Chinese Military – Cognition-centered warfare: operational concepts for dealing with complex wars



Complexity science is one of the frontier fields of contemporary scientific development. It is a new tool for understanding, understanding, and exploring the phenomena, laws, and mechanisms of war. As the form of war evolves from information war to intelligent war, the complexity of war shows an exponential growth trend, and it becomes increasingly difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to put the enemy into a “decision-making dilemma” so that it can even Even with information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thus losing its combat advantage. The focus of operations will change from “information-centered” to “cognition-centered”, and the winning mechanism will change from “information winning” to “cognitive winning”.

“Three changes” reveal the driving forces behind the increasing complexity of war

War is a field full of possibilities, and change is the basic characteristic that runs through it. President Xi stressed that we must pay close attention to changes in technology, war, and opponents. Changes in science and technology are the foundation, changes in war are the subject, and changes in opponents are the key. Changes in science and technology lead to changes in war, and changes in war prompt changes in opponents. The “three changes” have promoted the evolution of war forms, the expansion of war fields, the transformation of war goals, and the expansion of war influence, revealing the driving forces behind the growth of war complexity.

Changes in technology have overturned the basis for winning wars. Science and technology are the core combat effectiveness and the most active and revolutionary factor in military development. Throughout the history of the world’s military development, every major scientific and technological innovation has started a new military revolution, and every military revolution has pushed military development into a new era. Scientific and technological innovation has become a huge engine to improve the military’s combat effectiveness. . At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and military revolution are accelerating. The degree of informatization of modern warfare is constantly increasing, and the characteristics of intelligence are becoming increasingly apparent. The role of driving the military revolution is becoming more and more prominent. The rapid development of some cutting-edge technologies may fundamentally change the face of war and war. According to the rules, the military game between great powers is more embodied in technological subversion and counter-subversion, raids and counter-raids, offsets and counter-offsets. The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project includes reconnaissance, decoy, jamming and other systems. The decoy system covers air, surface and underwater. Under the scheduling and control of the distributed artificial intelligence engine, it can complement each other, coordinate deception, and truly create a A “ghost aircraft carrier formation” completely subverted traditional electronic deception methods and raised information deception to an unprecedented level. It can be said that science and technology has never had such a profound impact on the overall situation of national security and military strategy as it does today. It has profoundly intervened in, supported, and dominated the evolution of war forms and the innovation of combat styles, and has even subverted the mechanism of winning wars.

The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project is based on networked collaborative electronic warfare

Concept, integrating different systems and utilizing unmanned distributed

Clusters of electronic warfare platforms enable large-scale collaborative electronic warfare

The changes in war highlight the complexity of war. Modern warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing unprecedented diversity and complexity. This super complexity stems from many reasons: first, various advanced technologies or weapons are constantly emerging, bringing many uncertainties; second, the battlefield covers land, sea, air, space, network, electricity and cognitive and other multiple third, multiple combat objects, combat styles, combat areas, and combat methods are cross-correlated and combined to form a complex “hybrid war”; fourth, artificial intelligence algorithms build a large number of combat elements into a complex logic, and use human Machine speed beyond the reach of thinking prompts the combination, deconstruction, and recombination of various elements. In the Ukraine crisis in 2022, on the surface it is a confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, but in essence it is a “hybrid war” between the United States and Western countries and Russia; the Russian and Ukrainian armies extensively use military and civilian drones to expand The “unmanned +” application model shows the prototype of future unmanned intelligent operations; with the support of U.S. NATO air and space situational intelligence, the Ukrainian army frequently uses low-cost unmanned equipment to carry out raids on important Russian weapons platforms, highlighting its new qualities Combat forces have asymmetric attack advantages against large weapons and equipment in traditional combat systems. Changes in technology will eventually lead to changes in war. The impact of a single element on war will become weaker and weaker. The joint combat system composed of multiple elements will have a complex impact on war. War is non-linear, uncertain, chaotic and open. Complex characteristics such as adaptability and confrontation will increase exponentially, which will make it more difficult for people to judge the progress and outcome of the war.

Changes in opponents accelerate the growth of war complexity. Changes in war prompt changes in opponents. Currently, we are experiencing major changes unseen in a century. Major military powers are actively making strategic adjustments and promoting a new round of military reforms, which exhibit the following characteristics: first, the trend of joint, miniaturized, and autonomous institutional establishments has become more obvious; second, The first is that weapons and equipment are showing a development trend of digitization, precision, stealth, unmanned, and intelligence; the third is that the combat form is moving towards the “four nons” (non-contact, non-linear, asymmetric and irregular) and the “three nos” (Invisible, silent, unmanned) combat; fourth, the military command form is developing in the direction of flattening, automation, networking, and seamlessness. The United States regards China as its main strategic opponent and strives to suppress and contain China. It has vigorously strengthened the innovation of operational concepts and has successively proposed new operational concepts such as “hybrid warfare”, “multi-domain warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, claiming that it will fight to defeat its opponents. A high-end war in which “technology cannot be understood, strikes are difficult to predict, and speed cannot keep up.” The core of the US military’s “mosaic warfare” is unmanned, low-cost, fast, lethal, flexible and reconfigurable. It is based on distributed situational awareness, with the help of intelligent auxiliary decision-making tools and the concept of building blocks and jigsaw puzzles to adaptively formulate mission planning. , dynamically reorganize combat forces, decompose the functions of the combat platform into a larger number of single-function nodes, and build a combat system with a large number of functional nodes. Replace the “kill chain” with a “kill network”. Several nodes will fail or be missing, and the combat system can be adaptively reorganized.

The increasing complexity of war drives the transformation of the winning mechanism of war

With the rapid development of national defense science and technology, the upgrading of weapons and equipment, and the rapid evolution of war forms, modern warfare has shown exponential and explosive complex changes. These changes may seem dazzling, but there are rules to follow behind them. The fundamental thing is that the winning mechanism of war has changed. Only by thoroughly understanding the winning mechanism of modern war can we accurately recognize changes, respond scientifically, be good at seeking change, and firmly grasp the initiative in future wars.

The form of war has changed from cold weapon warfare to intelligent warfare . The shape of war is a holistic understanding of war. So far, human war has generally gone through four historical stages: cold weapon war, hot weapon war, mechanized war, and information war, and is moving towards intelligent warfare. The history of cognitive warfare is almost as old as the history of human warfare. In the era of cold weapon war, hot weapon war, and mechanized war, cognitive warfare appears more in the form of public opinion warfare and psychological warfare. As mankind enters the information age, the development of cyberspace technology has greatly expanded the space for cognitive warfare, enriched the technical means of cognitive warfare, and greatly enhanced the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare. The status and role of Zhizhan have been unprecedentedly improved. In the future, the form of war will enter intelligent warfare, and a large number of intelligent weapon systems and platforms will be equipped with the military and put into combat. Cognitive warfare can not only interfere with and deceive the cognition of enemy personnel, but also attack the cognition of smart equipment through algorithm deception methods such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning”. Its application scenarios and scope will be further expanded. , the status and role will be further improved.

Drones have gradually become the protagonist of war,

Combat complexity further increases

The purpose of war has changed from conquering by force to conquering by spirit. The winning mechanism of modern war has undergone great changes compared with the past. The violence of war has been curbed. The purpose of combat has changed from the original siege of cities and territories and annihilation of the enemy’s effective forces to making the opponent obey one’s own will. The means of combat have changed from conquering by force to conquering more areas. The emphasis on psychological and spiritual conquest and transformation has made cognitive warfare increasingly prominent in its status and role in modern warfare. In recent years, “hybrid warfare” has become a major means of great power competition. More and more countries have begun to focus on using new fields and new means to achieve political, military, and economic goals that are difficult to achieve with traditional warfare. “Hybrid war” is a mixture of war subjects such as states, non-state actors and individuals, a mixture of conventional warfare, unconventional warfare and other war styles, a mixture of military operations such as combat, stability maintenance and reconstruction, and a mixture of political, military and economic The mixture of multiple fields such as military and people’s livelihood is a mixture of multiple combat goals such as defeating the enemy and winning the hearts and minds of the people. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. The operational field of “hybrid warfare” has expanded from the military field to politics, economy, culture, people’s livelihood and other fields; the combat methods have expanded from firepower warfare and troop warfare to diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, cyber warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare and other directions. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. Its core essence is to “make profit out of chaos”, its main purpose is to win people’s hearts, and its combat guidance is to win by cleverness.

The winning domain of war changes from the physical domain and information domain to the cognitive domain. Modern war occurs in three fields: physics, information and cognition at the same time. The physical domain and information domain are separated from the material domain, and the cognitive domain is separated from the spiritual domain. The physical domain is a traditional war domain, consisting of combat platforms and military facilities, which provides the material basis for information warfare. The information domain is a newly emerging war field, that is, the space for information generation, transmission and sharing, and is the focus of information warfare competition. Cognitive domain is the scope and field involved in human cognitive activities. It is not only the space for human feeling, perception, memory and thinking activities, but also the space for knowledge generation, exchange, association, storage and application. It is also the space for perception, judgment and decision-making in combat activities. and spaces of command and control. The cognitive domain exists in the field of consciousness of combatants and affects their judgment and decision-making. It is a rising field of warfare. With the development of technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence, the scope of the cognitive domain has greatly expanded, and is expanding from the field of human consciousness to the field of modern cognitive tools and artificial intelligence. The development of military technology has expanded the scope of the cognitive domain and provided more advanced, faster, and more effective material and technical means for cognitive warfare, greatly enhancing the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare, fundamentally It has changed cognitive warfare, making the cognitive domain a new winning field that transcends the physical domain and information domain, and has become the ultimate domain for great power games and military confrontations.

The mechanism for winning wars changes from information victory to cognitive victory. In the final analysis, war confrontation is a game and confrontation of cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition will largely control the initiative in war. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position of being beaten in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger control rights is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Finding ways to control cognitive power and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to achieve maximum victory at the minimum cost, is an important mechanism and inherent law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare. In recent years, the U.S. military has successively proposed new concepts of future warfare represented by “decision-centered warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, intending to use complexity as a weapon to create multiple dilemmas for opponents, requiring it to ensure its own tactical “selective advantage”. At the same time, by creating highly complex decision-making influences on the enemy and interfering with its decision-making capabilities, it can achieve a subversive advantage over the enemy in the cognitive domain. In the primary and intermediate stages of information warfare, the key to combat is to seize network control and information control, which runs through the progressive model of “network advantage → information advantage → decision-making advantage → combat advantage”. After information warfare enters an advanced stage, it becomes more and more difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to make the enemy fall into a “decision-making dilemma” so that even if it has information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thereby losing its combat advantage and having recognition. Only by knowing the advantages can you have the combat advantage. In future wars, cognitive advantage will be the most important strategic advantage, and cognitive confrontation will be the most important form of confrontation. It can be said that “without cognition, there is no war.”

Coping with complex wars has given rise to the concept of cognitive-centered warfare

In order to cope with the exponential growth trend of the complexity characteristics of modern warfare, we must use the theories and methods of complexity science to change the concept of platform-centered warfare where firepower is supreme and killing is king, and establish a cognitive-centered combat thinking. Cognition-centered warfare refers to taking the cognitive domain as the winning area, taking the cognitive advantage as the operational goal, and focusing on interfering with cognitive means, suppressing cognitive channels, affecting cognitive production, and conducting cognitive operations on enemy personnel and intelligent equipment. Interference, suppression, deception and inducement are a new operational concept that obtains combat advantages by seizing and maintaining cognitive advantages. Its main winning mechanisms are as follows.

Sun Tzu mentioned in “The Art of War” that “there is no constant force in an army;

Water has no permanent shape; those who can win due to the changes of the enemy are called gods.

Use cyber deterrence to destroy the enemy’s will to fight. Targeting the enemy’s political, economic, military, diplomatic, and cultural contradictions and weaknesses, disseminate deterrent information through cyberspace, or publish military parades, large-scale military exercises, new weapons and equipment research and development and other information through the Internet, so as to cause extreme cognitive and psychological changes in the opponent. Great fear and shock, deterring the enemy is not conducive to the implementation of my actions. Comprehensive use of network and electricity attack methods to carry out point strikes and warning attacks against the enemy’s important network and electricity targets and key core nodes, destroying the enemy’s system combat capabilities, affecting the normal performance of the enemy’s weapons and equipment, and providing psychological deterrence to the enemy. The US military’s “gray zone operations” theory relies on its own technological advantages and mainly takes actions such as cyber and electronic countermeasures to respond to the opponent’s “gray zone provocation” and deter the opponent from giving up “confrontation” or escalating the conflict, putting it in a dilemma.

Use information deception to induce the enemy to make misjudgments. Aiming at the enemy’s reconnaissance equipment, intelligence agencies and command systems, use cyber attacks, electronic deception and other means to conceal one’s military intentions, military operations and military objectives, and transmit to the enemy erroneous and false combat plans, troop configurations and operations. capabilities, combat plans, battlefield situation, etc., or use the enemy’s command information system to send false orders and information to induce the enemy to make wrong judgments and disrupt the enemy’s combat command. Implement new attacks such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning” against artificial intelligence algorithms, allowing them to obtain preset conclusions through deep learning training, or causing them to fall into local optimal solutions and ignore the global optimal. Use technologies such as computer imaging, video synthesis, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence to synthesize sound, video, images, text information, etc., or use “deep fake” technology to generate false information that is confusingly real and difficult to distinguish between true and false, and transmit it through the Internet Spread in large quantities to confuse and deceive opponents and influence their decisions and actions.

Use information suppression to block the enemy’s cognitive means. Target the enemy’s important network targets, as well as core routers, switches, gateways, key servers, etc., and use “soft” and “hard” attack methods to destroy their network nodes. Based on the networking characteristics of wireless links such as the enemy’s command and control network, communication transmission network, weapon hinge network, and early warning detection network, comprehensively use technologies and means such as electronic jamming, GPS spoofing attacks, command link takeover, and data hijacking control to suppress them. data communication, blocking its communication links and interfering with its combat command. Implement cyber-paralysis attacks on enemy command and control, military communications, early warning detection, aerospace information and other military networks, destroying core networks that affect their operations and weakening their combat capabilities.

Use public opinion propaganda to create a favorable public opinion environment . Cooperate with the country’s political, military, and diplomatic struggles, vigorously promote one’s own justice in the war, and stimulate the enthusiasm of all people to fully support the war. With the help of new media platforms such as instant messaging tools, online forums, podcasts, Twitter, and WeChat, we can systematically disseminate information that targets the enemy’s weaknesses. After gaining widespread attention and consensus, we can then promptly report information, create new hot spots, and repeatedly build momentum. Enhance the influence and form a resonance effect to expand the effect. Propaganda “sets the tone” by cleverly setting agendas, building public opinion through powerful media, setting off a “spiral of silence”, controlling and guiding public opinion, and changing people’s opinions and behaviors.

Use psychological attacks to undermine the morale of enemy soldiers and civilians. Through the Internet, processed and processed information is widely disseminated to promote one’s justice, demonstrate one’s strength, will and determination, vilify the enemy politically and morally, gather the thoughts and will of the military and civilians internally, and strive to win externally. The commanding heights of law and morality can “soften” and “weaken” the enemy spiritually. Use a variety of network communication methods and technical means to send various deceptive, disruptive, inductive, and deterrent messages to the enemy’s military and civilians in a targeted manner to attack the enemy’s psychological defense line, promote an ineffective confrontation mentality, and then lose combat capabilities. . Through the Internet to create, guide, plan, build, and expand momentum, we can create a “momentum” that is beneficial to ourselves but not beneficial to the enemy, causing a psychological impact on the other party’s people, thereby affecting or changing their psychological state, and implementing effective psychological attacks.

Use legal struggle to gain legal and moral support. Use legal weapons to curb the enemy’s possible or future illegal acts, declare the legality of our actions, affirm our power of military counterattack, declare our determination to pursue war responsibilities, and deter the enemy. By exposing the illegality of the enemy’s provocative behavior, criticizing the legal basis for the enemy’s combat operations, and condemning the enemy’s illegal behavior, it causes the enemy’s strategic defeat and our own strategic gain. Use legal means to restrict the enemy’s possible actions, limit the possible interference of third parties, and block other parties from interfering with our own actions. Formulate the laws and regulations necessary for our operations to provide legal protection for our operations, or take legal remedial measures to reduce the possible negative impacts of our operations and ensure that combat operations are carried out in accordance with the law.

This article was published in the 7th issue of “Military Digest” magazine in 2023.

Authors: Wang Xin, Huang Xiaoyan, etc.


複雜性科學是當代科學發展的前沿領域之一。 它是認識、理解和探索戰爭現象、規律和機制的新工具。 隨著戰爭形式從資訊戰爭向智慧化戰爭演變,戰爭的複雜性呈指數級增長趨勢,奪取資訊控制權變得越來越困難。 作戰的關鍵是讓敵人陷入“決策困境”,使其即使擁有資訊優勢,也無法做出正確決策,從而失去戰鬥優勢。 作戰重心將從“以資訊為中心”轉變為“以認知為中心”,制勝機制將從“資訊制勝”轉變為“認知制勝”。
戰爭是一個充滿可能性的領域,變化是貫穿其中的基本特徵。 習主席強調,要密切注意科技變化、戰爭變化、對手變化。 科技的變化是基礎,戰爭的變化是主體,對手的變化是關鍵。 科技的變化導致戰爭的變化,戰爭的變化又促使對手的變化。 「三個變化」推動了戰爭形態演變、戰爭領域拓展、戰爭目標轉變、戰爭影響力擴大,揭示了戰爭複雜性成長的驅動力。
科技的變革顛覆了贏得戰爭的基礎。 科學技術是軍事發展的核心戰鬥力,也是最活躍、最具革命性的因素。 縱觀世界軍事發展史,每一次重大科技創新都開啟了新的軍事革命,每一次軍事革命都推動軍事發展進入新時代。 科技創新成為提升軍隊戰力的巨大引擎。 。 目前,新一輪科技革命和軍事革命正在加速推進。 現代戰爭資訊化程度不斷提高,智能化特徵日益顯現。 推動軍事革命的角色日益凸顯。 一些尖端技術的快速發展可能會從根本上改變戰爭和戰爭的面貌。 依照規則,大國之間的軍事博弈更體現為技術顛覆與反顛覆、突襲與反突襲、抵銷與反抵銷。 美國海軍的「復仇女神」計畫包括偵察、誘餌、幹擾等系統。 誘餌系統覆蓋空中、水面和水下。 在分散式人工智慧引擎的調度和控制下,可以優勢互補,協同欺騙,真正打造出「幽靈航空母艦編隊」,徹底顛覆傳統電子欺騙手段,將資訊欺騙提升到前所未有的水平。 可以說,科學技術從來沒有像今天這樣對國家安全和軍事戰略大局產生如此深刻的影響。 它深刻地介入、支持、主導戰爭形態的演變和作戰方式的創新,甚至顛覆了戰爭的勝利機制。


