Category Archives: 認知戰

Chinese Military Targeting Future Wars and Fighting the Five Cognitive Battles

中國軍隊瞄準未來戰爭打好五場認知戰

現代英語翻譯:

Source: Liberation Army News Author: Yang Longxi Editor-in-charge: Wang Feng 2022-10-08 10:11:25

In recent years, local wars and armed conflicts are mostly “mixed” confrontations that unfold in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, and economic means, implementing system clamps in the comprehensive decision-making dimension, creating various chaos in the international communication dimension, and carrying out targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shaping the battlefield situation, and seeking to seize strategic initiative. In future wars, we must fight political-military battles and military-political battles, and we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, offense and defense, and improve our ability to fight the “five battles”.

Cognitive warfare is the first step to shape the situation and take the initiative. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of the war situation, the status and role of cognitive warfare are becoming more and more prominent. Aiming to win the future war, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance, and through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the target’s physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive elements should be influenced, intervened and manipulated, and military operations should be covered by cognitive offense and defense, so as to accurately and efficiently dominate the cognitive space. We must fully realize the importance of taking the initiative, flexibly and independently master the right to define and interpret “narrative”, emphasize taking the initiative in the dimension of cognitive narrative struggle, create a favorable situation with legal principles in hand and morality on our side, and occupy the moral high ground.

Cognitive warfare is about attacking the heart, and we should fight a precise war in layers. “A good warrior will attack others but not others.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will be extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent, and unmanned, invisible, and silent. We should focus on cognitive gaps to improve our reach, use big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, psychological model evaluation and other methods to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects, and achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. We should focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, aim at the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual support points that maintain the unity of the powerful enemy alliance to effectively strike, and use their cognitive differences and conflicts of interest to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategy, we should fight a war of deterrence and control with full domain penetration. In future wars, the strategic competition and strategic confrontation between the warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should focus on the decision-making links and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we should pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike means to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we should pay more attention to the “soft kill” effect of cognitive shaping, cognitive inducement, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, so as to form a strong shock through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, and expand new-quality combat forces to the cognitive dimension, thereby forming an asymmetric balance of power.

Information is king in cognitive warfare, and we must expand the field to fight a good support war. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and we should accelerate system integration to gain data advantages. First, we should accelerate the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive combat theory bases, databases, talent pools, case bases, and tactics bases, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive combat capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, we should accelerate the creation of a converged media communication matrix, improve and perfect our own platform system, and step up the deployment of network platforms, focusing on system integration and collaborative linkage, breaking through the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and realizing cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive effectiveness. Thirdly, we should accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making psychological offense and defense, explore and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to provide “clairvoyance” and “clairaudience” for winning future wars.

The key to cognitive warfare is coordination, and we should make efforts in multiple dimensions to fight the overall battle. Future wars will be joint operations carried out in the fields of land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic, etc. We should adhere to system thinking, strengthen coordination awareness, and improve the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations with other military actions. For example, we can integrate human intelligence, geographic intelligence, and open source intelligence, quickly collect and process massive data, remove the false and retain the true, and accurately and efficiently seize cognitive space, so as to achieve complementary advantages and full coverage to form cognitive advantages. By networking the dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish a highly connected, collectively acting, and overall attacking full-domain joint force to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence”. By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, and using cognitive manipulation to amplify the effects of political disintegration, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and coordinating military operations to exert pressure on the target in all dimensions, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)

繁體中文:

來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍溪 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-10-08 10:11:25
近年來的局部戰爭和武裝沖突,大多是在多維度多領域展開的「混合」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段,在綜合決策維度實施體系鉗制,在國際傳播維度製造各種混亂,在戰略重心維度進行標靶打擊,積極塑造戰場態勢,謀求奪取戰略主動。未來戰爭要打好政治軍仗、軍事政治仗,應深刻掌握認知域作戰攻防特點規律,提升打好「五仗」的能力。

認知作戰先入為主,塑勢控局打好主動仗。戰爭未啟、認知先行。隨著戰爭形態的不斷發展演進,認知域作戰的地位角色不斷突顯。瞄準打贏未來戰爭,應提前開展認知佈設,透過謀略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知要素進行影響、幹預和操控,以認知攻防掩護軍事行動,精準有效率地主導認知空間。充分認識先聲奪人的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義權和解釋權,在認知敘事鬥爭維度上強調先發製人贏得主動,塑造法理在手、道義向我的有利態勢,佔領道義制高點。

