-front resistance” were manifestations of military egalitarianism.

In today’s era, information power, mobility, strike power, etc. have all increased unprecedentedly. Concentrating superior forces requires concentrating and using one’s own advantages in more diverse fields, and more adopting the approach of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but combined strength”. Dynamically combine the various combat forces distributed on the multi-dimensional battlefield, rely on the quality accumulation, efficiency integration, and real-time optimization of multiple combat elements to suddenly change the contrast with the opponent’s combat power, forming a hammer effect to defeat the enemy.

Weapons and equipment and fighting spirit

Combat elements are the components of combat strength. Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out that weapons and equipment are important factors in the victory or defeat of a war, but they are not the decisive factor. The decisive factor is people, not things. He asked the troops to carry forward the style of fighting bravely, not afraid of sacrifice, not afraid of fatigue and continuous fighting. Obviously, war is not only a confrontation of hard power such as weapons and equipment between the opposing parties, but also a competition of soft power such as will and quality. As an important component of combat effectiveness, fighting spirit plays a key role in the outcome of war. Material causes and effects are but the hilt of the knife; spiritual causes and effects are the sharp edge. Why in history has our army been able to defeat powerful enemies one after another and create miracles one after another even if it does not have an advantage in weapons and equipment? One of the most fundamental reasons is that we have the courage to “show swords when facing the enemy, be brave and tenacious” and have the fighting spirit of “not being afraid of hardship and not being afraid of death.”

In today’s era, war forms and combat styles are evolving at an accelerated pace, science and technology have become the core combat effectiveness, and weapons and equipment are becoming more and more important to winning wars. The contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to military construction and combat effectiveness development must be continuously increased. At the same time, we must forge the spiritual edge to defeat the enemy while inheriting the glorious tradition and fine style, and combine advanced science and technology with tenacious will, so that the majority of commanders and soldiers have a high degree of revolutionary consciousness and spirit of self-sacrifice, and master advanced Weapons, equipment and complex military technology form a powerful combat force to achieve victory in every attack and victory.

You hit yours and I hit mine

Combat methods are the carrier of strategy and tactics. Comrade Mao Zedong emphasized that people should give full play to their conscious initiative and seize the initiative in war. Starting from the overall situation of the revolutionary war, he successively proposed a series of flexible strategies and tactics, such as “Fight if you can win, leave if you can’t”, “You fight yours, I’ll fight mine”, “Mobile warfare, positional warfare, guerrilla warfare”. Cooperate with each other” and so on. This set of strategies and tactics that seek advantages and avoid disadvantages and are flexible and mobile reveals the laws and methods of war guidance for defeating enemies with superior equipment with inferior equipment, and raises flexible strategies and tactics to a new level. During the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, in response to the U.S. military’s strong land and sea support and strong land firepower and mobility, our military emphasized small-scale annihilation wars, which enriched the implementation of annihilation wars. It relied on tunnels to carry out small-scale counterattacks and found a new way to fight positional warfare. .

In today’s era, wars will be carried out in multiple domains simultaneously, and combat operations such as networked and electronic operations, air and space attacks, and unmanned operations are prominent. Proactive, flexible and changeable strategies and tactics are still a weapon to gain the initiative and defeat the enemy. It is necessary to follow the winning mechanism of modern warfare, step up the forging of new quality and new domain combat capability means, flexibly use “total war”, “cognitive warfare”, “cross-domain warfare” and “intelligent warfare” and other tactics to temper dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. Wait for the way of fighting, do not follow the enemy’s routines, focus on the enemy’s weaknesses, use our army’s strengths and strengths to control the battle, and win the victory.

Continuous combat and rest supplement

Combat support is the cornerstone of sustaining operations. Comrade Mao Zedong always believed that the deepest roots of the power of war exist among the people, and that soldiers and people are the foundation of victory. During the long-term revolutionary war, our army’s manpower and material resources supplementation mainly emphasized obtaining them from the enemy and relying on the support of the base areas. At the same time, we used the gaps between campaigns to reorganize and train the troops, improve military and political quality, and enhance the combat effectiveness of the troops. These are all necessary conditions for carrying out another battle. However, in order to prevent the enemy from taking a breather and to inflict continuous blows to the enemy, sometimes even without supplementary rest and recuperation, it is necessary to develop a style of not being afraid of sacrifice or fatigue and achieve continuous operations. Just after the Liaoshen Campaign, the Northeast Field Army changed its plan to use three months to half a year to rest and reorganize its troops. It took a shortcut and quickly sent troops into the pass to participate in the Pingjin Campaign, which changed the battlefield situation in North China in one fell swoop.

In today’s era, in a sense, fighting a war is fighting for security. With the profound changes in the international military competition landscape, national interests and military missions continue to expand, and the time and space span of combat support has expanded dramatically. In particular, the intensity, difficulty, and With the unprecedented increase in speed, we must continue to deepen national defense mobilization, build an integrated national strategic system and capabilities, and form strong war capabilities and war potential that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory.

現代繁體中文:

2022年07月28日08:14    來源:解放軍報

原標題:十大軍事原則的辯証意蘊及時代啟示 – 解放軍報 – 中國軍網

編者按

十大軍事原則是革命戰爭年代我們黨對人民軍隊作戰實踐經驗的科學總結,是毛澤東同志博大精深的軍事思想、用兵如神的指揮藝術的集中反映,它所體現的人民戰爭戰略戰術的基本原理和實事求是的方法論原則,充滿了唯物論、洋溢著辯証法,具有跨越時空的生命力。賡續傳承好人民軍隊的制勝法寶,是我們這代軍人的歷史責任。當然,一切軍事原則都是向前發展的,在智能化戰爭逐漸成為新戰爭形態的今天,本文聚焦十大軍事原則,總結梳理了9個方面辯証意蘊及時代啟示,供讀者參考借鑒。

戰略藐視與戰術重視

作戰判斷是籌劃作戰的前提。毛澤東同志指出,要在戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人。戰略藐視與戰術重視是一個完整的思想。首先是要戰略上藐視敵人,敢於同它們斗爭,敢於奪取勝利。同時,在戰術上重視敵人,要採取謹慎態度,講究斗爭藝術。如果看不到敵人脆弱的一面,不能在戰略上藐視敵人,那麼在戰術上重視就可能成了畏敵如虎﹔如果忽視敵人強大的一面,離開戰術上重視敵人,戰略上藐視便成了輕敵。認清斗爭的兩重性,防止一種傾向掩蓋另一種傾向,是克敵制勝的關鍵。抗美援朝戰爭勝利就是我軍戰略上藐視敵人和在戰術上重視敵人的勝利,就是敢於斗爭和善於斗爭的勝利。

當今時代,百年變局與世紀疫情相互疊加,國家間戰略博弈更加激烈,我們要時刻保持清醒和堅定,不畏一切險阻,不怕一切困難,把戰略上藐視敵人同戰術上重視敵人有機結合起來,對各種可能發生的情況做好充分的准備,既不畏敵、亦不輕敵,敢於斗爭、善於勝利。

周密備戰與慎重初戰

作戰准備是贏得作戰的基礎。毛澤東同志強調,不打無准備之仗,不打無把握之仗﹔要求慎重初戰,認為初戰的勝敗對戰爭的全局影響極大,尤其對劣勢或處於防御地位的軍隊更加重要。長期的戰爭實踐告訴我們,越是復雜困難的形勢下,作戰准備越是要細致地分析敵我友的力量、敵我友的情況,並換位思考分析對手會怎麼想、怎麼做。特別是每戰都應力求有准備,必須預計到最困難最危險的各種可能情況,力求在敵我條件對比下有勝利的把握。一江山島戰役,是我軍首次三軍聯合作戰,戰役籌劃長達幾年,戰役准備長達2個多月,是周密備戰與慎重初戰的范例。

當今時代,處在由大向強發展關鍵階段的中國,面臨的挑戰復雜多樣。這要求我們必須強化戰備觀念,提高打贏本領,做好隨時打仗的准備,真正按照打仗的標准搞建設、謀發展、抓備戰﹔必須預計到最困難最復雜的情況,並把這種情況當作一切作戰准備的出發點,做充分細致准備,制訂一體實施的周密計劃,實現不打則已、打則必勝。

殲滅敵人與奪取地方

作戰目的是實施作戰的中心。毛澤東同志要求,以殲滅敵人有生力量為主要目標,不以保守或奪取城市和地方為主要目標。他形象指出,對於人,傷其十指不如斷其一指﹔對於敵,擊潰其十個師不如殲滅其一個師。在敵大我小、敵強我弱條件下,殲滅敵人和奪取地方這兩個目標,一般不可能同時達到。隻有在殲滅敵人有生力量之后,才能最后保守或奪取地方。因此,殲滅敵人是奪取地方的手段,奪取地方是殲滅敵人的結果,所以要殲敵為主、略地次之。延安保衛戰,黨中央毅然撤出延安,在大規模殲滅國民黨軍有生力量的同時實現了“存人失地,人地皆存”的戰略構想。

當今時代,體系破擊、精打制勝等正成為現代作戰理論的關鍵詞。我們必須轉變傳統殲敵奪地的作戰思維,把追求震懾效應、剝奪敵方戰力作為作戰重要選項,加緊鍛造奪控綜合制權、佔據戰場主動的能力手段,達成摧毀敵方作戰關鍵支持要素、剝奪其持續作戰的客觀物質基礎、瓦解其遂行戰爭意志的作戰目的。

關照全局與抓住重點

作戰指導是駕馭作戰的准繩。毛澤東同志指出,戰爭的全局與局部是對立的統一物。作戰指導的關鍵就是把著眼全局與抓住樞紐統一起來,“抓住戰略樞紐去部署戰役,抓住戰役樞紐去部署戰斗”,如此方能切實推動戰局向著有利於己的方向發展。特別是弱小之軍必須遵循事物發展的客觀規律,從局部入手,不斷通過局部勝利的量的積累,以引起質的飛躍,達到全局的變化。在長期的革命戰爭中,我軍善於緊緊抓住戰略樞紐推動戰局發展,緊緊抓住主要矛盾推動矛盾轉化,才使我軍由被動轉為主動、劣勢轉為優勢。遼沈戰役,我軍通盤考量決定“首打錦州”,有力地推動了戰役進程並贏得了勝利。

當今時代,戰爭越來越呈現出混合化態勢,安全威脅復雜多樣多維,並呈現多域聯動的特點。戰爭實踐變化要求我們,作戰指導要通盤考慮、全局考量,從戰場實際出發抓樞紐,統籌好主要戰略方向和其他戰略方向斗爭,統籌好傳統安全領域與新型安全領域的軍事斗爭,統籌好政治、經濟、外交、軍事、文化、輿論等各條戰線,實現作戰效果相互疊加、累積,形成反混合戰爭能力的整體涌現,確保實現全勝的戰略目標。

先打弱敵與后打強敵

作戰重心是實施作戰的要害。毛澤東同志強調,要先打分散和孤立之敵,后打集中和強大之敵。在長期革命戰爭實踐中,我軍在數量、規模和裝備上常常處於劣勢,首先殲滅孤立分散、守備薄弱和據守中小城市之敵,則集中強大、守備堅固和據守大城市之敵即變弱了,這就為下一步攻殲創造了條件。若先打強敵,則不僅強敵難以迅速解決,弱敵也易變成強敵,反而使我方陷入被動。當然,有時在確有把握的情況下,也可伺機先打強敵,以迅速削弱敵方戰略優勢。孟良崮戰役,粟裕首打且全殲國民黨軍“五大主力之首”的整編第74師,挫敗了國民黨軍對山東解放區的重點進攻,扭轉了華東戰場戰略態勢。

當今時代,戰爭是體系與體系的對抗,體系破擊的根本是要打敵重心、要害。作戰行動必須緊緊圍繞打敵重心展開,所選目標必須是敵整個戰爭系統中的“關鍵”“要害”與“關節”。這些敵之目標在傳統意義上可能是“強敵”,也可能是“弱敵”,然而一旦被確定為打擊重心,就應集中全力摧毀這些重心,以毀癱敵整個作戰體系,快速達成作戰目的。

集中兵力與分散兵力

作戰布勢是兵力部署的態勢。毛澤東同志要求,作戰必須著眼於消滅敵人有生力量,集中優勢兵力各個殲滅敵人。集中優勢兵力的實質是根據作戰全局的需要,集中使用兵力以獲得對敵之局部優勢和主動,確保決戰決勝。傳統戰爭中,集中兵力主要體現為人員、武器的規模集中,依靠數量上的優勢來彌補質量上的不足。在戰役戰斗上,集中絕對優勢兵力,採取迂回包圍戰術,各個殲滅敵人,是我軍作戰的一貫思想。與集中兵力對立的是分散兵力亦或軍事平均主義。軍事平均主義可能導致既沒有全局力量優勢,更沒有局部力量優勢,不能制敵反被敵所制。紅軍第五次反“圍剿”時“六路分兵”“全線抵御”就是軍事平均主義的表現。

當今時代,信息力、機動力、打擊力等都空前增強,集中優勢兵力要求在更加多元領域中集中和運用己方優勢,更多採取“貌散而神聚,形散而力合”的方式,將分布在多維戰場的諸作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,依靠多種戰斗要素的質量累聚、效能融合、即時聚優,突然改變與對方戰斗力量的對比,形成重錘效應,克敵制勝。

武器裝備與戰斗精神

作戰要素是作戰實力的構成。毛澤東同志指出,武器裝備是戰爭勝負的重要因素,但不是決定性因素,決定性因素是人而不是物。他要求部隊要發揚勇敢戰斗、不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞和連續作戰的作風。顯然,打仗既是敵對雙方武器裝備等硬實力的對抗,也是意志品質等軟實力的比拼。戰斗精神作為戰斗力的重要組成部分,對戰爭勝負起著關鍵性作用。物質的原因和結果不過是刀柄,精神的原因和結果才是鋒利的刀刃。為什麼我軍歷史上即使在武器裝備上不佔優勢,卻總能戰勝一個又一個強敵,創造一個又一個奇跡?其中一個最根本的原因,就是我們具有“逢敵亮劍、英勇頑強”的血性膽氣,具有“一不怕苦、二不怕死”的戰斗精神。

當今時代,戰爭形態和作戰樣式加速演變,科技成為核心戰斗力,武器裝備對打贏戰爭越來越重要,必須不斷提高科技創新對軍隊建設和戰斗力發展的貢獻率。與此同時,我們要在傳承光榮傳統和優良作風中鍛造克敵制勝的精神利刃,把先進科技與頑強意志很好地結合起來,使廣大指戰員既具備高度的革命覺悟和自我犧牲精神,又掌握先進的武器裝備和復雜的軍事技術,從而形成強大的戰斗力量,實現攻必克、戰必勝。

你打你的與我打我的

作戰方法是戰略戰術的承載。毛澤東同志強調,要發揮人的自覺能動性,掌握戰爭的主動權。從革命戰爭全局出發,他先后提出過一系列靈活機動的戰略戰術,比如“打得贏就打,打不贏就走”“你打你的,我打我的”“運動戰、陣地戰、游擊戰相互配合”等等。這一整套趨利避害、靈活機動的戰略戰術,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。抗美援朝戰爭中,針對美軍有海空支援以及陸上火力、機動力強的特點,我軍強調打小殲滅戰,豐富了殲滅戰的實現形式﹔依托坑道實施小規模反擊,找到了打陣地戰的新辦法。

當今時代,戰爭將在多域同時展開,網電作戰、空天襲擊、無人作戰等作戰行動地位凸顯,積極主動靈活多變的戰略戰術仍然是贏得主動、克敵制勝的利器。要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,加緊鍛造新質新域的作戰能力手段,靈活運用“總體戰”“認知戰”“跨域戰”“智能戰”等戰法,錘煉降維打擊、非對稱打擊等打法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在“以能擊不能”中掌控作戰制權,進而贏得勝利。

持續作戰與休整補充

作戰保障是維持作戰的基石。毛澤東同志始終認為,戰爭偉力之最深厚的根源存在於民眾之中,兵民是勝利之本。長期革命戰爭中,我軍人力物力的補充主要強調取之於敵和依靠根據地的支持,同時利用戰役間隙整頓訓練部隊,提高軍政素質,增強部隊戰斗力,這些都是實行再戰的必要條件。但是,為了不讓敵人喘息,給敵連續打擊,有時即使在未得到補充休整的情況下,亦須發揚不怕犧牲、不怕疲勞的作風,實現連續作戰。遼沈戰役剛結束,東北野戰軍改變利用三個月至半年時間休整部隊的計劃,取捷徑迅即揮師入關參加平津戰役,一舉改變了華北戰場態勢。

當今時代,從某種意義上講,打仗就是打保障。隨著國際軍事競爭格局深刻變化,國家利益和軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,作戰保障時空跨度急劇擴大,特別是戰爭作戰進程快、毀傷能力強、力量控制精、技術含量高,保障的強度、難度和速度空前增加,必須不斷深化國防動員,構建一體化國家戰略體系和能力,形成既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力。

中國共產黨原文參考:http://cpc.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/0728/c443712-32487888.html

Developing People’s War Strategies and Tactics in the Chinese Military

發展中國軍隊的人民戰爭戰略戰術

現代英語音譯:

Introduction

In his report to the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President Xi clearly pointed out the need to develop strategies and tactics of people’s war. Looking back at the glorious journey of the people’s army to strengthen the army and win, one red line running through it is to always insist on proposing and implementing a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics under the leadership of the party. To win future wars, we must pay close attention to changes in technology, warfare, and opponents, continue to inherit the fine traditions of our army, develop people’s war strategies and tactics, and let the magic weapon for defeating the enemy show its power on the modern battlefield.

People’s war strategies and tactics have always been an important magic weapon for our army to defeat the enemy.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is not only a profound insight into the inherent laws of our army’s victory over the enemy, but also a lofty plan for a strong country and army. It has important strategic value for achieving the 100-year goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army. .

People’s war strategies and tactics are a concentrated expression of the Marxist art of war guidance. Marxism believes that the people are the creators of history and the decisive force in promoting historical progress. The strategies and tactics of people’s war start from this basic viewpoint and fundamental position, and profoundly explain the basic principles of people’s war such as soldiers and the people being the foundation of victory, the decisive factor of victory or defeat in war is that people are not things, and that the broad masses of the people must be organized, mobilized and armed. principle. Our army was born in the flames of war. Facing extremely cruel objective conditions, the Chinese Communists, represented by Comrade Mao Zedong, insisted on combining the basic principles of Marxist people’s war with the reality of China’s revolutionary war, and created an army characterized by flexibility and maneuverability. The essence of the strategy and tactics of people’s war is “you fight yours and I fight mine”, which aims to use strengths to attack weaknesses and seize and master the initiative in war. This embodies the Marxist art of war guidance and shines with the light of truth that is scientific, people-oriented, practical and open to development.

People’s war strategies and tactics are the winning code for the Party’s leadership in all military struggle practices. Since the founding of the People’s Army, our Party has created a complete set of strategies and tactics for people’s war based on the cruel reality that the enemy is strong and we are weak, and the enemy is large and we are small. From the “Sixteen-Character Formula” during the Red Army period, to the “Protracted War” during the Anti-Japanese War, from the “Ten Military Principles” during the Liberation War, to the “piecemeal candy” during the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea, to the founding of New China Continuous adjustments to post-military strategic guidelines. The people’s army learns war from war, explores laws from practice, and adheres to and develops this winning code with the times. In the war years, it has created war miracles one after another in which the minority defeated the large and the weak defeated the strong. In peacetime, it resolutely defends National sovereignty, security and territorial integrity have written a glorious chapter in the world’s military history of continuous innovation in the art of war guidance.

Actively developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an intrinsic requirement for building a world-class army in an all-round way. “Every important country must wait for victory.” To measure whether an army is a world-class army, it ultimately depends on its military strength. The strategies and tactics of people’s war are not only the way for our army to win, but also the way to develop and grow. To accelerate the building of a world-class military and build a strong strategic deterrence system, we must adhere to and develop this unique advantage, strengthen research on opponents and enemy situations, proactively understand the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the winning mechanism, advance with the times and innovate people’s war strategies and tactics, and firmly Flexibly carry out military struggles, give full play to the strategic function of military power in shaping security situations, containing crises and conflicts, and winning local wars, and effectively complete the missions and tasks assigned by the party and the people in the new era.

Developing people’s war strategies and tactics is an inevitable choice for our army to win future wars. The form of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, but the essence of war has not changed, and the fundamental law that the deepest source of the power of war lies among the people has not changed. The wars we face in the future are mainly wars to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. They are in line with the fundamental interests of all the Chinese people. They are just actions that conform to the trend of the times. They will continue to receive the support of the overwhelming majority of the people and the people of the world. . Adhering to and developing people’s war strategies and tactics will surely become an important way and inevitable choice for our army to win future wars and check and balance powerful enemies.

Scientifically grasp the connotation of the times in the development of people’s war strategies and tactics

The strategies and tactics of people’s war are living theories and practices, not rigid dogma. They must actively adapt to the development requirements of the times and inject new connotations of the times in order to maintain strong vitality.

We must persist in just war, establish the broadest united front, and fight political and military wars well. Paying attention to guiding the war from a political perspective and consolidating the political foundation for victory are the basic experience of the party in winning the war and the core essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. In today’s era, the relationship between military and politics is closer, the relevance and integrity at the strategic level are increasing day by day, and the influence and constraints of political factors on war are becoming increasingly prominent. To develop the strategies and tactics of people’s war, we must always adhere to the role of the Party Central Committee in overseeing the overall situation and coordinating all parties, mobilizing, uniting, and organizing the broadest number of people to participate in and support the war; strengthen political and organizational functions, and strengthen the entire party, entire army, and people in the country to respond to the war , ideological preparation, organizational preparation, and will preparation to win the war; strengthen political diplomacy and international public opinion and legal struggle, form the broadest united front to support a just war, firmly occupy the moral commanding heights, give full play to the comprehensive effectiveness of political offensives and armed strikes, and coordinate Fight political and military battles well.

Adhere to active defense, highlight enthusiasm, and pay attention to offensive operations. Active defense is a product of people’s war, and its implementation is a fundamental requirement for the strategies and tactics of people’s war. In the future, as the war process accelerates, the strategic goal may be achieved in one battle or battle, which is often the first and decisive battle. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must adhere to the organic integration of defense, counterattack and offense, put more emphasis on internal and external counterattacks at the strategic level, comprehensively use elite combat forces at the beginning of the war, implement a combination of internal and external lines, resolute and fierce strategic counterattacks, and form a high-pressure counterattack situation and pressure, to defeat the feared enemy to the maximum extent, and achieve the strategic goal of using offense to assist defense, attacking later, arriving first, defeating the enemy quickly, containing it as soon as possible, and winning the war.