戰爭的變化凸顯了戰爭的複雜性。 現代戰爭正在發生深刻變化,呈現前所未有的多樣性和複雜性。 這種超級複雜性源自於多種原因:一是各種先進技術或武器不斷湧現,帶來許多不確定性; 第二,戰場涵蓋陸、海、空、天、網、電、認知等多個 第三,多種作戰對象、作戰方式、作戰領域、作戰方式相互關聯、組合,形成複雜的“混合戰爭” ; 第四,人工智慧演算法將大量的戰鬥元素建構成複雜的邏輯,並以人類思維無法企及的速度提示各種元素的組合、解構、重新組合。 2022年的烏克蘭危機,表面上是俄羅斯與烏克蘭的對抗,實質上是美國與西方國家與俄羅斯的「混合戰爭」; 俄羅斯和烏克蘭軍隊廣泛使用軍用和民用無人機,拓展「無人+」應用模式,展示了未來無人智慧作戰的雛形; 在美國北約空天態勢情報支援下,烏克蘭軍隊頻繁使用低成本無人裝備對俄羅斯重要武器平台實施突襲,凸顯其新素質 作戰部隊在傳統作戰中對大型武器裝備具有非對稱攻擊優勢系統。 科技的變革最終會導致戰爭的變革。 單一因素對戰爭的影響會越來越弱。 由多種要素組成的聯合作戰體系將對戰爭產生複雜的影響。 戰爭是非線性的、不確定的、混亂的和開放的。 適應性、對抗性等複雜特徵將呈指數級增長,這將使人們更難以判斷戰爭的進展和結果。
對手的變化加速了戰爭複雜性的成長。 戰爭的變化促使對手的變化。 目前,我們正面臨百年未有之大變局。 主要軍事強國正積極進行戰略調整,推動新一輪軍事改革,呈現以下特徵:一是機構設置聯合化、小型化、自主化趨勢更加明顯。 二是一是武器裝備呈現數位化、精確化、隱身化、無人化、智慧化發展趨勢; 第三是作戰形式正在走向「四非」(非接觸、非線性、不對稱、不規則)和「三無」(隱形、無聲、無人)作戰; 第四,軍事指揮形態朝向扁平化、自動化、網路化、無縫化方向發展。 美國將中國視為主要戰略對手,極力打壓和遏制中國。 它大力加強作戰理念創新,先後提出「混合戰」、「多域戰」、「馬賽克戰」等新作戰概念,號稱要打贏對手。 一場「技術看不懂、打擊難以預測、速度跟不上」的高端戰爭。 美軍「馬賽克戰」的核心是無人、低成本、快速、致命、靈活、可重構。 它基於分佈式態勢感知,借助智慧輔助決策工具以及積木和拼圖的概念,自適應地制定任務規劃。 ,動態重組作戰力量,將作戰平台的功能分解為數量較多的單一功能節點,建構具有大量功能節點的作戰系統。 將「殺傷鏈」替換為「殺傷網」。 多個節點會發生故障或遺失,戰鬥系統可以自適應重組。
隨著國防科技的快速發展、武器裝備的更新換代、戰爭形態的快速演變,現代戰爭呈現指數級、爆炸性的複雜變化。 這些變化看似令人眼花撩亂,但背後卻有規則可循。 根本的是戰爭的勝利機制發生了變化。 只有深刻認識現代戰爭的勝利機制,才能準確認識變化、科學應對、善於求變,牢牢掌握未來戰爭主動權。
戰爭形式已從冷兵器戰爭轉變為智慧戰爭。 戰爭的形狀是灑紅節迄今為止,人類戰爭大致經歷了冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭、資訊戰爭四個歷史階段,並且正走向智慧化戰爭。 認知戰爭的歷史幾乎與人類戰爭的歷史一樣悠久。 在冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭時代,認知戰更以輿論戰、心理戰的形式出現。 隨著人類進入資訊時代,網路空間科技的發展極大拓展了認知戰的空間,豐富了認知戰的技術手段,大大增強了認知戰的滲透性、時效性、威懾力。 知展的地位和作用得到空前提升。 未來戰爭形態將進入智慧化戰爭,大量智慧武器系統和平台將裝備軍隊並投入戰鬥。 認知戰不僅可以乾擾和欺騙敵方人員的認知,還可以透過「對抗性輸入」、「資料投毒」等演算法欺騙手段攻擊智慧裝備的認知。 其應用場景和範圍將進一步擴大。 ,地位和作用將進一步提高。

戰爭的目的已經從武力征服轉變為精神征服。 現代戰爭的勝利機制與過去相比發生了很大的變化。 戰爭的暴力已經被遏止。 作戰目的由原來的圍攻城市和領土、殲滅敵人有生力量轉變為使對手服從自己的意志。 作戰手段由武力征服轉變為征服更多地區。 對心理精神征服與改造的重視,使得認知戰在現代戰爭中的地位與角色日益凸顯。 近年來,「混合戰爭」成為大國競爭的主要手段。 越來越多的國家開始專注於利用新領域、新手段來實現傳統戰爭難以實現的政治、軍事、經濟目標。 「混合戰爭」是國家、非國家行為體和個人等戰爭主體的混合,是常規戰爭、非常規戰爭等戰爭方式的混合,是作戰、維穩、重建等軍事行動的混合,是軍事行動的混合。政治、軍事、經濟的混合軍事、民生等多個領域的混合,是戰勝敵人、贏得民心等多重作戰目標的混合。 這與認知戰高度一致。 「混合戰爭」的作戰領域從軍事領域擴展到政治、經濟、文化、民生等領域; 作戰方式從火力戰、兵力戰拓展到外交戰、經濟戰、網路戰、心理戰、輿論戰等方向。 這與認知戰高度一致。 其核心本質是“亂中取利”,其主要目的是贏得人心,其作戰指導是以智取勝。

戰爭的勝利領域從物理領域、資訊領域轉向認知領域。 現代戰爭同時發生在物理、資訊和認知三個領域。 物理領域和資訊領域與物質領域分離,認知領域與精神領域分離。 物理域是傳統的戰爭域,由作戰平台和軍事設施組成,為資訊化戰爭提供物質基礎。 資訊域是一個新興的戰爭領域,即資訊產生、傳輸和分享的空間,是資訊戰競爭的焦點。 認知領域是人類認知活動所涉及的範圍和領域。 它不僅是人類感覺、知覺、記憶和思考活動的空間,也是知識生成、交換、聯想、儲存和應用的空間。 也是作戰活動中感知、判斷、決策的空間。 以及指揮和控制空間。 認知域存在於戰鬥人員的意識領域,影響其判斷與決策。 這是一個不斷崛起的戰爭領域。 隨著網路資訊、人工智慧等技術的發展,認知領域的範圍大大擴展,正在從人類意識領域擴展到現代認知工具和人工智慧領域。 軍事技術的發展擴大了認知領域的範圍,為認知戰提供了更先進、更快捷、更有效的物質技術手段,大大增強了認知戰的滲透性、時效性和威懾力,從根本上改變了認知戰,使認知領域成為超越物理領域和資訊領域的新制勝領域,成為大國博弈和軍事對抗的終極領域。

戰爭勝利機制從資訊勝利轉變為認知勝利。 戰爭對抗歸根到底是認知的賽局和對抗。 掌握了認知控制權,就很大程度掌控了戰爭的主動權。 失去認知的控制權,會讓你在戰爭中處於被動挨打的境地。 獲得更高更強的控制權是擊敗強敵的關鍵。 尋找控制認知力量進而奪取戰場全面控制權,從而以最小成本取得最大勝利,是現代戰爭特別是認知戰爭的重要機制和內在規律。 近年來,美軍相繼提出以「決策中心戰」、「馬賽克戰」為代表的未來戰爭新理念,意在以複雜性為武器,為對手製造多重困境,要求其確保自身戰術「選擇優勢」。 同時,透過對敵人製造高度複雜的決策影響,幹擾其決策能力,可以在認知領域實現對敵人的顛覆性優勢。 在資訊戰初中期階段,作戰的關鍵是奪取網路控制權和資訊控制權,貫穿「網路優勢→資訊優勢→決策優勢→戰鬥優勢」的遞進模式。 資訊戰進入高級階段後,奪取資訊控制權變得越來越困難。 作戰的關鍵是讓敵方陷入“決策困境”,即使擁有資訊優勢,也無法做出正確決策,從而失去戰鬥優勢並獲得認可。 了解優勢,才能擁有戰鬥優勢。 在未來戰爭中,認知優勢將是最重要的戰略優勢,認知對抗將是最重要的對抗形式。 可以說,「沒有認知,就沒有戰爭」。

因應現代戰爭複雜性特徵呈指數級增長趨勢,必須運用複雜性科學的理論與方法,改變火力至上、殺傷為王的平台中心戰觀念,建立認知-集中作戰思維。 認知中心戰是指以認知域為致勝區域,以認知優勢為作戰目標,重點幹擾認知手段、壓制認知通道、影響認知生產,對敵方人員和智慧裝備進行認知作戰。 幹擾、壓制、欺騙、誘導是透過奪取和維持認知優勢來獲取戰鬥優勢的新作戰理念。 其主要獲勝機制如下。

水沒有固定的形狀; 因敵變而能取勝的,稱為神。
利用網路威懾摧毀敵人的戰鬥意志。 針對敵方政治、經濟、軍事、外交、文化矛盾和弱點,透過網路空間傳播威懾訊息,或透過網路發布閱兵、大型軍事演習、新型武器裝備研發等訊息,造成對手認知和心理的極端變化。 巨大的恐懼和震撼,嚇阻敵人,不利於我行動的實施。 綜合運用網電攻擊手段,對敵重要網電目標及關鍵核心節點實施點打擊、預警攻擊,摧毀敵系統作戰能力,影響敵武器裝備正常性能,提供心理打擊對敵人有威懾作用。 美軍「灰色地帶行動」理論依託自身技術優勢,主要採取網絡、電子對抗等行動,應對對手「灰色地帶挑釁」,威懾對手放棄「對抗」或升級衝突,使其陷入兩難的境地。

利用資訊欺騙誘使敵人做出誤判。 針對敵方偵察設備、情報機構和指揮系統,利用網路攻擊、電子欺騙等手段,隱瞞己方軍事意圖、軍事行動和軍事目標,向敵方傳輸錯誤、虛假的作戰計畫、兵力配置和行動。 能力、作戰計畫、戰場情勢等,或利用敵方指揮資訊系統發送虛假命令和訊息,誘導敵方做出錯誤判斷,擾亂敵方作戰指揮。 針對人工智慧演算法實施「對抗性輸入」、「資料中毒」等新型攻擊,讓其透過深度學習訓練獲得預設結論,或導致其陷入局部最優解而忽略全局最優。 利用電腦影像、視訊合成、虛擬實境、人工智慧等技術合成聲音、視訊、影像、文字資訊等,或利用「深度造假」技術產生混淆真實、難以辨別的虛假資訊真真假假,並透過網路大量傳播傳播,迷惑、欺騙對手,影響其決策與行動。

利用資訊壓制來阻斷敵人的認知手段。 針對敵方重要網路目標以及核心路由器、交換器、閘道器、關鍵伺服器等,採用「軟體」和「硬」攻擊方式,破壞其網路節點。 根據敵方指揮控制網、通訊傳輸網、武器鉸鍊網、預警探測網等無線鏈路組網特點,綜合運用電子乾擾、GPS欺騙攻擊、指揮鏈路接管等技術和手段,資料劫持控制來壓制它們。 數據通信,阻斷其通信鏈路並幹擾其作戰指揮。 對敵方指揮控制、軍事​​通訊、預警探測、航太資訊等軍事網路實施網路癱瘓攻擊,摧毀影響其作戰的核心網絡,削弱其作戰能力。
利用輿論宣傳營造良好的輿論環境。 配合國家政治、軍事、外交鬥爭,大力宣揚自己在戰爭中的正義,激發全民全力擁護戰爭的熱情。 透過即時通訊工具、網路論壇、播客、推特、微信等新媒體平台,系統性地傳播針對敵人弱點的訊息。 在廣泛關注與共識後,就能及時報道訊息,製造新熱點,反覆造勢。 增強影響力,形成共振效應,擴大效果。 宣傳透過巧妙設定議程“定調”,透過強大媒體營造輿論,掀起“沉默的螺旋”,控制和引導輿論,改變人們的觀點和行為。

利用心理攻擊來削弱敵方士兵和平民的士氣。 透過互聯網,將經過加工處理的資訊廣泛傳播,宣揚正義,展現自己的力量、意志和決心,從政治上、道義上醜化敵人,對內凝聚軍民思想和意志,對外力爭勝利。 法律和道德的製高點可以在精神上「軟化」和「削弱」敵人。 利用多種網路通訊方​​式和技術手段,有針對性地向敵方軍民發送各種欺騙性、破壞性、誘導性、威懾性訊息,攻擊敵方心理防線,宣揚無效對抗心態,進而喪失戰鬥力能力。 。 透過網路創造、引導、規劃、營造、擴大聲勢,可以製造一種有利於己而不利於敵的“氣勢”,對對方民眾造成心理影響,從而影響或改變他們的思想 心理狀態,實施有效的心理攻擊。
透過法律鬥爭獲得法律和道德上的支持。 用法律武器遏制敵人可能或未來的非法行為,宣告我方行動的合法性,申明我方軍事反擊的力量,宣告我方追究戰爭責任的決心,震懾敵人。 透過揭露敵人挑釁行為的非法性,批判敵人作戰行動的法律依據,譴責敵人的非法行為,造成敵人的戰略失敗和我方的戰略收穫。 用法律手段限制敵人可能的行動,限制第三者可能的干擾,阻止其他方幹擾我方的行動。 制定我們行動所需的法律法規,為我們的行動提供法律保障,或採取法律補救措施,減少我們行動可能產生的負面影響,確保作戰行動依法進行。


Chinese Military to Emphasize Operational Use of Language Confrontation in Cognitive Domain Operations



The traditional style of language confrontation is a form of game in which the two parties in the struggle focus on specific issues or goals at a specific time and in a specific context, using language as the main medium of expression. In the context of cognitive domain operations, with the upgrading of Internet technology, the rapid development of modern communication technology, the innovation of emerging social media, and the improvement of natural language processing technology, coupled with human beings’ advances in cognitive science, linguistics, and communication With the new progress made in the fields of science, psychology and other fields, people have a deeper understanding and new understanding of language confrontation.

Language confrontation is becoming increasingly precise. The narrative style of discourse is the key to influencing cognition. Cognitive domain operations in the era of intelligence can conduct big data-based analysis of the audience, and through large amounts of text collection and data mining, we can find various opinions, tendencies, and positions that were previously invisible or easily ignored due to limited human power. and demands. By making good use of cognitive computing, you can better choose language types, voice patterns, discourse skills, narrative design, optimize the narrative perspective, theme, style, and the personal emotions, values, ideologies, and standpoint evaluations contained in the narrative, and more We should take into account the differences in communication modes of different languages ​​and cultures, so as to achieve the best, fastest and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. At the same time, cognitive protection can also be provided in a foreseeable and targeted manner.

Language text design customization. Cognitive domain operations fundamentally require the use of information to exert influence, and the unique discourse used in the information text is the main basis for cognitive influence. To target the cognitive domain of people in a specific country or region, we must skillfully use the discourse expressions in the other party’s language and culture, and conduct in-depth research on the stories, myths, proverbs, aphorisms, etc. expressed in the other party’s language, especially the popular topics on the other party’s social media. , characters and their discourse characteristics, and is good at using authentic and novel language expressions of cross-cultural cognition to create a contagious language atmosphere of emotional identification. On this basis, we strive to make innovative expressions, fully grasp the different cognitions and needs of the other audience, organize multi-dimensional discourse power, and design texts in multiple languages ​​to form new impressions and cognitions based on cognitive resonance.

The main style of language is popular. Language is the “cannonball fired at thought” in cognitive domain warfare. The use of language that is creative, expressive and in line with the laws of modern communication can cover a wide range of people and win more audiences. Therefore, popularizing the language subject style is the central link that determines the effectiveness of cognitive domain confrontation, and is also a key factor in winning recognition and winning hearts and minds in cognitive domain operations. Young people are the most active group of people in future wars and are also the main force in cognitive confrontation. The discourse forms and expressions that young people like to hear and see are the key to gaining the advantage of language confrontation in the cognitive domain.

Modeling the effects of language confrontation. Language confrontation in cognitive domain operations requires an in-depth study of the opponent’s main cultural environment, main cognitive narrative models, main cognitive shortcomings and weaknesses, and the characteristics of social media communication discourse, and masters its long-term cognitive models and the connotation of textual expressions. Rules etc. Based on artificial intelligence, modeling and analysis of the cognitive effects of language confrontation on different groups of people will help to conduct timely effect assessments, accurately grasp potential problems, and discover the fulcrum of strength. For example, it is difficult for general qualitative fuzzy assessments to grasp the micro-propagation effect of individual flexible maneuvers and the point-shooting effect of a single “discourse sniper”. The use of modeling analysis methods can provide relatively accurate conclusions. In addition, modeling analysis can also create strategic planning methods for language confrontation that combine long-term and present, macro themes and micro themes, agenda setting and random communication, drips of water piercing the stone and floods, and tolerance and tolerance with active release, which is better. to exert the combat effectiveness of language confrontation.


語言對抗的傳統樣式,是鬥爭雙方在特定時間、特定背景下,圍繞特定議題或目標,以語言為主要表達媒介的賽局形式。 在認知域作戰背景下,隨著網路科技的更新換代、現代通訊科技的快速發展、新興社群媒體的推陳出新,以及自然語言處理科技的提高,再加上人類在認知科學、語言學、傳播 學、心理學等領域所取得的新進步,人們對於語言對抗有了更深入的理解與全新的認知。

語言對抗日益精準化。 話語的敘事方式是影響認知的關鍵。 智能化時代的認知域作戰,可以對受眾進行基於大數據的分析,透過大量文本收集和資料挖掘,尋找以往因人工力量受限而看不到或易被忽略的各種觀點、傾向、立場 及訴求。 運用好認知計算,可以更好地選擇語言種類、語態模式、話語技巧、敘事設計,優化敘事的視角、主題、風格以及敘事所蘊含的個人情感、價值觀念、意識形態、立場評價,更 好地顧及不同語言文化傳播模式的差異,以達到最好最優最快、最精準的打擊與反擊。 同時,也能夠有預見、有針對性地做好認知防護。

語言文本設計客製化。 認知域作戰從根本上需要利用資訊來施加影響,其訊息文本所採用的獨特性論述是認知影響的主要依賴。 針對特定國家、特定地域人群的認知域作戰,要嫻熟運用對方語言文化中的話語表達形式,深入研究用對方語言表達的故事、神話、諺語、格言等,特別是對方社交媒體上流行的話題 、人物及其話語特點,善於運用跨文化認知的道地而新穎的語言表達,營造出富有感染力的情感認同語言氛圍。 在此基礎上,努力做好創新表達,充分掌握對方受眾的不同認知與需求,組織多維話語力量、設計多種語言文本,使之依托認知共鳴形成新的印象與認知。

語言主體風格大眾化。 語言是認知域作戰「射向思想的砲彈」。 富有創意、充滿表現力、符合現代傳播規律的語言運用,可以接觸廣大的人群、爭取更多的受眾。 因此,實現語言主體風格大眾化,是決定認知領域對抗成效的中心環節,也是在認知領域作戰中贏得認同、贏得人心的關鍵因素。 青年是未來戰爭中最活躍的人群,也是認知域對抗的主體力量。 青年喜聞樂見的話語形式和表達方式,是獲得認知域語言對抗優勢的關鍵。

語言對抗效果模型化。 認知域作戰的語言對抗要深入研究對手的主要文化環境、主要認知敘事模式、主要認知短板和弱點以及社交媒體的傳播話語特點,掌握其長期形成的認知模式、文本表達的內在 規律等。 基於人工智慧,對語言對抗作用於不同族群產生的認知效果進行建模分析,有助於及時展開效果評估,準確掌握潛在問題,發現力量支點。 例如,一般定性模糊評估難以把握個人靈活機動的微小傳播作用以及單一「話語狙擊手」的點射作用,採用建模分析手段則可以提供相對準確的結論。 此外,建模分析還可以為語言對抗創造長遠與當下結合、宏大主題與微觀主題結合、議程設定與隨機傳播結合、滴水穿石與大水漫灌結合、包容隱忍與積極釋放結合的戰略統籌手段,更好 地發揮語言對抗的戰鬥力。


认知域作战中的语言对抗. 解放军报.