認知作戰攻心為上,分層施策打好精確仗。 「善戰者,致人而不致於人。」未來戰爭,作戰空間向深海、深空、深網等領域延伸,戰場時空呈現極遠、極微、極智與無人、無形、無聲等特點。應緊盯認知缺口提升到達力,運用大數據模擬、人工智慧匹配、心理模型評估等方法,分析掌控認知主體的關鍵訊息,實現認知主體資訊的有效滲透和先期懾止。緊扣認知盲點增強穿透力,瞄準維繫強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差別和利益矛盾,層層發力實現分化瓦解。

認知作戰策略為本,全域滲透打好懾控仗。未來戰爭,交戰雙方的戰略競爭與策略對抗異常激烈,應緊盯決策環節綜合發力,增大對手決策困境,形成自身決策優勢。一方面,要更關注敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等要害節點,運用先進打擊手段對這些節點實施物理摧毀。另一方面,要更關注認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入和認知控制的「軟殺傷」效果,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬摧毀」中,既透過高新武器精確打擊形成強大震懾,又將新質作戰力量拓展至認知維度,從而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓寬領域打好支撐仗。未來戰爭離不開強大資訊的支撐,應加速體系融合奪取數據優勢。首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰法庫建設,動態收集更新敵認知攻防作戰能力建設現狀,為認知攻防作戰提供全方位支撐。其次,加速打造融媒體傳播矩陣,健全完善自有平台體系,抓緊推進網絡平台投棋布子,注重體系融合、協作聯動,盡快打通信息互聯互通“壁壘”,實現認知融通共享、綜合致效。再次,加速推進資訊與認知域作戰耦合聯動,大力發展神經網絡系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨域與異類認知訊息,健全認知手段資訊融合體系,為打贏未來戰爭提供「千裡眼」「順風耳」。

認知作戰協同為要,多維發力打好整體仗。未來戰爭,是在陸、海、空、天、網絡、電磁等領域實施的聯合作戰,應堅持體系思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性協調性。例如,可以融合人力情報、地理情報和開源情報等,快速採集處理海量數據,去偽存真、精準高效地搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補、全局覆蓋形成認知優勢。透過將分散多域部隊進行聯網,建立一支高度聯通、集體行動、整體打擊的全領域聯合力量,實現「一體化威懾」效果。透過整合國家資源、加強戰略傳播,運用認知造勢放大政治瓦解、經濟制裁、外交攻勢等效果,配合軍事行動全維施壓目標對象,力求不戰而屈人之兵。

(作者單位:航太工程大學)

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/4922788.html?big=fan

Chinese Military Exploration of Key Points of Intelligent Warfare

中國軍隊對智慧戰爭要點的探索

現代英語音譯:

  ● Accelerating the development of military intelligence is the choice of the times to seize the commanding heights of military strategic competition and win future wars.

  ●The extensive use of smart weapons has become the new protagonist on the battlefield, which will inevitably give rise to new combat styles, profoundly change the traditional combat power generation model, and subvert the traditional combat winning mechanism.

  ● To scientifically advance the development of military intelligence, the top priority is to explore the winning rules of intelligent warfare.

  The report of the 19th CPC National Congress clearly requires the acceleration of the development of military intelligence. At present, major countries in the world regard artificial intelligence as a disruptive technology that “changes the rules of the game” and accelerate the preparation for intelligent warfare. To seize the commanding heights of future military strategic competition and do a good job in intelligent warfare research, the first thing to do is to recognize and grasp the winning rules of intelligent warfare, and provide scientific needs and strong traction for promoting the development of military intelligence. Intelligent warfare is an autonomous warfare supported by a cloud environment. The winning of warfare follows both the general winning mechanism and its own new characteristics and laws.

  Deep understanding of the battlefield

  War activities are extremely complex, but they can generally be divided into two categories: cognitive domain and action domain. War cognition includes perception, understanding, judgment, decision-making, as well as beliefs and values. In cold weapon and hot weapon warfare, cognitive behavior is basically completed by humans. In information warfare, computer technology and network technology have expanded the ability of weapon systems to recognize and understand the battlefield, but have not changed the situation where the war cognitive system lags behind the action system.