Adhere to asymmetrical checks and balances, you fight yours, I fight mine, use what you can to fight what you can’t. This is the soul and essence of the people’s war strategy and tactics. It is a high-level summary and vivid description of the laws of war and the laws of war guidance. It reveals the laws and methods of war guidance that use inferior equipment to defeat the enemy with superior equipment. It combines flexible and maneuverable strategies with Tactics have been taken to a whole new level. Compared with the past, the modern warfare combat system is huge, with many nodes, and there are many “vital gates” that are vulnerable to attack, which provides an opportunity to implement “attacking what cannot be done with what is possible”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must follow the winning mechanisms of modern wars, fully understand the inherent weaknesses of informatized and intelligent warfare, conduct in-depth research on the opponents’ weaknesses and Achilles’ heel, innovate core operational concepts, and step up efforts to forge new domains and new combat capabilities and means. We should practice tactics such as dimensionality reduction strikes and asymmetric strikes. We should not follow the enemy’s routines but focus on the enemy’s weaknesses. We should give full play to our military’s advantages and long-range attacks and create new winning advantages in “hitting with what we can but not with power”.

Persist in accumulating small victories into big victories, and be good at concentrating strength to fight annihilation wars. Our army has been at an overall disadvantage for a long time in the revolutionary war. Locally, using the strong against the weak and accumulating small victories into big victories is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Compared with the past, modern war operations are often carried out in multi-dimensional and multi-domain environments, providing a broader space for the implementation of “accumulating small victories into big victories”. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must strengthen the concept of “dispersed appearance but concentrated spirit, scattered form but unified force”, dynamically integrate many combat forces distributed on multi-dimensional battlefields, and implement local rapid concentration through efficiency integration and real-time optimization. It can carry out attacks, wide-area guerrilla raids, and carry out annihilating strikes and destructive attacks on the enemy’s key points. This not only has a hammer effect, but also can continuously consume the enemy, causing the opponent to gradually lose the initiative on the battlefield.

We must insist that soldiers and civilians are the foundation of victory, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities. When the army wins battles, the people are its backer. At the beginning of the founding of the army, our party regarded the revolutionary war as a struggle of the masses, emphasized that only by mobilizing and relying on the masses can we carry out war, and created a complete set of people’s war strategies and tactics, which is the winning code for the people’s army to remain invincible. Confrontation under conditions of informationization and intelligence is more clearly manifested as a systemic confrontation based on the overall strength of the country. To develop people’s war strategies and tactics, we must continuously consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities, make full efforts in multiple dimensions such as politics, military, economy, culture, and diplomacy, and build powerful war capabilities that can achieve both quick and lasting strategic victory. and war potential, trapping the enemy in the vast sea of ​​people’s war.

Vigorously promote the development and innovation of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era

In the new era, the connotation of the people’s war strategy and tactics has undergone great changes. It is necessary to strengthen the party’s centralized and unified leadership, strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose, strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation, and strengthen simulation training and testing, so as to gather the forward force of innovation and development.

Strengthen the Party’s centralized and unified leadership and gather the majestic strategic and tactical power of the People’s War. The party’s leadership is the greatest advantage of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics and an important guarantee for the implementation and implementation of the people’s war strategies and tactics. We must uphold the leadership of the party and mobilize and organize the people as a whole. Actively explore people’s war strategies and tactics in financial warfare, cyber warfare, cognitive domain warfare and other fields. Timely organize the masses to carry out intelligence warfare, harassment warfare, ambush warfare, etc. to flexibly contain and consume the enemy.

Strengthen the implementation of the fundamental purpose and consolidate the foundation for the development of the people’s war strategy and tactics. The secret of victory in People’s War is that it sincerely seeks the interests of the masses and wins the trust and support of the broad masses of the people. Serving the people wholeheartedly is the fundamental purpose of our army and is also the strategic foundation for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics in the new era. The People’s Army must stand firmly on the people’s side, always adhere to the supremacy of the people, rely closely on the people, continue to benefit the people, be firmly rooted in the people, and always maintain the nature, purpose, and true qualities of the People’s Army.

Strengthen the drive for scientific and technological innovation and enhance the momentum for the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. As high technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, and quantum technology enter the military field, the scientific and technological content of war has undergone a qualitative leap. People’s war strategies and tactics supported by information-based intelligent technology must be innovatively developed and continuously promoted. The integrated development of mechanization, informatization and intelligence will innovate and create the “key” of “hitting the incompetent with what can be used”, making “wisdom and victory” the main feature of the people’s war strategy and tactics in the new era, forming a new era of people’s war that is leading and unique in the era. War strategy and tactics.

Strengthen simulation training and testing to improve the quality and effectiveness of the development of people’s war strategies and tactics. In the information age, virtual reality technology can be used to create virtual scenes with a strong sense of three-dimensionality and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and mission background. Officers and soldiers can “experience” the war in virtual reality several times before the war begins, strengthening their understanding of the war. The understanding of real battlefields such as equipment performance, enemy and friend situations, and war rhythm provides a platform for testing whether strategies and tactics are correct. In developing people’s war strategies and tactics, special attention should be paid to the use of simulations, exercises and other war pre-practice methods, qualitative and quantitative analysis should be conducted, and further improvements should be made in practice.

繁體中文:

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術

■李銀祥 宋文超

引言

習主席在黨的二十大報告中明確指出,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術。回望人民軍隊強軍制勝的光輝歷程,貫穿其中的一條紅線,就是始終堅持在黨的領導下,提出和實施一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術。打贏未來戰爭,必須緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變,趙續傳承好我軍優良傳統,發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,讓克敵制勝的法寶顯威現代戰場。

人民戰爭戰略戰術始終是我軍克敵制勝的重要法寶

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,既是對我軍克敵制勝內在規律的深刻洞察,也是對強國強軍的高遠謀劃,對於如期實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標,加快把人民軍隊建成世界一流軍隊具有重要的戰略價值。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術的集中體現。馬克思主義認為,人民是歷史的創造者,是推動歷史進步的決定性力量。人民戰爭戰略戰術從這個基本觀點和根本立場出發,深刻闡釋了兵民是勝利之本,戰爭勝負的決定因素是人不是物,以及必須組織、動員和武裝廣大人民群眾等人民戰爭的基本原理。我軍在戰火中誕生,面對異常殘酷的客觀條件,以毛澤東同志為代表的中國共產黨人,堅持把馬克思主義人民戰爭基本原理與中國革命戰爭實際相結合,創造了以靈活機動為顯著特點的人民戰爭的戰略戰術,其精髓是“你打你的、我打我的”,旨在力求揚長擊短,奪取和掌握戰爭主動權。這集中體現了馬克思主義戰爭指導藝術,閃爍著科學性、人民性、實踐性和發展開放性的真理光芒。

人民戰爭戰略戰術是黨領導全部軍事鬥爭實踐的勝利密碼。我們黨締造人民軍隊以來,立基於敵強我弱,敵大我小的殘酷現實,創立了一整套人民戰爭的戰略戰術。從紅軍時期的“十六字訣”,到抗日戰爭時期的“持久戰”,從解放戰爭時期的“十大軍事原則”,到抗美援朝戰爭時期的“零敲牛皮糖”,再到新中國成立後軍事戰略方針的不斷調整。人民軍隊從戰爭中學習戰爭,從實踐中探索規律,與時俱進地堅持和發展這個制勝密碼,戰爭年代創造了一個又一個以少勝多、以弱勝強的戰爭奇蹟,和平時期堅決捍衛國家主權、安全和領土完整,在世界軍事史上書寫了戰爭指導藝術不斷創新的光輝篇章。

積極發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是全面建成世界一流軍隊的內在要求。 「凡國之重也,必待兵之勝也。」衡量一支軍隊是不是世界一流軍隊,最終要看其軍事實力。人民戰爭戰略戰術既是我軍的致勝之道,也是發展壯大之道。加速建成世界一流軍隊、建構強大的戰略威懾體系,必須堅持發展這一特有優勢,加強對手研究、敵情研究,前瞻認識現代戰爭特徵規律與致勝機理,與時俱進創新人民戰爭戰略戰術,堅定靈活進行軍事鬥爭,充分發揮軍事力量塑造安全態勢,遏止危機衝突,贏得局部戰爭的戰略功能,實際完成好黨和人民賦予的新時代使命任務。

發展人民戰爭戰略戰術是我軍打贏未來戰爭的必然選擇。戰爭形態加速演變,但戰爭的本質沒有變,戰爭偉力之最深厚根源存在於民眾之中這一根本規律沒有改變。我們未來面對的戰爭,主要是捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰爭,符合全體中國人民的根本利益,是順應時代潮流的正義之舉,必將繼續得到最廣大人民群眾和世界人民的支持。堅持並發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必將成為我軍打贏未來戰爭、制衡強敵的重要途徑和必然選擇。

科學掌握人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的時代內涵

人民戰爭戰略戰術,是活的理論和實踐,不是死板的教條,必須主動順應時代發展要求,注入新的時代內涵,才能保持強大旺盛的生命力。

堅持正義戰爭,建立最廣泛的統一戰線,打好政治軍事仗。注重從政治高度指導戰爭,夯實制勝的政治基礎,是黨奪取戰爭勝利的基本經驗,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術的核心要義。在當今時代,軍事和政治的聯繫更加緊密,在戰略層面的相關性和整體性日益增強,政治因素對戰爭的影響和限制日益突出。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,必須始終堅持黨中央統攬全局、協調各方的作用,動員、團結、組織最廣大人民參與、支持戰爭;增強政治功能和組織功能,強化全黨全軍全國人民應對戰爭、打贏戰爭的思想準備、組織準備、意志準備;加強政治外交和國際輿論法理鬥爭,形成支持正義戰爭的最廣泛統一戰線,牢牢佔領道義制高點,發揮政治攻勢和武裝打擊的綜合效能,統籌打好政治軍事仗。

堅持積極防禦,突顯積極性,重視攻勢作戰。積極防禦是人民戰爭的產物,實行積極防禦是人民戰爭戰略戰術的根本要求。未來戰爭進程加快,可能一場戰役或戰鬥就能達成戰略目的,往往是首戰即決戰。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要堅持將防禦、反攻和進攻有機結合,更加強調戰略層次的內外線反擊,在戰爭伊始就綜合運用精銳作戰力量,實施內外線結合、堅決凌厲的戰略反擊,形成高壓反擊態勢與壓力,盡量打痛打怕敵人,達到以攻助防、後發先至,速戰制敵、盡快遏制、打贏戰爭的戰略目的。

堅持非對稱制衡,你打你的,我打我的,以能擊不能。這是人民戰爭戰略戰術的靈魂和精髓,是對戰爭規律和戰爭指導規律的高度概括和生動描述,揭示了以劣勢裝備戰勝優勢裝備之敵的戰爭指導規律、作戰指導方法,把靈活機動的戰略戰術提高到嶄新境界。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰體系龐大、節點眾多,存在許多易受攻擊的“命門”,為實施“以能擊不能”提供了契機。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要遵循現代戰爭制勝機理,充分認清資訊化智能化戰爭本身的固有弱點,深入研究對手的軟肋和死穴,創新核心作戰概念,加緊鍛造新域新質作戰能力手段,錘鍊降維打擊、非對稱打擊等戰法,不按敵人套路打、盯著敵人軟肋打、發揮我軍優長打,在「以能擊不能」中創造新的致勝優勢。

堅持積小勝為大勝,善於集中力量打殲滅戰。我軍在革命戰爭中長期處於全局的劣勢地位,局部上以強對弱、積小勝為大勝,是戰勝強敵的關鍵一招。相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰往往在多維多域中展開,為實施「積小勝為大勝」提供了更加廣闊空間。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要強化「貌散而神聚,形散而力合」的概念,將分佈在多維戰場的諸多作戰力量動態集中聯合起來,透過效能融合、即時聚優,實施局部快速聚能攻擊、廣域遊擊襲擾,對敵分佈的要點實施殲滅性打擊、破壞性襲擊,這既有重錘效應,又能不斷消耗敵人,使對手逐步喪失戰場主動權。

堅持兵民是勝利之本,鞏固提高一體化國家戰略體系和能力。軍隊打勝仗,人民是靠山。建軍開始,我們黨就把革命戰爭視為群眾的鬥爭,強調只有動員和依靠群眾才能進行戰爭,並創造了一整套人民戰爭戰略戰術,這是人民軍隊立於不敗之地的製勝密碼。在資訊化智能化條件下的對抗,更鮮明地表現為以國家整體實力為基礎的體系對抗。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,要不斷鞏固提升一體化國家戰略體系與能力,在政治、軍事、經濟、文化、外交等多維度全面發力,建構起既能戰略速勝又能戰略持久的強大戰爭能力和戰爭潛力,陷敵於人民戰爭的汪洋大海。

大力推動新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的發展創新

新時代,人民戰爭戰略戰術的內涵發生了很大變化,必須加強黨的集中統一領導,加強實踐根本宗旨,加強科技創新驅動,加強模擬演訓檢驗,才能匯聚起創新發展的前行力量。

加強黨的集中統一領導,匯聚人民戰爭戰略戰術磅礴偉力。黨的領導是中國特色社會主義制度的最大優勢,也是人民戰爭戰略戰術得以體現和實施的重要保證。必須堅持黨的領導,把人民整體動員起來、組織起來。積極探索金融戰、網路戰、認知域作戰等領域的人民戰爭戰略戰術。適時組織人民群眾進行情報戰、襲擾戰、伏擊戰等,靈活牽制、消耗敵人。

加強實踐根本宗旨,夯實人民戰爭戰略戰術發展根基。人民戰爭的致勝奧秘,就在於它真心實意地為群眾謀利益,贏得了廣大人民群眾的信賴和支持。全心全意為人民服務是我軍的根本宗旨,也是新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術發展的戰略根基。人民軍隊必須站穩人民立場,始終堅持人民至上,緊緊依靠人民,不斷造福人民,牢牢植根人民,永葆人民軍隊性質、宗旨、本色。

加強科技創新驅動,增強人民戰爭戰略戰術發展動力。隨著人工智慧、大數據、區塊鏈、量子科技等高新技術進入軍事領域,戰爭的科技含量已發生質的飛躍,必須創新發展以資訊化智慧化技術為支撐的人民戰爭戰略戰術,持續推進機械化資訊化智慧融合發展,創新創造“以能擊不能”的“密鑰”,讓“智勝”成為新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術的主要特徵,形成具有時代性引領性獨特性的新時代人民戰爭戰略戰術。

加強模擬演訓檢驗,提升人民戰爭戰略戰術發展質效。資訊時代,利用虛擬實境技術可基於實際的戰場環境,以及任務背景創造具有較強立體感和真實感的虛擬場景,官兵在戰爭開始前就可以在虛擬實境中數次「親歷」戰爭,加強對裝備性能、敵我情況、戰爭節奏等真實戰場的了解,這就給戰略戰術正確與否提供了檢驗平台。發展人民戰爭戰略戰術,應特別重視運用模擬、演習等戰爭預實踐手段,對其進行定性與定量分析,並在實踐中進一步加以完善。

解放軍原文參考:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4926056.html

軍隊要突顯「高品質」、實現「提速」——軍隊代表探討加速國防和軍隊建設高品質發展

Chinese Military Ordered to Emphasize “High Quality” and Achieve “Acceleration” – Military representatives discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建文 岳雨彤 責任編輯:葉夢圓 2024-03-05 08:12:20

繁體中文國語:

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”

——軍隊代表和委員討論加速國防和軍隊建設高品質發展

■解放軍報記者 李建文 岳雨桐

萬裡征途正酣,我們又一年追夢。

全國兩會開幕時,軍隊代表反覆提到兩個字:一是“高品質”,二是“加速”。

高品質發展是全面建構社會主義現代化國家的首要任務。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,加速把人民軍隊建設成為世界一流軍隊,是全面建設社會主義現代化國家的戰略要求。

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”。 軍隊代表表示,國防和軍隊現代化建設,只有把高品質發展放在首位,加強創新突破,轉變發展理念,創新發展模式,增強發展動力,才能抓住窗口期,加快推進國防和軍隊現代化建設。 ,確保建軍百年奮鬥目標如期實現。

把握新時代的硬道理

2023年,中國創新動力與發展活力將迸發。 C919大型飛機實現商業飛行、國產大型郵輪完成試航、「神舟」家族太空接力、「奮鬥號」極限深潛…

紮實推動高品質發展,創新驅動累積發展動能,美麗中國走向「新」。 軍隊代表一致認為,高品質發展是新時代硬道理。 國防和軍隊現代化作為國家現代化的重要組成部分,必須積極落實高品質發展要求,確保國防和軍隊現代化進程與國家現代化進程一致、軍事能力與國家戰略需求一致。

目前,實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標已進入攻堅克難期和壓力增大的衝刺期。 軍隊代表深刻體認到,發展速度太慢,品質低落。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,很大程度取決於轉變發展理念、創新發展模式、增強發展動力。 只有清醒認識“硬道理”,自覺推動高品質發展,真正把發展方式轉向系統化、內涵式發展,才能推動我軍建設發展品質變革、效率變革、動力變革,不斷提高軍隊建設發展水平。國防和軍隊現代化品質。 益處。

推動我軍高品質發展,必須牢固樹立「五個聚焦」戰略引領。 多位軍隊代表表示,「五個更加聚焦」為新時代我軍建設確立了戰略指導,明確了發展方向、發展動力、發展方式、發展模式、發展路徑。 我們必須糾正一切不符合實戰要求的思想行為,加大創新對戰鬥力增長的貢獻,提高我軍體係作戰能力,提高國防和軍隊建設的精準度,鞏固提高一體化的國家戰略體系和能力。

「一切為了打仗,一切為了勝利。我軍高品質發展必須圍繞著能打仗、打勝仗。」 高高強代表表示,軍隊的主要職責是備戰,發展理念要指向戰鬥力建設,最終要落到全面提高打贏能力方面,推動高水平打仗。 ——高質量發展,戰鬥力躍升。

先進的思想造就現代化的軍隊; 創新理念,成就輝煌發展。 “近年來,我們強化作戰需求牽引,上高原、下海洋、跨界飛行,系統訓練、系統訓練已成為新常態。” 談起身邊的變化,郝景文代表感慨萬千,“實戰化、創新化、系統化、集約化、融合化這樣的新理念正在融入國防和軍隊建設的方方面面、全過程。”

「在過去的日子裡

多年來,我們堅持打仗、備戰、建設並舉,戰建備一體化的良好局面取得了可喜成果。 徐安祥代表表示,黨的二十大報告提出“堅持打仗、備戰”,“邊防建設”不僅是有效履行人民軍隊使命任務的必然要求新時代,也是推動我軍高質量發展、實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標的科學決策。

軍隊各項工作必須以備戰為中心,把高品質發展實際落實到我軍建設全過程各領域。 多位陸軍代表表示,近年來,陸軍深化戰備政治工作體系建設,加強認知作戰、人才保障等實際問題研究,嵌入演練訓練,創新戰時政治工作模式,並改善服務和準備。 獲勝貢獻率。

深化改革創新需要動力

只有改革者前進,只有創新者強大,只有改革者創新者勝利。

指揮體系精幹高效,規模結構不斷優化,聯合作戰訓練開創新局面,政策制度更加完善……全軍代表們深切感受到,全面實施以來,改革強軍戰略的實施,人民軍隊加快實現「新體制時代」破繭蝶變。

這種情況是令人欣慰和鼓舞的。 “改革創新是我軍發展的強大動力,推動高品質發展,必須用改革創新的方法研究解決問題。” 張紅星代表表示,適應世界軍事發展趨勢和我軍戰略能力發展需要,必須堅持國防和軍事改革深入推進,堅持推動國防和軍隊高質量發展以改革創新精神,使我軍建設發展和戰鬥力生成模式盡快轉向創新驅動發展軌道。

“只有不斷改革創新,才能不斷獲得發展進步的活力。” 劉偉代表表示,我軍的發展史也是一部改革創新史。 面對世界新軍事革命的嚴峻挑戰和難得機遇,我們必須堅持把創新放在我軍總體建設發展的核心位置,依靠科技進步和創新提高軍隊素質和戰鬥力。軍隊。

“作為親歷者,我切身感受到近年來軍隊科技創新能力的快速提升。” 吳德偉特派員表示,近年來,他們加強關鍵核心技術研究,推動先進科技加速轉化為戰鬥力。

科技創新是高品質發展的核心動力。 有各軍兵種軍隊代表表示,近年來,全軍大力推動訓練轉型升級,探索「科技+」、「網路+」等訓練方法與手段,推動新裝備融合發展。把新力量、新領域納入系統培養,加速新素質戰鬥力生成提高。

高品質發展依賴創新,創新的基礎在於人才。 軍學院和科學研究單位代表表示,要深入貫徹新時代軍事教育方針,實施大學優先發展戰略,深化軍事教育改革創新,完善「三化」建設。— 建立新的軍事人才培育體系,提高備戰打仗人才供給能力和供給能力。 等級。

以高水準治理推動整體提升

目前,加快我軍戰略能力形成是硬核任務,必須立足全局規劃領域,融入備戰體系,聚焦核心,分解能力指標,繪製任務地圖,制定時間表,逐節點推進,一一解決疑難問題,確保論文

都按時交了,如期返崗了。」張東旭代表說。

實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,有明確的政治方向、戰略方向、實踐方向,根本是提升捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。 多位軍隊代表表示,改革重塑後,軍隊力量更加多元化、要素更加多元、運作更加複雜。 加速建立健全適應資訊化戰爭和履行使命任務要求的新型管理模式,提高國防資源使用效率,提高軍隊建設和使用效率。

戰略管理作為國防和軍隊建設的最高層管理,是管全局、管長遠、管大事的宏觀管理活動。 它從頂層規劃和設計軍事資源的投入。 軍隊代表表示,加強戰略管理是軍隊管理的樞紐,是推動我軍高品質發展的關鍵。

國家因治而興,軍隊因治而興。 黨的二十大報告提出“全面加強治軍”,體現了我們黨對新時代軍隊建設和管理規律的深刻把握。 「這幾年,我們著力解決基層官兵的各種急、難、急問題,把官兵的煩惱變成暖心的事。」 軍隊代表表示,基層是軍隊一切工作和戰鬥力的基礎,全面加強軍隊治理必須始終堅持依靠基層、建設強基層的寶貴經驗,不斷釋放基層治理活力。

軍事治理根本上就是製度治理。 軍事制度越完善,制度執行得越有力,軍事治理就越有效。 袁偉代表表示,近年來,不斷推動軍事政策和體制改革,著力把戰爭、建設、準備等各項治理活動納入法治軌道,堅持依法管理和科學治理相統一,增強軍隊建設管理的科學性、有效性。 性別。

春天的陽光灑滿大地,戰爭的號角在耳邊迴響。 軍隊代表紛紛表示,要堅持把高品質發展放在第一位,強化如期交出歷史答案卷的使命,加快推進新時代強軍鬥爭,全力以赴打好攻堅戰為實現建軍百年奮鬥目標而奮鬥。

(解放軍報北京3月4日電)

外文音譯:

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”

——Army representatives and members discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

■People’s Liberation Army Daily reporter Li Jianwen and Yue Yutong

The journey of thousands of miles is going strong, and we are pursuing our dreams for another year.