Chinese Military and Using the Ability to Attack the Impossible With Dimensionality Reduction Strikes – Asymmetric Warfare



There are many different explanations for dimensionality reduction attacks, such as the crushing of lower civilizations by higher civilizations, the killing of cross-generation equipment, the control of high dimensions against low dimensions, asymmetric strikes that deprive the opponent of its strong points, etc. But in essence, it is “to attack the impossible with the able”. If viewed from this perspective, dimensionality reduction strikes have long existed in the history of human warfare and have manifested themselves in various forms. In the future, the characteristics of dimensionality reduction strikes will be more obvious and more decisive.

Mixed to make pure

“Those who understand change according to the times, and those who know know how to adapt to the circumstances.” As the field of war confrontation continues to expand into more “grey areas,” hybrid warfare is simultaneously unfolding in the physical, information, cognitive, and social domains, and is not limited to a single field or form. Hybrid warfare is purely about integration, that is, the comprehensive use of political, economic, diplomatic, military, public opinion and other fields of power, focusing on the comprehensive use of military and non-military means, conventional and unconventional tactics, showing the integration and development of traditional warfare and non-traditional warfare. Distinctive properties of force. Combat effectiveness pays attention to the realization of superposition and integration, so as to achieve quick results with less investment, and achieve political intentions and military objectives with the minimum strike. The pure nature of hybridization is chaos, that is, the boundaries between war and peace will become more blurred, the forms of expression will become more diverse, and combat styles will become more integrated. It is often difficult to judge the specific launch time of war. War and peace will be superimposed in the same time period, and war and peace will be superimposed. Non-combat status is even more difficult to confirm. The chaotic nature of hybrid warfare makes it difficult to warn of wars, prepare for wars, and respond to wars in a timely manner. The use of hybrid warfare is purely confusing. That is, compared with traditional warfare, the methods of hybrid warfare are more concealed. More struggles in non-military fields and the use of more non-military means allow war goals to be broken down into all aspects of daily communication and interaction, which reduces the risk of war. The sensitivity of war implementation is highly confusing and controllable.

Use wisdom to control one’s weakness

“Soldiers who, deception also”. War is not only a competition of strength but also a competition of intelligence. Among the “Five Virtues of Generals” in “The Art of War”, wisdom is listed as the first virtue, which fully shows that the ancients have long been aware of the role of wisdom in war. There are thousands of books on war tactics written all over the world, both at home and abroad, all with the purpose of enlightening wisdom. The victory of wisdom over clumsiness lies in knowing things beforehand and seizing the opportunity. Taking the initiative in combat can take the initiative, make time and space choices, mobilize various resources, and create advantageous conditions for victory. The victory of wisdom lies in understanding the overall situation and creating one-way transparency. He is good at uncovering the fog of war, has a clear understanding of the development and changes of the war situation, and can choose reasonable tactics for victory. The victory of wisdom over clumsiness lies in accurately grasping the center of gravity and grasping the key. Scientifically coordinate resources, focus on the focus of operations, and optimize key nodes to lay a foundation of strength for victory. The key to victory over clumsiness with intelligence lies in keenly seizing opportunities and winning by surprise. Seize the favorable conditions, avoid defeating the enemy, implement unexpected asymmetric operations, and obtain the maximum value at the lowest cost to defeat the enemy. The victory of wisdom over clumsiness lies in the correct use of human subjective initiative. People are still the decisive factor in winning the war. No matter how the times develop and the shape of war evolves, this will never change. In future intelligent warfare, the contribution rate of intelligence superiority to combat effectiveness is much higher than other factors. Human intelligence has widely penetrated into combat fields and been transformed into weapon systems. All-domain, multi-dimensional, and various types of intelligent combat platforms can quickly couple combat forces. According to Mission requirements build a combat system and independently implement coordinated operations, and the “smart victory” mechanism will become more prominent.

Use high to control low

“Technology is the core combat capability.” Technology changes the face of war, and technology also affects the outcome of war. The history of the development of human warfare shows that the military has always been a collection of technologies of the times. Whoever seizes the technological advantage and is the first to use a new type of weapons and equipment or a new combat force by surprise will easily gain a significant advantage in combat and will occupy Winning the battle. It has the advantages of cross-generation equipment and is the combat condition that countless generals dream of. It can achieve suppressive operations with high control of low. High energy defeats low power, which lies in the cross-generational crushing of equipment performance. New weapons and equipment are more advanced than old equipment in terms of information acquisition, maneuverability, strike distance, firepower yield and protection capabilities, and have combat performance that old equipment does not have. In the confrontation between old and new equipment, new equipment can give full play to its high technical performance advantages and achieve all-round crushing of the performance of old equipment. High energy suppresses low power because emerging technologies often trigger radical changes on the battlefield, causing combat methods to spiral upward and combat effectiveness to increase by leaps and bounds. The combat effect is like the crushing of hot weapons against cold weapons, informationization against mechanization, thus achieving The new way of fighting crushes the old way. Once emerging technologies mature and are introduced into warfare, they can often lead to changes in the shape of warfare. High energy controls low power, which lies in the unpredictability of disruptive technologies, which in turn leads to technological sneak attacks. Disruptive technologies can stand at a high technological level and target the weak links of the opponent’s equipment to implement contradictory special attacks. Due to the high probability of disruptive technology itself, it is very easy to produce a technological sneak attack, achieving a fatal blow without the other party being aware of it and unable to defend itself. Making good use of new quality and new domain combat forces in future intelligent warfare will become an important part of the outcome of the war.

Use fast to control slowness

“UI”. The history of war shows that speed is a key indicator to measure the military’s combat capabilities and the performance of weapons and equipment, and it is also an important fulcrum for leveraging the door to victory. Using speed to control slowness is considered to be the general principle of victory. War exists in time and space and must be affected by time and space. Therefore, time will also become a weapon. “Time is the army.” From ancient times to the present, time has often been an important object of combat operations. With the advent of the information age, the value of time has increased, and the special effect of using fast to slow down has become more obvious. The ability to control slowness by being fast lies in “being first”. You can discover and attack before the enemy. “Strike first to gain strength, strike later to suffer disaster”, by mastering the first move and playing the first move, we can suppress and disrupt the opponent’s actions, so that he can only be tired of dealing with it and be passively beaten. The speed that can control the slowness lies in the “surprise”, which can have the effect of catching the enemy by surprise and attacking them unprepared. Through quick judgment, quick decision-making, and quick maneuvers, the opponent’s reaction time is greatly reduced, making the opponent unable to keep up, make inaccurate judgments, and fight, making it impossible to defend and passive. The ability to control slowness lies in “agility”, which allows you to act quickly and gather excellence in real time. Through agile response, agile deployment, agile maneuver, and agile aggregation, real-time optimization is achieved, making the enemy invincible and defenseless. In the information age, some people have pointed out that “the past philosophy of war was to eat the big and the small, and the current philosophy of war is to eat the fast and the slow.” The phenomenon of time outliers in intelligent warfare is even more significant. Hypersonic weapons, laser weapons, microwave weapons, New rapid-kill weapons such as electromagnetic pulse weapons further push the pace of war to “instant kill”, making it possible to “destroy upon discovery”. Therefore, competing for time advantage and improving response speed are the keys to winning intelligent warfare.

Use groups to control isolation

“Two fists are hard to beat with four hands, and a vicious tiger is afraid of a pack of wolves.” Therefore, the use of large numbers to attack the small number, and the use of groups to control the isolated ones, have been regarded as the norm by military strategists throughout the history. The ability of the group to control the isolation lies in the “superposition effect”. By using large-scale forces to surround and divide the space, using more to defeat the smaller in number, using the numerical advantage to form a strength advantage, and using the implementation of super saturation strikes to continuously output the strongest strike force , to achieve cumulative combat effectiveness. The ability of groups to control isolation lies in the “aggregation effect”. By organizing a cluster combat system integrating inspection and attack, through multi-domain linkage, strengthening information empowerment, network energy gathering, system energy enhancement and other methods to enhance combat effectiveness and achieve 1+1> 2’s combat effectiveness aggregation. The ability of a group to prevent isolation lies in the “anti-damage effect”. There are many similar individuals in the cluster, and it is a decentralized group configuration. The overall combat group will not affect the overall function due to damage to a single individual or a few individuals, and can maintain long-term Time-continuous combat capability. The ability of groups to control isolation lies in the “intelligent change effect”. In future intelligent warfare, swarm weapons will be cluster combat weapons supported by intelligent unmanned control technology and network information systems. They will be networked, intelligent and distributed. Combat capabilities, capable of autonomously coordinating actions and completing corresponding combat tasks, represent the development trend of unmanned combat and intelligent combat in future wars. In future intelligent warfare, each combat group will be driven by “intelligence + data” to independently conduct online mission planning around combat objectives, and flexibly mobilize “material + energy” for combat operations to freely gather and disperse.

Make something out of nothing

“Unmanned operation is the trend and the future.” Unmanned combat systems are the basic force of unmanned combat. Compared with manned combat systems, they have “asymmetric” innate advantages in terms of combat capabilities and combat methods. Using nothing to own something means that the unmanned combat equipment system is becoming more and more complete, its capabilities are becoming more powerful, it can support diversified combat operations, and it has the development trend of being highly autonomous, intelligent, unmanned, and networked. Compared with manned combat platforms, unmanned combat platforms have many advantages such as ease of use, good adaptability, low requirements for combat environments, good concealment, and strong battlefield survivability. With their endurance, Characteristics such as high efficiency, operational flexibility, and unique combat application modes occupy a prominent position in modern warfare and have become an important means to seize information advantages, carry out precision strikes, and complete special combat missions. Intelligent unmanned combat systems overcome the inherent physiological and psychological limitations of humans. The physical space that humans themselves cannot enter will not be an obstacle to intelligent unmanned combat systems. It is foreseeable that future military operations without intelligent unmanned combat systems will become increasingly difficult to imagine. The extension of the boundaries of intelligent unmanned combat will induce new combat methods, from physical destruction in the physical domain to invisible destruction in the information domain, and then to cognitive domain intelligence battles, from cluster-type saturation coverage to extremely micro-type ant nest penetration, and so on. This not only requires the participation of intelligent unmanned combat systems, but also requires intelligent unmanned combat systems to be widely distributed in various spatial dimensions of the battlefield and gradually play a leading role. When an intelligent unmanned combat system carries out a sneak attack, the opponent will inevitably fall into a situation where it is impossible to prevent and passively deal with it.

Conquer cowardice with courage

“Husband fights with courage.” War is a contest between brave men. The brave ones win when they meet on a narrow road. From Achilles, who bravely championed the three armies in the Greco-Persian War, to Huo Qubing, who was granted the title of a wolf in the Han Dynasty of China, to those armies with strong combat effectiveness in modern times, most of them run their armies with courage and win with courage. Courage not only embodies the fighting style of disregarding death, but also reflects the fearless and high morale. It can overwhelm the opponent mentally and defeat the strong enemy willfully. It is said that “victory comes from gaining power, defeat comes from losing spirit.” Courage can control. Cowardice lies in a strong fighting style and the courage to risk one’s life to frighten the opponent. If a person is not afraid of death, his will will be strong, with an overwhelming momentum that can shock people, frighten people’s courage, destroy people’s will, and force opponents to give up in fear. Courage can control timidity, which lies in having a firm goal and daring to be the first. In order to achieve the goal, you can overcome all difficulties and obstacles, move forward courageously, do things that your opponents dare not do or think of, and achieve the effect of surprising the enemy. Courage to overcome cowardice lies in going all out, leaving no room for oneself or retreat, fully stimulating super combat potential, exerting extraordinary combat effectiveness, and greatly improving combat effectiveness. Different from the main purpose of traditional war, which is to eliminate the enemy’s physical strength, intelligent warfare will pay more attention to weakening the enemy’s morale, disintegrating the enemy’s will, and destroying the enemy’s cognition. In intelligent warfare, the struggle for the heart and mind will become more intense, and the party with the cognitive advantage will win over the other party and be more likely to take the initiative. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the offensive and defensive confrontation in the cognitive field, strengthen cognitive protection through the comprehensive use of multiple means, and at the same time interfere with, influence and control the thinking and cognition of enemy personnel, making their thinking confused, decision-making chaotic, and their will collapsed.



「明者因時而變,知者隨事而製」。 隨著戰爭對抗領域不斷拓展到更多“灰色地帶”,混合戰爭在物理域、資訊域、認知域、社會域中同時展開,不囿於單純某一領域和形式。 以混製純在於融合性,即綜合使用政治、經濟、外交、軍事、輿論等多領域力量,注重綜合運用軍事和非軍事手段、常規和非常規戰術,呈現出傳統戰與非傳統戰聚合發 力的顯著特性。 作戰效能講究實現疊加融合,以實現投入少見效快,用最低限度打擊就能實現政治意圖和軍事目的。 以混合純在於混沌性,即戰與和的界限將更加模糊,表現形式更加多樣,作戰樣式更加融合,往往難以判斷戰爭的具體發起時間,戰爭與和平在相同時間段內疊加呈現,戰與 非戰的狀態更加難以確認。 混合戰爭形態的混沌性,讓人難以及時預警戰爭、準備戰爭、應對戰爭。 以混制純在於迷惑性,即與傳統戰爭相比,混合戰爭的手法更加隱蔽,更多非軍事領域鬥爭、更多非軍事手段運用讓戰爭目標被分解到日常交流交往過程的方方面面,降低了 戰爭實施的敏感度,具有很強的迷惑性和可控制性。


「兵者,詭道也」。 戰爭是力量的比拼更是智力的競賽,《孫子兵法》「為將五德」中將智列為首德,充分說明古人早就意識到智在戰爭中的作用。 古今中外煌煌萬冊戰法,無不以啟智為目的。 智能勝拙,在於料事在先,掌握先機。 先機在作戰中可以掌握作戰主動,進行時空選擇,調動各種資源,為制勝創造優勢條件。 智能勝拙,在於洞悉全局,製造單向透明。 善於揭開戰爭迷霧,對戰局發展變化洞若觀火,為製勝選擇合理戰法。 智能勝拙,在於準確掌握重心,把握關鍵。 科學統籌資源,聚焦作戰重心,聚優關鍵節點,為致勝奠定實力基礎。 智能勝拙,在於敏銳捕捉戰機,出奇制勝。 抓住有利條件,不失敵之敗,實施出其不意的非對稱作戰,用最低成本獲取最大價值實現克敵制勝。 智能勝拙,在於正確發揮人的主觀能動性。 在戰爭制勝問題上人仍然是決定性因素。 無論時代如何發展,戰爭形態如何演變,這一條永遠不會變。 未來智慧化戰爭中智力優勢對戰鬥力的貢獻率遠高於其他要素,人的智慧廣泛滲透到作戰領域、轉化到武器系統,全局多維、各種類型的智慧化作戰平台能夠快速耦合作戰力量,根據任務 需求建立作戰體系,自主實施協同作戰,「智勝」機理將會更加凸顯。


「科技是核心戰鬥力」。 科技改變戰爭面貌,同樣科技也影響戰爭勝負。 人類戰爭發展史表明,軍隊始終是時代科技的集合體,誰奪取了科技優勢,出其不意地首先使用某一新型武器裝備或某一新型作戰力量,誰就易獲得作戰上的顯著優勢,也就佔據 了作戰勝勢。 具有跨代裝備優勢,是無數將帥夢寐以求的作戰條件,能夠實現以高制低的壓製作戰。 高能製低,在於裝備性能的跨代碾壓。 新型武器裝備在資訊取得、機動性能、打擊距離、火力當量和防護能力上都比老舊裝備先進,具備老舊裝備不具有的作戰性能。 在新舊裝備對抗中新型裝備就能發揮高技術性能優勢,實現對舊裝備性能的全方位碾壓。 高能製低,在於新興技術往往引發戰場激變,使作戰方式呈現出螺旋式上升,戰鬥力呈躍遷式增長,其作戰效果就如熱兵器對冷兵器、信息化對機械化的形態式碾壓,從而實現 新作戰方式對舊方式的碾壓。 新興技術一旦成熟並被引入戰爭,往往能引發戰爭形態的改變。 高能製低,在於顛覆性技術的不可預期,進而導致的技術偷襲。 顛覆性技術能站在技術高位,針對對手裝備的薄弱環節,實施矛盾相剋的專項碾壓。 由於顛覆性技術本身存在的高度蓋然性,極易產生技術偷襲效果,在對方毫無察覺和無法防備的情況下,實現一擊致命。 未來智慧化戰爭中善用新質新域作戰力量將成為影響戰爭勝負的重要一環。


「天下武功,唯快不破」。 戰爭史表明,速度是衡量軍隊作戰能力和武器裝備表現的關鍵指標,也是撬動勝利之門的重要支點,以快製慢被認為是製勝通則。 戰爭存在於時空,必受時空影響,因此,時間也會成為武器,「時間就是軍隊」。 從古至今,時間往往是重要的作戰運籌對象。 隨著資訊化時代的到來,時間升值,以快製慢的特效更加明顯。 快能製慢,在於“先”,可以先敵發現,先敵攻擊。 “先下手為強,後下手遭殃”,通過掌握先手,下先手棋,來壓制和擾亂對方行動,使其只能疲於應對,被動挨打。 快能製慢,在於“奇”,可達出其不意攻其不備的效果。 透過快速判斷、快速決策、快速機動,極大壓縮對手反應時間,使對手跟不上、判不準、打不了,防不勝防、處處被動。 快能製慢,在於“敏”,可敏捷行動,即時聚優。 透過敏捷響應、敏捷部署、敏捷機動、敏捷聚合實現即時聚優,使敵打無可打、防無可防。 在資訊時代就有人提出“過去的戰爭哲學是大吃小,現在的戰爭哲學是快吃慢”,而智能化戰爭中的時間異值現象更加顯著,高超聲速武器、激光武器、微波武器、 電磁脈沖武器等新型快速殺傷武器進一步將戰爭節奏推向“秒殺”,使“發現即摧毀”成為可能。 所以,爭奪時間優勢,提高反應速度是智慧化戰爭制勝的關鍵。


「雙拳難敵四手,惡虎還怕群狼」。 故而以多打少,以群制孤,被歷來兵家奉為圭臬。 群能製孤,在於“疊加效應”,通過利用大規模力量在空間包圍、分割,在數量上以多打少,以數量優勢形成力量優勢,借助實施超飽和打擊,持續不斷輸出最強打擊力, 以實現作戰效能累積。 群能製孤,在於“聚合效應”,通過籌組察打一體的集群作戰體系,通過多域聯動,強化信息賦能、網絡聚能、體系增能等方式來提升戰鬥力,實現1+1> 2的作戰效能聚合。 群能製孤,在於“抗損效應”,集群內部同類個體數量眾多,又是去中心化編組配置,整體作戰群不會因單個個體或少數幾個個體出現損傷而影響全局功能,能夠保持長 時間持續作戰能力。 群能製孤,在於“智變效應”,未來智能化戰爭中群化武器將是以智能化無人控制技術和網絡信息系統為支撐的集群式作戰武器,具備網絡化、智能化和分佈式作戰 能力,可自主協調行動並完成相應作戰任務,代表未來戰爭無人作戰和智能化作戰的發展趨勢。 未來智慧化戰爭中各作戰群隊基於「智慧+數據」的驅動作用,圍繞作戰目標自主進行線上任務規劃,靈活調動作戰的「物質+能量」自由聚散。