  In intelligent warfare, smart weapons of various forms become the protagonists, and their common understanding of the battlefield becomes a prerequisite for the coordinated actions of combat elements and combat units. In wartime, relying on dispersed intelligent reconnaissance and early warning equipment, battlefield situation information can be obtained in real time, and massive information can be intelligently analyzed and processed. The situation information can be uniformly managed in a combat cloud mode, and situation information can be distributed and shared according to authority as needed. A joint battlefield situation map with unified time and space benchmarks and consistent standards and specifications can be constructed to provide a unified background for smart weapons to jointly understand and understand the battlefield situation. Moreover, smart weapons themselves are embedded with massive basic data. In wartime, they can accurately understand the enemy and battlefield conditions by comparing and analyzing the real-time battlefield situation with their own databases.

  The substantial improvement in war cognition has changed the situation where the war cognition system has long lagged behind the action system. It can be said that if we cannot deeply understand the battlefield, we cannot organize and implement intelligent warfare. The party that has an advantage in understanding the battlefield can usually take the initiative on the battlefield.

  Flexible and friendly human-computer interaction

  The organization and implementation of intelligent warfare relies on smart weapons to accurately understand the commander’s intentions and organize actions according to instructions. With the emergence and application of new concept computers such as neural network computers, optical computers, and biological computers, with the support of intelligent technologies such as voice recognition and text and graphic recognition, the human-computer interface of the command information system is highly intelligent, and the art of command and military strategy are deeply integrated into the human-computer interaction system, expert knowledge base system, and weapon intelligent guidance system. The expert system supported by the multidisciplinary knowledge base makes the human-computer exchange interface more convenient, flexible, and effective.

  In wartime, the intelligent human-computer interactive command platform uses key technologies such as intelligent algorithms, big data, and cloud computing to effectively break through the limitations of human analytical capabilities, ensure that commanders can quickly and accurately judge and predict the development of the war situation, and assist commanders in selecting combat plans and making combat decisions. Through friendly human-computer interaction, commands are automatically transmitted to the corresponding command objects, directly controlling the combat actions of smart weapons. Smart weapons understand the commander’s intentions through their own intelligent terminals, and efficiently execute human commands, achieving a good integration of humans and smart weapons.

  Swarm intelligence cross-domain collaboration

  The protagonists of intelligent warfare are smart weapons of various forms. The key to the coordination of combat operations and the effectiveness of the combat system lies in the coordination and linkage between smart weapons. Although today’s unmanned combat systems have a certain degree of intelligence, their coordination still mainly relies on human instructions to organize and implement, and it is difficult to implement self-organized coordination between platforms.

  In the future intelligent warfare, there will be a large number of smart weapons on land, sea, air and space. It is impossible to organize and coordinate efficiently by relying solely on rear personnel. It is necessary to rely on real-time sharing of battlefield situation information between weapon platforms and random self-organization and coordination according to the development and changes of battlefield situation. In order to ensure mutual understanding and linkage between smart weapons, unified combat rules are usually preset on the platform, such as unified rules for attack, maneuver and protection, and unified rules for communication and information distribution and sharing. With the further development of computer software and hardware technology, the expert system knowledge base of smart weapons contains tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of rules. In wartime, with the changes in enemy situation, our situation and battlefield environment, especially the development of enemy and our offensive and defensive actions, different combat scenarios will trigger corresponding combat rules. Smart weapons take corresponding reconnaissance, attack and protection actions according to unified rules to avoid mutual interference or even conflict. At the same time, through a highly accurate time system, a unified time benchmark is established to provide a unified benchmark for the combat operations of smart weapons in different spaces, support the optimization of smart weapons and autonomous coordination, and achieve intelligent group coordination.

  Human control for timely intervention

  Intelligent warfare is not completely autonomous warfare of smart weapons. People are always the planners, organizers and implementers of warfare. The selection of combat objectives and targets is judged and decided by people, and smart weapons carry out various actions based on the commander’s intentions. Because artificial intelligence can only partially think like humans, smart weapons lack human rational judgment and standards of right and wrong. As long as there are problems in the command and control link, it is possible to violate the commander’s intentions or even lose control, leading to a passive situation in the war. Similar incidents happen from time to time. In October 2007, three “Sword” robots of the 3rd Mechanized Infantry Division of the US Army did not replace the software in time. During the mission, one robot actually aimed its gun at the operator. Because it was completely out of control, it had to be destroyed in the end.

  In future intelligent warfare, once the battlefield situation undergoes major changes, or the original combat objectives have been achieved, commanders must timely and accurately intervene in the reconnaissance, attack, and protection operations of smart weapons to ensure that smart weapons are always under human control and are controlled to achieve combat objectives according to the commander’s intentions.