At the opening of the National Two Sessions, two words were repeatedly mentioned by military representatives: one is “high quality” and the other is “acceleration.”

High-quality development is the primary task of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army are strategic requirements for comprehensively building a modern socialist country.

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”. Representatives of the military have stated that in the modernization of national defense and the military, only by putting high-quality development first, strengthening innovative breakthroughs, changing development concepts, innovating development models, and enhancing development momentum can we seize the window period, accelerate, and ensure The centenary goal of the founding of the army was achieved as scheduled.

Grasp the hard truth of the new era

In 2023, China’s innovation power and development vitality will surge forward. The C919 large aircraft has achieved commercial flight, the domestic large-scale cruise ship has completed its trial voyage, the “Shenzhou” family space relay, the “Struggle” extreme deep dive…

High-quality development is solidly promoted, innovation drives the accumulation of development momentum, and Beautiful China moves towards “newness”. Military representatives unanimously believe that high-quality development is the last word in the new era. As an important part of national modernization, national defense and military modernization must actively implement high-quality development requirements to ensure that the national defense and military modernization process is consistent with the national modernization process, and military capabilities are consistent with national strategic needs.

At present, the realization of the 100-year goal of the founding of the army has entered a critical period of hard work and a sprint period of increasing pressure. The military representatives are deeply aware that development is too slow, let alone low quality. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled depends largely on changes in development concepts, innovation in development models, and enhancement of development momentum. Only by consciously promoting high-quality development with a clear understanding of “hard truth” and truly shifting the development model to systematic and connotative development can we promote quality changes, efficiency changes, and motivation changes in our military’s construction and development, and continuously improve the quality of national defense and military modernization. benefit.

To promote the high-quality development of our military, we must firmly establish the strategic guidance of “Five More Focuses”. Many military representatives said that the “Five More Focuses” have established strategic guidance for the construction of our military in the new era, clarifying the development direction, development motivation, development methods, development models, and development paths. We must correct all thoughts and behaviors that are inconsistent with actual combat requirements, increase the contribution of innovation to the growth of combat effectiveness, improve the combat capabilities of our military system, improve the accuracy of national defense and military development, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities.

“Everything is for fighting, everything is for victory. The high-quality development of our army must focus on being able to fight and win wars.” Representative Gao Gaoqiang said that the main responsibility of the army is to prepare for war, and the development concept should be directed towards the construction of combat effectiveness, which should ultimately fall to In terms of comprehensively improving the ability to win, we will promote high-quality development with a jump in combat effectiveness.

Advanced ideas lead to a modern military; innovative ideas lead to brilliant development. “In recent years, we have strengthened the traction of combat needs, going to plateaus, going to the ocean, and flying across borders. System training and system training have become the new normal.” Talking about the changes around him, Representative Hao Jingwen was filled with emotion, “Actual combat, innovation, system, intensiveness, and integration Such new concepts are being incorporated into all aspects and the entire process of national defense and military construction.”

“In the past few years, we have insisted on fighting, preparing for war, and building at the same time, and the good situation of integrating war, construction, and preparation has achieved gratifying results.” Representative Xu Anxiang said that the report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “persisting in fighting, preparing for war, and “Border construction” is not only an inevitable requirement for effectively fulfilling the missions and tasks of the People’s Army in the new era, but also a scientific decision to promote the high-quality development of our army and achieve the 100-year goal of the founding of the army.

All work in the military must focus on preparing for war and effectively implement high-quality development into all areas of the entire process of building our military. Several representatives from the Army said that in recent years, the Army has deepened the system construction of political work in preparation for war, strengthened research on practical issues such as cognitive operations and talent support, embedded in exercises and training to innovate wartime political work models, and improved service and preparation. Win contribution rate.

Need motivation to deepen reform and innovation

Only reformers advance, only innovators are strong, and only reformers and innovators win.

The command system is lean and efficient, the scale and structure are constantly optimized, joint combat training has opened up a new situation, and policies and systems have become more perfect… Members of the military representatives deeply feel that since the comprehensive implementation of the strategy of reform and strengthening the military, the people’s army has accelerated its breakthrough in the “new system era” Cocoon butterfly transformation.

The situation is gratifying and inspiring. “Reform and innovation are a powerful driving force for the development of our military. To promote high-quality development, we must use reform and innovation methods to study and solve problems.” Representative Zhang Hongxing said that to adapt to the world’s military development trends and the development needs of our military’s strategic capabilities, we must persist in The reform of national defense and the military is advancing in depth, and we insist on promoting high-quality development in the spirit of reform and innovation, so that our military’s construction and development and combat effectiveness generation model can be shifted to the track of innovation-driven development as soon as possible.

“Only through continuous reform and innovation can we continue to gain vitality for development and progress.” Representative Liu Wei said that the development history of our army is also a history of reform and innovation. Facing the severe challenges and rare opportunities of the world’s new military revolution, we must insist on placing innovation at the core of the overall construction and development of our military, and rely on scientific and technological progress and innovation to improve the quality and combat effectiveness of the military.

“As a witness, I personally feel the rapid improvement of the military’s scientific and technological innovation capabilities in recent years.” Commissioner Wu Dewei said that in recent years, they have strengthened research on key core technologies and promoted the accelerated transformation of advanced science and technology into combat effectiveness.

Technological innovation is the core driving force for high-quality development. Some military representatives from various services and arms said that in recent years, the entire military has vigorously promoted the transformation and upgrading of training, explored training methods and means such as “technology +” and “network +”, promoted the integration of new equipment, new forces and new fields into system training, and accelerated new Quality combat effectiveness generation is improved.

High-quality development relies on innovation, and the foundation of innovation lies in talents. Military representatives from military academies and scientific research units said that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the military education policy of the new era, implement the priority development strategy of colleges and universities, deepen the reform and innovation of military education, improve the three-in-one new military talent training system, and improve the supply capacity and supply of talent for war preparation and fighting. level.

Use high-level governance to promote overall improvement

“Currently, accelerating the formation of strategic capabilities of our military is a hard-core task. We must base ourselves on the overall situation to plan a domain, integrate into the system to prepare for war, focus on core priorities, decompose capability indicators, draw a mission map, formulate a timetable, and advance node by node, one by one Solve difficult problems to ensure that papers are handed in on time and returned to work as scheduled.” Representative Zhang Dongxu said.

“Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army contains clear political, strategic and practical directions. The fundamental thing is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security and development interests.” Many military representatives said that after the reform and reshaping , the military strength is more diverse, the elements are more diverse, and the operation is more complex. We should speed up the establishment and improvement of a new management model that adapts to information warfare and the requirements of fulfilling missions and tasks, improve the efficiency of the use of national defense resources, and improve the efficiency of military force construction and use.

As the highest-level management of national defense and military construction, strategic management is a macro-management activity that manages the overall situation, long-term management, and major events. It plans and designs the investment of military resources from the top level. Military representatives said that strengthening strategic management is the hub of military management and the key to promoting the high-quality development of our military.

A country thrives on governance, and an army thrives on governance. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “comprehensively strengthening military governance”, which reflects our party’s profound grasp of the laws of military building and management in the new era. “In the past few years, we have focused on solving various urgent, difficult and anxious problems of officers and soldiers at the grassroots level, and turning the troubles of officers and soldiers into heart-warming things.” The representative of the army said that the grassroots level is the foundation of all the work and combat effectiveness of the army, and comprehensively strengthening military governance must always be Persist in relying on the valuable experience of grassroots and building strong grassroots, and constantly release the vitality of grassroots governance.

Military governance is fundamentally the governance of systems. The more perfect the military system is and the more powerful the system is implemented, the more effective military governance will be. Representative Yuan Wei said that in recent years, the continuous advancement of military policy and system reforms has focused on integrating various governance activities of war, construction, and preparation into the rule of law, adhering to the unification of legal management and scientific governance, and enhancing the scientific and effective nature of military construction management. sex.

The spring sunshine fills the earth, and the horn of war echoes in the ears. Representatives of the armed forces have expressed that they must insist on putting high-quality development first, strengthen the mission of handing in historical answers as scheduled, accelerate the struggle to strengthen the army in the new era, and go all out to fight the tough battle to achieve the centenary goal of the founding of the army.

(People’s Liberation Army Daily, Beijing, March 4)

中國國防部資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/qwfb/16290903.html

中國軍事史<2005>中華人民共和國的新軍事變革

Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation

繁體中文:

迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。

裁軍20萬

 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。


 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。

附:前九次裁軍資料

 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。

科技練兵

 2003年,中國軍隊和武警部隊圓滿完成了年度訓練任務,在理論創新、實戰演練、反恐訓練、人才培養、從嚴治訓等5個方面取得新成果。

 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。

 三、依據國家賦予軍隊反恐怖鬥爭新的軍事任務,擔負反恐怖任務的部隊紮實進行反恐怖軍事鬥爭研究和訓練實踐。

 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。

 五、軍隊堅持依法治訓,嚴格依綱施訓,大力進行崗位練兵活動,契約戰術演練品質提高,部隊正規化訓練水準不斷提高。

部隊改革

 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。

 6月中旬,經中央軍委批准,解放軍總政治部就認真貫徹中共中央通知精神,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮提出意見。

 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。

後勤支援

     軍隊後勤工作堅持以「三個代表」重要想法統攬各項建設,按照積極推進中國特色軍事變革的要求,加大改革創新力度,加快發展步伐,後勤建設取得顯著成績。

     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。

住房制度日趨完善

     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。

基層幹部住宅建設明顯加快

     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。

軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼

     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。

全軍99%以上的醫院實現資訊化管理

     根據解放軍總後勤部相關部門介紹,至2003年底,除駐西藏等偏遠地區的4所軍隊醫院外,全軍99%以上的醫院已實現資訊化管理,取得了顯著的效益。

     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。

首次派遣高級專家團赴駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊

     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。

武器裝備

     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.


    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.


    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.

Weaponry

    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.

中國政府資料來源:https://www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/28/content_10531.htm

中國人民解放軍洞察認知戰的演變趨勢

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Insights into the Evolving Trends of Cognitive Warfare

原始中國軍事繁體普通話:

認知是人們獲取、處理和應用資訊和知識的過程。 目前,認知領域逐漸成為競爭新戰場,認知戰逐漸引起各國關注。 隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的擴大,認知戰爭正呈現加速演變的趨勢。

認知技術正成為戰爭演變的基本驅動力。 科技改變戰爭形式,也改變認知戰爭方式。 如果資訊網路的大規模普及推動了資訊領域成為作戰領域,而數據和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊領域成熟的標誌,那麼認知技術和資訊科技的大規模應用則推動了資訊領域的發展。認知技術的不斷迭代發展將成為驅動認知戰成熟的標誌。 未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等技術將反映認知技術對社會認知對抗和軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。 人類正進入全民通訊時代,全球網路空間高度互聯。 網路已成為國家行為體與非國家行為體全面競爭的戰場。 通訊糾紛和通訊戰已成為高強度軍事行動的一部分。 目前,世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,展開認知技術競賽。 透過建模和分析,尋求滲透和控制人腦網路、資訊網路和社交網路; 他們透過深度運算、精算、巧妙運算等方式,最大限度地獲得人們認知世界和認知領域的控制。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。 在智慧時代,人類的溝通方式正在發生複雜而深刻的變化。 線下傳播讓位於更多的線上傳播,各類新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主戰場。 因此,未來戰爭的作戰領域將持續擴大。 空間域將從陸、海、空、天網路擴展到深空、深海、深地,邏輯域將從物理域擴展到資訊域和認知域。 戰爭不再局限於傳統戰爭的物理威脅,而是轉向大眾傳播媒體和技術進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。 圍繞通訊平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰的焦點。 以資訊為彈藥爭奪國際話語權已成為當今認知對抗的主要手段。 從混合戰爭的角度來看,思想宣傳灌輸、價值觀文化滲透、傳統輿論心理和法律攻防、資訊網路戰等都成為認知戰的重要面向。 混合戰爭可以透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,達到以小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的。 認知領域的攻防將是一場不間斷的常態化鬥爭,戰鬥力將不斷累積並逐步釋放。 。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的致勝優勢。 戰爭中的行為自由是軍隊的命脈。 從認知角度來看,對戰場環境和作戰對手的了解越深,行動的自由度就越大,相對優勢就越大。 然而,隨著戰爭中作戰資料的指數級增長,指揮官開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境。 擁有資訊優勢並不意味著擁有認知優勢。 人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮官擺脫認知超載,快速形成認知優勢。 在智慧戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢將主導行動優勢。 認知優勢有四個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的緊急處置能力、更高的新技術、新製程開發應用能力。

新知識。 例如,具有數據驅動智慧傳播新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動實現了高度協同和融合。 這種虛擬與現實作戰相結合的作戰方式比單純的軍事作戰具有更強的戰鬥力,從根本上改變了傳統的作戰方式。 改變。 認知優勢連結疊加,將加速戰力轉化,成為贏得戰爭的根本優勢。 認知理論正在成為博弈贏得戰爭的前線。 認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。 目前,認知空間中滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的競爭十分激烈。 認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念不斷被引入。 ,在國外認知戰研究領域頻頻出現。 外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“相互交織的衝突領域”的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。 顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點。 認知理論已成為理論創新的前沿。 認知技術將加速認知戰爭,成為智慧軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。 隨著認知戰新科技、新理論、新方式的加速孕育,未來戰爭或許將呈現令人驚訝的新局面。

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Insights into the Evolving Trends of Cognitive Warfare

外文音譯:

Cognition is the process by which people obtain, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually attracted attention from all countries. With the development of the technological revolution and the expansion of warfare practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerated evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming a fundamental driving force in the evolution of warfare. Technology changes the form of warfare and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become A sign of maturity in driving cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies such as cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, and artificial intelligence will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Humanity is entering the era of universal communication, and global cyberspace is becoming highly interconnected. The Internet has become a battle space where state actors and non-state actors compete comprehensively. Communication disputes and communication wars have become part of high-intensity military operations. At present, major countries in the world have laid out the frontiers of cognitive technology and carried out cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control human brain networks, information networks and social networks; through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, clever calculation, etc., they aim to maximize Gain control over people’s cognitive world and cognitive domains.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the era of intelligence, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication has given way to more online communication, various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large-scale social platforms have become the main battlefield for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The spatial domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep ground, while the logical domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and counter-blockade, dominance and counter-dominance around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare. Using information as ammunition to fight for control of international discourse has become the main method of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of winning in small battles or even without fighting through comprehensive gaming methods such as cognitive warfare. Attack and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released.

Cognitive superiority is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of conduct in war is the lifeblood of the military. From a cognitive perspective, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the greater the freedom of action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in wars, commanders are beginning to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information superiority does not mean having cognitive superiority. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time to help commanders get rid of cognitive overload and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantages will dominate decision-making advantages, and decision-making advantages will dominate action advantages. Cognitive advantages have four key indicators: stronger information acquisition capabilities, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling capabilities, and higher capabilities to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with new characteristics of data-driven intelligent communication and traditional military operations have been highly coordinated and integrated. This combat style that integrates virtual and real operations has stronger combat effectiveness than pure military operations, fundamentally changing traditional combat methods. Change. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become the fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the frontier of gaming to win the war. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. Currently, there is fierce competition for penetration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field, and concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion are being introduced. , has appeared frequently in the field of cognitive warfare research abroad. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict fields” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theoretical innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars. Cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation. Cognitive technology will accelerate cognitive warfare and become an important “tipping point” for the intelligent military revolution. Since new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are being incubated at an accelerated pace, perhaps future warfare will take on a surprising new situation.

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/10188888.html

中國軍事認知戰—「以決策為中心的戰爭」思想與認知複雜性:武器化的複雜性

Chinese Military Cognitive Warfare – Thoughts of “decision-centered warfare” and cognitive complexity: Weaponized Complexity

繁體中文

——由「決策中心戰」與認知複雜性所想到的

中国军网-解放军报

編按 複雜性科學是當代科學發展的前沿領域之一。 英國物理學家霍金稱「21世紀將是複雜性科學的世紀」。 作為人類社會的社會現象,戰爭從來就是一個充滿蓋然性的複雜巨系統。 近年來,隨著戰爭形態的演變,傳統科學體系下的知識論越來越難以滿足戰爭實踐發展的需要。 關注複雜性科學原理和思維方法,或將成為開啟現代戰爭大門的鑰匙。 這篇文章從複雜性科學角度對「決策中心戰」作一研究探討。

「決策中心戰」是近年來出現的新概念。 緣何提出「決策中心戰」? 按美軍的說法,要「打一場讓對手看不懂的戰爭」。 進入21世紀以來,隨著戰爭形態的演變和作戰方式的不斷變革,美軍發現傳統意義上的網路中心戰越來越難以適應戰場實際,「決策中心戰」在此背景下應運而生。

一、創造複雜

所謂“決策中心戰”,就是在人工智慧等先進技術的加持下,透過對作戰平台的升級改造、分散式部署實現多樣化戰術,在保障自身戰術選擇優勢的同時,向敵方施加高複雜度 ,以乾擾其指揮決策能力,在新維度上實現對敵的壓倒性優勢。

為什麼「對手看不懂」? 其實就是要透過分散式部署、彈性組合、智慧化指控,讓對手在認知上就對戰場態勢和作戰機制不理解,無所適從。 這是將戰爭對抗從機械化戰爭中比誰“力量大”,到信息化戰爭中比誰“速度快”,再到在未來戰爭中比誰“決策對”的又一次轉變。 用中國古代軍事家孫子的話說就是,“不戰而屈人之兵,善之善者也”,通過巧妙地指揮控制和決策,使得戰場情況變得更加複雜,讓對手沒辦法打仗。

如何做到這一點呢? 簡單地說,就是利用複雜系統的性質,找到對手的「命門」加以利用和控制。 一個基本方法就是,透過增加複雜性重塑對手的決策流程,逼迫對手引入新的決策參量,導致其決策變得複雜,從而改變因果關係和決策流程,最終使其走向混亂。 過去對抗局面之所以能夠發揮平衡作用,是因為所有參與者都清楚博弈的結果,因而容易做出權衡,但複雜性往往會破壞這種平衡。 這也是為什麼複雜性能夠作為武器的原因。

需要注意的是,戰場對任何一方都是公平的。 在未來戰場上,要讓敵人單向感到決策複雜,而己方不被複雜所困擾,首先要在指揮控制能力上優於對手。 戰場決策的複雜度主要體現在「OODA」循環的判斷和決策環節。 在正常環境下,「OODA」循環可以走完從觀察、判斷、決策到行動的完整週期。 但如果有辦法讓戰場變得更複雜,使得對手始終無法及時作出有效判斷,進而無法進入決策和行動環節,就可以把對手的「OODA」循環始終限制在觀察和判斷環節上,無法形成閉環, 這或許就是「決策中心戰」試圖創造複雜性想要達到的結果。 因此,如何快速作出判斷,就成為首要關注的問題。 如果這個認知過程能夠在人工智慧等先進技術支援下快速完成的話,也就是實現所謂的智慧認知,就可以大幅加快「OODA」循環速度,奪取單邊優勢。

在觀察的基礎上得出正確的判斷,是做出正確決策的前提。 但這是建立在「具有認知能力」這個條件下才能做到的。 目前,在指揮資訊系統、兵棋推演系統等系統中,這些認知工作基本上都是由人來完成的。 由人工智慧系統自主地完成判斷及決策,過去的嘗試幾乎都不成功,因為智慧認知建模的問題始終沒有解決好。 各種模型表現出來的行為都或多或少帶有“機械味”,並不能真正顯示出智能的特徵。 外軍這些年也一直將「人的行為建模」作為研究重點,但目前來看仍然進展緩慢。 智能認知為什麼這麼難,又難在哪裡? 筆者認為,其實核心困難就在如何理解和處置複雜性上面。

二、理解複雜

本世紀之初,美國蘭德公司針對2005年前後某熱點地區可能發生的軍事衝突,曾利用模擬系統對美國空軍作戰需求進行了1700餘次推演,然後進行統計分析,最後得出了美空軍如何 在戰場上保持優勢的結論。 這種統計分析方法有一個基本的假設:每個試驗都是獨立且無序的,規則之間也不會相互影響。 這就像丟硬幣一樣,丟一次正面,丟第二次有可能也是正面。 但如果丟1萬次,結果某一面的機率就會越來越趨近50%。 這種方法用於物理研究時是科學準確的,但移植到人類社會問題例如戰爭問題研究時,情況就變得不同了。

人是有認知的,不會像物理實體那樣只遵從物理定律,指揮官在對作戰問題進行分析時也不會只是簡單地機械重複。 通常情況下,人在決策時,一定會考慮先前的結果,導致對下一步行動有所調整。 這樣就會出現人類行為固有的冪律特徵,也就是常說的「二八律」。 所以,我們不能簡單地複製物理思維去思考人類社會的事情。

之所以會這樣,主要還是因為我們常常習慣用還原論的簡單思考方法來思考問題。 簡單系統結構不變,結果具有確定性,因果對應清楚,可重複、可預測、可分解還原等,已成為我們預設的科學思考方法。 但世界上還存在著許多複雜系統,這些系統存在著整體性質,像是人體、社會、經濟、戰爭等,都屬於這一類。 什麼叫整體性質? 就是觀察局部得不到,但在整體上看卻又存在的,就是整體性質。 舉例來說,一個活人和一個死人從成分上來看都一樣,但一死一活,差別就在於是否有生命,生命就是一種整體性質。 複雜系統結構可變,具有適應性、不確定性、湧現性、非線性等特點,且結果不重複,也不可預測。 社會、經濟、戰爭、城市包括智慧系統,這些與人有關的系統都有這些特點,其實它們都是典型的複雜系統。 所以,戰爭具有「勝戰不復」的特點,其實反映的就是戰爭複雜系統的「不可重複」性質。

正是因為複雜系統存在複雜性,原因和結果不能一一對應,會導致相似性原理失效,所以也就無法用傳統方法進行建模和研究。 為解決複雜性問題,過去採取的主要是一些傳統物理學方法,例如統計方法,以及基於Agent的簡單生命體建模方法。 前面提到的蘭德公司研究就是如此,雖然能解決部分問題,但將其用於解決與人有關尤其是與認知相關的問題時,得到的結果卻與實際偏離很大,不盡如人意 。

為什麼會這樣呢? 這是因為戰爭複雜度與物理複雜性所產生的源點不一樣。 物理複雜性的來源往往在於其物理運動規律是複雜的;而戰爭複雜性卻來自人的認知。 因為人不是雜亂無章、沒有思想的粒子,也不是只有簡單生命邏輯的低等生物,而是具有判斷和決策認知能力的智慧生物。 人會透過因果關係對結果進行反思、總結經驗再調整,然後決定後面如何行動。 而且,人的認知還會不斷發展,這又會進一步影響後續的認知,但由於認知具有很大的不確定性,所以未來的行動也就難以預測。

可以這樣說,在目前的技術條件下,可預測的基本上都是物理世界的簡單系統規律,而人的認知對社會或戰爭的影響往往是難以預測的。 所以說,拿物理思維去思考人類社會的事情是我們常犯的錯誤。 基於認知的複雜性,與那些一成不變的物理規律截然不同,我們應對戰爭中的複雜性,就必須針對「認知」這個核心特點,在指揮控制方面下功夫。

三、應對複雜

「決策中心戰」的核心在於認知的加快。 因為戰爭中幾乎所有的變化,都可以看成是認知的升級和複雜化。 在筆者看來,應對“決策中心戰”,需要“以複雜對抗複雜”,從基礎工作做起。

一是要理解「決策中心戰」的核心理念。 即透過主動創造複雜性來掌握戰場主動權。 對己方來說,需要管理好自身的複雜性;對敵人來說,則是對對手施加更多的複雜性。 二是了解戰爭機理發生的改變。 作戰體系演化速度指數級提高,會導致複雜戰場的感知、控制和管理變得困難,智慧認知的角色將變得更加突出。 為此,需要瞄準「指揮與控制」這個重點,將戰場管理的能力作為關鍵。 三是找到應對的正確理念和方法。 從戰爭設計入手,以決策智能這個方向為突破口。

近年來,人工智慧領域的一系列成果,為解決指揮決策智慧問題帶來了曙光。 AlphaGo系列研究為決策智慧技術帶來了突破;而GPT大模型的出現,則更是進一步證實了決策智慧乃至通用人工智慧在未來具有實現的可能。 現在看來,人工智慧在未來深度參與戰爭,已經是必須面對的現實。 而這會為戰爭和戰場帶來更多的複雜性。

決策智能研究應該放在指揮控制層上。 要贏得戰爭,指揮控制決策需要體現「科學」和「藝術」兩個面向。 指揮控制的科學性主要體現在「知道怎麼做時」如何做,例如利用得到的指控資料(武器裝備、兵力編成、戰場環境、對手情報等),指控方法(任務、流程、程序、運籌 、規劃、最佳化等),制定出作戰規劃並加以實施。 指揮控制的藝術性則體現在「不知道怎麼做時」知道如何做,這才是真正的智能之所在。 方法無非是不斷試錯,累積經驗,找到解決問題的途徑,並形成新的科學知識。 事實上,現實中指揮者也是透過試誤不斷發現和總結制勝規律,而每個指揮者還都具有自己的直覺和經驗。

所以說,真正的智能其實是找到例外狀況的解決方法。 循規蹈矩不是智能,自己找到解題的方法才是關鍵。 也許這才是決策智能的核心,也是需要進一步努力的目標。

原汁原味的老外英語:

Complexity is also a weapon

——Thinking of “decision-centered warfare” and cognitive complexity

中国军网-解放军报

Editor’s Note Complexity science is one of the frontier fields of contemporary scientific development. British physicist Stephen Hawking said that “the 21st century will be the century of complexity science.” As a social phenomenon in human society, war has always been a complex giant system full of possibilities. In recent years, with the evolution of war forms, the epistemology under the traditional scientific system has become increasingly difficult to meet the needs of the development of war practice. Paying attention to the scientific principles and thinking methods of complexity may be the key to opening the door to modern warfare. This article studies and discusses “decision-centered warfare” from the perspective of complexity science.