「無人化是趨勢,也是未來」。 無人化作戰系統是無人化作戰的基本力量,與有人作戰系統相比,在作戰能力、作戰方式等方面擁有「非對稱」的先天優勢。 以無制有,在於無人化作戰裝備體係日趨完備,能力越發強大,能夠支持展開多樣化作戰行動,具備高度自主化、智能化、無人化、網絡化的發展趨勢。 以無制有,在於與載人作戰平台相比,無人作戰平台具有使用簡便、適應性好、對作戰環境要求低、隱蔽性好、戰場生存能力較強等諸多優點,以其持久力、高效 性、作戰靈活等特點以及獨特的作戰應用模式佔據了現代戰爭的突出地位,成為奪取資訊優勢、實施精確打擊、完成特殊作戰任務的重要手段。 智慧無人化作戰系統克服了人類固有的生理、心理限制,人類本身無法涉足的物理空間,對於智慧無人化作戰系統來說將不存在障礙。 可以預見,未來離開智慧無人化作戰系統的軍事行動將越來越難以想像,智慧無人化作戰的邊界延展,將誘發新的作戰方式,從物理域實體摧毀,到資訊域無形破壞,再到認知 域智力搏殺,從集群式飽和覆蓋到極微式蟻穴滲透等等。 這不僅需要智慧無人化作戰系統的參與,也需要智慧無人化作戰系統廣泛分佈於戰場各個空間維度,逐步發揮主導作用。 當智慧無人化作戰系統實施偷襲時,對方必然陷入防不勝防、被動應付的局面。


「夫戰,勇氣也」。 戰爭是勇者的較量,狹路相逢勇者勝。 從希波戰爭中勇冠三軍的阿基里斯、中國漢代封狼居胥的霍去病,到近現代那些擁有強大戰鬥力的軍隊,大多以勇治軍、以勇制勝。 勇,既體現出視死如歸的戰鬥作風,又體現出無所畏懼的高昂士氣,能在精神上壓倒對手,意誌上打垮強敵,即謂「勝在得威,敗在失氣。」勇能製怯 ,在於強悍的戰鬥作風,敢以命相搏震撼對手。 人不畏死,其勢必盛,具有能壓倒一切的氣勢,震人心魄、懾人膽氣、毀人意志,迫使對手驚恐放棄。 勇能製怯,在於目標堅定,敢為人先。 為達成目標,能克服一切艱難險阻,勇往直前,做對手不敢做不敢想之事,達成出敵不意之功效。 勇能製怯,在於全力以赴,不給自己留餘量、留退路,充分激發出超強作戰潛能,發揮出超常作戰效能,極大提升戰鬥力。 與傳統戰爭中以消滅敵人有生力量為主要目的不同,智慧化戰爭將更著重於削弱敵方的士氣,瓦解敵方的意志,摧毀敵方的認知。 在智慧化戰爭中,圍繞著攻心奪誌所展開的鬥爭博弈將更加激烈,而佔據認知優勢的一方將比對方先勝一籌,更加容易掌握主動。 因此,必須強化認知領域攻防對抗,透過綜合運用多種手段,強化認知防護,同時對敵方人員的思維認知等進行幹擾、影響與控制,使其思維迷惘、決策混亂、意志崩壞。

來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:柴山 許炎 責任編輯:郭妍菲
2022-09-08 07:02


Chinese Military Strategic Aims Focusing on the Cognitive Advantage Which is Becoming the Winning Advantage in High-End Warfare

中國軍事戰略目標聚焦認知優勢 正成為高階戰爭制勝優勢


Cognition is the process by which people obtain, process and apply information and knowledge. At present, the cognitive domain has gradually become a new battlefield for competition, and cognitive warfare has gradually attracted attention from all countries. With the development of the technological revolution and the expansion of warfare practice, cognitive warfare is showing an accelerated evolution trend.

Cognitive technology is becoming a fundamental driving force in the evolution of warfare. Technology changes the form of warfare and also changes the way of cognitive warfare. If the large-scale popularization of information networks has promoted the information domain to become a combat domain, and the exponential growth of data and network scale is a sign of the maturity of the information domain, then the large-scale application of cognitive technology and the continuous iterative development of cognitive technology will become A sign of maturity in driving cognitive warfare. In the future, technologies such as cognitive environment, cognitive perception, cognitive control, and artificial intelligence will reflect the transformative impact that cognitive technology may have on social cognitive confrontation and military cognitive confrontation. Humanity is entering the era of universal communication, and global cyberspace is becoming highly interconnected. The Internet has become a battle space for all-round competition between state actors and non-state actors. Communication disputes and communication wars have become part of the level of high-intensity military operations. At present, major countries in the world are deploying at the forefront of cognitive technology and launching cognitive technology competitions. Through modeling and analysis, they seek to penetrate and control human brain networks, information networks and social networks; through deep calculations, actuarial calculations, clever calculations, etc., they aim to maximize Gain control over people’s cognitive world and cognitive domains.

The cognitive domain is becoming an important battlefield in hybrid warfare. In the era of intelligence, the way humans communicate is undergoing complex and profound changes. Offline communication has given way to more online communication, various new media platforms have become the main channels for the public to understand the battlefield, and large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for cognitive game struggles. Therefore, the combat domain of future wars will continue to expand. The spatial domain will expand from land, sea, air, and space networks to deep space, deep sea, and deep ground, while the logical domain will expand from the physical domain to the information domain and cognitive domain. War is no longer limited to the physical threats of traditional wars, but is turning to social consciousness threats brought about by mass media and technological progress. Blockade and counter-blockade, dominance and counter-dominance around communication platforms will become the focus of cognitive warfare. Using information as ammunition to fight for control of international discourse has become the main method of cognitive confrontation today. From the perspective of hybrid warfare, ideological propaganda and indoctrination, penetration of values ​​and culture, traditional public opinion psychology and legal offense and defense, and information network warfare have all become important aspects of cognitive warfare. Hybrid warfare can achieve the goal of winning in small battles or even without fighting through comprehensive gaming methods such as cognitive warfare. Attack and defense in the cognitive field will be an uninterrupted and normalized struggle, and combat effectiveness will continue to accumulate and be gradually released. .

Cognitive superiority is becoming a winning advantage in high-end warfare. Freedom of conduct in war is the lifeblood of the military. From a cognitive perspective, the deeper the understanding of the battlefield environment and combat opponents, the greater the freedom of action and the greater the relative advantage. However, with the exponential growth of combat data in wars, commanders have begun to face the cognitive dilemma of data swamp, data fog, and data overload. Having information advantage does not mean having cognitive advantage. An important military application direction of artificial intelligence technology is to process massive data in real time to help commanders get rid of cognitive overload and quickly form cognitive advantages. In intelligent warfare, cognitive advantages will dominate decision-making advantages, and decision-making advantages will dominate action advantages. Cognitive advantages have four key indicators: stronger information acquisition capabilities, faster artificial intelligence machine learning speed, more effective emergency handling capabilities, and higher capabilities to develop and apply new technologies and new knowledge. For example, public opinion warfare with new characteristics of data-driven intelligent communication and traditional military operations have been highly coordinated and integrated. This combat style that integrates virtual and real operations has stronger combat effectiveness than pure military operations, fundamentally changing traditional combat methods. Change. The linkage and superposition of cognitive advantages will accelerate the transformation of combat effectiveness and become the fundamental advantage for winning wars.

Cognitive theory is becoming the frontier of gaming to win the war. Cognitive warfare is a combination of soft power and hard power and is an important factor affecting national security in today’s era. At present, the competition for penetration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control of cognitive space is fierce. Cognitive science theory is entering the military field, and concepts such as cognitive load, cognitive enhancement, cognitive immunity, and cognitive subversion are being introduced. , has appeared frequently in the field of cognitive warfare research abroad. Foreign militaries believe that the cognitive domain is the “sixth combat domain” of human warfare, the core of the “intertwined conflict fields” in the era of great power competition, and an important direction for future military theoretical innovation. Obviously, cognitive warfare has become the strategic commanding heights for winning future wars. Cognitive theory has become the frontier of theoretical innovation. Cognitive technology will accelerate cognitive warfare and become an important “tipping point” for the intelligent military revolution. As new technologies, new theories, and new styles of cognitive warfare are being incubated at an accelerated pace, perhaps future warfare will take on a surprising new situation.


認知是人們獲得、加工及應用資訊和知識的過程。 當前,認知域逐漸成為角逐的新戰場,認知戰也逐漸受到各國重視。 隨著科技革命的發展和戰爭實踐的拓展,認知戰正呈現加速演變趨勢。

認知科技正成為戰爭演進的基本動力。 科技改變戰爭形態,也改變認知戰方式。 如果資訊網路的大規模普及,推動了資訊域成為作戰域,資料和網路規模的指數級增長是資訊域成熟的標誌,那麼認知科技的大規模應用,認知技術不斷迭代發展,將成為 推動認知戰成熟的標誌。 未來認知環境、認知感知、認知控制、人工智慧等方面技術,將折射出認知技術對社會認知對抗、軍事認知對抗可能產生的變革性影響。 人類正進入全民傳播時代,全球網路空間正納入高度連動,網路已成為國家行為體和非國家行為體全面博弈的作戰空間,傳播之爭和傳播之戰已成為高烈度軍事行動層面的一部分。 當前世界主要國家紛紛佈局認知技術前沿,開展認知技術競賽,透過建模和分析,謀求滲透控制人腦網絡、資訊網絡和社會網絡;透過深算、精算、妙算等,旨在最大限度 把握人們的認知世界和認知域的控制權。

認知領域正成為混合戰爭的重要戰場。 智慧時代,人類溝通方式正發生複雜深刻變化。 離線交流更多讓位於線上交流,各種新媒體平台成為大眾了解戰場的主要管道,大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地。 因此,未來戰爭的作戰域將不斷拓展,空間域從陸海空天網向深空、深海、深地拓展,而邏輯域則從物理域向資訊域、認知域拓展。 戰爭不再侷限於傳統戰爭的實體威脅,而是轉向大眾媒體、科技進步所帶來的社會意識威脅。 圍繞傳播平台的封鎖與反封鎖、主導與反主導將成為認知戰爭奪的焦點,以資訊為彈藥進行國際話語控制權爭奪成為當今認知對抗的主要方式。 在混合戰爭視角下,意識形態宣傳與灌輸、價值觀與文化的滲透、傳統的輿論心理與法律攻防與資訊網絡戰等,都成為認知戰的重要面向。 混合戰爭可透過認知戰等綜合賽局手段,實現小戰甚至不戰而勝的目的,而認知領域攻防將是一場不間斷的、常態化的鬥爭,作戰效能也將持續累積、逐步釋放 。

認知優勢正成為高端戰爭的勝利優勢。 戰爭行動自由是軍隊的命脈。 從認知維度來看,對戰場環境、作戰對手認知越深,行動越自由,相對優勢就越大。 但隨著戰爭中作戰資料指數級成長,指揮人員開始面臨資料沼澤、資料迷霧、資料過載的認知困境,擁有資訊優勢並不等於擁有認知優勢。 人工智慧技術的一個重要軍事應用方向,就是即時處理大量數據,幫助指揮人員擺脫認知過載,快速形成認知優勢。 在智慧化戰爭中,認知優勢將主導決策優勢,決策優勢主導行動優勢。 認知優勢有4個關鍵指標:更強的資訊取得能力、更快的人工智慧機器學習速度、更有效的突發事件處理能力和更高的開發應用新技術新知識的能力。 例如,以數據驅動的智慧傳播為新特徵的輿論戰與傳統軍事行動已經高度協同與融合,這種虛實一體的作戰樣式具備了比單純軍事行動更強的作戰效能,使傳統作戰方式發生根本性 改變。 認知優勢的連動與疊加,將加速推進作戰效能轉化,成為戰爭制勝的根本優勢。

認知理論正成為打贏戰爭的博弈前線。 認知戰是軟實力和硬實力的結合,也是當今時代影響國家安全的重要因素。 目前,認知空間的滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制的爭奪激烈,認知科學理論正進入軍事領域,認知負荷、認知增強、認知免疫、認知顛覆等概念 ,已高頻度出現於國外認知戰研究領域。 外軍認為,認知域是人類戰爭的“第六作戰域”,是大國競爭時代“交織的衝突領域”中的核心,是未來軍事理論創新的重要方向。 顯然,認知戰已成為贏得未來戰爭的戰略制高點,認知理論已成為理論創新前沿領域,認知科技將加速推進認知戰成為智慧化軍事革命的重要「引爆點」。 由於認知戰的新技術、新理論、新樣式正處於加速孵化之中,也許未來戰爭將會呈現出令人驚詬的全新景況。




作者李明海 单位:国防大学国家安全学院战争与危机应对训练中心

Chinese Military’s Consideration of How to Win Intelligent Warfare – Dominance in Cognitive Confrontation



The evolution of war patterns always goes hand in hand with the industrial revolution. In recent years, the wave of intelligence has surged and has been widely and deeply applied in the military field, ushering in intelligent warfare for human society. Intelligent warfare is rooted in the intelligent society, with “human-machine intelligence fusion” as its main feature. The empowerment of intelligence makes the role of cognition in combat more prominent, and cognitive-led victory will become an important mechanism for winning wars.

  The history of the development of war naturally pushes cognition to the dominant position

  War in the information age occurs simultaneously between the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. It should be pointed out that the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain are not the exclusive domain of war in the information age. All wars and even all history are derived from the joint action of the three. They have come and gone in the long history of war, and have alternately become the dominant force in winning battles. elements.

  (1) Energy dominates playing speed and strength. When the form of war changes, the mobility, lethality and protective power in the physical domain increase, often becoming the key to victory in combat. This is true for iron weapons and war horses in cold weapon warfare, muskets and artillery in hot weapon warfare, and ships, tanks, and aircraft in mechanized warfare. To sum up, it is energy dominance. Energy dominates the game with speed and strength. Whoever has a better, faster, and stronger main battle platform is often more likely to win. However, the effectiveness of weapons cannot be infinitely developed. Nowadays, platform mobility has been limited by human physiological limits and has encountered a bottleneck. Nuclear weapons also tell us that regardless of whether there is an upper limit to the development of firepower, its use will be strictly limited.

  (2) Information takes the lead to achieve accuracy and integrity. The information domain focuses on the transmission and sharing of information. The development of information warfare has caused the confrontation between the two combatants to “gradually change from a problem of intensity, material and energy to a problem of structure, organization, information and control.” Information replaces energy and becomes the key to victory in combat. Information dominance means focusing on precision and overall control. Whoever’s weapon platform has higher strike accuracy and whose combat system has stronger information sharing capabilities will be more likely to win. However, the relationship between information advantage and decision-making advantage is not linear. As the amount of information continues to increase, the formation of decision-making advantage must also resort to intellectual support in the cognitive domain.

  (3) Cognition-led development of intelligence and design. The cognitive domain includes perception, judgment and decision-making, etc., and has been a must for military strategists since ancient times. Ancient military classics such as “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” contain rich ideas of wisdom and victory such as “predicting victory first” and “attacking with troops through strategy”. In the history of war, there are countless examples of winning by relying on strategy. Cognition leads the development of intelligence and design. Especially when the form of war matures, confrontation between evenly matched opponents will always be dominated by cognition. If we look at the development level of energy and information in the past, there are still great constraints on commanders’ planning and design of operations. So today’s great development of the two provides conditions for them to effectively achieve their intentions. Being able to do it as soon as you think of it is naturally shifting the dominant factor in winning battles to cognition. The side with higher intelligence and stronger design capabilities can often dominate the development of the battle situation.

  Intelligence will give cognitive dominance a special era connotation

  Intelligence is not about letting machine intelligence surpass, replace or eliminate humans, but rather using it to assist, liberate and enhance humans, and achieve human self-transcendence through the integration of human-machine intelligence. It enables humans, who have been using cognition to transform the world and change wars for thousands of years, for the first time to have the ability to transform cognition itself. This transformation is no longer the accumulation of knowledge, but a leap in ability; it is no longer the patent of a few elites. Rather, it is a characteristic of society as a whole. When it widely penetrates into the combat field, the form of war will enter the intelligent war, and cognitive dominance will take on a new connotation.

  (1) Expansion of cognitive space. In today’s era, human factors and weapon factors are becoming more and more closely integrated. The most typical examples are drones and intelligence. “Intelligence” mainly refers to autonomous systems, that is, simulating and materializing human intelligence and transplanting it into machines. Machine intelligence empowerment will allow autonomous systems to easily break through human physiological limits, enter environments that humans cannot bear at a speed beyond human reach, and rely on a certain amount of “on-site intelligence” to complete tasks that humans are unable or unwilling to complete. It may not really improve people’s cognition, but it will definitely extend people’s cognition in space and expand the combat space to extreme areas such as deep space, deep sea, and deep earth.

  (2) Improvement of cognitive efficiency. There are countless examples of cognitive victory, but there are only two reasons for this. Either rely on perceptual cognition, that is, intelligence. In the age of information scarcity, the level of decision-making is positively correlated with the amount of information. From small to large amounts of information, the quality of decision-making improves almost linearly. It is said that “if you know your enemy and yourself, victory is not in danger; if you know the sky and the earth, victory is endless.” Either rely on rational cognition, that is, judgment and strategy. Clausewitz said: “Three-quarters of the situations on which actions are based in war seem to be hidden in the clouds and are more or less unreal.” Excellent commanders can always reveal ” The information behind “The Mist” is what is said to be “what everyone knows, it has already been written; what I see, it has not yet been formed.” But when information moves from scarcity to overload or even “explosion”, the function curve between decision quality and information quantity begins to decline, making it increasingly difficult to use complex information to form accurate judgments. At this time, intelligence seems to be coming as planned. Computational intelligence may not surpass humans in terms of logical capabilities, but its powerful processing speed can solve the decision-making dilemma caused by information overload.

  (3) Cognitive interconnection and sharing. Combat is a violent confrontation between armed groups. Regardless of decision-making or actions, timely and effective communication between combatants is required. The advantage of information dominance is information sharing. However, due to the subjectivity of cognition, people often have different understandings of information, or even completely different opinions. The same information does not mean that the same information works in the same direction. With the development of machine intelligence, brain-computer interface and other technologies, their “silicon brains” will rely on the linkability that is significantly better than that of the human brain to promote the evolution of the network form from the Internet of Things to the Internet of Brains, and combat interaction will subsequently be based on information sharing. Moving towards situation sharing and decision-making sharing, the combat system will truly be realized and exerted.

  Cognitive dominance will be widely used in intelligent warfare

  Winning by instant advantage means “having the comprehensive capabilities and favorable situation to defeat the opponent at the moment when force is launched against the enemy, at the decisive point of the war.” It is the fundamental winning mechanism of war. The dominant factor in seizing and maintaining immediate advantages varies with changes in war forms. In intelligent warfare, cognition dominates.

  (1) Relying on the advantage of cognitive control of time to predict and strike preemptively to a new level. Time is the only irreducible factor in combat, and preemption is the eternal winning mechanism. Intelligent warfare will increasingly seize control of time advantage. First, you must first sense the enemy. In 2017, the US military proposed the concept of “algorithmic warfare”, which is to use intelligent analysis technology to quickly extract high-value intelligence from massive amounts of data. The popularization of intelligence in the future will push forward the intelligent perception of intelligence to ensure that enemies are discovered from the source. Secondly, we must make decisions before the enemy. The hybrid intelligence of human-machine integration and the network intelligence of up-down linkage will help realize distributed synchronized combat planning, and all levels within the organization can realize the integrated generation of combat plans. The third is to act before the enemy. The troops can prepare for combat in advance according to the specific process of joint decision-making. Once the combat plan is generated, they can immediately switch to combat.

  (2) Relying on cognition to create military superiority, unmanned swarms and group operations will become typical new tactics. Victory with more and less is the embodiment of “victory with instant advantage” in the use of combat forces. In intelligent warfare, victory with more and less is mainly the use of cognitive materialization, that is, machine intelligence, to shape military superiority and implement unmanned swarm or group operations. . First of all, the development of intelligent and additive manufacturing technologies has enabled autonomous systems to achieve cost savings and gain an absolute advantage over the enemy in terms of the number of platforms with the same investment. Secondly, when autonomous systems enter the battlefield, no matter how brave or tenacious they are, even the best soldiers cannot match them. Unmanned or manned-unmanned coordinated swarm operations will be both violent, saturated, and economical. In addition, the unmanned group combat formed by the combination of machine intelligence and bionics will demonstrate powerful systematic combat capabilities through self-learning, self-collaboration, self-healing and even self-evolution capabilities.