  Distributed Autonomous Action

  Smart weapons are the main body of direct confrontation between the enemy and us, usually far away from the rear commanders and technicians. Moreover, the pace of intelligent warfare has accelerated unprecedentedly. The human brain cannot cope with the ever-changing battlefield situation, and some actions need to be handed over to smart weapons. In wartime, smart weapons embedded with artificial intelligence technology can accurately and continuously track targets in a rapidly changing battlefield environment, autonomously detect, autonomously process battlefield situation information, autonomously identify enemies and friends, and autonomously and flexibly use ammunition loads.

  At the same time, through unified standard protocols and sharing mechanisms, a cloud environment with multi-dimensional coverage, seamless network links, random user access, on-demand extraction of information resources, and flexible and fast organizational guarantees is formed to realize “data warehouse”, “cloud brain” and “digital staff”, providing full coverage of cloud environment support for smart weapons. Smart weapons in different spaces become a node of the information network under the connection of information technology, and are no longer isolated and helpless. Supported by a large system, smart weapons integrate reconnaissance, identification, positioning, control, and attack, and can “kill” in seconds when discovered. During combat, with the development of the battlefield situation and combat needs, smart weapons in different spaces act autonomously. Whoever is suitable, whoever is dominant, whoever is advantageous, whoever launches, dispersed firepower, information power, mobility, and protection power are accurately released at the most appropriate time and the most appropriate place. Focusing on unified combat objectives, a combat power generation link of “situation sharing-synchronous collaboration-focused energy release” is formed to organize combat operations autonomously.

  Remote Focused Technical Support

  Smart weapons rely on high-tech technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks. Their combat effectiveness is inseparable from the stable operation of operating systems and software, as well as technical experts and support personnel in the rear. The organization and implementation of intelligent combat operations will greatly reduce the dependence on traditional support such as materials and transportation, and the focus of support will be on intelligence, knowledge, information, networks, software, etc.

  On the battlefield, the size of troops and weapons has decreased, while the technical support forces such as software design, network control, information resources, and equipment maintenance have increased unprecedentedly. In wartime, remote focused technical support should not only emphasize technical pre-storage and pre-positioning, but also rely on perception and response technology to integrate the perception system, control system, computer and user terminal of the entire battlefield space to form an interconnected and integrated technical support network. In particular, the artificial intelligence technology embedded in smart weapons and rear support facilities can be used to obtain the operating status of smart weapons in real time, discover their technical failures and support needs in a timely manner, update the support plan in real time, and distribute technical support needs to the support units; the rear technical support forces can “consult” the front-end smart weapons through the network to implement remote function recovery and technical information support.

(Editors: Huang Zijuan, Wang Jiquan)

現代國語:

要點提示

●加速軍事智慧化發展,是搶佔軍事戰略競爭制高點、打贏未來戰爭的時代選擇。

●智慧兵器大量運用,成為戰爭舞台的新主角,必然催生新的作戰樣式,深刻改變傳統戰鬥力生成模式,顛覆傳統作戰制勝機理。

●科學推動軍事智慧化發展,當務之急是探究智慧化作戰的致勝法則。

黨的十九大報告明確要求,加速軍事智慧化發展。目前,世界主要國家都把人工智慧視為「改變遊戲規則」的顛覆性技術,加速推動智慧化作戰準備。搶佔未來軍事戰略競爭制高點,抓好智能化作戰研究,首當其衝的是,認清和把握智能化作戰的製勝規律,為推進軍事智能化發展提供科學需求和有力牽引。智慧化作戰是依托雲環境支撐的自主作戰,作戰制勝既遵循一般制勝機理,也有其自身新的特點規律。

深度認識與理解戰場

戰爭活動極為複雜,但整體上可歸為認知域和行動域兩大類。戰爭認知包括感知、理解、判斷、決策,以及信念和價值等。在冷兵器、熱兵器戰爭中,認識行為基本上由人完成,資訊化戰爭中,電腦科技、網路科技拓展了武器系統認知和理解戰場的能力,但沒有改變戰爭認知系統落後於行動系統的狀況。