“Decision-centered warfare” is a new concept that has emerged in recent years. Why was the “decision-centered war” proposed? According to the US military, it is necessary to “fight a war that the opponent cannot understand.” Since the beginning of the 21st century, with the evolution of war forms and continuous changes in combat methods, the US military has found that network-centric warfare in the traditional sense has become increasingly difficult to adapt to the reality of the battlefield. In this context, “decision-centered warfare” came into being.

1. Create complexity

The so-called “decision-centered warfare” is to achieve diversified tactics through the upgrading and transformation of combat platforms and distributed deployment with the support of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence. While ensuring its own advantages in tactical selection, it imposes high complexity on the enemy. , in order to interfere with its command and decision-making capabilities and achieve an overwhelming advantage over the enemy in a new dimension.

Why “the opponent can’t understand”? In fact, through distributed deployment, flexible combination, and intelligent command and control, the opponent will not understand the battlefield situation and combat mechanism cognitively, and will be at a loss as to what to do. This is another transformation of war confrontation from competing for “greater power” in mechanized warfare, to competing for “faster” in information-based warfare, to competing for “making the right decisions” in future wars. In the words of Sun Tzu, the ancient Chinese military strategist, “One who subdues the enemy without fighting is a good person.” Through clever command, control and decision-making, the battlefield situation becomes more complicated, making it impossible for the opponent to fight.

How to do this? Simply put, it is to use the nature of complex systems to find the opponent’s “vital gate” to exploit and control. A basic method is to reshape the opponent’s decision-making process by increasing complexity, forcing the opponent to introduce new decision-making parameters, causing its decision-making to become complicated, thereby changing the causal relationship and decision-making process, and ultimately leading to chaos. Adversarial situations have been able to balance in the past because all participants knew the outcome of the game, making it easy to make trade-offs, but complexity often destroys this balance. This is why complexity can be used as a weapon.

It should be noted that the battlefield is fair to any party. In the future battlefield, in order for the enemy to feel the complexity of decision-making in one direction and not to be troubled by the complexity, we must first be superior to the opponent in command and control capabilities. The complexity of battlefield decision-making is mainly reflected in the judgment and decision-making links of the “OODA” loop. Under normal circumstances, the “OODA” cycle can complete the complete cycle from observation, judgment, decision-making to action. However, if there is a way to make the battlefield more complex so that the opponent cannot make effective judgments in a timely manner, and thus cannot enter the decision-making and action links, the opponent’s “OODA” loop can always be limited to the observation and judgment links, and a closed loop cannot be formed. This may be the result of “decision-centered warfare” trying to create complexity. Therefore, how to make quick judgments has become a primary concern. If this cognitive process can be completed quickly with the support of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, that is, so-called intelligent cognition can be achieved, the speed of the “OODA” cycle can be greatly accelerated and unilateral advantages can be achieved.

Drawing correct judgments based on observation is the prerequisite for making correct decisions. But this can only be done under the condition of “having cognitive ability”. Currently, in systems such as command information systems and war game deduction systems, these cognitive tasks are basically completed by humans. Past attempts to autonomously complete judgments and decisions by artificial intelligence systems have been almost unsuccessful because the problem of intelligent cognitive modeling has never been solved. The behaviors displayed by various models are more or less “mechanical” and cannot truly show the characteristics of intelligence. Foreign militaries have also been focusing on “human behavior modeling” in recent years, but progress is still slow at present. Why is intelligent cognition so difficult, and what is the difficulty? The author believes that the core difficulty lies in how to understand and deal with complexity.

2. Understand complexity

At the beginning of this century, the Rand Corporation of the United States used a simulation system to conduct more than 1,700 deductions on the combat needs of the U.S. Air Force in response to possible military conflicts in a certain hotspot area around 2005. It then conducted statistical analysis and finally concluded how the U.S. Air Force Conclusion to maintain superiority on the battlefield. This statistical analysis method has a basic assumption: each trial is independent and unordered, and the rules do not affect each other. It’s like tossing a coin. If you toss it heads once, it’s likely to be heads the second time. But if you throw it 10,000 times, the probability of the result being a certain side will get closer to 50%. This method is scientifically accurate when used in physical research, but when transplanted to the study of human social issues such as war, the situation becomes different.

Human beings are cognitive and do not just obey the laws of physics like physical entities. Commanders will not simply repeat mechanically when analyzing combat problems. Normally, when people make decisions, they will consider the previous results, which will lead to adjustments to the next action. In this way, the inherent power law characteristics of human behavior will appear, which is often called the “eight-eighth law”. Therefore, we cannot simply copy physical thinking to think about human society.

The reason for this is mainly because we are often accustomed to thinking about problems in a simple way of reductionism. The simple system structure remains unchanged, the results are deterministic, the cause and effect correspondence is clear, repeatable, predictable, decomposable and reducible, etc., have become our default scientific thinking method. But there are still many complex systems in the world, and these systems have a holistic nature, such as the human body, society, economy, war, etc., all fall into this category. What is the overall nature? That is, what cannot be seen locally, but exists when viewed as a whole, is the overall nature. For example, a living person and a dead person are the same in terms of composition, but the difference between a dead person and a living person lies in whether there is life, and life is a holistic quality. The structure of complex systems is variable and has characteristics such as adaptability, uncertainty, emergence, and nonlinearity, and the results are neither repetitive nor predictable. Society, economy, war, cities, including intelligent systems, these human-related systems all have these characteristics. In fact, they are all typical complex systems. Therefore, war has the characteristics of “no return after victory”, which actually reflects the “unrepeatable” nature of the complex system of war.

It is precisely because of the complexity of complex systems that causes and results cannot correspond one to one, which will lead to the failure of the similarity principle, so it cannot be modeled and studied using traditional methods. In order to solve complex problems, some traditional physics methods were mainly adopted in the past, such as statistical methods and simple life body modeling methods based on Agent. This is the case with the Rand Corporation study mentioned earlier. Although it can solve some problems, when it is used to solve problems related to people, especially cognition, the results obtained deviate greatly from reality and are unsatisfactory. .

Why is this happening? This is because the origins of war complexity and physical complexity are different. The source of physical complexity often lies in the complex laws of physical motion; while the complexity of war comes from human cognition. Because humans are not chaotic particles without thoughts, nor are they lower creatures with simple life logic, but are intelligent creatures with cognitive abilities of judgment and decision-making. People will reflect on the results through causal relationships, sum up experiences and make adjustments, and then decide how to act next. Moreover, human cognition will continue to develop, which will further affect subsequent cognition. However, because cognition is highly uncertain, future actions are difficult to predict.

It can be said that under the current technological conditions, what can be predicted are basically simple systematic laws of the physical world, while the impact of human cognition on society or war is often difficult to predict. Therefore, it is a common mistake we make to use physical thinking to think about human society. Based on the complexity of cognition, which is completely different from those immutable physical laws, when we deal with the complexity of war, we must focus on the core feature of “cognition” and work hard on command and control.

3. Coping with Complexity

The core of “decision-centered warfare” lies in the acceleration of cognition. Because almost all changes in war can be seen as cognitive upgrades and complications. In the author’s opinion, to deal with the “decision-centered battle”, we need to “fight complexity with complexity” and start from the basic work.

The first is to understand the core concept of “decision-centered warfare”. That is to seize the initiative on the battlefield by actively creating complexity. For one’s side, one needs to manage one’s own complexity; for one’s enemy, it means imposing more complexity on the opponent. The second is to understand the changes in the mechanism of war. The evolution speed of combat systems is increasing exponentially, which will make it difficult to perceive, control and manage complex battlefields, and the role of intelligent cognition will become more prominent. To this end, it is necessary to focus on the focus of “command and control” and regard battlefield management capabilities as the key. The third is to find the correct concepts and methods of coping. Starting from war design, we take the direction of decision-making intelligence as a breakthrough.

In recent years, a series of achievements in the field of artificial intelligence have brought hope to solving the problem of intelligent command and decision-making. The AlphaGo series of research has brought breakthroughs to decision-making intelligence technology; and the emergence of the GPT large model has further confirmed that decision-making intelligence and even general artificial intelligence are possible in the future. It now seems that artificial intelligence will be deeply involved in wars in the future, which is a reality that must be faced. And this will bring more complexity to war and battlefields.

Decision intelligence research should be placed at the command and control level. To win a war, command and control decisions need to embody both “science” and “art.” The scientific nature of command and control is mainly reflected in how to do it “when you know how to do it”, such as using the obtained command data (weapons and equipment, force formation, battlefield environment, opponent intelligence, etc.), command methods (tasks, processes, procedures, operations planning, etc.) , planning, optimization, etc.), formulate a combat plan and implement it. The artistry of command and control is reflected in knowing how to do it “when you don’t know how to do it.” This is where true intelligence lies. The method is nothing more than continuous trial and error, accumulating experience, finding ways to solve problems, and forming new scientific knowledge. In fact, in reality, commanders continue to discover and summarize winning rules through trial and error, and each commander also has his own intuition and experience.

Therefore, true intelligence is actually finding solutions to exceptions. Following rules is not intelligence, finding your own way to solve problems is the key. Perhaps this is the core of decision-making intelligence and a goal that requires further efforts.

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/yw_208727/162348888.html

中國軍隊在認知領域建構網路戰作戰節奏

Chinese Military Establishes Battle Rhythm of Cyber Warfare in the Cognitive Domain

目前,認知域已作為獨立一域登上戰爭舞台,日益成為大國博弈的常鬥之域、必爭之地、勝戰砝碼。 分析認知域作戰特徵及發展趨勢,至少反映為以下八個面向。

認知域是軍事優勢轉化為政治勝勢的關鍵域

軍事對抗,表面上看來是雙方硬實力的對抗,深層看不管戰爭是什麼性質、何種目的,終歸是人的意志的較量。 勝利的關鍵是將己方意志強加在受眾身上的能力。 只要剝奪、擊潰了敵人的戰爭意志,就意味著贏得了戰爭。 認知域作戰,以人的意志、精神、心理等為對抗目標,增強己方意志的同時削弱敵方的意志,進而達成攻心奪志的政治目的。 從這個意義上講,認知域是軍事優勢轉化為政治勝勢的關鍵領域。 隨著戰爭形態加速向智慧化演進,認知品質優勢帶來決策行動優勢,不僅可在道德、法理上佔據制高點,塑造正義合法的有利態勢,還可透過混合戰爭、綜合博弈手段,實現小戰 甚至不戰而勝的目的。 尤其是大國競爭背景下戰爭成本高昂,各方都希望透過加大認知域爭奪力度,以「人道」且「經濟」的形式,迫使對手知難而退。

透過改變對手認知,可改變其決策和行動

實施認知攻擊的目的,就是用一隻“看不見的手”操控對手意志,讓對手感到“我不能”“我不敢”,從而達到“我不想”的效果。 外軍實踐表明,對人的意志、信念、思維、心理實施認知攻擊,可以是長期的文化植入,可以是「資訊海洋+摀嘴封聲」式的資訊壓制,可以是先入為主、搶先發聲 的主動塑造,也可以利用歷史積怨來挑動矛盾爆發。 目前,資訊科技、人工智慧技術、媒體科技強化了對認知域的直接作用,利用智慧生成軟體,可製造大量認知“彈藥”,精準作用於作戰目標的認知層,直接將“意志強加 於對手”,快速改變戰略態勢。 展望資訊化智慧化戰場,態勢感知力量與平台廣泛分佈於陸海空天網等作戰域,規劃、決策、控制等認知行為主導各作戰域行動,尤其是未來智能化戰爭中人機混合的認知 優勢將主導戰場,可以透過認知幹擾、認知混淆、認知阻斷等手段,製造戰爭認知“迷霧”,誘使對手誤判態勢,做出錯誤決策和行動。

認知域作戰是全時攻防、全員覆蓋、全程使用、全域塑造、全政府行動

認知域作戰呈現出全方位、多層次、超時空、跨領域等特點,模糊了戰時和平時、前方和後方的界限,跨越了戰場和國界,超越了單純的軍事領域,廣泛滲透於政治 、經濟、外交等各社會領域,表現為「五全」特質。 全時攻防,沒有平時戰時之分,沒有前方後方之別,表現為全時在線、全時在戰。 全員覆蓋,任何人甚至包括智慧機器人,都可能成為認知域作戰的目標對象。 全程使用,貫穿聯合作戰的戰前戰中戰後,聯合軍事行動未展開,認知塑勢行動已開始,並且伴隨軍事行動而行,不隨軍事行動停而停。 全域塑造,認知塑造貫穿戰略、戰役、戰術各層,作用範圍涵蓋陸海空天網各域,跨域賦能,對全域行動都有影響。 全政府行動,認知塑造自然具有戰略性,需要跨部門、跨領域、跨軍地、跨層級一致協調行動,以求達到最佳傳播效果。

關鍵在於奪控行動或活動的性質定義權、過程主導權、結局評判權

認知賽局鬥爭,涉及多個對抗方,看似紛繁複雜,關鍵在於圍繞認知域的「三權」展開爭奪。 其一,爭奪事件性質定義權。 即這個事件該怎麼看,是正義的還是非正義的,是合法的還是非法的。 通常採取先發制人搶先定義、建群結盟強行定義、資訊壓制單方定義、設定議題套用定義等,引導塑造民眾形成定性認知。 其二,爭奪事件過程主導權。 即這事該怎麼幹、不該怎麼做,誰做的是對的、誰做的是錯的,通常採取設局布阱等方式,試圖按照己方所期望出現的狀態,主導目標事件發展方向、 快慢、暫停、繼續與終結。 其三,爭奪事件結局評判權。 即對這事該怎麼評,誰是獲利方、誰是受損方,誰是眼前的失利者、誰是長遠的受損者,等等。 各方都試圖透過掌控事件結局的評判權,放大於己有利之處、放大於敵不利之處,目的是利用事件延伸效應,持續傷敵利己。

道義和法理是各方爭奪的焦點

軍事行動歷來講究「師出有名」。 雖然戰爭形態加速演變,但是戰爭從屬於政治的本質屬性不會改變;戰爭性質和人心向背,仍是影響戰爭勝負的關鍵因素。 認知域戰場上,佔據了政治、道義、法理的製高點,就能夠贏得民心、道義支持,營造得道多助的輿論氛圍,進而掌握制敵先機。 每次戰爭或衝突,無論是強者或弱者,無論是進攻方防守方或第三方,各方都會全力搶佔認知主導權、輿論主動權,千方百計用道義包裝自己、注重宣示正義立場,設法為 戰爭定性、為行動正名,以消除阻力、增加助力,塑造以「有道」伐「無道」的有利態勢。 戰爭雙方實力對比不同,瞄準佔據道德法理制高點進行的認知對抗方式也會不同。 近幾場戰爭表明,當一方軟硬實力均很強大時,即軍事實力強、盟友夥伴眾多、國際話語權佔有率大,常常高調宣戰;當軍事行動有可能引發連鎖反應時,則常常模糊處理 「戰」的提法。

資訊是認知攻防的基本“彈藥”

網路資訊時代,人類溝通方式持續發生複雜深刻變化。 現場互動互動逐漸讓位給網路線上連線,一些大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地、影響民眾認知的主管道,以資訊為彈藥進行國際網路封鎖權、話語控制權爭奪成為當今認 知對抗的主要行動之一。 在這些平台上,各種短視頻成為公眾了解戰況的“第一現場”,訊息比砲彈跑得快。 圍繞平台的使用與封鎖、主導與規製成為認知域作戰爭奪的焦點,各方努力透過操控社交平台來傳播、放大己方宣傳,聲討、壓制對方宣傳,形成「我說的多、你說的少 」「我說的對、你說的錯」「只能我說、不讓你說」的局面。 民眾作為大型社群平台的使用者,在「聽」與「說」甚至「做」的過程中,受別人影響,也影響別人,不知不覺地成為幕後推手的代理人和攻擊道具。

軍事行動對認知塑造有關鍵支撐作用

人類戰爭史表明,兵戰永遠是政治較量的基礎支撐,心戰則是兵戰的效能倍增器。 戰場上拿不回來的東西,不能指望在談判桌上拿回來,更不能指望在輿論場上拿回來。 現代戰爭中,認知傳播行動總是與聯合軍事行動如影隨形,心戰與兵戰互相影響、互為支撐,兵戰心戰化和心戰兵戰化趨勢更為明顯。 從戰爭實踐看,沒有軍事實力是萬萬不能的,但僅有軍事行動又不是萬能的。 戰場上的多次勝利,並不是奪取戰爭勝利的充分條件。 越戰中,美雖「贏得了每次戰鬥,卻輸掉了整場戰爭」。 21世紀初,美國連續打的伊拉克戰爭、阿富汗戰爭,贏得了戰場勝利,也沒有贏得政治勝勢。 同樣的道理,軍事上的勝勢不等於贏得輿論上的強勢,贏得戰場勝利也不意味著贏得戰略的勝利。 現代戰爭中,兩類人員的角色越來越大,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬行程式碼謀勝,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬條資訊謀勝。 這兩類人員數品質都佔優的一方,取勝的機率往往就大。

認知對抗技術越來越直接運用於戰爭

過去戰爭中,對認知域的影響和作用,主要是透過物理域的大量毀傷行動,逐級逐層傳遞到認知域。 隨著資訊通訊、人工智慧、生物交叉、腦科學等技術的發展和突破,新的認知戰工具和技術直接瞄準軍事人員。 認知對抗不僅使用傳統的資訊戰武器,也使用以大腦為作戰目標的神經武器庫。 屆時,機器將可以讀懂人腦,人腦也將能夠直接控制機器,智慧指控系統可以直接提供戰場態勢和決策輔助,逼真的認知彈藥和精準的受眾投放將極大增強社會影響效果。 認知對抗技術越來越直接運用於戰爭,原來資訊化所隱含的間接認知,正逐步轉變為直接對人的認知進行影響與控制。 可以說,先進科技的支撐,使認知域作戰透過建構現代網路架構、開發資料視覺化平台,快速了解資訊環境並有效影響目標人群,可以更直接且有效率地達成政治目的。

(作者單位:軍事科學學院戰爭研究院)

Modern English:

Analysis of the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations

Cognitive domain operations take people’s will, beliefs, thinking, psychology, etc. as direct combat objects, and then affect their decisions and actions by changing the opponent’s cognition. Entering the era of information-based and intelligent warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become an important form of great power game, with all parties striving to achieve political goals in a relatively controllable manner. Gaining insight into the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations is of urgent and important practical significance for winning future wars.

At present, the cognitive domain has entered the war stage as an independent domain, and has increasingly become a common domain, a battleground, and a weight for victory in the game between great powers. Analyze the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations, which are reflected in at least the following eight aspects.

The cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory.

On the surface, military confrontation is a confrontation between the hard power of both sides. On a deeper level, no matter what the nature of the war is and for what purpose, it is ultimately a contest of human wills. The key to victory is the ability to impose your will on your audience. As long as the enemy’s will to fight is deprived and defeated, the war is won. Cognitive domain warfare uses human will, spirit, psychology, etc. as the target of confrontation, strengthening one’s own will while weakening the enemy’s will, thereby achieving the political goal of conquering the heart and mind. In this sense, the cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory. As war accelerates its evolution toward intelligence, cognitive quality advantages bring decision-making and action advantages, which can not only occupy the moral and legal high ground and create a favorable situation of justice and legality, but also realize small wars through hybrid warfare and comprehensive game means. Even the purpose of winning without fighting. Especially in the context of great power competition, the cost of war is high. All parties hope to intensify the competition for cognitive domains and force their opponents to retreat in a “humane” and “economic” manner.