  (3) Relying on cognition to expand spatial advantages, cross-domain efficiency enhancement and global integration will reach a new level. Intelligence will not only create a new combat space, but also expand the breadth and depth of joint operations. Autonomous systems with certain cognitive capabilities can secretly maneuver to deep space and deep sea space near key targets or important passages to conduct infiltration and latent operations, forming a new cross-domain check and balance advantage against the enemy. “The defenders’ towers are silent and their traces are gone. They are more mysterious than ghosts and gods. They are underground and cannot be seen. The attackers are fast and fierce, as fast as thunder and lightning. They are in the sky and cannot be caught and prepared.” It can form a new asymmetry to the enemy. Advantage. Use intelligent sensing to form a more accurate understanding of the combat environment, use intelligent decision-making to implement a more reasonable allocation of combat resources, use intelligent networks to provide more flexible access to combat platforms, and achieve flexible deployment of combat forces, full-domain linkage, and efficient energy release.

  (4) Aiming at the enemy’s cognition, attacking the mind and controlling the brain, control replaces destruction as a new way to win. Compared with the traditional “conquering the enemy without fighting”, intelligent warfare has greatly expanded its ability to attack the mind and control the brain. The former puts more emphasis on “win on the road” and focuses on deterring opponents; the latter focuses more on influencing and controlling opponents. In December 2017, Russia’s base in Syria was attacked by a “swarm” of 13 small drones. Russia controlled 6 of them using electronic warfare means, which was the prototype of mind control. One is to fabricate information to influence. In the future, real-life audio and video synthesis, pervasive network attacks, and immersive virtual reality will provide more effective means to influence the opponent’s cognition. The second is to tamper with the program to influence. Such as using “core attack warfare” to tamper with the algorithm of the enemy’s command and decision-making system. The third is to directly control the enemy’s decision-making. Use cyber warfare, electromagnetic warfare and other methods to control the enemy’s “brain” attacks to achieve the goal of stopping and winning the war at the minimum cost.


戰爭形態嬗變總是與產業革命相伴相生。 近年來,智慧化浪潮洶湧而來,並在軍事領域廣泛深入應用,使人類社會迎來智慧化戰爭。 智能化戰爭根植於智慧社會,以「人機智能融合」為主要特徵,智能的賦能使認知在作戰中的地位更加凸顯,認知主導制勝將成為戰爭制勝的重要機制。


  資訊時代戰爭同時發生在物理域、資訊域和認知域之間。 需要指出,物理域、資訊域和認知域都不是資訊時代戰爭的專屬領域,一切戰爭甚至一切歷史,都源自於三者的共同作用,它們在戰爭歷史長河中此起彼伏,交替成為作戰制勝的主導 要素。

  (一)能量主導打速度、打力量。 當戰爭形態發生嬗變,物理域的機動性、殺傷力和防護力的躍升,經常成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 冷兵器戰爭的鐵器、戰馬,熱兵器戰爭的火槍、火砲,機械化戰爭的船、坦克、飛機都是如此,概括起來就是能量主導。 能量主導打速度、打力量,誰的主戰平台更好、更快、更強,往往誰就更容易取勝。 但武器效能不能無限發展,如今平台機動力已經囿於人的生理極限而遭遇瓶頸;核武又告訴我們,不管火力發展有無上限,使用必將嚴格受限。

  (二)資訊主導打精度、打整體。 資訊域重點在於資訊的傳輸和共享。 資訊化戰爭的發展,使作戰雙方的對抗“逐漸從強度、物質和能量問題轉變為結構、組織、資訊和控制問題”,資訊取代能量成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 資訊主導就是打精度、打整體,誰的武器平台打擊精度更高,誰的作戰體系資訊共享能力更強,誰就更容易取勝。 但資訊優勢到決策優勢的關聯也並非線性,隨著資訊量的持續提升,決策優勢的形成還要訴諸認知域的智力支撐。

  (三)認知主導打智能、打設計。 認知域包括感知、判斷和決策等,自古以來便為兵家之所必爭。 《孫子兵法》等古代兵經有「廟算先勝」「上兵伐謀」等豐富的智勝思想,戰爭史上依靠謀略取勝的戰例更是不勝枚舉。 認知主導打智能、打設計。 尤其是當戰爭形態趨於成熟,勢均力敵的對手之間的對抗,總是會以認知為主導。 如果說過去能量和資訊的發展水平,對指揮官籌劃設計作戰還有很大限制。 那麼今天兩者的極大發展,則為他們有效達成意圖提供了條件。 想到即能做到,正在使作戰制勝的主導要素自然地向認知轉移,智能水平更高、設計能力更強的一方,往往就能主導戰局發展。


  智能化不是要讓機器智能超越、取代或淘汰人,而是用它輔助、解放和增強人,透過人機智能融合,實現人的自我超越。 它使千百年來一直利用認知改造世界、改變戰爭的人類,首次有能力改造認知本身,這種改造不再是知識的積累,而是能力的躍升;不再是少數精英的專利, 而是整個社會的特徵。 當它廣泛滲透到作戰領域,戰爭形態便跨入智能化戰爭,認知主導也有了新的內涵。

  (一)認知空間拓展。 在當今時代,人的因素、武器因素結合得越來越緊密。 最典型的例子就是無人機、智慧化。 「智能化」主要指自主系統,即模擬、物化人的智能,並移植到機器中。 機器智能賦能將使自主系統輕鬆突破人的生理極限,以人類無法企及的速度,進入人類無法承受的環境,並憑藉一定的“現場智能”,完成人類不能或不願完成的任務。 它未必能真正提升人的認知,但卻一定會在空間上延伸人的認知,使作戰空間向深空、深海、深地等極限領域拓展。

  (二)認知效率提升。 認知制勝的戰例不可勝數,但個中原因不外有二。 要么靠感性認知,即情報。 資訊匱乏年代,決策水準與資訊量成正相關,資訊量由小到大,決策品質幾乎線性提升,所謂「知彼知己,勝乃不殆;知天知地,勝乃不窮」。 要麼靠理性認知,即判斷和謀略。 克勞塞維茲說:「戰爭中行動所依據的情況有3/4好像隱藏在雲霧裡一樣,是或多或少不真實的。」優秀指揮官總是能夠憑藉經驗和推理,揭示出「 迷霧」背後的訊息,所謂「眾人所知,已成已著也;我之所見,未形未萌也」。 但當資訊從匱乏走向過載甚至“爆炸”,決策品質與資訊量間的函數曲線也開始下滑,利用繁雜資訊形成準確判斷變得難上加難。 此時,智能化似乎如約而至,計算智能未必可在邏輯能力上逾越人類,但其強大的處理速度,卻恰好使資訊過載帶來的決策困境迎刃而解。

  (三)認知互連共享。 作戰是武裝團體間的暴力對抗,無論決策或行動,都需要作戰人員之間進行及時有效地交流。 資訊主導的優點是資訊分享,但由於認知的主觀性,人們對資訊的理解往往見仁見智,甚至大相逕庭,相同資訊並不意義相向而行。 隨著機器智慧、腦機介面等技術的發展,它們的「矽腦」將憑藉明顯優於人腦的可連結性,推動網路形態由物聯網向腦聯網演進,作戰互動將隨之由資訊共享 邁向態勢共享、決策共享,作戰體系將真正實現並向發力。


  即時優勢制勝,就是“在向敵發力的那一時刻,在戰爭決定點的對抗,具有能戰勝對方的綜合能力和有利態勢”,它是戰爭的根本製勝機理。 奪取和維持即時優勢的主導要素因戰爭形態變化而不同,在智慧化戰爭中是認知主導。

  (一)依靠認知奪控時間優勢,先知先決、先發制人達到新境界。 時間是唯一不可還原的作戰要素,先發制人是亙古不變的致勝機理,智慧化戰爭對時間優勢的奪控將更趨激烈。 首先要先敵感知。 2017年美軍提出「演算法戰」概念,就是要利用智慧分析技術,從海量資料中快速擷取高價值情報。 而未來智能的普及,將前推情報的智能感知,從源頭確保先敵發現。 其次要先敵決策。 人機融合的混合智能,上下連動的網路智能,將協助實現分散式的作戰同步籌劃,編成內各層級可實現作戰方案一體生成。 第三要先敵行動。 部隊可依連動決策的具體進程,緊前展開作戰準備,一旦作戰方案生成,可立即轉入作戰。

  (二)依靠認知塑造兵力優勢,無人集群、族群作戰將成為典型新戰法。 以多勝少是「即時優勢制勝」在作戰力量運用上的具體化,智能化戰爭的以多勝少,主要是利用認知物化,即機器智能,塑造兵力優勢,實施無人集群或族群作戰 。 首先,智慧和積層製造技術的發展,使自主系統實現成本跳水,可在同等投入獲取平台數量的對敵絕對優勢。 其次,自主系統走上戰場,無論勇敢或堅韌,即使最優秀的士兵也無法比肩,無人或有人—無人協同集群作戰將兼具猛烈性、飽和性和經濟性。 此外,機器智能與仿生學結合形成的無人族群作戰,將透過自我學習、自我協同、自我療癒甚至自我進化能力,展現強大的體系化作戰能力。

  (三)依賴認知拓展空間優勢,跨域增效、全域融合將升至新境界。 智慧化不僅會催生新的作戰空間,同時帶來聯合作戰在廣度和深度上的拓展。 具備一定認知能力的自主系統,可秘密機動至重點目標或重要通道附近的深空、深海空間,實施滲透潛伏作戰,對敵形成新的跨域制衡優勢。 「守者韜聲滅跡,幽比鬼神,在於地下,不可得而見之;攻者,勢迅聲烈,疾若雷電,如來天上,不可得而備也”,可對敵人形成新的非對稱 優勢。 利用智慧感知對作戰環境形成更精準認知,利用智慧決策對作戰資源實施更合理調配,利用智慧網路為作戰平台提供更靈活接入,實現作戰力量彈性部署、全域連動、高效釋能。

  (四)瞄準敵方認知攻心控腦,控制取代摧毀成為制勝新途徑。 較之傳統的“不戰而屈人之兵”,智能化戰爭的攻心控腦大有拓展。 前者更強調“道勝”,重視嚇阻對手;後者更多的是影響和控制對手。 2017年12月,俄羅斯駐敘利亞基地遭受13架小型無人機「蜂群」攻擊,俄以電子戰手段控制其中6架,即為攻心控腦之雛形。 一是虛造訊息來影響。 未來,以假亂真的聲像合成,無孔不入的網路攻擊,身臨其境的虛擬現實,將為影響對手認知提供更多有效手段。 二是篡改程序來影響。 如利用「攻芯戰」來篡改敵方指揮決策系統的演算法。 三是直接控制敵方決策。 利用網路戰、電磁戰等方式對敵實施控「腦」攻擊,以最小代價實現止戰、勝戰之目的。

2019年12月24日 11:00:48 資料來源: 解放軍報 作者:董治強

China’s Military and Insight into the Evolution of Winning Mechanisms of Intelligent Warfare



Military theorists often say that victory tends to smile on those who can foresee changes in the character of warfare, rather than on those who wait for changes to occur and then adapt. In recent years, disruptive technologies represented by artificial intelligence have developed rapidly and are widely used in the military field, accelerating the evolution of war into intelligence. Correspondingly, the concept of war is also changing. Only by discovering changes in time, proactively responding to changes, and actively adapting to changes can we remain invincible in future wars.

From “using the strong to defeat the weak” to “using wisdom to control the weak”

“The strong wins and the weak loses” is a certain universal law for winning wars. Even in those battles in which the weak defeat the strong, it is often necessary to form a strength advantage over the enemy locally and at a specific period of time in order to truly win. In the era of intelligent warfare, the contribution rate of intelligence superiority to combat effectiveness is much higher than other factors.

In intelligent warfare, human intelligence has widely penetrated into the combat field and been transplanted into weapon systems. All-domain, multi-dimensional, and various types of intelligent combat platforms can quickly couple combat forces, build combat systems based on mission requirements, and independently implement collaborative operations and missions. After the end, it quickly returns to the state of waiting for war, showing the trend of intelligent autonomy. The side with higher and stronger intelligence can better develop and use the “wisdom to control” mechanism, and even design wars based on this, dominate the development of the war situation, and achieve final victory. It should also be noted that in the era of intelligent warfare, there are likely to be multiple stages of development from low to high. Try to keep yourself in an advanced stage and attack the opponent to a low-dimensional stage. This is also the mechanism of “outsmarting” by using high to defeat low. Use.

From “destroying power” to “destroying cognition”

As the form of war accelerates and evolves towards intelligence, the combat space gradually expands from the physical domain and information domain to the cognitive domain, extending from the tangible battlefield to the invisible battlefield. The cognitive space composed of human spirit and psychological activities has become a new combat space. Different from the main purpose of traditional war, which is to eliminate the enemy’s physical strength, intelligent warfare will pay more attention to weakening the enemy’s morale, disintegrating the enemy’s will, and destroying the enemy’s cognition.

By intelligently analyzing the opponent’s personality preferences, psychological characteristics, and decision-making habits, deterrence information can be “tailored” in a targeted manner, and the advantages of cutting-edge technologies such as intelligence can be used to demonstrate powerful strength to the opponent in a realistic way, making anxiety and suspicion Emotions such as fear and fear continued to ferment within it, eventually leading to its self-defeat. Big data, known as the “new oil”, not only enriches the source of intelligence, but also becomes an important “weapon” that affects the opponent’s cognition. By processing big data and deliberately “leaking” it to the opponent, a new “fog of war” will be created for it, making it fall into a state of cognitive confusion. In intelligent warfare, the struggle for the heart and mind will become more intense, and the party with the cognitive advantage will be better than the other party, making it easier to seize the initiative and take advantage of opportunities.

From “people-oriented” to “human-machine collaboration”

In traditional warfare, the organization and use of military force are dominated by people. With the widespread application of smart technology, the proportion of unmanned equipment continues to increase. In intelligent warfare, combat tasks will be completed by man-machine collaboration, and the two will achieve organic integration and complementary advantages. The third “offset strategy” proposed by foreign military forces focuses on human-machine collaboration as a key technology for development. Concepts such as “loyal wingman” proposed by them are also aimed at exploring the realization of manned/unmanned collaborative operations. It is foreseeable that human-machine collaboration will play an important role in future wars.

Utilizing unmanned reconnaissance forces to carry out three-dimensional and multi-dimensional battlefield situation awareness can provide real-time intelligence support for manned combat forces; using unmanned platforms to carry relay loads can continuously provide communication relay support for manned combat forces; using unmanned combat forces to penetrate into the front battlefield, It can attract enemy attacks, force the enemy to expose its position, and provide target guidance and fire support for manned combat forces; using unmanned transportation equipment to provide material supplies to the front line can improve logistics support efficiency, reduce transportation costs, and reduce unnecessary casualties. With the assistance of artificial intelligence, manned combat forces and unmanned combat forces will achieve scientific division of labor and reasonable coordination in terms of quantity, scale, functions, etc., thereby maximizing overall effectiveness.

From “eating the small with the big” to “eating the slow with the fast”

In traditional wars, it is often necessary to increase the number of troops to make up for shortcomings in equipment performance and other aspects. “Soldiers love the main speed”, the rapid development of military intelligence has greatly improved the speed of information transmission and weapon strike accuracy, greatly reduced the time for reconnaissance and early warning, intelligence processing, command decision-making, fire strikes, damage assessment, and accelerated the OODA kill chain cycle , making “discovery and destruction” possible.

New rapid-kill weapons such as hypersonic missiles, laser weapons, microwave weapons, and electromagnetic pulse weapons have further pushed the pace of war to “instant kill.” In the Gulf War, the loop time of the OODA loop took 3 days; in the Iraq War, the loop time has been shortened to less than 10 minutes; and in the Syrian War, the loop time has almost achieved near real-time. In intelligent warfare, the use of unmanned platforms that integrate surveillance and combat to quickly and precisely eliminate high-value targets such as the enemy’s core command posts and high-level commanders will cause the opponent to suffer heavy damage before it has time to respond, and may even face the danger of paralysis. It can be seen that victory does not necessarily favor the side with large military strength. The side that moves quickly and accurately will be more likely to gain the upper hand on the battlefield. According to statistics, the reaction time required for artificial intelligence to respond to battlefield changes is more than 400 times faster than that of humans. Faced with the ever-changing battlefield situation, people will be more inclined to use artificial intelligence technology to realize adaptive planning and autonomous decision-making of the command and control system, so that the command and control mode changes from “people on the loop” to “people outside the loop”, thereby mitigating the While reducing the burden on command personnel, it can improve combat efficiency and the success rate of mission execution.

From “Integration to Win” to “Cluster to Win”

The traditional equipment development concept is to invest a large amount of money in the research and development of highly integrated, sophisticated weapon platforms, in order to achieve dimensionality reduction against the enemy by virtue of generational advantages and performance advantages in war. However, the development and deployment of multi-functional high-end platforms not only requires a lot of time and money, but when multiple software and hardware modules are integrated into a single weapon platform, there may also be mutual incompatibility. Once the platform is destroyed, significant losses will occur. The military application of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence has promoted the rapid development of unmanned swarms. Unmanned swarms have the advantages of large scale, low overall cost, and decentralization. The unmanned platforms coordinate with each other and cooperate with each other. They can make decisions independently and carry out combat tasks in an organized manner. Even if some unmanned platforms are destroyed, the overall operation will not be affected. efficacy. The operational concepts such as “decision-centered warfare” and “mosaic warfare” proposed by foreign military forces focus on using unmanned swarms to complete combat missions. In intelligent warfare, by dispersing reconnaissance and surveillance, information communication, command and control, fire strike and other functions into a large number of unmanned combat units with a single function, a highly robust and elastic “kill network” is constructed, and then based on mission needs Adjusting the combination method will allow powerful group intelligence to emerge, creating great uncertainty for the opponent, thereby trapping the opponent in the judgment link of the OODA loop, unable to make effective decisions. In addition, due to the large number of unmanned swarms, the opponent’s detection, tracking, and interception capabilities can quickly reach saturation. Because the opponent cannot destroy all unmanned platforms in the swarm, the opponent has to face the dilemma of defense failure.

From “military dominance” to “diversified mixture”

Traditional war mainly relies on violent means to make the enemy succumb to one’s own will. It usually has a strong war intensity and has a clear boundary between peacetime and wartime. As the field of military struggle continues to expand into new fields such as space, network, and intelligence, and the role of economic, cultural, diplomatic, legal and other means in war continues to become more prominent, intelligent warfare will be carried out in many fields represented by “grey zones” In the form of “multi-pronged approach”. The intensity of war may weaken, and the boundaries between peace and war will become more blurred. Whether it is the Saudi oil fields that were attacked by drones in 2019, which caused half of its oil production to cease, or the largest oil pipeline in the United States that suffered a cyber attack in 2021, which caused a large-scale oil shortage, the far-reaching impact of various new attack methods cannot be ignored. underestimate.

As intelligent technology develops and matures, it will become more common to use a variety of means to launch attacks on opponents’ industrial, transportation, financial, communications, energy, medical and other facilities and networks. The threshold for intelligent warfare will show a downward trend, and warring parties may resort to undeclared warfare to launch hybrid wars that integrate economic warfare, diplomatic warfare, cyber warfare, public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare and other types of warfare, leaving opponents exhausted. cope.

From “actual combat test” to “experimental exercise”

Under traditional conditions, due to the lack of scientific simulation and evaluation tools, the true capabilities of the military can only be tested in actual combat. Under intelligent conditions, virtual reality technology can be used to create virtual scenes with a strong three-dimensional sense and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and mission background. This scene can not only restore objective things such as weapons and equipment from multiple dimensions such as sound, appearance, and performance, but also simulate various severe weather such as heavy fog, heavy rain, and blizzards, and visually display the terrain, meteorology, hydrology, etc. of the battlefield. Electromagnetic, nuclear and other information is close to the real situation on the battlefield.

Setting the imaginary enemy in the virtual environment based on the characteristics of the enemy in reality and conducting intelligent simulation of the possible direction of the war situation can enable officers and soldiers to “experience” the war several times in virtual reality before the official war begins, thereby making a better understanding of equipment performance, With a clear understanding of the rhythm of the war and the situation between ourselves and the enemy, you will be more able to perform realistic tasks with ease. Before the outbreak of the Iraq War, the US military secretly developed a computer game that simulated the combat environment in Baghdad. Among the personnel sent to perform tasks in Iraq, the survival rate of those who received game training was as high as 90%. As the data collected in reality continue to be enriched and improved, the construction of the virtual battlefield will become more realistic, the prediction of the direction of the battlefield situation will be more accurate, and the comprehensive assessment of the exercise will be more credible. Both hostile parties will strive to use intelligent deduction. If the outcome of the war is known in advance, it will be possible to “subdue the enemy’s troops” without fighting or with a small battle.


軍事理論家常說,勝利往往向那些能預見戰爭特性變化的人微笑,而不是向那些等待變化發生後才去適應的人微笑。 近年來,以人工智慧為代表的顛覆性技術發展迅猛,並廣泛應用於軍事領域,使戰爭形態加速向智慧化演變,與之相應的戰爭觀也正在發生嬗變。 及時發現變化,主動應對變化,積極適應變化,才能夠在未來戰爭中立於不敗之地。


「強勝弱敗」是帶有一定普遍性的戰爭制勝規律。 即使是那些以弱勝強的戰例,往往也必須在局部和特定時段形成對敵的力量優勢才能真正取勝。 在智慧化戰爭時代,智力優勢對戰鬥力的貢獻率遠高於其他要素。

在智慧化戰爭對抗中,人的智慧廣泛滲透到作戰領域、移植到武器系統,全局多維、各種類型的智慧化作戰平台能夠快速耦合作戰力量,根據任務需求建立作戰體系,自主實施協同作戰,任務 結束迅速回歸待戰狀態,呈現智慧自主趨勢。 智慧水準更高更強的一方,能夠更好地開發和運用「以智制拙」機理,甚至據此設計戰爭、主導戰局發展,取得最終勝利。 還要看到,智慧化戰爭時代很可能存在由低到高的多個發展階段,盡可能讓自己處於高級階段,攻擊對手使其處於低維度的階段,也是以高打低「智勝」機理的 運用。


隨著戰爭形態加速向智慧化演進,作戰空間逐漸由物理域、資訊域拓展至認知域,以有形戰場擴展到無形戰場,由人的精神和心理活動構成的認知空間已成為新的作戰空間。 與傳統戰爭中以消滅敵人有生力量為主要目的不同,智慧化戰爭將更著重於削弱敵方的士氣,瓦解敵方的意志,摧毀敵方的認知。

透過智慧分析對手的性格偏好、心理特質、決策習慣,可針對性地「量身訂製」威懾訊息,利用智慧化等前沿技術優勢,以形象逼真的方式向對手展現強大實力,使焦慮、猜疑 、恐慌等情緒在其內部不斷發酵,最終導致不攻自破。 被譽為「新石油」的大數據在豐富情報來源的同時,也成為作用於對手認知的重要「武器」。 通過對大數據進行加工處理,並刻意“洩露”給對手,將給其製造新的“戰爭迷霧”,使其陷入認知迷茫的境地。 在智慧化戰爭中,圍繞攻心奪誌所展開的鬥爭博弈將更加激烈,而佔據認知優勢的一方將比對方先勝一籌,更加容易掌握主動、先機。


在傳統戰爭中,軍事力量的組織與運用均以人為主。 隨著智慧技術的廣泛應用,無人裝備的比例不斷提高。 在智慧化戰爭中,作戰任務將由人機協同完成,兩者將實現有機融合、優勢互補。 外軍提出的第三次「抵銷戰略」將人機協作等作為重點發展的關鍵技術,其先後提出的「忠誠僚機」等概念也旨在探索實現有人/無人協同作戰。 可以預見,人機協同將在未來戰爭中發揮重要作用。

利用無人偵察力量開展立體多維的戰場態勢感知,可為有人作戰力量實時提供情報支援;利用無人平台攜帶中繼載荷,可為有人作戰力量持續提供通信中繼支援;利用無人作戰力量深入前方戰場, 可吸引敵方攻擊,迫敵暴露位置,為有人作戰力量提供目標引導和火力支援;利用無人運輸裝備為前線提供物資補給,可提高後勤保障效率,降低運輸成本,減少非必要的人員傷亡。 在人工智慧的輔助下,有人作戰力量與無人作戰力量將在數量規模、功能作用等方面實現科學分工與合理搭配,從而使整體效能實現最大化。


在傳統戰爭中,往往需要透過增加兵力數量來彌補在裝備性能等方面的短板。 “兵之情主速”,軍事智能化的飛速發展大大提升了信息傳遞速度和武器打擊精度,大幅縮減了偵察預警、情報處理、指揮決策、火力打擊、毀傷評估的時間,加速OODA殺傷鏈循環 ,使「發現即摧毀」成為可能。

高超聲速導彈、雷射武器、微波武器、電磁脈沖武器等新型快速殺傷武器進一步將戰爭節奏推向「秒殺」。 在海灣戰爭中,OODA環的迴路時間需要3天;在伊拉克戰爭中,迴路時間已縮短至10分鐘以內;而在敘利亞戰爭中,迴路已幾乎實現了近實時。 在智慧化戰爭中,利用察打一體無人平台對敵方的核心指揮所、高層指揮官等高價值目標進行快速定點清除,將使對方還沒來得及反應就遭受重創,甚至面臨癱瘓的險境。 可見勝利不一定眷顧軍力規模龐大的一方,行動迅速而精準的一方將更有可能贏得戰場先機。 據統計,人工智慧應對戰場變化所需的反應時間比人類快400倍以上。 面對瞬息萬變的戰場態勢,人們將更傾向於借助人工智能技術實現指控系統的自適應規劃和自主決策,使指控模式由“人在環路上”轉變為“人在環路外”,從而在減輕 指揮人員負擔的同時,提高作戰效率和執行任務的成功率。


傳統的裝備發展理念是將大量資金投入到高度整合的高精尖武器平台研發中,以期在戰爭中憑借代際優勢和性能優勢實現對敵方的降維打擊。 然而,開發部署多功能高階平台不僅需要耗費大量的時間和經費,當把多個軟硬體模塊整合到單一武器平台時,還可能出現相互之間不相容的情況。 一旦該平台被毀,將造成重大損失。 人工智慧等顛覆性技術的軍事應用促使無人集群得到快速發展。 無人集群具有數量規模大、綜合成本低、去中心化等優勢,無人平台之間相互協調、分工合作,可自主決策並有組織地執行作戰任務,即使部分無人平台被毀,也不影響整體作戰 效能。 外軍提出的「決策中心戰」「馬賽克戰」等作戰概念,即著眼於利用無人集群完成作戰任務。 在智慧化戰爭中,透過將偵察監視、資訊通聯、指揮控制、火力打擊等功能分散到大量功能單一的無人作戰單元中,構建高魯棒性、高彈性的“殺傷網”,然後根據任務需要 對組合方式進行調整,將使其湧現出強大的群體智能,給對手製造極大的不確定性,進而把對手困在OODA環的判斷環節,無法做出有效決策。 此外,由於無人集群數量龐大,可使對手的探測、跟踪、攔截能力迅速達到飽和,對手因無法摧毀集群中的所有無人平台,而不得不面臨防禦工事失效的困境。


傳統戰爭主要依賴暴力手段使敵方屈服於己方意志,通常具有較強的戰爭強度,平時與戰時界線分明。 隨著軍事鬥爭領域向太空、網絡、智慧等新型領域不斷拓展,以及經濟、文化、外交、法律等手段在戰爭中的作用不斷凸顯,智能化戰爭將在「灰色地帶」為代表的多個領域 以「多管齊下」的形式展開。 戰爭強度可能會有所減弱,平戰界線將更加模糊。 無論是2019年沙烏地阿拉伯油田因遭到無人機攻擊而導致其一半石油停產,或是2021年美國最大輸油管因遭遇網絡攻擊而導致大面積油料短缺,各類新型攻擊手段所帶來的深遠影響均不可 小覷。

隨著智慧化技術的發展成熟,綜合運用多種手段向對手的工業、交通、金融、通訊、能源、醫療等設施和網絡發起的攻擊將更加普遍。 智慧化戰爭的門檻將呈現下降趨勢,參戰方可能採取不宣而戰的方式發起融合經濟戰、外交戰、網絡戰、輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰等多種樣式的混合戰爭,使對手疲於 應付。


在傳統條件下,由於缺乏科學的模擬模擬與評估工具,因此只有在實戰中才能檢驗出軍隊的真實能力。 在智慧化條件下,利用虛擬現實技術可基於實際的戰場環境和任務背景創建具有較強立體感和真實感的虛擬場景。 該場景不僅可以從聲音、外觀、性能等多個維度對武器裝備等客觀事物進行還原,還能模擬大霧、大雨和暴風雪等各種惡劣天氣,以可視化的形式展現戰場的地形、氣象、水文、 電磁、核化等訊息,接近戰場的真實狀況。

根據現實中敵方的特徵設定虛擬環境中的假想敵,並對戰局的可能走向進行智慧模擬仿真,可使官兵在正式開戰前就已在虛擬現實中數次「親歷」戰爭,從而對裝備性能、 戰爭節奏、敵我情況都了然於胸,在執行現實任務時將更加游刃有餘。 在伊拉克戰爭爆發前,美軍曾秘密開發了一款模擬巴格達作戰環境的電腦遊戲,在被派遣到伊拉克執行任務的人員中,接受過遊戲訓練的人員生存率高達90%。 隨著現實中收集到的數據不斷豐富完善,虛擬戰場的搭建將更加逼真,對戰場態勢的走向預測將更加準確,關於演習的綜合評估將更加可信,敵對雙方都力圖通過智能推演即可 預先獲知戰爭結果,將可能出現不戰或小戰就「屈人之兵」的情況。

謝愷  張東潤  梁小平

來源:解放軍報 作者:謝愷  張東潤  梁小平 責任編輯:葉夢圓 2022-04-26 06:00:00


Chinese Military Exploring Ways to Win Cognitive Domain Operations


中國軍網 國防部網 2022年9月1日 星期四


Judging from the latest local war practice, cognitive domain operations have become an important variable that profoundly affects the direction of war. In cognitive domain operations, all parties compete fiercely for control of public opinion, information guidance, and cognitive shaping. There are not only physical confrontations, but also competitions in virtual space, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of “technology +” in the digital era. Exploring the way to win in cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for controlling the initiative in cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Seizing control of the brain has become the ultimate goal of cognitive domain operations

The brain is the material basis of all thinking activities and the command center that influences and controls human behavior changes. Feeling, perception and consciousness constitute the three aspects of the world that the brain reflects. How to win the right to control the brain has increasingly become the focus of research and attention by all warring parties in the field of cognitive domain operations.

Actively fight for sensory control. Feeling is the reaction caused by the characteristics of objective things in the human brain, and is the basis for various complex psychological processes. With the rapid development of brain science, molecular biology, neurochemistry and other disciplines, humans have gradually gained the ability to intervene and control the brain at the physiological level. According to foreign experimental results, inhaling oxytocin will make people more trusting of others and more empathetic, thereby affecting a person’s prosociality and moral performance. In future operations, the warring parties will use physical stimulation such as sound, light and electricity, or chemical drugs to act on the target’s hearing, vision, smell and other sensory systems. They may even directly act on the human brain to stimulate the target’s brain. Specific emotional reactions can achieve cognitive influence and control on the physiological level.

Effective competition for perceptual suppression. Perception is a psychological process formed on the basis of sensation and reflects the overall image and surface connection of objective things. Among them, the individual’s attitude, motivation, interest, as well as past experience and future expectations are the key variables that affect the individual’s perception of the perceptual target. During wartime, warring parties aim at the target’s psychological doubts, weaknesses, and needs, seize favorable opportunities, and use specific information to emotionally influence, mentally induce, or disrupt the target’s perception in order to increase the target’s perception of the target. The expectation of war risks weakens their will to resist and their determination to fight, thereby achieving the purpose of subduing the enemy with a small war, less fighting or even no fighting.

Comprehensive competition for the right to shape consciousness. Consciousness is realized through psychological processes such as feeling, perception, and thinking, and is manifested as the unity of knowledge, emotion, and intention. The fundamental purpose of war is to force the enemy to surrender. Judging from the war practice at home and abroad in ancient and modern times, in order to win the right to shape consciousness, the warring parties will do their best to mobilize all available military power and comprehensively use political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other means to carry out political disintegration and diplomatic measures against the enemy. Isolation, guidance of public opinion, and declaration of legal principles can trigger rational thinking, ethical resonance, or value recognition of target individuals or groups, thereby changing their worldview, outlook on life, and values, forming a relatively stable and long-term cognitive influence or control, thereby achieving “complete victory.” “the goal of.

Controlling information becomes the key to cognitive domain operations

The weapon and ammunition of cognitive domain operations is information. Mastering the initiative in the generation, identification, acquisition, dissemination and feedback of information is the key to gaining battlefield advantage in the cognitive domain.

Actively implement strong psychological stimulation to promote information penetration. Modern warfare is fierce and complex, with various elements of confrontation unfolding in multi-dimensional and multi-domain contexts, and fighter jets fleeting. The forces and methods acting in the cognitive domain must keep up with the development and changes of the battlefield situation, and make extensive use of strong psychological stimulation methods such as subliminal information implantation, acousto-optical electromagnetic psychological nuisance damage, and non-contact emotional control to take the initiative to induce the target. The subject’s emotions, will, thoughts, beliefs, etc. appear chaotic, confused or radically changed, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling and influencing the cognitive system of the target subject.

Extensive use of intelligent algorithms to achieve accurate push. As the Internet penetrates into every aspect of human life, everyone will leave massive amounts of data and information online. During wartime, warring parties will use modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to analyze the target’s social data, trajectory data, financial data, online shopping records, search records, personal communication records and other network data. The information is deeply mined and associated to achieve a “cognitive portrait” of the target object, and the target object’s interest preferences, behavioral trends, interpersonal relationships and value orientations are systematically analyzed, thereby three-dimensionally grasping the characteristics of relevant individuals or specific groups. Then, with the help of intelligent algorithm technology, personalized and customized cognitive information is accurately pushed to the target object, thereby affecting the target object’s attitude, emotion and value judgment towards the war, thereby promoting the realization of one’s own combat objectives and political intentions.

Effectively aggregate social support systems to achieve overall linkage. The social support system is the material and spiritual help and support that a person can obtain from others in his or her social network. It is a key factor that affects and determines the emotional support and cognitive direction of an individual. It can be said that for the success of cognitive domain operations, it is crucial to obtain the support and assistance of the target’s social support system. With the help of modern information technology, we can effectively connect to the target’s relatives, friends, classmates, partners and other specific social relations. By exerting targeted influence on the above-mentioned relations, we can gain the understanding, support and trust of the other party, and mobilize the specific relations to When the target object exerts influence, it is easier to win the trust and acceptance of the target object, and it is easier for the target object to undergo cognitive changes, thereby achieving the purpose of cognitive influence and control on the target object.

Virtual space becomes the main battlefield for cognitive domain operations

With the continuous expansion of human virtual space, virtual space is becoming the main battlefield of modern warfare, especially cognitive domain warfare, which determines the outcome of future wars to a certain extent.

Emerging communication forms have become new means of warfare in the cognitive domain. With the continuous development of mobile Internet technology, emerging communication forms represented by social media have gradually become a new platform and mainstream position for cognitive confrontation. Judging from recent local wars, the status and role of social media has become more and more prominent. All warring parties use personal blogs, forums and other platforms to publish battlefield pictures, videos, and comments in real time, which has not only become a global mobile online media terminal. It has also become the main battleground for the value perception game among different countries and different factions around the world. Emerging communication forms such as social media, with their unique decentralization and interactivity characteristics, have broken the information monopoly and information control in traditional communication methods and spawned numerous product styles. While meeting people’s information needs, they are also Unknowingly changing people’s perceptions. It is foreseeable that social media will play an increasingly prominent role in cognitive domain operations in the future.

Cyberspace has become a new space for cognitive domain operations. Under the conditions of informatization and intelligence, the threshold of network technology has been greatly reduced, making it possible to watch the game in real time around the world. Modern warfare has developed from “living room warfare” in the television era to “handheld warfare” in today’s all-media era. Online live broadcast is more intuitive and richer than any form of battlefield reporting, and “global synchronicity” has become a prominent feature. Through live broadcasts on the Internet, videos and pictures of fierce battles between the two warring parties, as well as numerous burned tanks and armored vehicles, as well as homes destroyed by the war and refugees fleeing their homes, can be visually displayed. People can see the micro-state of individual civilians and soldiers on both sides through the Internet. The “transparency” of the battlefield makes any attempt to conceal the truth and false statements more and more difficult. But on the other hand, the emergence of technologies such as intelligent voice cloning and video portrait simulation replacement means that what people see may not necessarily be “as seen” and what they hear may not be “as heard”. Cognition under online live broadcasts Domain operations add more room for possibility and imagination.

The intelligent network army has become a new force in cognitive domain warfare. The development of information networks has broken through the authenticity limitations of interpersonal communication, and it is difficult for us to determine whether the other end of the network is a real person. Based on the needs of large-scale interaction, intelligent, automated, and large-scale cyberspace robots are emerging. They are widely active in every corner of cyberspace. These intelligent network armies have the capabilities of intelligent recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. They are tireless and work around the clock. Intelligent network armies are becoming an important force in future cognitive domain operations. Judging from the current development trends of related technologies, major countries and even business organizations in the world are focusing on the potential prospects of network robots in group penetration, live broadcast follow-up, shaping public opinion, and managing network crises. In the flexible guidance of network intelligent robots, Increase research and development efforts on key technologies such as automatic acquisition of technology groups, automatic cultivation and group penetration, and provide intelligent and efficient technical support for public opinion guidance, cognitive shaping, and behavioral guidance and control by discovering and effectively utilizing the behavioral patterns of network users.