By changing the opponent’s perception, it can change its decisions and actions

The purpose of implementing cognitive attacks is to use an “invisible hand” to control the opponent’s will, making the opponent feel “I can’t” and “I dare not”, and then achieve the effect of “I don’t want to”. Foreign military practice has shown that cognitive attacks on people’s will, beliefs, thinking, and psychology can be long-term cultural implantation, information suppression in the form of “information ocean + covering one’s mouth to silence”, or preemptive speech. Active shaping of political power can also use historical grievances to provoke the outbreak of conflicts. At present, information technology, artificial intelligence technology, and media technology have strengthened their direct effects on the cognitive domain. Using intelligent generation software, a large amount of cognitive “munitions” can be produced to accurately act on the cognitive layer of combat targets, directly imposing “will” “to rivals” and quickly change the strategic situation. Looking forward to the informationized and intelligent battlefield, situational awareness forces and platforms are widely distributed in combat domains such as land, sea, air, and space networks. Cognitive behaviors such as planning, decision-making, and control dominate operations in various combat domains, especially the cognition of human-machine hybrids in future intelligent warfare. Advantages will dominate the battlefield. Cognitive interference, cognitive confusion, cognitive blocking and other means can be used to create a “fog” of war cognition, inducing opponents to misjudge the situation and make wrong decisions and actions.

Cognitive domain operations are full-time offense and defense, full personnel coverage, full use, full domain shaping, and full government action

Cognitive domain operations are all-round, multi-level, hyper-temporal, and cross-domain. They blur the boundaries between wartime and peacetime, front and rear, cross battlefields and national boundaries, go beyond the pure military field, and widely penetrate into politics. , economy, diplomacy and other social fields, showing the characteristics of “five completes”. Full-time offense and defense, there is no distinction between peacetime and wartime, and there is no difference between the front and the rear. It is expressed as being online all the time and in war all the time. Covering all personnel, anyone, including intelligent robots, may become the target of cognitive domain operations. It is used throughout the whole process of joint operations before and during the war. Before the joint military operation is launched, the cognitive shaping operation has begun and will accompany the military operation and will not stop with the military operation. Global shaping, cognitive shaping runs through all levels of strategy, operations, and tactics, and its scope covers all domains of land, sea, air, and space networks. Cross-domain empowerment has an impact on all-domain operations. As a whole-of-government action, cognitive shaping is naturally strategic and requires consistent and coordinated actions across departments, fields, military and localities, and levels to achieve the best communication effect.

The key is to seize control over the right to define the nature of an action or activity, the right to dominate the process, and the right to judge the outcome.

The cognitive game struggle involves multiple opposing parties and seems complicated. The key is to compete for the “three powers” in the cognitive domain. First, fight for the right to define the nature of the event. That is, how to view this incident, whether it is just or unjust, legal or illegal. Usually, pre-emptive definitions, group alliances and forced definitions, information suppression and unilateral definitions, setting issues and applying definitions are usually adopted to guide and shape the public to form qualitative perceptions. Second, compete for dominance over the event process. That is, how to do something, how not to do it, who did it right and who did it wrong, usually by setting up a trap and other methods, trying to dominate the development direction of the target event according to the state that one’s own side expects. Fast and slow, pause, continue and end. Third, compete for the right to judge the outcome of the incident. That is, how to evaluate this matter, who is the gainer and who is the loser, who is the immediate loser, who is the long-term loser, etc. All parties strive to control the outcome of the incident by amplifying their own advantages and amplifying the disadvantages of the enemy. The purpose is to use the extended effect of the incident to continue to harm the enemy and benefit themselves.

Morality and legal principles are the focus of contention between all parties

Military operations have always paid attention to the principle of “discipline and reputation”. Although the shape of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, the essential nature of war as subordinate to politics will not change; the nature of war and the support of people’s hearts are still the key factors that affect the outcome of a war. On the battlefield in the cognitive domain, by occupying the commanding heights of politics, morality, and law, we can win the hearts and minds of the people and moral support, create a public opinion atmosphere in which moral support is abundant, and then seize the opportunity to defeat the enemy. In every war or conflict, whether it is the strong or the weak, whether the attacker, the defender, or a third party, all parties will try their best to seize cognitive dominance and the initiative of public opinion. They will do everything possible to package themselves with morality, focus on declaring a just position, and try to find ways to defend themselves. Qualify the war, justify the action, eliminate resistance, increase support, and create a favorable situation in which “righteousness” defeats “unrighteousness”. The strength balance between the two sides in the war is different, and the cognitive confrontation methods aimed at occupying the moral and legal high ground will also be different. Recent wars have shown that when a party has strong soft and hard power, that is, it has strong military strength, many allies and partners, and a large share of international voice, it often declares war in a high-profile manner; when military actions may trigger chain reactions, it is often handled in a vague manner. The word “war”.

Information is the basic “ammunition” for cognitive attack and defense

In the network information age, the way humans communicate continues to undergo complex and profound changes. On-site interactive interactions have gradually given way to online connections. Some large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for cognitive games and the main channels for influencing public cognition. Using information as ammunition to fight for the right to block international networks and control discourse has become a common practice today. One of the main actions of confrontation. On these platforms, various short videos have become the “first scene” for the public to understand the war situation, and information travels faster than cannonballs. The use and blocking, dominance and regulation of platforms have become the focus of battles in the cognitive domain. All parties strive to spread and amplify their own propaganda, denounce and suppress the other party’s propaganda by manipulating social platforms, forming a “I say more, you say less” “What I said is right and what you said is wrong” is a situation where “I can only say it and you are not allowed to say it”. As users of large-scale social platforms, the public is influenced by and affects others in the process of “listening”, “speaking” and even “doing”, and unknowingly becomes the agents and attack props of those behind the scenes.

Military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition

The history of human war shows that military warfare is always the basic support of political contests, while psychological warfare is the effectiveness multiplier of military warfare. What cannot be retrieved on the battlefield cannot be expected to be retrieved at the negotiation table, let alone in the field of public opinion. In modern warfare, cognitive communication operations always go hand in hand with joint military operations. Mental warfare and military warfare influence and support each other. The trend of military warfare becoming mental warfare and mental warfare becoming military warfare is more obvious. From the perspective of war practice, it is absolutely impossible without military strength, but military actions alone are not omnipotent. Multiple victories on the battlefield are not a sufficient condition for victory in war. In the Vietnam War, although the United States “won every battle, it lost the entire war.” At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States fought successive wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, winning battlefield victories but not political victory. By the same token, military victory does not mean winning public opinion, and winning the battlefield does not mean winning strategic victory. In modern warfare, two types of people play an increasingly important role: those who win by writing thousands of lines of code, and those who win by writing thousands of messages. The side with superior quantity and quality of these two types of personnel will often have a higher probability of winning.

Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly used directly in warfare

In past wars, the influence and effect on the cognitive domain were mainly transmitted to the cognitive domain level by level through a large number of damaging actions in the physical domain. With the development and breakthroughs of information communications, artificial intelligence, biocrossing, brain science and other technologies, new cognitive warfare tools and technologies are directly targeting military personnel. Cognitive countermeasures use not only traditional information warfare weapons, but also an arsenal of neural weapons that target the brain. By then, machines will be able to read human brains, and human brains will also be able to directly control machines. Intelligent command and control systems can directly provide battlefield situation and decision-making assistance. Realistic cognitive ammunition and precise audience placement will greatly enhance the social impact. Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly being used directly in warfare. The indirect cognition implicit in informatization is gradually transforming into a direct influence and control of people’s cognition. It can be said that with the support of advanced technology, cognitive domain operations can achieve political goals more directly and efficiently by building a modern network architecture and developing a data visualization platform to quickly understand the information environment and effectively influence target groups.

(Author’s unit: Institute of War Studies, Academy of Military Sciences)

原來的 中国军网 国防部网: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-08/888沒有湯給你.htm

中國軍隊聚焦認知域戰是主攻戰場對抗的新著力點

Chinese Military Focus on Cognitive Domain Warfare is the New Focus of Main Effort for Battlefield Confrontation

來源:人民網
認知域作戰是指運用輿論、心理、法律等多域手段,運用現代網絡、媒體、文字、圖片、視頻、數字等多維技術開展輿論宣傳。 、心理攻防,以及爭奪人心、顛覆信心、影響信仰、爭奪思想、意識形態鬥爭等重要形式,旨在爭奪人們在思想、信仰、價值觀、個人態度、情感、認同、 和判斷傾向。 認知領域戰是傳統輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰、貿易戰、外交戰、科技戰、意識形態戰等多領域戰的複雜集合。

目前,認知域作戰已經成為國家間軍事鬥爭和其他領域鬥爭的重要基礎,認知域目標驅動的語言對抗成為認知域作戰的重要形式,值得高度重視。 .

影響作戰對象的語言對策新前沿

認知領域作戰是當代認知科學研究和發展的伴隨成果。 它是人們積極探索大腦的認知活動,以期對大腦有更複雜、更抽象、更透徹的認識而產生的新戰場。 高級深度隱蔽活動是對行動對象影響的高端形式。 無論是信息行動的對象、信息的生產者、信息的內容本身,還是信息的傳播渠道,認知域中的操作都貫穿著認知的特徵,從一開始就突出認知層面的行動 結束。

從信息接收者的角度來看,這種認知是針對對手受眾的深度認知,包括其人民、軍隊、軍方指揮官或重要領導人、政商界重要人物,甚至直接包括 對方國家或軍隊的領導人。 具體的重要將領等,也可以是具體的人群或人群。 它可以涉及個人或群體的認知偏好、認知缺陷、認知習慣、認知偏見、認知誤解; 它還可以是個人和群體的信仰、價值觀、政治認同、族裔認同、社會和文化認同以及情感態度。

從信息提供者和內容的角度來看,應該融入信息生產者的認知設計和安排,包括對文本的獨特認知,如文本的話語方式、文本的敘述方式、 觀察事物的視角、敘述的認知重點和深度、句子的組織形式、句子的價值觀念傾向、句子概念的可接受性等。

在信息發布和傳播的渠道上,文本形式更接近多媒體多模態形式,更接近網絡空間的需要,更接近當代智能手機的優勢,更接近當前新興媒體時代的特徵,即 是,更符合受眾接受的認知特徵,即認知習慣和認知傾向。 文本的傳播形式充分考慮了國際傳播中的認知效應,尤其是跨文化、跨語言、跨媒體、跨群體的認知傳播。 這樣,文本會更好地從認知層面影響受眾。

語言對抗應對戰鬥風格的變化並產生新的戰術

縱觀人類歷史,不難發現,軍事鬥爭的風格一直在不斷變化。 從最初借助冷兵器的肉搏戰,發展到機械力與熱兵器的較量,也發展到高科技戰爭條件下信息能力的製衡。 每一次變化都帶來戰術上的深刻變化。 在當前機械化、信息化、智能化並存的過渡階段,人們不僅關注戰場物理域和信息域的主導權爭奪,更關注對戰場主體的控制。 戰爭-人類認知領域,即思維方式、認知模式和風格、價值觀、情感態度、文化模式、溝通模式、心理優勢和劣勢、認知偏好、文化和知識圖譜以及意識形態認同。 後者涉及基本情況

對社會人事和社會存在的影響,即認知領域運作的新興領域,其策略具有很強的特殊性。

話題靈活性和機動性:認知域作戰可以在認知域中選擇多個話題進行靈活機動的作戰行動。 根據現狀和需要,選題可以選擇涉及比較宏觀的戰略層面(比如對方整個社會的意識形態和製度等),或者中等層面的運動層面(比如社會問題) 在對方社會的局部或方向:社會福利政策或環保政策等),也可以選擇涉及社會中非常微觀的戰術問題(比如社會不公平、不公正、不美好的一面) 由某個人或特定事件反映)。 宏觀、中觀和微觀認知領域相互聯繫、相互轉化。 很可能一個微觀問題也會成為一個宏觀的戰略問題。 要根據與整個軍事行動的關係提出問題,認知域作戰要服從整體作戰行動,服務於宏觀政治外交形勢的需要。 更重要的是平時要準備好選題,平時要收集各種選題的數據,尤其要關注現實社會中的各種重要數據。 一旦需要,這些數據可以迅速轉化為箭矢、子彈、砲彈射向敵人的認知領域,甚至成為影響全局的戰略武器。

作戰層面的可控性:認知戰的重要設計是在作戰層面整體可控可調,可以根據形勢變化進行升級或縮減。 如果需要戰略層面,指揮員可以啟用戰略層面的設計和兵力投入; 如果需要campaign級別,也可以在相應的campaign級別進行控制; 如果只是在特定的小問題層面需要,也可以控制在相應的小眾局部層面,讓整個操作為整體作戰操作的需要服務。 這裡的戰略、戰役和戰術,更多的是指作戰設計和力量投入。 由於戰場態勢瞬息萬變,一些問題在層面上也可能發生變化,從戰略問題到影響戰役和戰術層面的效果; 有些問題,由於戰術問題的特殊性,成為影響全局的戰役層面的問題。

新興媒體主導:認知領域的主要影響渠道已經從傳統的紙質媒體和平面媒體轉向新興媒體。 傳統媒體主要依靠單一的媒介,如報紙、雜誌、書籍、傳單、海報等來傳遞信息; 後來的電視帶來了三維媒體。 在互聯網時代,尤其是互聯網2.0時代和智能通訊設備的誕生,人們更多地依賴多媒體、多模態、短視頻和文字來傳遞信息。 智能手機、智能平板、智能播放器等各種先進設備的問世,各種新型社交軟件和工具的誕生,使新媒體成為人們交流、溝通的主要工具。 新興媒體、新興社交軟件和工具已經成為各種力量在社會保障、輿論保障、意識形態保障、社會保障、政治保障等方面較量和鬥爭的重要空間。 互聯網安全,尤其是對新興社交媒體、新興社交軟件和工具等的安全把握能力,某種程度上是一個國家認知領域安全的關鍵。 新興媒體工具和新媒體空間的信息化已經成為各國認知戰的主戰場、主陣地和主空間。 值得指出的是,影響人們認知的思想和理論,將成為認知域運作各個層次上最具影響力的武器。

語言對抗適應智能時代,認知計算提升新算力

人工智能時代,在大數據分析與應用、超級計算能力、智能計算能力、自然語言處理能力、智能手機傳播能力和新一代網絡通信能力的基礎上,人類開始能夠理解 整個社會和整個網絡。 對不同領域、地域群體、不同地域群體、特定個體的語言文化、心理認知、群體情感、社會行為進行精準建模與分析。 尤其是人的內心深處

對大腦認知、人腦思維、思維方式、習慣偏好、圖像圖式、認知框架,甚至神經網絡、人機協作、腦控技術等的理解和掌握,只要有足夠多樣的動態數據, 人們可以計算和模擬所有人的心理活動、情感活動、認知活動、輿論和行為模式。 通過深算、精算、巧算,準確把握人的認知世界,形成對人認知領域的理解。 精細而深入的控制。 這一方面呈現出以下特點:

計算全維性:認知領域作為一個新興領域,可以全方位數字化,可以全方位、全過程、全個體進行計算。 它可以廣泛收集各種類型的信息,然後將其反映為作戰對手多樣化主要因素的大數據信息,從而可以對整體、組、組、個體數據以及它們之間進行各種計算。 各種活動都可以通過計算完成、顯示和準確掌握。

計算認知:認知領域的計算體現了很強的認知能力,能夠揭示更多肉眼難以觀察到的各種事物、事件、人物之間的關係,能夠揭示同一事件框架下各種概念之間的關係。 概念之間的聚類和層次關係反映了概念之間或顯性或隱性、直接或間接的深層認知聯繫,揭示了概念之間複雜的概念網絡系統,讓人看到一個完全超越普通肉眼的深層認知世界 觀察。 .

計算智能:認知領域的計算體現了強智能。 這種智能表現在計算上,會得出智能的結論。 例如,通過大量文本的收集和數據挖掘,我們可以找到由於人力有限而無法看到的各種主題、觀點、傾向、人群、立場和訴求之間的關係,從而 對某個問題形成更全面的認識。 全面、深入、準確、系統的認識,做出科學優化的決策。 這種決策可能符合人類智能,也可能超過甚至遠遠超過人類智能。 利用好認知計算的力量,特別是結合本國和對手的數據,可以更好地做到早預防、早預警、早部署,可以做到最好、最好、最快、最準的打擊 和反擊。 也更能體現高效、有力、針對性的保障。 這裡的認知計算更多的是一個可能出現在不同人群、不同時間段、不同背景、整個網絡域或局部網絡域、特定特定網絡域內的宏觀-中觀或微觀層面的問題。 團體。 特別是對與對手對局時雙方可能呈現的主動和被動情況的分析和考察,以及認知域的攻防等。

發揮話語主體地位釋放話語權新應用

認知域作戰有一個非常重要的支撐,即主要依靠語言媒介發揮作用,主要通過語篇層面發揮影響,主要通過語篇的敘事性對認知域形成隱性效應,主要 externing influence on the cognitive domain through cultural models 通過跨文化交際所發揮的潛在作用,顯性或隱性作用。 主要體現在以下幾個方面:

文本話語唯一性:認知領域需要信息來影響。 雖然信息可能依靠視頻畫面的特殊視覺效果來展現,但從根本上說,文本所表達的整合話語的獨特性成為認知衝擊的主要支撐。 其中,話語表達的方式、話語表達的技巧、話語表達的說服力和感染力的主要設計,尤其是話語敘事的獨特性,將是影響人們認知的關鍵。 這可能包括敘事視角、敘事主題、風格、敘事故事框架、敘事語言創新、敘事關鍵句,敘事包含哲學、人文、宗教、社會、自然等,以及敘事中不同參與者的身份,多樣化的內容。 評價敘事、真實性、深度和情感

敘事的溫度,敘事對觀點的潛移默化影響,以及敘事所釋放的個人情感、價值觀、意識形態和立場評價。 文本語篇的獨特性是文本在認知域操作中發揮認知影響的重要依托。 充分利用文本的複雜性,發揮不同文本各自的優勢,充分發揮文本內涵的隱性和顯性認知影響,已成為文本話語認知領域作戰的關鍵。 最重要的是創新文本話語,以全新的話語、更新穎的表達方式、更獨特的表達方式贏得讀者,讓讀者潛移默化地理解和感受文本中的思想,並默默接受。 文字的思想。

文化模式的潛能:要在認知領域作戰,必須深入把握不同國家、民族文化的特點和模式。 不同的國家、不同的民族有著不同的文化模式、哲學思維、傳統文化、宗教信仰、風俗習慣、思維方式等明顯不同; 不同文化的公民也有不同的民族心理和民族認知模式,也應該有屬於自己民族和文化的典型認知偏好,以及相應的缺點和弱點,其中一些明顯與其他民族在本民族中存在巨大差異 國,甚至產生誤解和敵意。 因此,在文化層面,認知領域的作戰,就是把握不同國家的整體文化模式,為不同國家的不同群體建立文化模式,為不同國家的不同事物建立不同的認知模式,全面掌握某一國家的文化模式。 一系列事物中的文化模式。 對問題和問題的整體態度和做事方式,特別是對一些典型案例、文化禁忌、宗教要求、精神追求、一般觀念等,需要利用已有的理論和發現,綜合建構不同的基本表現 對一些典型的、敏感的、重要的問題進行認知領域的群體研究,從而為下一步的認知操作提供重要的參考和指導。 加強對敵不同人員特別是軍人、要職人員文化模式的研究,包括將軍、官兵等基本文化特徵和模型的研究與構建,如心理認知行為 人物和文化模型畫像,已經成為認知域操作的核心實踐。 分析普通民眾,尤其是普通公民和公民,以及特定人群,包括特殊NGO力量的認知模式也具有重要價值。

跨文化戰略傳播:認知域操作是國際語言文化傳播,需要遵循國際傳播規律。 掌握國際傳播的基本範式,將本國故事與國際表達巧妙結合,將對方的語言文化與自己的故事和思想巧妙結合; 善於結合不同的藝術形式,包括文字、圖片、繪畫、音樂(聲音)、視頻等手段或多模態手段,實現信息的國際傳播。 同時,還要在戰略層面統籌多維度、宏觀溝通:運用多種手段,依托軍民融合、軍民協同、軍民融合開展溝通; 除了非政府組織,特別是依靠非政府力量、專家、意見領袖和普通民眾來幫助軍隊開展認知域作戰; 統一設置議題,發出多方位、多人、多方位的聲音,形成戰略溝通態勢,形成重大行動、重大問題、重大危機處置和應急處置的良好局面。 控制等,形成良好的輿論氛圍,產生積極影響,消除不利影響或消除不利影響。 尤其要建立一支精通外語、通曉跨文化、通曉國際交流規律、能在國際多維平台上暢所欲言的精幹團隊。 這些人員通常可以藉助常見或特殊問題進行廣泛的問題認知、收集和討論,建立人脈和粉絲群; 更重要的是,在關鍵時刻,通過自己的粉絲團,發揮影響力,完成戰略傳播任務。

目前,隨著混合戰、多域戰和全球戰的普及,認知域戰已經成為一種常見的混戰方式。 、法律戰發展的高級階段、複雜階段和升級階段。 它的興起更具欺騙性、曖昧性、隱蔽性、嵌入性、植入性和不可觀察性,特別是考慮到它與當代新興媒體的深度融合,不斷學習和借鑒多學科、跨學科、交叉的新思想、新技術、新方法。 於是,認知領域的戰鬥成為我們必須高度警惕的戰斗形式。 (國防科技大學文理學院教授、博士生導師 梁曉波)

【本文為國家社科基金重大項目《國防和軍隊改革視角下的國防語言能力建設》的階段性成果】

Modern English Version:

Source: 

People’s Daily Online

Cognitive domain combat refers to the use of multi-domain means such as public opinion, psychology, and law, and the use of modern network, media, text, pictures, video, digital and other multi-dimensional technologies to carry out public opinion propaganda, psychological attack and defense, and The important forms of fighting for people’s hearts, subverting confidence, influencing beliefs, fighting for thinking, and ideological struggle are intended to compete for people’s initiative in thinking, beliefs, values, personal attitudes, emotions, identification, and judgmental tendencies. Cognitive domain warfare is a complex collection of multi-domain warfare such as traditional public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, trade war, diplomatic warfare, technological warfare, and ideological warfare.

At present, combat in the cognitive domain has become an important basis for military struggles and struggles in other fields between countries, and language confrontation driven by goals in the cognitive domain has become an important form of combat in the cognitive domain, which deserves great attention.

A New Frontier for Language Countermeasures to Influence on Objects of Operation

Cognitive domain combat is the accompanying result of the research and development of contemporary cognitive science. It is a new combat field created after people actively explore the cognitive activities of the brain to gain a more complex, abstract and thorough understanding of the brain. Advanced deep covert activities are the high-end form of influence on the object of action. Regardless of whether it is the object of information action, the producer of information, the content of information itself, or the channel of information, operations in the cognitive domain all run through the characteristics of cognition, and highlight actions from the cognitive level from beginning to end.

From the perspective of the recipients of the information, this cognition is aimed at the deep cognition of the opponent’s audience, including its people, the army, military commanders or important leaders, important figures in the political and business circles, and even directly including the leaders of the opponent’s country or the military. Specific important generals, etc., can also be specific groups of people or people. It can involve the cognitive preferences, cognitive shortcomings, cognitive habits, cognitive biases, cognitive misunderstandings of individuals or groups; it can also be the beliefs, values, political identity, ethnic identity, social and cultural identity and emotional attitudes of individuals and groups.