從最新的局部戰爭實踐來看,認知域作戰已成為深刻影響戰爭走向的重要變因。 認知域作戰中,各方圍繞輿論掌控、資訊引導、認知塑造等展開激烈爭奪,不僅有實體對抗,更有來自虛擬空間的較量,展現出數位時代「技術+」的顯著特徵。 探尋認知域作戰制勝之道,對於掌控認知域作戰主動權、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。


大腦是一切思考活動的物質基礎,是影響和控制人類作出行為改變的指揮中樞,而感覺、知覺和意識則構成了大腦反映世界的三個面向。 如何贏得控腦權,日益成為交戰各方在認知域作戰領域研究與關注的重點。

積極爭奪感覺控制權。 感覺是客觀事物的特性在人腦中引起的反應,是形成各種複雜心理過程的基礎。 隨著腦科學、分子生物學、神經化學等學科的快速發展,人類開始逐步獲得在生理層面對大腦進行幹預和控制的能力。 根據國外實驗結果顯示,吸入催產素會讓人更信任他人,更能產生共感,進而影響一個人的親社會性和道德表現。 未來作戰,交戰各方透過利用聲光電等物理刺激,或化學藥物作用於目標對象的聽覺、視覺、嗅覺等感覺系統,甚至將上述影響直接作用於人的腦部,在目標對像大腦中激發出 特定的情緒反應,可實現對其在生理層面的認知影響和控制。

有效爭奪知覺抑制權。 知覺是在感覺基礎上形成的,反映客觀事物的整體形象和表面連結的心理過程。 其中,個體的態度、動機、興趣,以及過去的經驗和未來的預期,是影響個體對知覺目標知覺的關鍵變項。 戰時,交戰各方透過瞄準目標對象心理上的疑點、弱點、需求點,抓住有利時機,借助特定的訊息,對目標對象的知覺進行情感影響、心智誘導或攻心瓦解,以增加目標對象對 戰爭風險的預期,削弱其抵抗意志和作戰決心,從而實現小戰、少戰甚至不戰而屈人之兵的目的。

全面爭奪意識塑造權。 意識是透過感覺、知覺、思考等心理過程實現的,表現為知、情、意的統一。 戰爭的根本目的是迫使敵人屈服。 從古今中外的戰爭實踐看,為了贏得意識塑造權,交戰各方會盡其所能,調用一切可以調用的軍事力量,綜合運用政治、經濟、文化、外交等手段,對敵人實施政治瓦解、外交 孤立、輿論引導、法理宣示,引發目標對象個體或群體的理性思辨、倫理共鳴或價值認同,進而改變其世界觀、人生觀、價值觀,形成較為穩定長遠的認知影響或控制,從而實現「全勝 」的目的。



主動實施強烈心理刺激,助推訊息滲透。 現代戰爭對抗激烈複雜,各種對抗要素在多維多域立體展開,戰機稍縱即逝。 作用於認知域的力量與手段必須緊跟戰場態勢發展變化,廣泛藉助閾下訊息植入、聲光電磁心理滋擾損傷、非接觸式情緒控制等強烈心理刺激手段,主動出擊,以誘導目標 對象的情感、意志、思想、信念等出現混亂、迷惘或激變,進而達成對目標對象認知系統控制與影響的目的。

廣泛運用智慧演算法,實現精準推送。 隨著網路滲入人類生活各個層面,所有人都會在網路上留下大量資料資訊。 戰時,交戰各方會藉助大數據、雲端運算、物聯網、區塊鏈等現代資訊技術,對目標對象的社交數據、軌跡數據、金融數據、網購記錄、搜尋記錄、個人通訊記錄等網路數據 資訊進行深度挖掘關聯,實現對目標對象的“認知畫像”,系統分析出目標對象的興趣偏好、行為趨勢、人際關係以及價值取向,從而立體掌握相關個體或特定群體的特徵。 而後藉助智慧演算法技術,將個人化客製化認知訊息向目標對象實施精準推送,進而影響目標對象對戰爭的態度、情感以及價值判斷,進而助推己方作戰目的與政治意圖的實現。

有效聚合社會支持系統,實現整體連結。 社會支持系統,是一個人在自己的社會關係網絡中所能獲得的、來自他人的物質和精神上的幫助和支援,是影響和決定個體獲得情感依賴和認知走向的關鍵因素。 可以說,認知域作戰能否成功,獲得目標對象社會支持系統的支持和協助至關重要。 借助現代資訊技術,可以有效關聯到目標對象的親人、朋友、同學、合作夥伴等特定社會關係人,透過對上述關係人施加針對性影響,取得對方的理解、支持和信任,動員特定關係人對 目標對象施加影響,更能贏得目標對象的信任與接納,更容易使目標對象產生認知改變,進而達成對目標對象的認知影響與控制的目的。



新興傳播形態成為認知域作戰新手段。 隨著行動互聯技術的不斷發展,以社群媒體等為代表的新興傳播形態逐步成為認知對抗的全新平台和主流陣地。 從近幾場局部戰爭來看,社群媒體的地位作用越來越突出,交戰各方透過借助個人部落格、論壇等平台即時發布戰場圖文、錄影和評論跟帖,不僅成為全球行動網媒終端 的共議話題,也成為全球不同國家、不同勢力派別價值認知賽局的主陣。 社群媒體等新興傳播形態以其獨特的去中心化及互動性特點,打破了傳統傳播方式中的資訊壟斷與資訊控制,催生了眾多的產品樣態,在滿足人們資訊需求的同時,也在 不知不覺中改變人們的認知。 可以預見,未來認知域作戰中,社群媒體的地位角色將會越來越突出。

網路空間成為認知域作戰新空間。 在資訊化智慧化條件下,網路技術的門檻大大降低,全球即時觀戰成為可能。 現代戰爭已從電視時代的“起居室戰爭”,發展成今天全媒體時代的“掌上戰爭”。 網路直播比任何形式的戰地報道都更直觀更豐富,「全球共時性」成為突出的特點。 透過網路直播,交戰雙方激戰的影片、畫面和眾多燒毀的坦克、裝甲車,以及被戰火毀壞的家園、逃離家園的難民都可以直觀地呈現出來。 人們可以透過網路看到一個個具體的平民、雙方戰士的微觀狀態,戰場的「透明化」讓任何試圖掩蓋真相的努力和不實的虛假陳述變得愈來愈困難。 但另一方面,智慧語音克隆、視頻人像模擬替換等技術的出現,讓人們看到的不一定“誠如所見”,聽到的也不一定“真如所聽”,網絡直播下的認知 域作戰增添了更多可能和想像的空間。

智慧化網路軍團成為認知域作戰新生力量。 資訊網路的發展突破了人際溝通的真實性限制,我們難以確定網路另一端是不是真實存在的人。 基於大規模互動的需要,智慧化、自動化、規模化的網路空間機器人正異軍突起,它們廣泛活躍於網路空間的各個角落。 這些智慧化網路軍團具備智慧辨識、智慧應答甚至類腦思考的能力,並且不知疲憊、全時無休,智慧化網路軍團正成為未來認知域作戰的重要力量。 從當前相關技術發展趨勢來看,世界各主要國家甚至商業組織,正在把目光投向網路機器人在群組滲透、直播跟評、塑造輿論態勢、管控網路危機等方面的潛力前景,在網路智慧機器人柔性引導 技術群自動取得、自動培育和群組滲透等關鍵技術上加強研發力度,透過發現並有效利用網路使用者行為規律,為輿論引導、認知塑造、行為導控提供智慧、高效的技術支援。

孫志友  孫海濤

Chinese Military Decisions and Perspectives Supporting Cognitive Confrontation


中國軍網 國防部網

2022年12月6日 星期二


Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its role. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of cognitive domain combat, the spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there had been no Allied Forces, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the “Operation Overlord Plan” strategy of “building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses secretly”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military actions in the physical domain, and then the specific military actions in the physical domain realize the material transformation of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, but without the implementation of the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our military’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough, and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of conjoining warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, but did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness.

現代戰爭根據物質形態的特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域和認知域。 這三個領域相互作用,形成軍事對抗的場域和土壤。 認知域操作雖然發生在認知領域,但其操作支援往往跨越各領域。 戰爭實踐表明,隨著物理領域硬打擊效能的增強,往往可以加速認知形成,認知實現更能滿足作戰需求。


當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界。 相互連結的不同物體的集合極大地增強了獨立個體單獨行動的功能。 認知域操作從來都不是認知載體之間孤立的操作。 將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合,與整個作戰體系緊密結合,才能充分發揮戰鬥力。

認知的起點。 存在決定意識。 思維和認知不是天上來的仙女,而是現實世界的真實或曲折的反映。 離開了物質世界的基礎,思考和認知就會失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的基礎、決策和行動的準確性,使人難以信任、認知、依賴。 即使是最迷幻的科幻戰爭,仍然會參考真實的作戰目標、具體的作戰目標以及相應的作戰路徑。 因此,情報偵察分析成為指揮組織部隊、規劃不可或缺的重要環節。 「沒有調查就沒有話語權」被視為決策必須遵循的金科玉律。 戰場模擬模擬已成為作戰行動成功的重要一步。 歷史上,大部分功將的作戰指揮和經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,都是建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析的基礎上的。 沒有現實世界的硬派支撐,「人類一思考,上帝就笑」。

認知效應的基礎。 認知領域作戰的一條黃金法則是,認知層面的軟實力必須有實體層面的硬實力支撐,才能確保並強化其作用。 強大的軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上的持續勝利是贏得認知戰爭的核心支撐。 如果美國沒有超強的綜合國力和優越的技術的高壓壓力,其「星際大戰計畫」可能無法真正發揮作用。 認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的支撐,永遠不會產生疑、迷、震懾、克敵的良好效果。 要掌握思維認知的主動權,掌握認知域作戰的主動權,不僅要加強認知本體建設,提高直接運用策略和技術手段加強自我保護、幹預和影響對手的能力。思維和認知,還積極努力在物理領域利用軍事行動在物理領域的傳導效應,增強思維和認知。

認知實現的起點。 馬克思主義認為,理論一旦掌握了群眾,也就成為物質力量。 從認知域戰鬥的角度來看,認知上層建築層面的精神創造並不會自動轉化為物質力量。 只有依附於一定的物質載體和實踐把握,才有可能實現精神到物質、意識的轉變。 實現的關鍵飛躍。 正如二戰時,如果德軍沒有繞過馬其諾防線,突破阿登森林,向法國腹地發起奇襲,就不可能展現「德軍認知成就」的先見之明。曼斯坦計畫」; 同樣,如果沒有盟軍,軍隊在東西兩進的諾曼第成功登陸,也未能凸顯出「霸王計畫」「明修棧道、暗藏倉庫」策略的巧妙之處。 思維認知透過人傳遞到物理領域的具體軍事行動,再由物理領域的具體軍事行動實現齒輪的物質轉化



物理領域軍事打擊支持認知攻防所採用的手段和方式,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般法則。 基本方式可分為增強支援、確認支援和變現支援。

增強支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊加強了思維和認知的形成和發展。 思維認知雖然依賴認知載體本身的品質,但如果沒有物理領域軍事行動的支持,就很難實現。 物理領域軍事行動在認知領域最基本的作用就是為思考認知的形成與發展提供堅實的支持。 思考和認知只有建立在真實的身體行動的基礎上,才能穩定、深遠。 例如,朝鮮戰爭初期,朝鮮人民軍勢不可擋時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島戰局、地理、天氣特點,準確預測了美軍登陸,尤其是當時美軍和韓國軍隊的各種行動等等時間地點。 同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇偉也根據志願軍的後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,對「拜拜攻勢」做出了判斷,用「磁性戰術」與我作戰。 這些都是物理領域的戰鬥對思維認知的形成與發展的增強。

確認類型支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊證實了預設的思維、預知和預判。 認知攻防不僅發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。 戰爭是「生死之地,生存之道」。 如果一個人的認知決策無法在實踐層面得到多方位的驗證,那麼輕舉妄動就是對戰爭最大的不負責任。 革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層始終處於整體戰略的掌控之中,賦予第一線指揮官依照整體戰略方向原則酌情行動的權力。 這是對戰略思維的正面肯定。 二戰期間,盟軍利用「虛假事實」進行誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍對歐洲大陸盟軍登陸地點的誤解,最終以最小的成本成功登陸諾曼第。 這是一次反擊。 確認。

實施支援。 為思維、認知、判斷和決策的實現提供直接的物質支持。 思維和認知必須轉化為改變世界的實際結果。 作用於對手的思維和認知不是終點而是新的起點。 接下來,必須透過「巧手」和「勇敢的心」在物質世界中付諸行動。 換句話說,簡而言之,就是為思考認知的價值實現提供直接的身體行動支撐。 這正如諸葛亮的巧妙計劃,但沒有「五虎將」等蜀漢將士的實施,只能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 無論“OODA”循環的前三部分運行得多麼高效,如果缺少執行環節“A”,那麼這將是一個“死循環”。 同樣,我軍指揮決策的結果也取決於官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性執行。 執行的品質和效率直接決定指揮決策的執行效果。 就此而言,執行層面的身體動作具有極為重要的現實意義。


思考和認知必須依靠身體動作的支持,這是不依賴人的意志的客觀規律。 加強思考認知與身體打擊的溝通互動,使我們的思維和決策更加具有針對性、客觀性和可操作性,從而更好地將認知優勢轉化為行動優勢和製勝優勢,是一項極其重要的任務。 。

更加積極主動並鞏固您的認知基礎。 思維認識是否正確,從根本上取決於它是否符合客觀現實,是否適用於打擊對手。 只有建立在充分的思考和認知的基礎上

調查研究、實事求是、比較優勢,是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的。 實行絕對的、神聖的、虛無的思想或將軍的天才、智慧、靈感,是唯心主義的、片面的、有害的。 這就要求我們必須努力把思維認識建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析的基礎上,真正了解敵情、我情、他人情,真正知己知彼、知己知彼。應該了解並因地制宜。 相機移動。 同時,要把閱讀無字書與有字書結合起來,把間接理論與不斷發展變化的生活實踐結合,辯證地認識過去的經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為我們自己的經驗教訓。知識。 幫助而不是束縛,協助而不是支配。

更積極主動,強化認知理性。 經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認識來自於實踐,並透過實踐的回饋得到強化。 認知實務經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料。 形成科學認知,需要在意識與物質、思考與存在的反覆碰撞與驗證中進一步去偽存真,以提高認知理性。 認為只有從局部情況、碎片資訊和個別時期才能一勞永逸地獲得真正的知識是錯誤的,甚至是致命的。 在中國古代的赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從常識中得出了連體戰船的認識,即鐵纜可以平衡船體的晃動,但並沒有從實戰效果或連體後果中證實這一點。軍艦。 如果不懂得再造,很容易就會用鐵繩把船綁起來,把自己綁起來,最後落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗。 時代變遷,現代戰場敵情瞬息萬變。 從來沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成就。 它只能從物質中剔除雜質,提取精華,去認知,去物質確認,重新認知。 ,我們能否回歸理性。

更主動地客觀化認知結果。 認知成就只是認知載體中孕育思考和意識的結果。 如果沒有及時有效的物質改造,就會像穿著錦衣走夜路或藏寶藏山一樣,很難展現出自身的價值。 思維和認知是以物理行為為基礎的,最終要依靠物理領域的具體行為才能具體化,轉化為改變主觀世界和客觀世界的實際結果。 這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策和規劃的可操作性,為更順利的物化和轉化打開大門。 同時,要努力提高決策部署執行者的執行能力,使他們能夠正確理解決策意圖,根據具體實際創造性地採取適當的方法,最大限度地落實認知結果和經營決策計劃進行到底。 當好認知結果與戰鬥力銜接轉化的「擺渡人」、「過河橋樑」。


(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute, Academy of Military Sciences)


Chinese Military: Profound Effects of Quasi-Cognitive Warfare Domains and Applying Rules of Multi-Domain Operations


From the battlefield of “bows and horses, riding and shooting, and swords and weapons” in the era of cold weapons to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the era of industrialization, to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the era of informationization and intelligence, war One of the core logics of form evolution is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of operational effectiveness has become a basic and decisive mechanism for winning wars. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that penetrates and affects multi-domain operations, and a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain becomes the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern wars and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage for victory.

Cognitive domain advantage supports multi-domain combat effectiveness doubling. In modern warfare, in the physical domain, we destroy the enemy, preserve ourselves, and compete for control of the land, sea, air, and sky; in the information domain, we block the enemy, connect ourselves, and compete for network and information control, all related to the cognitive domain. There is a profound connection between the advantage and the initiative position. In the system-versus-system game, once the opponent is suppressed in the cognitive domain and takes the initiative, it can interfere with decision-making on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, making the actions in the physical domain and information domain gain “a huge advantage”. asymmetric benefits, thereby improving the input-output ratio of combat, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to overall victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints caused by military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

When planning and implementing multi-domain operations, attention should be paid to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex. Elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, impacts are transmitted in multiple directions, and risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain at the levels of decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion concerns, social confidence, international public opinion, etc. of both the enemy and ourselves, resulting in rapid, sudden, and unexpected consequences. It affects the overall situation of the war and even creates a “butterfly storm” that changes the domestic and foreign affairs situation of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. To plan and implement operations in the physical domain and information domain, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to control the brain, mind, and intelligence. Dynamic changes in the number of enemy annihilations, temporary gains and losses in one city and one place, etc., are increasingly losing their significance as indicators for evaluating the direction of the war situation. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be measured from the changes in international and domestic public perceptions it triggers. and the psychological impact on specific objects to be evaluated and considered.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger integrated linkage of multiple domains are becoming increasingly mature. The rapid development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has rapidly developed the game confrontation in the cognitive domain from absolutely “uncalculable” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculable” and “controllable”. Assisted decision-making by technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and multi-dimensional command coordination, strengthening political, economic, diplomatic, cultural, military and other aspects of power, means and actions. The consistency and coordination bring about the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains, and controlling multiple domains focusing on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs has also provided realistic and feasible tactical options for precision strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as accurate portraits, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, as well as the cross-integrated development of neuroscience, cognitive science, and intelligent technology, have made it possible to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and achieve integrated Linked operations have become convenient and efficient.

Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain win-win paths

The penetration of the cognitive domain affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly concentrated in the cognitive domain, thereby continuously injecting emergent effects that are beneficial to oneself into the overall war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain advantages can be achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Use cognitive domain operational requirements to deepen understanding of multi-domain tasks. Focus on the overall national strategy, clarify operational requirements in the cognitive domain, and calculate and determine operational tasks in each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidable targets for fire strikes, hit targets first and hit later, hit targets openly and covertly, hit targets hard and hit lightly, etc., and focus on the effect of disintegrating the morale of the opponent’s military. When establishing the goal, timing, intensity, etc. of channel seizure, we must focus on the effectiveness of depriving the opponent of social mobilization and international communication capabilities and the effectiveness of supporting our information release and external propaganda. To establish the focus of intelligence information collection, it is necessary to focus on the ability to grasp the combat power in the cognitive domain of combat opponents, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense target objects in a fine-grained manner, and dynamically grasp international and domestic public opinion and social trends of thought.

Use cognitive domain combat tasks to guide multi-domain action design. Focusing on questions such as “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat stages and different combat scenarios are subdivided. Based on this, what actions should be organized in each domain and what actions should be captured? Overall planning and detailed design of fighter aircraft, which forces to invest, what tactics to use, how to connect and intersect various actions, etc. The reason why the besieged troops on all sides were able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was firstly because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the ingenuity of capturing prisoners to sing Chu songs at night. In fact, different timing of operations, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different choices of tactics and even different naming of operations will convey very different information, and the intensity of the generated cognitive impact will also be significantly different, which requires careful consideration and scientific Research and judge, and strive to maximize efficiency and optimize effects. When loading cognitive offensive and defensive actions for fire strikes, network offense and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations and other operations, different imagination and creative thinking levels, different technical understanding, application and innovation, the final effect achieved is even more It’s like clouds and mud.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat operations. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normally, they require coordinated support of military and firepower such as precise strikes, seizing key areas, and displaying momentum. In special cases, they also require coordinated strategic forces such as the deployment of cutting-edge weapons and equipment, and the organization of major training exercises. Guarantee requires the commander to make public statements and the media to embed reports and other specific personnel and specific combat units to coordinate the guarantee throughout the entire operation. Collaborative guarantee in terms of intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment is even more indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources in a full, real-time, systematic and precise manner, so that military warfare, mental warfare, and intellectual warfare can take advantage of each other and support each other to form a game of chess and create a combination of punches.

Pay attention to deepening the conceptual understanding of cognitive domain penetration and impact on multiple domains

Establishing the role of the cognitive domain in penetrating and influencing multi-domain actions and promoting integrated linkage to win is a deep-seated conceptual revolution that requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. Using cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain integrated linkage operations puts forward higher requirements for cross-department and cross-agency collaboration. It is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command link that supports cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain operational responsibilities of each element of the joint operations command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in operational determination, mission planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, establish and improve working systems and collaboration mechanisms at strategic, operational, tactical and other levels, strengthen the mutual support of cognitive domain operations, physical domain operations, and information domain operations, and fully consider military strength and local related functions. The effective cooperation of departments and professional forces transforms comprehensive advantages into cognitive domain capabilities that penetrate, influence, and empower multiple domains.