From the perspective of the information provider and content, it should be infused with the cognitive design and arrangement of the information producer, which includes the unique cognition of the text, such as the discourse mode of the text, the narrative mode of the text, the perspective of observation of things, the narrative Cognitive focus and depth, organizational form of sentences, tendencies such as value concepts of sentences, acceptability of concepts of sentences, etc.

In terms of channels for information distribution and dissemination, the form of text is closer to the multimedia multimodal form, closer to the needs of cyberspace, closer to the advantages of contemporary smartphones, and closer to the characteristics of the current emerging media era, that is, more in line with the audience The cognitive characteristics of acceptance are cognitive habits and cognitive tendencies. The form of dissemination of the text fully considers the cognitive effect in international communication, especially the cognitive communication across cultures, languages, media, and groups. In this way, the text will better influence the audience from the cognitive level.

Language confrontation responds to changes in combat styles and generates new tactics

Throughout human history, it is not difficult to find that the style of military struggle has been constantly changing. From the initial physical fight with the help of cold weapons, it has developed into a contest of mechanical power with hot weapons, and has also developed into a check and balance of information capabilities under the conditions of high-tech warfare. Every change brings about profound changes in tactics. In the current transitional stage of co-existence of mechanization, informationization and intelligence, people not only pay attention to the struggle for dominance in the physical domain and information domain of the battlefield, but also pay more attention to the control of the main body of war-human cognitive domain, that is, the way of thinking, Cognitive models and styles, values, emotional attitudes, cultural models, communication models, psychological strengths and weaknesses, cognitive preferences, cultural and knowledge maps, and ideological identity. The latter involves the basic situation of social personnel and social existence, that is, the emerging field of cognitive domain operations exerting influence, and its tactics have strong particularities.

Topic flexibility and mobility: Cognitive domain operations can select many topics in the cognitive domain to carry out flexible and mobile combat operations. According to the current situation and needs, the topic can be chosen to involve a relatively macro strategic level (such as the ideology and system of the other party’s entire society, etc.), or a medium-level campaign level (such as social issues in a local area or direction of the other party’s society: Social welfare policies or environmental protection policies, etc.), you can also choose to involve very microscopic tactical issues in society (such as the unfair, unjust, and not beautiful side of society reflected by a certain person or a specific event). The macro, meso, and micro cognitive domains are interconnected and transform into each other. It is very likely that a micro issue will also become a macro strategic issue. The question should be raised according to the relationship with the entire military operation, and the cognitive domain operation must be subordinated to the overall combat operation and serve the needs of the macro political and diplomatic situation. More importantly, the topics should be prepared in normal times, and the data of various topics should be collected in normal times, especially paying attention to various important data in the real society. Once needed, these data can be quickly transformed into arrows, bullets, and shells fired at the enemy’s cognitive domain, and even become strategic weapons that affect the overall situation.

Controllability at the combat level: The important design of cognitive warfare is that at the combat level, it is controllable and adjustable as a whole, and can be upgraded or reduced according to changes in the situation. If the strategic level is needed, the commander can enable the design and force input at the strategic level; if the campaign level is needed, it can also be controlled at the corresponding campaign level; if it is only needed at the specific small problem level, it can also be controlled at the corresponding The niche local level makes the whole operation serve the needs of the overall combat operation. The strategy, campaign and tactics here refer more to combat design and power input. Since the battlefield situation may change rapidly, some issues may also change at the level, from strategic issues to affect the effects of campaign and tactical levels; some issues, due to the particularity of tactical issues, become campaign-level issues that affect the overall situation.

Emerging media dominance: The main influence channel of the cognitive domain has shifted from traditional paper media and print media to emerging media. Traditional media mainly rely on a single medium, such as newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, posters, etc. to convey information; the later generation of television brought three-dimensional media. In the Internet era, especially the Internet 2.0 era and the birth of smart communication devices, people rely more on multimedia, multi-modality, and short videos and texts to transmit information. The introduction of various advanced devices such as smart phones, smart tablets, and smart players, and the birth of various new social software and tools have made new media the main tool for people to communicate and communicate. Emerging media, emerging social software and tools have become an important space for various forces to compete and struggle in social security, public opinion security, ideological security, social security, and political security. Internet security, especially the ability to grasp the security of new social media, emerging social software and tools, etc., is to some extent the key to the security of a country’s cognitive domain. The information of emerging media tools and new media spaces has become the main battlefield, main position and main space for cognitive warfare in various countries. It is worth pointing out that the thoughts and theories that influence people’s cognition will become the most influential weapons at all levels of cognitive domain operations.

Language confrontation adapts to the age of intelligence, cognitive computing enhances new computing power

In the era of artificial intelligence, on the basis of big data analysis and application, supercomputing ability, intelligent computing ability, natural language processing ability, smart phone dissemination ability and new generation network communication ability, human beings have begun to be able to understand the whole society and the whole network. Carry out precise modeling and analysis of language culture, psychological cognition, group emotion, and social behavior in different domains, local groups, different local groups, and specific individuals. Especially people’s deep understanding and grasp of brain cognition, human brain thinking, thinking mode, habit preference, image schema, cognitive framework, and even neural network, human-computer collaboration, brain control technology, etc., as long as there are enough diverse dynamic data , people can calculate and simulate all people’s psychological activities, emotional activities, cognitive activities, public opinion, and behavioral patterns. Through deep calculations, actuarial calculations, and clever calculations, people can accurately grasp people’s cognitive world and form an understanding of people’s cognitive domain. fine and deep control. This aspect presents the following characteristics:

Computational all-dimensionality: As an emerging field, the cognitive domain can be digitized in all aspects and can be calculated in all directions, the whole process and the whole individual. It can collect various types of information extensively, and then can be reflected as information about Big data with diversified main factors of combat opponents, so that various calculations can be carried out for the whole, groups, groups, and individual data and between them. All kinds of activities can be completed, displayed and accurately grasped through calculation.

Computational cognition: Computation in the cognitive domain embodies strong cognition, and it can reveal more relationships between various things, events, and characters that are difficult to observe with the naked eye, and can reveal the relationship between various concepts in the same event frame. The clustering and hierarchical relationship between concepts reflects the deep cognitive connection between concepts, whether explicit or implicit, direct or indirect, and reveals the complex concept network system between concepts, allowing people to see a deep cognitive world that is completely beyond the ordinary naked eye observation. .

Computing intelligence: Computing in the cognitive domain embodies strong intelligence. This kind of intelligence is manifested in the calculation, and it will draw intelligent conclusions. For example, through the collection of a large amount of text and data mining, we can find the relationship between various themes, viewpoints, tendencies, groups of people, positions, and appeals that cannot be seen due to limited human power, so as to form a more comprehensive understanding of a certain issue. Comprehensive, in-depth, accurate and systematic understanding to make scientific and optimized decisions. This kind of decision-making may be in line with human intelligence, or it may exceed or even far exceed human intelligence. By making good use of the power of cognitive computing, especially by combining the data of the country and the opponent, we can better achieve early prevention, early warning, and early deployment, and can achieve the best, best, fastest and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. It can also better reflect efficient, powerful and targeted protection. Cognitive computing here is more about a possible macro-meso or micro-level issue that may arise in different groups of people, in different time periods, in different backgrounds, in the entire network domain or in a local network domain, or within a specific group. In particular, the analysis and inspection of the active and passive situations that may be presented by both parties when playing games with opponents, and the attack and defense of the cognitive domain, etc.

Give full play to the status of discourse subject and release the new application of discourse power

Cognitive domain combat has a very important support, that is, it mainly relies on the language medium to play its role, exerting influence mainly through the discourse level, forming a hidden effect on the cognitive domain mainly through the narrative nature of discourse, and mainly exerting influence on the cognitive domain through cultural models Potential role, overt or implicit role exerted through cross-cultural communication. It is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

Text Discourse Uniqueness: Cognitive Domains Need Information to Influence. Although the information may be displayed by relying on the special visual effects of video pictures, fundamentally speaking, the uniqueness of the integrated discourse expressed by the text becomes the main support for the cognitive impact. Among them, the mode of discourse expression, the skill of discourse expression, the main design of persuasion and appeal of discourse expression, especially the uniqueness of discourse narrative will be the key to affect people’s cognition. This may include narrative perspectives, narrative themes, styles, narrative story frameworks, narrative language innovations, narrative key sentences, narratives contain philosophy, humanities, religion, society, nature, etc., and the identities of different participants in the narrative , the diversified evaluation of narrative, the authenticity, depth and emotional temperature of narrative, the subtle influence of narrative on viewpoints, and the personal emotions, values, ideology, and position evaluation released by narrative. The uniqueness of text discourse is an important reliance on cognitive influence exerted by text in cognitive domain operations. Making full use of the complexity of texts, giving full play to the respective advantages of diverse texts, and giving full play to the implicit and explicit cognitive influences of text connotations have become the key to combat in the cognitive domain of text discourse. The most important thing is to innovate text discourse, to win readers with brand-new discourse, more novel expressions, and more unique expressions, so that readers can understand and feel the thoughts in the text subtly, and accept them silently. The thought of the text.

Potential of cultural models: To fight in the cognitive domain, we must deeply grasp the characteristics and models of different countries and national cultures. Different countries and different nationalities have different cultural models, philosophical thinking, traditional culture, religious beliefs, customs, and ways of thinking are obviously different; citizens of different cultures also have different national psychology and national cognition Models should also have typical cognitive preferences belonging to their own nation and culture, as well as corresponding shortcomings and weaknesses, and some of them obviously have a huge difference from other nationalities in their own country, and even have misunderstandings and hostility. Therefore, at the cultural level, combat in the cognitive domain is to grasp the overall cultural models of different countries, build cultural models for different groups in different countries, build different cognitive models for different things in different countries, and fully grasp a certain country’s cultural models in a series of things. The overall attitude and way of doing things on issues and issues, especially for some typical cases, cultural taboos, religious requirements, spiritual pursuits, general concepts, etc. It is necessary to use existing theories and findings to comprehensively construct the basic performance of different groups of people in the cognitive field on some typical, sensitive, and important issues, so as to provide important reference and guidance for the next step of cognitive operations. Strengthen the research on the cultural patterns of different personnel of the enemy, especially military personnel, personnel in key positions, including the research and construction of basic cultural characteristics and models of generals, officers, soldiers, etc., such as the psychological cognitive behavior of characters and cultural model portraits, It has become the core practice of cognitive domain operations. It is also of great value to analyze the cognitive patterns of ordinary people, especially ordinary citizens and citizens, as well as specific groups of people, including special NGO forces.

Cross-cultural strategic communication: Cognitive domain operations are international language and cultural communication, which need to follow the laws of international communication. To grasp the basic paradigm of international communication, to skillfully combine national stories with international expressions, to skillfully combine the other party’s language and culture with their own stories and ideas; to be good at combining different art forms, including words, pictures, paintings, music (Sound), video and other means or multi-modal means to achieve the international dissemination of information. At the same time, it is also necessary to coordinate multi-dimensional and macroscopic communication at the strategic level: use various means, rely on military-civilian integration, military-civilian coordination, and military-civilian integration to carry out communication; in addition to non-governmental organizations, especially rely on non-governmental forces, experts, opinion leaders, and ordinary people To help the military carry out cognitive domain operations; to set up issues in a unified way, to make multi-point, multi-person and multi-dimensional voices, to form a strategic communication situation, to form a good situation for emergency solutions for major actions, major issues, major crisis management and control, etc., to form a good atmosphere of public opinion, and to create Positive effects, eliminating adverse effects or extinguishing adverse effects. In particular, it is necessary to establish a capable team that is proficient in foreign languages, understands cross-cultural skills, understands the laws of international communication, and can skillfully speak out on international multi-dimensional platforms. These personnel can usually carry out extensive issue awareness, collection and discussion, establish personal connections and fan groups with the help of common or special issues; more importantly, at critical moments, through their fan groups, exert influence and complete strategic communication tasks .

At present, with the popularity of hybrid warfare, multi-domain warfare and global warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become a common method of hybridization and mixing. , The advanced stage of the development of legal warfare, the complex stage and the escalation stage. Its rise is more deceptive, ambiguous, concealed, embedded, implanted and unobservable, especially considering its deep integration with contemporary emerging media, and continuous learning and reference into multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary new ideas, new technologies, and new methods. As a result, combat in the cognitive domain has become a form of combat that we must be highly vigilant against. (Liang Xiaobo, professor and doctoral supervisor of the College of Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology)

[This article is a phased achievement of the National Social Science Fund’s major project “National Defense Language Capacity Building from the Perspective of National Defense and Military Reform”]

Original Chinese Military Source: http://military.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/0517/c1011-32423539.html

中國軍方智能通信任務:認知域作戰的重要領域

Chinese Military Mandate of Intelligent Communication: An Important Field of Cognitive Domain Operations

Original Mandarin Chinese:

要點提示

●智能傳播環境下,人不斷“吸收”信息成為媒介的延伸,媒介逐漸變成具有“主體能動性的人”。人機雙方實現了循環交替與即時交互,使認知攻防呈現出不間斷、常態化的特徵。

●智能傳播能夠全維全時全域塑造用戶與信息之間的關系,使輿論引導、觀念塑造和行為導控變得更加便捷,日益成為“控腦武器”,並逐步發展出一整套認知操縱的實踐手法。

隨著智能媒介和平台技術的快速發展,智能傳播逐漸實現了智能技術與傳播媒體的跨界融合應用,不僅極大改變了信息的生產樣式和傳播方式,也深刻影響著人類的思維邏輯和價值觀念。智能傳播為影響認知、主導認知、顛覆認知等提供了強力支撐和廣闊空間,正在引發認知域作戰的迭代升級和深刻變革。釐清智能傳播作用於認知攻防的機理手段,對於借助智能傳播創新認知域作戰戰法具有重要意義。

智能傳播作用認知域的特點

智能傳播是將大數據、雲計算、機器學習、虛擬現實等技術應用於信息生產與傳播的活動。智能傳播能夠持續塑造和深入誘導目標對象的價值取向與行為思辨,日益成為認知攻防的全新平台和重要場域。

萬物泛在互聯。隨著智能傳播的發展演進,人與人、人與物、物與物都將被連接起來,任何智能終端都可以成為用戶接收信息的工具和平台投放內容的渠道,並且推送能力更加強大,分發場景也更為廣泛。受此影響,傳播平台的作用不再是純粹的信息輸出,對傳播內容甚至對人的思維、行為以及各種關系的塑造能力也將越來越突出。智能傳播可以深度介入並促進人際交往、數據交互和信息交換,無形之中使得認知域作戰空間、參戰力量類型得到極大拓展,同時還實現了對公眾思維認知、生產交往的全方位操控。 “萬物泛在互聯”的持續演進,使一切物體都可能成為媒介實現信息傳播的工具,信息也不再受到維域的限制,認知對抗的主體無處不在、空間廣為擴展。

虛實雜糅互構。在智能技術賦能的多元傳播格局下,無論是文字、圖片,還是聲音、影像等產品形態,均可輕而易舉地被偽造並大肆擴散。隨著深度偽造技術的迭代演化,其生產內容能夠以無限接近真實的形式呈現給廣大受眾,極易影響公眾對某一議題、事件、對象的態度立場。同時,由代碼和算法驅動的社交機器人,可以通過提取關鍵信息、點贊轉發評論等進行“噴灌式”傳播,從而不斷擴散假情況、假信息以混淆輿論視聽,加劇公眾對信息的非理性、情緒化反應,進而操縱認知走向。信息傳播真中有偽、真偽混雜,這種真實與虛假雜糅互構的狀態,極易引發群體信任撕裂,使認知攻防的狀況愈加復雜難控。

人機雙向互動。智能媒介既不斷豐富著信息的輸入輸出方式,也日益模糊了人與媒介原本清晰的界限。其不僅可以簡單地執行用戶指令,還可以根據傳播效果給予更多回饋。長此以往,公眾便可能潛移默化地視其為外接“大腦”,無意識地受其影響。在技術的支撐下,智能媒介還可以獲得類似人的感知、運算甚至情感智能,借助人機交互反向影響用戶的思維方式,通過算法推薦塑造用戶的行為取向。智能傳播環境下,人不斷“吸收”信息成為媒介的延伸,媒介逐漸變成具有“主體能動性的人”。人機雙方實現了循環交替與即時交互,使認知攻防呈現出不間斷、常態化的特徵。

智能傳播作用認知域的機理

當前,智能傳播已經成為主導信息內容、控制輿論導向的有效手段,並借助全方位、多感官的媒介系統,由淺入深地調動目標受眾的沉浸體驗和主體意識,進而加深其感知程度、拓寬其認知範圍並影響其價值選擇,逐漸成為進行思想滲透、實施攻心奪志的重要方式。

借助情境浸染施加認知影響。心理學理論認為,受眾身體及其與環境的交互關系在認知活動中發揮著關鍵作用。媒介作為人體之外的人工感應系統,不斷進化的媒介技術能夠改變甚至重塑感知方式。智能媒介可以將不能同時出現在相同時空的復雜信息,進行疊加合並或仿真模擬,從而最大程度地還原信息的本來面貌,為公眾提供視覺、聽覺、觸覺等沉浸式的感官體驗。如此一來,傳播效果越來越呈現出沉浸式趨勢,智能傳播使信息以更具立體感、時空感和震撼感的方式,直擊目標受眾的感官通道,並由此催生“感官觸碰-心理觸動-情感共鳴”的一系列鏈式反應,藉以實現對其在生理層面的感知影響和操控。

通過虛擬映射影響認知走向。智能設備的發展與普及,提高了人的“可量化度”與“可跟蹤性”,這些設備有些存在於外部環境,但未來也會越來越多地與人的身體形成密不可分的關系。得益於此,可以將受眾的行為、活動、身體狀態等以多種維度映射在虛擬世界裡。一旦人們可以通過“虛擬實體”真實體驗認知的過程及其所在的環境,認知域與認知語境的關系,便不再割裂為虛擬和現實兩種維度。在此過程中,作為受眾,既被增強,即獲得新的感知覺體驗,實現認知活動的自由延展;同時也被約束,即被數字化映射的個體,更容易被他人洞察和操控。

運用人機融合強化認知幹預。當前,社交機器人可以通過捕捉用戶情感動態、分析信息內容及結構的方式,形塑一個類人的交流對象,推動傳播主體由“人”轉向“人機共生”。基於用戶身份和實時互動,社交機器人能在一定程度上影響公眾的思考習慣和行為模式,在傳播虛假信息、操縱公共輿論、進行社會動員、煽動公眾情緒等方面效果顯著。隨著技術的不斷完善,社交機器人的形象將會更加豐富、具有質感,甚至可以模仿人類的情緒。前段時間,基於生成式AI的ChatGPT,其生成的數據、信息等更容易被用戶信任和接納,對思維認知的影響更直接、更有效,可以在潛移默化中改變用戶的意識,隱秘而持續地建構用戶的認知框架。

智能傳播作用認知域的手段

智能傳播能夠全維全時全域塑造用戶與信息之間的關系,使輿論引導、觀念塑造和行為導控變得更加便捷,日益成為“控腦武器”,並逐步發展出一整套認知操縱的實踐手法。

製造信息迷霧,攻擊認知黑洞。智能傳播環境下,深度偽造信息混淆了存在與虛無、現實與虛擬以及記憶與遺忘的界限,能夠用以扭曲事實真相、左右輿論流向,進而達到影響認知走向、強化認知幹預的目的。特別是以社交機器人為代表的智能程序具備自動識別、智能應答甚至類腦思考的能力,並且不知疲憊、全時無休,能夠以大規模、多渠道、高速度、強頻率的方式對公眾進行信息轟炸,形成高強度思維認知壓迫。一旦虛假意見或者偽造事件形成輿論環境,將極大地壓縮個體的反應時間,受眾不僅難以進行深度思考,還容易在從眾心理的驅使之下,產生從不相信到相信、從不接受到接受、從不認同到認同的質變,進而營造出虛假的集體認同,將目標對象引入預設的議題陷阱。

實施靶向攻心,構建認知繭房。信息化智能化時代,公眾對事物的認知受到無處不在的各類推送信息的潛在影響。外軍認為,通過掌握目標對象的上網痕跡、購物記錄、社交狀態等情況,能夠迅速採集不同維度、不同層級、不同模態的認知數據,為高效掌握其價值觀念、輿論立場等提供支撐。在精準繪制認知圖景的基礎上,能夠發現目標對象認知體系的疑點、弱點和需求點,可以按其思維偏好設定內容主題、敘事方式和話語框架。繼而或選定具有相似理解語境、相同情感特質的群體,或選定易受影響、具有較大影響價值的特定個體,通過有選擇性地推薦和有針對性地過濾,差異化、分眾化投送相關信息。借助內容定向投送和渠道精準攻擊,能夠對目標對象進行靶向攻心和持續影響,有效固化其信息接受範圍,不斷削弱其獨立思考能力,致使其陷入認知繭房和思維定式,甚至強制地改變其決策意圖和行動部署。

滲透心理裂隙,擊潰情感堤防。不同於以往的傳播手段,智能傳播可以構建身臨其境式的虛擬環境,在使用戶感覺空間和感覺維度得以拓展的同時,也天然附帶強烈的感官刺激和感性認知偏向,磨損著用戶的理性認知水平與價值判斷能力。受眾在感知事件真相時將更加受制於感性的影響,要想撬動認知就特別需要倚重感性爭取。或是用絢爛的景觀吸引人,或是以娛樂的場景誘惑人,或是靠恐怖的場景震懾人,借助可觸可感可交互的智能傳播營造出極具欺騙性、迷惑性、煽動性的信息場景,強烈刺激用戶的心理感受,使其深陷其中而不自知。一旦陷入情感浸潤和場景浸染中,就可以利用共通情感、共同價值來進行情緒煽動或加以道德裹挾,摧毀其情感依賴,破壞其價值支撐,進而震撼、佔據甚至極化目標對象心智。

(作者單位:國防大學國家安全學院)

●Under the intelligent communication environment, people continue to “absorb” information and become the extension of the media, and the media gradually become “persons with the initiative”. Both man and machine have achieved cyclic alternation and real-time interaction, making cognitive attack and defense present uninterrupted and normalized features.

●Intelligent communication can shape the relationship between users and information in all dimensions, all time and all domains, making public opinion guidance, concept shaping, and behavior guidance more convenient. It has increasingly become a “brain control weapon” and gradually developed a set of cognitive manipulation methods Practical approach.

With the rapid development of intelligent media and platform technology, intelligent communication has gradually realized the cross-border integration and application of intelligent technology and communication media, which has not only greatly changed the production style and communication mode of information, but also profoundly affected human thinking logic and values. . Intelligent communication provides strong support and broad space for influencing cognition, dominating cognition, subverting cognition, etc., and is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain operations. Clarifying the mechanism and means of intelligent communication on cognitive attack and defense is of great significance for innovating combat tactics in the cognitive domain with the help of intelligent communication.