Improve the commander’s ability and quality. The foreign military believes that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “quickly transforming proactive kinetic energy operations into more subtle cultural wars” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” in this regard. In order to realize the integrated linkage of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multiple domains in war practice, we first need to strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, and strengthen the formation of a conscious initiative to use cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain mission planning and action design. nature, strengthen and improve the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive attack and defense using military firepower operations and information control as means. Multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration should be regarded as an important part of strategic battle drills, highlighting the ability of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to continue to be closer to winning political and military The actual requirements of the war.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration affects multi-domain integrated joint operations, which are the sublimation and optimization of joint operations concepts and mechanisms. In particular, it requires the support and guarantee of joint culture construction that is suitable for it. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking, break down some traditional conceptual barriers, and make cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and joint operations the forefront of joint cultural construction and focus on updating concepts. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the construction of the theoretical system of cognitive domain penetration affecting multi-domain integrated joint operations, carry out in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

(Author’s unit: School of Political Science, National Defense University)





















中国军网 国防部网

2023年1月19日 星期四

Chinese Military Characteristics & Development Trends of Cognitive Domain Operations and Warfare



Cognitive domain operations take people’s will, beliefs, thinking, psychology, etc. as direct combat objects, and then affect their decision-making and actions by changing the opponent’s cognition. Entering the era of information-based and intelligent warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become an important form of great power competition, with all parties trying to achieve political goals in a relatively controllable manner. Gaining insight into the characteristics and development trends of cognitive domain operations is of urgent and important practical significance for winning future wars.

At present, the cognitive domain has entered the war stage as an independent domain, and has increasingly become a common domain, a battleground, and a weight for victory in the game between great powers. Analyzing the operational characteristics and development trends in the cognitive domain reflects at least the following eight aspects.

The cognitive domain is the key domain for transforming military advantage into political victory.

Military confrontation, on the surface, seems to be a confrontation between the hard power of both sides, but on a deeper level, no matter what the nature and purpose of the war, it is ultimately a contest of human wills. The key to victory is the ability to impose your will on your audience. As long as the enemy’s will to fight is deprived and defeated, the war is won. Cognitive domain warfare uses human will, spirit, psychology, etc. as the target of confrontation, strengthening one’s own will while weakening the enemy’s will, thereby achieving the political goal of conquering the heart and mind. In this sense, the cognitive domain is a key area for transforming military advantage into political victory. As the form of war accelerates to evolve towards intelligence, cognitive quality advantages bring decision-making and action advantages, which can not only occupy the commanding heights in morality and legal principles, create a favorable situation of justice and legality, but also achieve small-scale control through hybrid warfare and comprehensive game means. The purpose of fighting or even winning without fighting. Especially in the context of great power competition, the cost of war is high. All parties hope to increase the intensity of competition for cognitive domains and force their opponents to retreat in a “humane” and “economic” manner.

By changing the opponent’s perception, it can change its decisions and actions

The purpose of implementing cognitive attacks is to use an “invisible hand” to control the opponent’s will, making the opponent feel “I can’t” and “I dare not”, thereby achieving the effect of “I don’t want to”. Foreign military practice has shown that cognitive attacks on people’s will, beliefs, thinking, and psychology can be long-term cultural implantation, information suppression in the form of “information ocean + covering one’s mouth to silence”, or preemptive speech. It can also take the initiative to shape and use historical grievances to provoke the outbreak of conflicts. At present, information technology, artificial intelligence technology, and media technology have strengthened their direct effects on the cognitive domain. Using intelligence to generate software, a large amount of cognitive “ammunition” can be created to accurately act on the cognitive layer of combat targets, directly imposing “will” to rivals” and quickly change the strategic situation. Looking forward to the information-based smart battlefield, situational awareness forces and platforms are widely distributed in combat domains such as land, sea, air, and space networks. Cognitive behaviors such as planning, decision-making, and control dominate operations in each combat domain, especially the cognition of human-machine hybrids in future intelligent warfare. Advantages will dominate the battlefield. Cognitive interference, cognitive confusion, cognitive blocking and other means can be used to create a “fog” of war cognition, inducing opponents to misjudge the situation and make wrong decisions and actions.

Cognitive domain operations are full-time offense and defense, full personnel coverage, full use, full domain shaping, and full government action

Cognitive domain operations are all-round, multi-level, hyper-temporal and cross-domain, blurring the boundaries between wartime and peacetime, front and rear, crossing battlefields and national boundaries, transcending the pure military field, and widely penetrating into politics , economy, diplomacy and other social fields, showing the characteristics of “five completes”. Full-time offense and defense, there is no distinction between peacetime and wartime, and there is no difference between the front and the rear. It is expressed as being online all the time and in war all the time. Covering all personnel, anyone, including intelligent robots, may become the target of cognitive domain operations. It is used throughout the whole process of joint operations before and during the war. Before the joint military operation is launched, the cognitive shaping operation has begun and will accompany the military operation and will not stop with the military operation. Global shaping, cognitive shaping runs through all levels of strategy, operations, and tactics, and its scope covers all domains of land, sea, air, and space networks. Cross-domain empowerment has an impact on all-domain operations. As a whole-of-government action, cognitive shaping is naturally strategic and requires consistent and coordinated actions across departments, fields, military and military areas, and levels to achieve the best communication effect.

The key lies in seizing the right to define the nature of the action or activity, the right to dominate the process, and the right to judge the outcome.

The struggle in the cognitive game involves multiple opposing parties and seems complicated. The key lies in the struggle around the “three powers” in the cognitive domain. First, fight for the right to define the nature of the event. That is, how to view this incident, whether it is just or unjust, legal or illegal. Usually, preemptive definitions are adopted, group alliances are formed to force definitions, information is suppressed and unilateral definitions are used, and issues are set and applied to definitions, etc., to guide and shape the public to form qualitative perceptions. Second, compete for dominance over the event process. That is, how to do something, how not to do it, who did it right and who did it wrong, usually by setting up a trap and other methods, trying to dominate the development direction of the target event according to the state that one’s own side expects. Fast and slow, pause, continue and end. Third, compete for the right to judge the outcome of the incident. That is, how to evaluate this matter, who is the gainer and who is the loser, who is the immediate loser, who is the long-term loser, etc. All parties try to control the outcome of the incident by amplifying the advantages to themselves and the disadvantages to the enemy. The purpose is to use the extended effect of the incident to continue to hurt the enemy and benefit themselves.

Morality and legal principles are the focus of contention between all parties

Military operations have always paid attention to the principle of “discipline and reputation”. Although the shape of war is evolving at an accelerated pace, the essential nature of war as subordinate to politics will not change; the nature of war and the support of people’s hearts are still the key factors that affect the outcome of a war. On the battlefield in the cognitive domain, by occupying the commanding heights of politics, morality, and law, we can win the hearts and minds of the people and moral support, create a public opinion atmosphere in which moral support is abundant, and then seize the opportunity to defeat the enemy. In every war or conflict, whether it is the strong or the weak, the attacker, the defender, or a third party, all parties will try their best to seize cognitive dominance and the initiative of public opinion. They will do everything they can to wrap themselves up with morality, focus on declaring a just position, and try to find ways to defend themselves. Qualify the war, justify the action, eliminate resistance, increase support, and create a favorable situation in which “righteous” fights “unjust”. The strength balance between the two sides in the war is different, and the cognitive confrontation methods aimed at occupying the moral and legal high ground will also be different. Recent wars have shown that when a party has strong soft and hard power, that is, it has strong military strength, many allies and partners, and a large share of international voice, it often declares war in a high-profile manner; when military actions may trigger chain reactions, it is often handled in a vague manner. The word “war”.

Information is the basic “ammunition” for cognitive attack and defense

In the Internet information age, human communication methods continue to undergo complex and profound changes. On-site interactions have gradually given way to online connections. Some large-scale social platforms have become the main battleground for the cognitive game and the main channel to influence public cognition. Information is used as ammunition to compete for international network blockade rights and discourse control rights. Becoming one of the main actions in today’s cognitive confrontation. On these platforms, various short videos have become the “first scene” for the public to understand the war situation, and information travels faster than artillery shells. The use and blocking, dominance and regulation of platforms have become the focus of battles in the cognitive domain. All parties strive to spread and amplify their own propaganda, denounce and suppress the other party’s propaganda by manipulating social platforms, forming a “I say more, you say more” There is a situation of “less”, “what I said is right and what you said is wrong” and “only I can say it and you are not allowed to say it”. As users of large-scale social platforms, the public is influenced by and influenced by others in the process of “listening”, “speaking” and even “acting”, and unknowingly becomes the agents and attack props of those behind the scenes.

Military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition

The history of human war shows that military warfare is always the basic support of political contests, while psychological warfare is the effectiveness multiplier of military warfare. What cannot be retrieved on the battlefield cannot be expected to be retrieved at the negotiation table, let alone in the field of public opinion. In modern warfare, cognitive communication operations always go hand in hand with joint military operations. Mental warfare and military warfare influence and support each other. The trend of military warfare becoming mental warfare and mental warfare becoming military warfare is more obvious. From the perspective of war practice, it is absolutely impossible without military strength, but military actions alone are not omnipotent. Multiple victories on the battlefield are not a sufficient condition for victory in war. During the Vietnam War, although the United States “won every battle, it lost the entire war.” At the beginning of the 21st century, the United States fought successive wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, winning battlefield victories but not political victory. By the same token, military victory does not mean winning public opinion, and winning the battlefield does not mean winning strategic victory. In modern warfare, two types of people play an increasingly important role: those who win by writing thousands of lines of code, and those who win by writing thousands of pieces of information. The side with superior numbers and quality of these two types of personnel often has a greater chance of winning.

Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly used directly in warfare

In past wars, the impact and effect on the cognitive domain was mainly transmitted to the cognitive domain level by level through a large number of damaging actions in the physical domain. With the development and breakthroughs in information communications, artificial intelligence, bio-crossover, brain science and other technologies, new cognitive warfare tools and technologies are directly aimed at military personnel. Cognitive countermeasures not only use traditional information warfare weapons, but also use a neural arsenal that targets the brain. By then, machines will be able to read human brains, and human brains will also be able to directly control machines. Intelligent command and control systems can directly provide battlefield situation and decision-making assistance. Realistic cognitive ammunition and precise audience placement will greatly enhance the social impact. Cognitive countermeasures technology is increasingly being used directly in warfare. The indirect cognition implicit in informatization is gradually transforming into a direct influence and control of people’s cognition. It can be said that with the support of advanced technology, cognitive domain operations can achieve political goals more directly and efficiently by constructing modern network architecture and developing data visualization platforms to quickly understand the information environment and effectively influence target groups.

認知域作戰是以人的意志、信念、思考、心理等為直接作戰對象,透過改變對手認知,進而影響其決策與行動。 進入資訊化智慧化戰爭時代,認知域作戰已成為大國博弈的重要樣式,各方都試圖以相對可控的方式達成政治目的。 洞察掌握認知域作戰特徵及發展趨勢,對於打贏未來戰爭,具有迫切而重要的現實意義。

目前,認知域已作為獨立一域登上戰爭舞台,日益成為大國博弈的常鬥之域、必爭之地、勝戰砝碼。 分析認知域作戰特徵及發展趨勢,至少反映為以下八個面向。


軍事對抗,表面上看來是雙方硬實力的對抗,深層看不管戰爭是什麼性質、何種目的,終歸是人的意志的較量。 勝利的關鍵是將己方意志強加在受眾身上的能力。 只要剝奪、擊潰了敵人的戰爭意志,就意味著贏得了戰爭。 認知域作戰,以人的意志、精神、心理等為對抗目標,增強己方意志的同時削弱敵方的意志,進而達成攻心奪志的政治目的。 從這個意義上講,認知域是軍事優勢轉化為政治勝勢的關鍵領域。 隨著戰爭形態加速向智慧化演進,認知品質優勢帶來決策行動優勢,不僅可在道德、法理上佔據制高點,塑造正義合法的有利態勢,還可透過混合戰爭、綜合博弈手段,實現小戰 甚至不戰而勝的目的。 尤其是大國競爭背景下戰爭成本高昂,各方都希望透過加大認知域爭奪力度,以「人道」且「經濟」的形式,迫使對手知難而退。


實施認知攻擊的目的,就是用一隻“看不見的手”操控對手意志,讓對手感到“我不能”“我不敢”,從而達到“我不想”的效果。 外軍實踐表明,對人的意志、信念、思維、心理實施認知攻擊,可以是長期的文化植入,可以是「資訊海洋+摀嘴封聲」式的資訊壓制,可以是先入為主、搶先發聲 的主動塑造,也可以利用歷史積怨來挑動矛盾爆發。 目前,資訊科技、人工智慧技術、媒體科技強化了對認知域的直接作用,利用智慧生成軟體,可製造大量認知“彈藥”,精準作用於作戰目標的認知層,直接將“意志強加 於對手”,快速改變戰略態勢。 展望資訊化智慧化戰場,態勢感知力量與平台廣泛分佈於陸海空天網等作戰域,規劃、決策、控制等認知行為主導各作戰域行動,尤其是未來智能化戰爭中人機混合的認知 優勢將主導戰場,可以透過認知幹擾、認知混淆、認知阻斷等手段,製造戰爭認知“迷霧”,誘使對手誤判態勢,做出錯誤決策和行動。


認知域作戰呈現出全方位、多層次、超時空、跨領域等特點,模糊了戰時和平時、前方和後方的界限,跨越了戰場和國界,超越了單純的軍事領域,廣泛滲透於政治 、經濟、外交等各社會領域,表現為「五全」特質。 全時攻防,沒有平時戰時之分,沒有前方後方之別,表現為全時在線、全時在戰。 全員覆蓋,任何人甚至包括智慧機器人,都可能成為認知域作戰的目標對象。 全程使用,貫穿聯合作戰的戰前戰中戰後,聯合軍事行動未展開,認知塑勢行動已開始,並且伴隨軍事行動而行,不隨軍事行動停而停。 全域塑造,認知塑造貫穿戰略、戰役、戰術各層,作用範圍涵蓋陸海空天網各域,跨域賦能,對全域行動都有影響。 全政府行動,認知塑造自然具有戰略性,需要跨部門、跨領域、跨軍地、跨層級一致協調行動,以求達到最佳傳播效果。


認知賽局鬥爭,涉及多個對抗方,看似紛繁複雜,關鍵在於圍繞認知域的「三權」展開爭奪。 其一,爭奪事件性質定義權。 即這個事件該怎麼看,是正義的還是非正義的,是合法的還是非法的。 通常採取先發制人搶先定義、建群結盟強行定義、資訊壓制單方定義、設定議題套用定義等,引導塑造民眾形成定性認知。 其二,爭奪事件過程主導權。 即這事該怎麼幹、不該怎麼做,誰做的是對的、誰做的是錯的,通常採取設局布阱等方式,試圖按照己方所期望出現的狀態,主導目標事件發展方向、 快慢、暫停、繼續與終結。 其三,爭奪事件結局評判權。 即對這事該怎麼評,誰是獲利方、誰是受損方,誰是眼前的失利者、誰是長遠的受損者,等等。 各方都試圖透過掌控事件結局的評判權,放大於己有利之處、放大於敵不利之處,目的是利用事件延伸效應,持續傷敵利己。


軍事行動歷來講究「師出有名」。 雖然戰爭形態加速演變,但是戰爭從屬於政治的本質屬性不會改變;戰爭性質和人心向背,仍是影響戰爭勝負的關鍵因素。 認知域戰場上,佔據了政治、道義、法理的製高點,就能夠贏得民心、道義支持,營造得道多助的輿論氛圍,進而掌握制敵先機。 每次戰爭或衝突,無論是強者或弱者,無論是進攻方防守方或第三方,各方都會全力搶佔認知主導權、輿論主動權,千方百計用道義包裝自己、注重宣示正義立場,設法為 戰爭定性、為行動正名,以消除阻力、增加助力,塑造以「有道」伐「無道」的有利態勢。 戰爭雙方實力對比不同,瞄準佔據道德法理制高點進行的認知對抗方式也會不同。 近幾場戰爭表明,當一方軟硬實力均很強大時,即軍事實力強、盟友夥伴眾多、國際話語權佔有率大,常常高調宣戰;當軍事行動有可能引發連鎖反應時,則常常模糊處理 「戰」的提法。


網路資訊時代,人類溝通方式持續發生複雜深刻變化。 現場互動互動逐漸讓位給網路線上連線,一些大型社群平台成為認知博弈鬥爭的主陣地、影響民眾認知的主管道,以資訊為彈藥進行國際網路封鎖權、話語控制權爭奪成為當今認 知對抗的主要行動之一。 在這些平台上,各種短視頻成為公眾了解戰況的“第一現場”,訊息比砲彈跑得快。 圍繞平台的使用與封鎖、主導與規製成為認知域作戰爭奪的焦點,各方努力透過操控社交平台來傳播、放大己方宣傳,聲討、壓制對方宣傳,形成「我說的多、你說的少 」「我說的對、你說的錯」「只能我說、不讓你說」的局面。 民眾作為大型社群平台的使用者,在「聽」與「說」甚至「做」的過程中,受別人影響,也影響別人,不知不覺地成為幕後推手的代理人和攻擊道具。


人類戰爭史表明,兵戰永遠是政治較量的基礎支撐,心戰則是兵戰的效能倍增器。 戰場上拿不回來的東西,不能指望在談判桌上拿回來,更不能指望在輿論場上拿回來。 現代戰爭中,認知傳播行動總是與聯合軍事行動如影隨形,心戰與兵戰互相影響、互為支撐,兵戰心戰化和心戰兵戰化趨勢更為明顯。 從戰爭實踐看,沒有軍事實力是萬萬不能的,但僅有軍事行動又不是萬能的。 戰場上的多次勝利,並不是奪取戰爭勝利的充分條件。 越戰中,美雖「贏得了每次戰鬥,卻輸掉了整場戰爭」。 21世紀初,美國連續打的伊拉克戰爭、阿富汗戰爭,贏得了戰場勝利,也沒有贏得政治勝勢。 同樣的道理,軍事上的勝勢不等於贏得輿論上的強勢,贏得戰場勝利也不意味著贏得戰略的勝利。 現代戰爭中,兩類人員的角色越來越大,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬行程式碼謀勝,一類人員透過編寫成千上萬條資訊謀勝。 這兩類人員數品質都佔優的一方,取勝的機率往往就大。


過去戰爭中,對認知域的影響和作用,主要是透過物理域的大量毀傷行動,逐級逐層傳遞到認知域。 隨著資訊通訊、人工智慧、生物交叉、腦科學等技術的發展和突破,新的認知戰工具和技術直接瞄準軍事人員。 認知對抗不僅使用傳統的資訊戰武器,也使用以大腦為作戰目標的神經武器庫。 屆時,機器將可以讀懂人腦,人腦也將能夠直接控制機器,智慧指控系統可以直接提供戰場態勢和決策輔助,逼真的認知彈藥和精準的受眾投放將極大增強社會影響效果。 認知對抗技術越來越直接運用於戰爭,原來資訊化所隱含的間接認知,正逐步轉變為直接對人的認知進行影響與控制。 可以說,先進科技的支撐,使認知域作戰透過建構現代網路架構、開發資料視覺化平台,快速了解資訊環境並有效影響目標人群,可以更直接且有效率地達成政治目的。


中國網絡衝突討論,信息與研究 // Chinese Cyber Conflict Discussions, Information & Research