The Characteristics of the Cognitive Domain of Intelligent Communication

Intelligent communication is an activity that applies technologies such as big data, cloud computing, machine learning, and virtual reality to information production and dissemination. Intelligent communication can continuously shape and deeply induce the value orientation and behavioral speculation of the target audience, and has increasingly become a new platform and important field for cognitive attack and defense.

Everything is ubiquitously connected. With the development and evolution of intelligent communication, people and people, people and things, and things and things will all be connected. Any smart terminal can become a tool for users to receive information and a channel for the platform to deliver content, and the push capability is more powerful. The scene is also wider. Affected by this, the role of the communication platform is no longer pure information output, and its ability to shape the content of communication and even people’s thinking, behavior and various relationships will become more and more prominent. Intelligent communication can deeply intervene and promote interpersonal communication, data interaction and information exchange, which invisibly greatly expands the combat space in the cognitive domain and the types of forces participating in the war. The continuous evolution of “Ubiquitous Internet of Everything” makes it possible for all objects to become a tool for media to realize information dissemination, and information is no longer limited by dimensions. The subject of cognitive confrontation is ubiquitous and the space is widely expanded.

Mixture of fiction and reality. Under the multi-communication pattern empowered by intelligent technology, whether it is text, pictures, sound, video and other product forms, it can be easily forged and spread wantonly. With the iterative evolution of deep forgery technology, its production content can be presented to a wide audience in a form that is infinitely close to reality, which can easily affect the public’s attitude towards a certain issue, event, or object. At the same time, social robots driven by codes and algorithms can carry out “sprinkling” dissemination by extracting key information, liking and forwarding comments, etc., so as to continuously spread false information and false information to confuse public opinion and aggravate the public’s irrationality and dissatisfaction with information. Emotional responses, which in turn manipulate cognitive trends. Information dissemination is true and false, and the true and false are mixed. This state of mixed and interconstructed truth and falsehood can easily lead to a tear in group trust, making the situation of cognitive attack and defense more complicated and difficult to control.

Human-machine two-way interaction. Intelligent media not only continuously enriches the input and output methods of information, but also increasingly blurs the original clear boundary between people and media. It can not only simply execute user instructions, but also give more feedback according to the propagation effect. If things go on like this, the public may subtly regard it as an external “brain” and be influenced by it unconsciously. With the support of technology, intelligent media can also obtain human-like perception, computing, and even emotional intelligence. With the help of human-computer interaction, it can reversely affect the user’s way of thinking, and shape the user’s behavior orientation through algorithm recommendations. In the intelligent communication environment, people continue to “absorb” information and become the extension of the media, and the media gradually become “people with subjective initiative”. Both man and machine have achieved cyclic alternation and real-time interaction, making cognitive attack and defense present uninterrupted and normalized features.

The Mechanism of Intelligence Spreading in the Cognitive Domain

At present, intelligent communication has become an effective means to dominate information content and control the direction of public opinion. With the help of an all-round and multi-sensory media system, it can mobilize the immersive experience and subject consciousness of the target audience from the shallower to the deeper, thereby deepening their perception and broadening their horizons. Its scope of cognition and its influence on its value choices have gradually become an important way to infiltrate thoughts and implement mind-boggling.

Cognitive influence is exerted through situational immersion. According to psychological theory, the audience’s body and its interaction with the environment play a key role in cognitive activities. As an artificial sensory system outside the human body, media technology can change and even reshape the way of perception. Smart media can superimpose and merge or simulate complex information that cannot appear in the same time and space at the same time, so as to restore the original appearance of the information to the greatest extent, and provide the public with immersive sensory experiences such as vision, hearing, and touch. As a result, the communication effect is increasingly showing an immersive trend. Intelligent communication enables information to directly hit the sensory channels of the target audience in a more three-dimensional, time-space and shocking way, thus giving birth to the “sensory touch-psychological A series of chain reactions of “touch-emotional resonance” in order to realize the influence and control of its perception on the physiological level.

Influence cognitive orientation through virtual mapping. The development and popularization of smart devices have improved people’s “quantifiability” and “traceability”. Some of these devices exist in the external environment, but in the future they will increasingly form an inseparable relationship with the human body. Thanks to this, the behavior, activities, and physical status of the audience can be mapped in the virtual world in multiple dimensions. Once people can truly experience the process of cognition and its environment through the “virtual entity”, the relationship between the cognitive domain and the cognitive context will no longer be separated into two dimensions: virtual and real. In this process, as the audience, it is not only enhanced, that is, to obtain a new sensory experience, to realize the free extension of cognitive activities; but also constrained, that is, the individual who is digitally mapped is more likely to be observed and manipulated by others.

Using human-machine fusion to strengthen cognitive intervention. At present, social robots can shape a human-like communication object by capturing users’ emotional dynamics and analyzing information content and structure, and promote the main body of communication from “human” to “human-machine symbiosis”. Based on user identity and real-time interaction, social robots can affect the public’s thinking habits and behavior patterns to a certain extent, and have remarkable effects in spreading false information, manipulating public opinion, conducting social mobilization, and inciting public emotions. With the continuous improvement of technology, the image of social robots will be richer and more textured, and can even imitate human emotions. Some time ago, based on the generative AI ChatGPT, the data and information generated by it are easier to be trusted and accepted by users, and the impact on thinking and cognition is more direct and effective. It can change the user’s consciousness subtly and continuously construct The user’s cognitive framework.

The Means of Intellectual Diffusion in the Cognitive Domain

Intelligent communication can shape the relationship between users and information in all dimensions, time and space, making public opinion guidance, concept shaping, and behavior guidance more convenient. It has increasingly become a “brain control weapon” and gradually developed a set of cognitive manipulation practices. technique.

Create information fog and attack cognitive black holes. Under the environment of intelligent communication, deep fake information confuses the boundaries between existence and nothingness, reality and virtuality, memory and forgetting, and can be used to distort the truth, influence the flow of public opinion, and then achieve the purpose of influencing the direction of cognition and strengthening cognitive intervention. In particular, intelligent programs represented by social robots have the ability of automatic recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. Bombing forms high-intensity thinking and cognitive oppression. Once false opinions or falsified events form a public opinion environment, the individual reaction time will be greatly reduced, and it will be difficult for the audience to think deeply, and it is easy to be driven by the herd mentality, from disbelief to belief, from non-acceptance to acceptance, from The qualitative change from disapproval to identification creates a false collective identity and leads the target audience into the preset issue trap.

Implement targeted attacks and build a cognitive cocoon. In the era of informationization and intelligence, the public’s perception of things is potentially affected by all kinds of ubiquitous push information. The foreign army believes that by grasping the target’s online traces, shopping records, social status, etc., it can quickly collect cognitive data of different dimensions, levels, and modes, and provide support for efficiently grasping its values, public opinion positions, etc. On the basis of accurately drawing the cognitive landscape, it is possible to discover doubts, weaknesses, and needs of the target object’s cognitive system, and to set content themes, narrative methods, and discourse frameworks according to their thinking preferences. Then either select a group with a similar understanding context and the same emotional characteristics, or select a specific individual who is susceptible and has a greater influence value, and through selective recommendation and targeted filtering, differentiated and segmented delivery Related Information. With the help of targeted delivery of content and precise attacks on channels, it can carry out targeted attack and continuous influence on the target object, effectively solidify the scope of their information acceptance, continuously weaken their independent thinking ability, cause them to fall into a cognitive cocoon and mindset, and even forcibly change Its decision-making intention and action deployment.

Penetrate psychological fissures and break down emotional embankments. Different from the previous means of communication, intelligent communication can build an immersive virtual environment. While expanding the user’s sense of space and dimension, it also naturally comes with strong sensory stimulation and perceptual cognitive bias, which wears down the user’s rationality. Cognitive level and value judgment ability. When the audience perceives the truth of the event, they will be more subject to the influence of sensibility. If they want to leverage cognition, they need to rely more on sensibility. Either attract people with gorgeous landscapes, seduce people with entertaining scenes, or frighten people with scary scenes. With the help of tactile, sensible and interactive intelligent communication, it creates a very deceptive, confusing and provocative The information scene strongly stimulates the user’s psychological feelings, making them deeply immersed in it without knowing it. Once immersed in emotional infiltration and scene infiltration, you can use common emotions and common values ​​​​to incite emotions or impose moral coercion, destroy their emotional dependence, destroy their value support, and then shock, occupy, and even polarize the mind of the target object.

(Author unit: National Security College, National Defense University)

Source: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/16217865.html

中國軍隊對外軍網絡空間作戰力量的分析與認識——解放軍態勢感知系列

Chinese Military Analysis and Understanding of Foreign Military Cyberspace Combat Forces – People’s Liberation Army Situational Awareness Series

从世界主要国家网络空间作战力量建设情况看,美军作为最早公开宣布建设网络空间作战力量的军队,具备较强实力,在战争实践中多次实施了网络空间作战行动。欧盟、俄罗斯等组织和国家也展开了网络空间作战力量建设,并进行了一些实战行动。研究分析世界主要国家和地区军队网络空间作战力量建设的成功经验做法,对我国网络空间发展具有重要借鉴和启示意义。

随着网络信息技术的迅猛发展及在军事上的广泛运用,网络空间已成为继陆、海、空、天 4 个疆域之后的新兴作战疆域,网络空间作战也成为全域联合作战不可分割的重要组成部分,并成为夺取和保持作战主动权、控制权和制胜权的关键。美国、俄罗斯、日本等世界主要国家纷纷制定网络空间安全和发展战略,组建网络空间作战部队,研发先进网络技术和武器装备,加紧抢夺这一新的战略制高点。

1 美国引领网络空间建设

无论是网络空间概念和理论研究,还是其他相关技术研究和应用实践,美国都是网络空间发展的策源地和引领者,带动了各个国家与地区的网络空间发展。美军网络部队是世界上最早建立的“成建制”网络作战部队,历经克林顿时期初建防御、小布什时期网络反恐、奥巴马时期慑战并举和特朗普政府时期“前出防御”等阶段,已发展成为拥有 133 支网络任务分队、各军种数万人规模的网络作战部队。

1.1 强化战略威慑地位

美国为争夺网络空间的主控权和发展权,主动应对未来战争形态变化的新要求,将网络空间确立为与陆、海、空、天并列的新兴作战疆域,将其作为战略威慑力量摆到战略地位。

美国颁布的网络空间相关重要战略文件如表 1所示。2011 年,美国先后发布《网络空间国际战略》《网络空间可信身份识别国家战略》和《国防部网络空间行动战略》3 大战略文件,首次提出将网络空间视为第五作战域,将对网络空间的利用和控制提升为基本国策。

近年来,美军立足大国竞争,进一步提升网络空间的战略地位,网络空间作战的作战体系结构基本形成。2018 年,美军先后发布新版《国防部网络战略》[1] 以及《网络空间作战》联合条令,明确网络空间作战本身可作为独立作战样式达到创造战术、战役或战略效果,也可实现与其他领域作战样式的集成,通过协同作战以提升联合作战效能;2020 年,美网络空间日光浴委员会发布《来自未来的警告》报告,提出“前出防御”战略,建议由美国国防部将其拓展至国家层面,该战略是以持续交锋为主要行动模式,以行为塑造、获益拒止和成本强加为根本途径的国家网络空间分层威慑战略。

1.2 领导体制分工明确

美国将国家网络安全业务总体分成国土安全业务、国防业务、情报业务、执法业务 4 个部分,如图 1 所示。其中,国土安全业务由国土安全部主导,主要负责协调重要基础设施的网络空间安全,保护政府与商用网络和系统;国防业务由国防部主导,由美军网络司令部牵头,各军兵种提供组成部队力量,兼具攻击、防御、军事信息基础设施运维管理 3 大职能,是美网络安全力量的核心;情报业务由国家安全局主导,主要负责探测国外网络空间恶意活动,同时向国土安全局和国防部提供能力支援;犯罪执法则涉及司法部等多个部门及其下属机构。

表 1 美国颁布的网络空间相关重要战略文件

图 1 美国网络空间组织管理协调框架

美军网络司令部成立于 2009 年,原隶属于美军战略司令部,2017 年 8 月,美军网络司令部升级为第 10 个独立的美军联合作战司令部,将作战指控职责划归至网络司令部,并由国家安全局局长兼任司令官。对于美军网络作战,尤其是实时性要求很高的作战来说,此举措理顺了指挥控制关系,升级后的美国网络司令部与其他机构间的组织关系如图 2 所示。

图 2 升级后的美国网络司令部与其他机构间的组织关系

美军网络司令部接受美国总统、国防部长指挥,对国家网络任务部队总部、网络空间联合部队总部、军种网络空间部队总部和国防部信息网络联合部队总部等拥有作战控制权;各总部对配属的国家任务分队、作战分队、防护分队和支援分队等拥有作战控制权。

作战期间,美军网络司令部根据美国总统、国防部长指令开展网络作战行动,对所属部队实施作战控制,并向联合作战司令部提供定制的兵力包进行支援。兵力包由网络司令部所属网络作战部队、作战支援人员和其他网络空间力量组成。网络司令部对兵力包拥有作战控制权,并视情况将作战控制权指派给下属司令部。接受兵力包的指挥官拥有战术控制权,对网络空间作战时机和节奏进行控制。

1.3 组织力量规模庞大

美军网络部队是世界上最早建立的“成建制”网络作战部队,很早就开始征召网络人才,组建网络部队,并举行秘密演习。当前,美军基本形成了由网络司令部负责作战,各军种及国防信息系统局等国防部业务局负责建设的总格局。与陆、海、空作战领域不同,网络空间作战域的特殊性要求管理(军政)与作战(军令)这两条链条必须进行更紧密的合作。

美军网络空间战略作战力量主要是网络司令部下辖的 133 支网络任务分队,约 6200 名现役和文职人员。根据国防部 2013 年指示,该部队由各军种抽组力量组建(陆军 41 支,海军 40支,空军 39 支,海军陆战队 13 支)而成,2016年具备初始作战能力,2018 年具备全面作战能力,其主要遂行国防部信息网络运维防护行动、进攻性网络空间作战和防御性网络空间作战等任务。133 支网络任务分队根据肩负任务类型不同,编为国家网络任务部队、作战任务部队和网络防护部队 3 种类型部队。当前,美网络任务部队正扩充规模,2024 年将完成 21 支网络防护分队组建,使网络任务分队数量增至 154 支。

美军网络空间战术作战力量主要由美网络司令部下辖的陆军、海军、空军和海军陆战队4 大网络司令部的网络空间部队构成(总人数约为 8 万人),承担各军种网络防护和作战支援任务,在联合作战中为网络任务部队的进攻、防御和运维行动提供支撑。各军种网络司令部也正加紧网络作战力量的扩充与整合工作,为网络任务部队行动和各军种网络防护提供支撑。

1.4 作战能力系统全面

在装备研发上,美军遵循“边建边用、建用一体”的原则,不断加大网络战武器系统和装备的研发力度,开展网络作战关键技术的研究工作,在网络防御、网络攻击、监测预警、指挥控制和训练评估等方面开展了多个研究计划,并先后投入了数百亿美元用于研制开发各种网络空间作战装备,进而推动和改进网络作战技术水平,提升服务保障能力和作战效率。

网络防御最具代表性的装备包括“网络诱骗”系统、“网络狼”软件系统、网络攻击报警系统和网络漏洞扫描仪等,同时,美军还非常重视对“主动网络防御”概念的应用,这促使网络攻击溯源技术取得了长足的发展。网络攻击拥有“震网”“火焰”等威力强大的多种计算机病毒;战场网络攻击比较有代表性的是空军“舒特”系统和海军 EA-18G“咆哮者”飞机。侦察感知具备获取敌方通信、内容、网络协议、硬件地址、口令、身份鉴别过程、网络漏洞等信息的能力,通过实施“棱镜”“主干道”“码头”“核子”等一系列监控项目和“爱因斯坦”“普罗米修斯”等计划,形成大规模的情报生产能力,力图构建全球范围内的网络空间态势感知体系。

1.5 装备研制力量兼收并蓄

美军网络作战武器装备研发始终按照军商民结合、兼收并蓄的方法进行。网络空间作战装备与常规作战装备不同,其主要是以代码为基础、以设计为核心的研制生产形式,供应链的层级关系并不明晰。如今,美国具有以美国国防部高级研究计划局(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,DARPA)为核心的军方研究力量,以诺斯罗普·格鲁曼、雷声、洛克希德·马丁等传统防务公司为主,互联网、电子、软件、信息安全等领域公司兼收并蓄的研制力量。

美军方、政府科研机构和传统防务公司的网络空间研究方向通常覆盖网络空间侦察(态势感知)、监视、攻击、防御、测试验证、综合集成中的一方面或多个方面;而互联网、电子、软件、信息安全等领域公司,则在各自领域开展网络空间技术研究与装备研制生产。另外,由于网络空间作战装备的研发产品主要是软件,是一种逻辑层产品,这导致网络空间基础研究与装备研制生产之间的界限模糊,各大院校和政府科研机构,甚至一些小型科研团队及个人,也是美国网络空间工业的重要组成部分。网络空间研制生产能力主要力量结构如图3 所示。

图 3 美国网络空间研制生产能力主要力量结构

其中,大中型军工企业是美国网络空间装备分系统 / 子系统 / 技术领域研发的中坚力量。近几年,美国传统大中型军工企业以“兼并重组”为主要手段,迅速进入网络安全领域,形成了以诺斯罗普·格鲁曼、雷声、波音、洛克希德·马丁等几家综合性公司为龙头的网络安全国防产业,在 DARPA 和各军种网络空间项目的竞标中,这些大中型军工企业通常占据主承包商位置。

2 欧洲紧随其后蓄势待发

欧洲网络空间工业的起步晚于美国,主要侧重于对网络空间防御和网络空间安全问题的研究。近几年,欧洲各国政府和国防 / 电子企业也纷纷投入到网络空间安全领域,通过逐步完善战略政策,公私联合,引导网络空间技术研发,现已初步形成了跨越整个欧洲及其他国家和地区的网络空间防御体系。具体表现为以下几个层面。

研发层面,欧洲各国既唯美国马首是瞻,又借助北约、欧盟等跨国平台实现欧洲内部、欧洲与美国之间的融合互补,最终形成了共性与特性兼具的、仅次于美国的网络空间安全能力。

组织管理层面,由于欧洲国家大多规模较小,便于管理,因此成就了相对高效、一体化、能力强大的网络空间管理机制。同时,由于欧洲国家众多,存在竞争,因此,一些有关网络空间安全方面的国家级合作实施有时也存在阻力。

系统研发层面,由于欧洲很多国家的数字化、软件化、网络化水平非常高(甚至高于美国),导致其与美国一样面临非常大的网络空间防御压力,因此,其网络空间发展以确保网络空间安全为主。近几年,在以防御为主的网络空间思想的引领下,逐步加强网络空间技术,特别是网络空间安全技术的研发,同时,在原有信息技术基础设施的研究基础上推陈出新,在物联网等领域扩大投入和部署。当各国纷纷投入网络空间安全市场时,一些主要欧洲国家的网络空间安全产品已经占有较大的市场份额,开拓出一定规模的全球市场。

3 俄罗斯网络空间发展思路别具一格

相比西方国家,俄罗斯一直关注全面、大范围的信息空间,对作为信息空间子域的网络空间,没有像美国这样的深入和系统的研究。但由于俄罗斯长期对信息安全领域的关注和工业积累,使其在网络空间领域具有较好的基础。具体表现为以下几个层面。

战略规划层面,俄罗斯曾发布了一系列旨在保护国家各个方面信息安全的法律文件,例如《俄罗斯联邦信息安全学说》《俄罗斯社会信息发展战略》等,但在现有的法律文件中,没有涵盖信息空间与网络空间的关系体系,“网络安全”这一术语并未从“信息安全”的概念中分离。随着网络安全风险的不断增大,俄罗斯自 2010 年开始,将保护网络空间安全的重点放在关键信息基础设施方面,先后颁布了《俄罗斯联邦武装力量在信息空间活动的构想观点》《2020 年前俄罗斯联邦国际信息安全领域国家政策框架》《俄罗斯联邦网络安全战略构想(草案)》《俄罗斯联邦信息安全学说(第二版)》及《俄罗斯联邦关键信息基础设施安全法》等法律文件,从多个层面阐述了俄罗斯为推动网络空间发展的战略目标,以及为保护关键信息基础设施、指导网络空间发展所实施的重要举措。组织机构层面,2013 年 8 月,俄罗斯政府宣布在俄罗斯武装部队下面组建一个专门的信息战机构,且决定组建网络安全司令部和一个武装部队新机构,目的是提高该国的网络作战能力。

应用实践层面,美国 2010 年出版的《网络指挥官手册》中显示,全球网络作战的唯一实例是 2007—2009 年发生在爱沙尼亚、格鲁吉亚和吉尔吉斯斯坦的信息网络攻击事件,这 3 次小规模的攻击都是俄罗斯所为,可以认为俄罗斯在网络安全领域拥有独一无二的实战经验。

研发力量层面,俄罗斯拥有实力突出的网络安全防御公司,例如,卡巴斯基实验室是全球信息安全领域的一家重要企业,俄罗斯技术集团旗下的“俄罗斯技术信息”公司也是俄罗斯核心的网络安全公司。由于

透明度有限,很难从公开渠道发现俄罗斯具备网络攻击装备研发能力的公司,但并不代表俄罗斯没有这样能力的公司,此外,俄罗斯黑客组织在全球都享有“盛名”,此行为推动了民间网络空间装备的研制、生产和交易。

4 日本掀起网络空间发展热潮

日本是全球信息技术最先进的国家之一,同时也受到越来越多从针对个人到针对公共部门及基础设施的网络空间威胁,因此日本很早就开始关注网络空间安全议题。日本将这些威胁归为“信息安全”范畴,并在 2005 年成立了国家信息安全中心以应对威胁。随着美国提出的“网络空间”概念被广泛接受,日本也于 2010年前后开始从国家层面专门强调“网络空间”,并将网络安全作为影响国家安全的重要议题。具体表现为以下几个层面。

战略规划层面,2013 年,日本政府发布首份《网络安全战略》,该战略从国家层面推动网络安全建设与发展,明确提出了要将日本建设成为网络安全强国。2015 年 8 月、2018 年 7 月,日本政府先后出台了 2 份升级版《网络安全战略》,主要是为 2020 年东京奥运会和残奥会的网络安全防护提供准备。

组织机构层面,2010 年,日本防卫厅组建了一支由陆、海、空自卫队计算机专家构成的5 000 人左右的“网络战部队”,让其专门从事网络系统的攻防。日本“网络战部队”的主要任务是负责研制开发可破坏其他国家网络系统的跨国性“网络武器”,并承担自卫队计算机网络系统防护、病毒清除、程序修复等任务;开发战术性“网络武器”,并研究网络战的有关战术等;支援“网络特攻队”的反黑客组织、反病毒入侵等任务。国际研究人士指出,从日本“网络战部队”身上,可以看到美军“超级黑客部队”的影子。

应用实践层面,日本在网络攻防演习中,更注重贴合实战背景,从而提升演习的实用性和针对性。在 2014 年“3·18”演习中,预设场景为 2020 年东京奥运会期间日本关键基础设施遭遇网络攻击。在 2019 年日美举行的“山樱”联合演习中,预设场景为日本东京都和西南地区遭受导弹袭击等多项事态并发,该演习旨在检验指挥控制系统在网络和电磁攻击下的运转情况并研习对策。

系统研发层面,日本在构建网络作战系统中强调“攻守兼备”,拨付大笔经费投入网络硬件及“网络战部队”建设,分别建立了“防卫信息通信平台”和“计算机系统通用平台”,实现了自卫队各机关、部队网络系统的相互交流和资源共享。

5 启示建议

从世界主要国家网络空间作战力量建设情况看,美国、俄罗斯、日本及欧盟等世界主要国家和组织通过战略规划指导、组织机构建设、作战力量组建、系统装备研发等手段,不断强化军队网络空间作战力量建设,这对我国网络空间发展具有一定借鉴参考意义。

5.1 深化顶层设计,提升网络空间战略地位

网络空间使国家利益的边界得到极大的延伸和扩展,网络日益成为国家政治、经济、文化和社会活动的基础平台,成为实体经济的命脉和整个社会赖以正常运转的神经系统。由此可见,网络安全已不仅仅是网络自身的安全问题,其影响已辐射至国家安全和国家利益的方方面面,因此,有必要从国家战略层面整体谋划部署国家的网络安全问题。我国应借鉴国外网络空间战略经验,从国家层面制定网络空间战略、强化网络安全立法、构建国际合作体系,从国家层面整体谋划部署国家网络安全发展。

5.2 夯实能力基础,发展网络空间对抗能力

近年来,随着我国信息化建设的推进,国家网络基础设备的全面普及,来自国内外的网络安全威胁呈现多元化、复杂化、频发高发趋势,对我网络空间安全构成重大威胁,导致我国政府机构、关键基础设施的重要信息系统可能面临大规模的敏感信息外泄和信息系统瘫痪等安全风险。为保障网络空间信息基础设施的完整性、可用性,须提高其生存能力,对网络威胁做到快速响应,并在合适的时机主动发起攻击。基于此,我国必须从理论、技术和人才等方面出发,夯实网络空间能力基础,为未来可能出现的网络空间对抗和防御提供保障。

5.3 加强力量建设,构建网络空间支撑体系

如今,网络空间已成为新兴作战域,必须建设强大的网络空间作战部队,夺取这一新兴作战域的控制权,才能有效维护网络空间的国家安全和发展利益。自 2009 年 6 月美军网络司令部组建以来,美军的网络军事力量建设取得较大成效,形成了美国网络安全的有力军事保障,同时也对其他国家网络空间构成巨大威胁。我们必须加快网络空间部队建设步伐,不断提升全民的网络安全意识和信息防护能力,并加强国防动员建设,培养预备力量,打造有足够作战能力的网络作战力量体系,才能有效遏制抗衡对手对我国的网络威胁。

6 结 语

网络空间因其具有不受时空限制、不受作战目标约束、作战力量支撑来源广泛、作战过程突变性较强等特点,成为军队谋求发展的重要作战力量。近年来,美国、俄罗斯、日本及欧盟等世界主要国家和组织致力于推动网络空间作战力量建设,以抢夺在该领域的优势地位。我国应加快推进军队网络空间力量建设,提升我国网络空间作战能力,以谋求未来信息化战争的制胜权。

引用格式:李硕 , 李祯静 , 王世忠 , 等 . 外军网络空间作战力量发展态势分析与启示 [J]. 信息安全与通信保密 ,2022(5):90-99.

作者简介 >>>

From the perspective of the construction of cyberspace combat forces in major countries in the world, the U.S. military, as the first army to publicly announce the construction of cyberspace combat forces, has relatively strong strength and has carried out cyberspace combat operations many times in war practice. Organizations and countries such as the European Union and Russia have also launched cyberspace combat force building and carried out some actual combat operations. The study and analysis of the successful experience and practices of the major countries and regions in the world in the construction of military cyberspace combat forces has important reference and enlightenment significance for the development of cyberspace in my country.

With the rapid development of network information technology and its wide application in the military, cyberspace has become an emerging combat domain following the four domains of land, sea, air, and space, and cyberspace operations have also become an inseparable and important component of all-domain joint operations part, and become the key to gaining and maintaining the operational initiative, control and victory. The United States, Russia, Japan and other major countries in the world have formulated cyberspace security and development strategies, established cyberspace combat forces, and developed advanced network technologies and weapons and equipment, stepping up to seize this new strategic commanding height.

  1. The United States leads the construction of cyberspace

Whether it is cyberspace concept and theoretical research, or other related technology research and application practice, the United States is the source and leader of cyberspace development, driving the development of cyberspace in various countries and regions. The U.S. military’s cyber force is the earliest “established” cyber combat force in the world. It has gone through stages such as the establishment of defense during the Clinton era, cyber counter-terrorism during the Bush era, simultaneous deterrence and war during the Obama era, and “forward defense” during the Trump administration. It has developed into a network combat force with 133 network task teams and tens of thousands of people in various services.

1.1 Strengthening the strategic deterrent position

In order to compete for the control and development of cyberspace, the United States actively responds to the new requirements of changes in the shape of future wars, and establishes cyberspace as an emerging combat domain alongside land, sea, air, and space, and places it as a strategic deterrent. Strategic Position.

The important strategic documents related to cyberspace promulgated by the United States are shown in Table 1. In 2011, the United States successively issued three major strategic documents, the “International Strategy for Cyberspace”, the “National Strategy for Trusted Identity in Cyberspace” and the “Strategy for Cyberspace Operations of the Department of Defense”. The use and control of cyberspace has been elevated to a basic national policy.

In recent years, based on competition among major powers, the U.S. military has further enhanced its strategic position in cyberspace, and a combat system structure for cyberspace operations has basically taken shape. In 2018, the U.S. military successively released the new version of the “DoD Cyber Strategy” [1] and the “Cyberspace Operations” joint doctrine, clarifying that cyberspace operations themselves can be used as an independent combat style to achieve tactical, operational or strategic effects, and can also be integrated with other fields. The integration of combat styles improves the effectiveness of joint operations through coordinated operations; in 2020, the U.S. Cyberspace Sunbathing Committee released the “Warning from the Future” report, proposing the “defense forward” strategy, and recommending that the U.S. Department of Defense expand it to the national level , the strategy is a national cyberspace layered deterrence strategy based on continuous confrontation as the main mode of action, and behavior shaping, benefit denial, and cost imposition as the fundamental approaches.

1.2 The leadership system has a clear division of labor

The United States divides its national cyber security business into four parts: homeland security business, national defense business, intelligence business, and law enforcement business, as shown in Figure 1. Among them, the homeland security business is dominated by the Department of Homeland Security, which is mainly responsible for coordinating the cyberspace security of important infrastructure and protecting government and commercial networks and systems; the national defense business is dominated by the Department of Defense, led by the US Cyber Command, and various military services provide troops It has three major functions of attack, defense, and military information infrastructure operation and maintenance management. It is the core of the US cyber security force; the intelligence business is dominated by the National Security Agency, which is mainly responsible for detecting malicious activities in foreign cyberspace. The Ministry of Defense provides capability support; criminal law enforcement involves multiple departments including the Department of Justice and its subordinate agencies.

Table 1. Important strategic documents related to cyberspace promulgated by the United States

Figure 1. Management and coordination framework of cyberspace organizations in the United States

The U.S. Cyber Command was established in 2009 and was originally affiliated to the U.S. Strategic Command. In August 2017, the U.S. Cyber Command was upgraded to the 10th independent U.S. Joint Operations Command, and the responsibility for combat command was assigned to the Cyber Command. And the director of the National Security Agency also serves as the commander. For the U.S. military’s network operations, especially operations with high real-time requirements, this move straightens out the command and control relationship. The organizational relationship between the upgraded U.S. Cyber Command and other agencies is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The organizational relationship between the upgraded US Cyber Command and other agencies

The U.S. Cyber Command is under the command of the President and Secretary of Defense of the United States, and has operational control over the headquarters of the National Cyber Mission Force, the Headquarters of the Joint Cyberspace Forces, the Headquarters of the Cyberspace Forces of the Services, and the Headquarters of the Joint Forces of the Department of Defense Information Network; Mission detachments, combat detachments, protection detachments and support detachments have operational control.

During the operation, the U.S. Cyber Command conducts cyber operations in accordance with the instructions of the U.S. President and Secretary of Defense, implements operational control over its subordinate forces, and provides customized force packages to the Joint Operations Command for support. The force package is composed of cyber combat forces, combat support personnel and other cyberspace forces under the Cyber Command. Cyber Command maintains operational control of force packages and delegates operational control to subordinate commands as appropriate. The commander receiving the force package has tactical control over the timing and tempo of cyberspace operations.

1.3 Large scale of organizational strength

The U.S. military’s cyber force is the first established “organized” cyber combat force in the world. It has long recruited cyber talents, formed a cyber force, and held secret exercises. At present, the U.S. military has basically formed a general pattern in which the Cyber Command is responsible for operations, and the military services and the Defense Information Systems Agency and other Ministry of Defense business bureaus are responsible for the construction. Different from the land, sea, and air combat domains, the particularity of the cyberspace combat domain requires that the two chains of management (military administration) and operations (military orders) must cooperate more closely.

The U.S. military’s cyberspace strategic combat force is mainly composed of 133 cyber mission teams under the Cyber Command, with about 6,200 active duty and civilian personnel. According to the instructions of the Ministry of National Defense in 2013, the force was formed by drawing forces from various services (41 from the Army, 40 from the Navy, 39 from the Air Force, and 13 from the Marine Corps). It mainly performs tasks such as the operation and maintenance protection operations of the Ministry of National Defense information network, offensive cyberspace operations, and defensive cyberspace operations. The 133 cyber mission teams are organized into three types of troops: national cyber mission troops, combat mission troops, and network protection troops, according to the different types of tasks they undertake. Currently, the U.S. Cyber Task Force is expanding its scale. By 2024, 21 cyber protection teams will be formed, increasing the number of cyber task teams to 154.

The cyberspace tactical combat force of the U.S. military is mainly composed of the cyberspace forces of the four major cybercommands of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps under the U.S. Cyber Command (the total number is about 80,000 people), and they are responsible for network protection and combat support of various services. The mission provides support for the offensive, defensive, and operation and maintenance operations of the cyber mission force in joint operations. The network commands of various services are also stepping up the expansion and integration of network combat forces to provide support for the operations of network mission forces and the network protection of various services.

1.4 Comprehensive combat capability system

In terms of equipment research and development, the U.S. military adheres to the principle of “building while using, and integrating construction and use”, continuously intensifies the research and development of cyber warfare weapon systems and equipment, and conducts research on key technologies for cyber warfare. A number of research programs have been carried out in early warning, command and control, and training and evaluation, and tens of billions of dollars have been invested in the research and development of various cyberspace combat equipment, thereby promoting and improving the level of network combat technology, enhancing service support capabilities and operational capabilities. efficiency.

The most representative equipment for network defense includes “network deception” system, “cyber wolf” software system, network attack alarm system and network vulnerability scanner. At the same time, the US military also attaches great importance to the application of the concept of “active network defense”. It has promoted the rapid development of network attack traceability technology. Cyber attacks include a variety of powerful computer viruses such as “Stuxnet” and “Flame”; battlefield cyber attacks are more representative of the Air Force’s “Shuter” system and the Navy’s EA-18G “Growler” aircraft. Reconnaissance perception has the ability to obtain information such as enemy communications, content, network protocols, hardware addresses, passwords, identity authentication processes, and network vulnerabilities. Programs such as “Einstein” and “Prometheus” have formed large-scale intelligence production capabilities and are trying to build a global cyberspace situational awareness system.

1.5 Equipment research and development forces are all-inclusive

The research and development of the U.S. military’s network combat weapons and equipment has always been carried out in accordance with the method of combining military, commercial and civilian, and inclusive. Cyberspace combat equipment is different from conventional combat equipment. It is mainly a code-based, design-centric development and production form, and the hierarchical relationship of the supply chain is not clear. Today, the United States has a military research force with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as the core, and traditional defense forces such as Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, and Lockheed Martin. The company is the mainstay, and the company has an eclectic research and development force in the fields of Internet, electronics, software, and information security.

The cyberspace research directions of the U.S. military, government scientific research institutions, and traditional defense companies usually cover one or more aspects of cyberspace reconnaissance (situational awareness), surveillance, attack, defense, test verification, and comprehensive integration; while the Internet, electronics, Companies in the fields of software and information security carry out cyberspace technology research and equipment development and production in their respective fields. In addition, since the research and development products of cyberspace combat equipment are mainly software, which is a logical layer product, this has led to a blurred boundary between basic research in cyberspace and equipment development and production. Teams and individuals are also an important part of the US cyberspace industry. Figure 3 shows the main power structure of cyberspace R&D and production capabilities.

Figure 3 The main force structure of US cyberspace R&D and production capabilities

Among them, large and medium-sized military enterprises are the backbone of the research and development of the US cyberspace equipment subsystem/subsystem/technical field. In recent years, the traditional large and medium-sized military enterprises in the United States have rapidly entered the field of network security through “mergers and reorganizations” as the main means, and formed several companies such as Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Boeing, and Lockheed Martin. Comprehensive companies are the leading network security defense industry. In the bidding of DARPA and various military cyberspace projects, these large and medium-sized military enterprises usually occupy the position of main contractors.

2 Europe follows closely behind

The European cyberspace industry started later than the United States, mainly focusing on research on cyberspace defense and cyberspace security issues. In recent years, European governments and national defense/electronic companies have also invested in the field of cyberspace security. Through the gradual improvement of strategic policies, public-private alliances, and guidance of cyberspace technology research and development, a network that spans the entire Europe and other countries and regions has been initially formed. Cyberspace defense system. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of research and development, European countries not only follow the lead of the United States, but also rely on NATO, the European Union and other transnational platforms to achieve integration and complementarity within Europe and between Europe and the United States, and finally formed a cyberspace security capability with both commonality and characteristics, second only to the United States .

At the level of organization and management, since most European countries are small in scale and easy to manage, they have achieved a relatively efficient, integrated, and powerful cyberspace management mechanism. At the same time, due to the large number of European countries and the existence of competition, there are sometimes obstacles to the implementation of national-level cooperation on cyberspace security.

At the level of system research and development, due to the very high level of digitalization, softwareization, and networking in many European countries (even higher than the United States), they are facing great pressure in cyberspace defense just like the United States. Therefore, their cyberspace development is to ensure cyberspace Safety first. In recent years, under the guidance of cyberspace thinking that focuses on defense, the research and development of cyberspace technology, especially cyberspace security technology, has been gradually strengthened. Expand investment and deployment in the field. When countries are investing in the cyberspace security market one after another, the cyberspace security products of some major European countries have already occupied a relatively large market share and opened up a certain scale of global market.

  1. Russia’s cyberspace development ideas are unique

Compared with Western countries, Russia has always paid attention to comprehensive and large-scale information space, and has not conducted in-depth and systematic research on cyberspace as a subdomain of information space like the United States. However, due to Russia’s long-term attention to the field of information security and industrial accumulation, it has a good foundation in the field of cyberspace. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of strategic planning, Russia has issued a series of legal documents aimed at protecting information security in all aspects of the country, such as the “Russian Federation Information Security Doctrine”, “Russian Social Information Development Strategy”, etc., but in the existing legal documents, it does not cover The relational system between information space and cyberspace, the term “cyber security” is not separated from the concept of “information security”. With the continuous increase of network security risks, Russia has focused on the protection of cyberspace security on key information infrastructure since 2010, and successively promulgated “Conceptual Viewpoints of Russian Federation Armed Forces in Information Space Activities” and “2020 Legal documents such as the National Policy Framework in the Field of International Information Security of the Russian Federation, the Strategic Conception of the Russian Federation Network Security (Draft), the Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation (Second Edition) and the Law on the Security of Key Information Infrastructures of the Russian Federation It expounds Russia’s strategic goals to promote the development of cyberspace at multiple levels, as well as the important measures implemented to protect key information infrastructure and guide the development of cyberspace. At the organizational level, in August 2013, the Russian government announced the formation of a specialized information warfare agency under the Russian Armed Forces, and decided to form a cyber security command and a new agency of the armed forces, with the aim of improving the country’s cyber combat capabilities.

At the level of application practice, the “Network Commander’s Handbook” published by the United States in 2010 shows that the only example of global network operations is the information network attacks that occurred in Estonia, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan from 2007 to 2009. These three small-scale attacks They are all done by Russia. It can be considered that Russia has unique practical experience in the field of network security.

In terms of research and development capabilities, Russia has a network security defense company with outstanding strength. For example, Kaspersky Lab is an important company in the field of global information security, and the “Russian Technological Information” company under the Rostec Group is also a core network security company in Russia. because

Transparency is limited, and it is difficult to find Russian companies capable of researching and developing cyber attack equipment from public channels, but this does not mean that Russia does not have such capabilities. In addition, Russian hacker organizations enjoy a “famous reputation” around the world. Research, production and trade of equipment.

4 Japan set off a wave of cyberspace development

Japan is one of the countries with the most advanced information technology in the world. At the same time, it is also subject to more and more cyberspace threats ranging from targeting individuals to public sectors and infrastructure. Therefore, Japan has long paid attention to cyberspace security issues. Japan classifies these threats under the umbrella of “information security” and established the National Information Security Center in 2005 to address the threat. As the concept of “cyberspace” proposed by the United States has been widely accepted, Japan also began to emphasize “cyberspace” at the national level around 2010, and regarded cybersecurity as an important issue affecting national security. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of strategic planning, in 2013, the Japanese government issued the first “Network Security Strategy”, which promotes the construction and development of network security at the national level, and clearly proposes to build Japan into a powerful country in network security. In August 2015 and July 2018, the Japanese government successively issued two upgraded versions of the “Cyber Security Strategy”, mainly to prepare for the network security protection of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games.

At the organizational level, in 2010, the Japanese Defense Agency established a “cyber warfare force” of about 5,000 people composed of computer experts from the land, sea, and air self-defense forces to specialize in the attack and defense of network systems. The main task of Japan’s “cyber warfare forces” is to develop transnational “cyber weapons” that can destroy the network systems of other countries, and undertake tasks such as self-defense force computer network system protection, virus removal, and program repair; develop tactical “cyber weapons” “, and study the relevant tactics of cyber warfare; support the anti-hacking organization and anti-virus intrusion tasks of the “Network Special Attack Team”. International researchers pointed out that from the Japanese “cyber warfare forces”, we can see the shadow of the US military’s “super hacker force”.

At the level of application practice, Japan pays more attention to the actual combat background in network offensive and defensive exercises, so as to improve the practicality and pertinence of the exercises. In the “March 18” exercise in 2014, the preset scenario was that Japan’s key infrastructure encountered cyber attacks during the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. In the “Yamazakura” joint exercise held by Japan and the United States in 2019, the preset scenario was that Tokyo and the southwest region of Japan were attacked by missiles and other events concurrently. The exercise aimed to test the operation of the command and control system under cyber and electromagnetic attacks situation and study countermeasures.

At the level of system research and development, Japan emphasizes “both offense and defense” in building a network combat system, allocates a large amount of funds to invest in network hardware and “network warfare troops”, and establishes a “defense information communication platform” and a “common computer system platform” respectively. It facilitates the mutual communication and resource sharing of various organs and military network systems of the Self-Defense Force.

5 Apocalyptic Suggestions

From the perspective of the construction of cyberspace combat forces in major countries in the world, major countries and organizations in the world, such as the United States, Russia, Japan, and the European Union, have continuously strengthened military cyberspace operations through strategic planning guidance, organizational structure construction, combat force formation, and system equipment research and development. This has certain reference significance for the development of my country’s cyberspace.

5.1 Deepen the top-level design and enhance the strategic position of cyberspace

Cyberspace has greatly extended and expanded the boundaries of national interests. The Internet has increasingly become the basic platform for national political, economic, cultural and social activities, the lifeblood of the real economy and the nervous system on which the entire society depends. It can be seen that network security is not only a security issue of the network itself, but its impact has radiated to all aspects of national security and national interests. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and deploy the country’s network security issues from the national strategic level. my country should learn from the experience of foreign cyberspace strategies, formulate cyberspace strategies at the national level, strengthen cybersecurity legislation, build an international cooperation system, and plan and deploy national cybersecurity development as a whole at the national level.

5.2 Consolidate the foundation of capabilities and develop cyberspace countermeasures

In recent years, with the advancement of my country’s informatization construction and the comprehensive popularization of national network infrastructure equipment, network security threats from home and abroad have shown a trend of diversification, complexity, and frequent occurrence, posing a major threat to China’s cyberspace security, leading to my country’s Important information systems of government agencies and critical infrastructure may face security risks such as large-scale leakage of sensitive information and paralysis of information systems. In order to ensure the integrity and availability of cyberspace information infrastructure, it is necessary to improve its survivability, respond quickly to cyber threats, and initiate attacks at the right time. Based on this, our country must proceed from the aspects of theory, technology, and talents to consolidate the foundation of cyberspace capabilities and provide guarantees for possible cyberspace confrontation and defense in the future.

5.3 Strengthen strength building and build a cyberspace support system

Today, cyberspace has become an emerging combat domain. It is necessary to build a powerful cyberspace combat force and seize control of this emerging combat domain in order to effectively maintain national security and development interests in cyberspace. Since the establishment of the U.S. Cyber Command in June 2009, the U.S. military has made great achievements in the construction of cyber military power, forming a strong military guarantee for U.S. cyber security, and at the same time posing a huge threat to the cyberspace of other countries. We must speed up the construction of cyberspace forces, continuously improve the cybersecurity awareness and information protection capabilities of the whole people, strengthen national defense mobilization, cultivate reserve forces, and build a network combat force system with sufficient combat capabilities, so as to effectively contain and counter the opponent’s attack on our country. cyber threat.

6 Conclusion

Cyberspace has become an important combat force for the military to seek development because of its characteristics such as not being restricted by time and space, not being constrained by combat objectives, having a wide range of sources of support for combat forces, and strong mutations in the combat process. In recent years, major countries and organizations in the world, such as the United States, Russia, Japan, and the European Union, have been committed to promoting the construction of cyberspace combat capabilities in order to seize the dominant position in this field. my country should accelerate the construction of military cyberspace forces and enhance our country’s cyberspace combat capabilities in order to seek the right to win future information warfare.

Citation format: Li Shuo, Li Zhenjing, Wang Shizhong, et al. Analysis and Enlightenment of the Development Situation of Foreign Military Cyberspace Combat Forces [J]. Information Security and Communication Secrecy, 2022(5):90-99.

Reference: https://www.163.com/dy/article/