智能化作戰中,形態各異的智慧兵器成為主角,其對戰場的共同認識與理解,成為作戰要素、作戰單元協同行動的前提條件。戰時,依托分散部署的智能化偵察預警設備,實時獲取戰場態勢信息,並對海量信息進行智能化分析、處理,採取作戰雲模式對態勢信息進行統一管理,按需按權限分發共享態勢信息,建構時空基準統一、標準規範一致的聯合戰場態勢圖,為智慧兵器共同認識、理解戰場態勢提供統一的背景。而且,智慧兵器本身嵌入了海量基礎數據,戰時,其可透過即時戰場態勢與自身資料庫的比對、分析,實現對敵情、戰場情況的準確認知。

戰爭認知能力的大幅躍升,改變了戰爭認知系統長期落後於行動系統的狀態。可以說,不能深度認識和理解戰場,就不能組織實施智能化作戰。在認識和理解戰場上具有優勢的一方,通常能掌握戰場主動權。

靈活友善的人機交互

智能化作戰的組織實施,依靠智慧兵器準確領會指揮員的意圖,依照指令組織行動。隨著神經網路電腦、光電腦、生物電腦等新概念電腦的出現和運用,在語音識別和文字、圖形識別等智慧技術的支援下,指揮資訊系統人機介面高度智慧化,指揮藝術和軍事謀略深度融入人機互動系統、專家知識庫系統和武器智慧導引系統中,多學科知識庫所支援的專家系統使人機交換介面更為方便、靈活和有效。

戰時,智慧化人機互動式指揮平台,綜合運用智慧演算法、大數據、雲端運算等關鍵技術,有效突破人類分析能力的局限性,確保指揮者快速、準確地判斷和預測戰局發展,輔助指揮員備選作戰方案,定下作戰決心。透過友善的人機交互,指令自動傳遞到相應的指揮對象,直接控制智慧兵器的作戰行動,智慧兵器通過自身的智能終端,領會指揮員的意圖,高效地執行人的命令,實現人與智慧兵器的良好融合。

群體智慧跨域協同

智能化作戰的主角是形態各異的智慧兵器,作戰行動協同以及作戰體系效能發揮,關鍵在於智慧兵器之間的協同與連動。今天的無人作戰系統雖然具備一定的智能,但其協同也主要依靠人的指令組織實施,平台之間很難實施自組織協同。

未來智慧化作戰,陸、海、空、天智慧兵器雲集,數量規模龐大,完全依靠後方人員不可能高效組織協同,必須依靠武器平台之間實時共享戰場態勢信息,根據戰場態勢發展變化隨機自組織協同。為確保智慧兵器互相理解和連動,平台上通常預置有統一的作戰規則,例如打擊、機動、防護有統一的規則,通訊、資訊分發共享也有統一規則。隨著電腦軟體和硬體技術的進一步發展,智慧兵器的專家系統知識庫含有數萬條乃至幾十萬條的規則,戰時,隨著敵情、我情和戰場環境變化,特別是敵我攻防行動的發展,不同作戰場景會觸發對應作戰規則。智慧兵器依照統一規則,採取相應的偵察、打擊和防護等行動,避免相互之間的互擾甚至衝突。同時,透過高度精準的時統系統,建立統一的時間基準,為不同空間智慧兵器的作戰行動提供統一的基準,支撐智慧兵器優化自主協同,達成群體協同的智慧化。

適時介入的人力控制

智能化作戰並非智慧兵器的完全自主作戰,人始終是作戰的籌劃者、組織者和實施者。作戰目的和目標的選擇,都由人來判斷和決策,智慧兵器圍繞著指揮意圖實施各種行動。因為,人工智慧只能部分像人類那樣思考,智慧兵器缺乏人的理性判斷和是非標準,只要指揮控制環節出現問題,就有可能違背指揮官意圖,甚至失控,導致戰局的被動。類似事件,當前就時有發生。 2007年10月,美軍第三機步師的3台「利劍」機器人,由於沒有及時更換軟體,執行任務中1台機器人竟把槍口瞄準操作員,因完全失去控制,最後只能將其摧毀。

未來智能化作戰,一旦戰場態勢發生重大變化,或者原有的作戰目的已經達成,指揮員必須適時精準幹預智慧兵器的偵察、攻擊和防護行動,保證智慧兵器始終不能脫離人的控制,駕馭其按指揮者意圖實現作戰目的。

分散式自主行動

智慧兵器是敵我直接交鋒的主體,通常遠離後方指揮員和技術人員,而且,智能化作戰節奏空前加快,人腦無法應對瞬息萬變的戰場態勢,需要把部分行動權交給智慧兵器。戰時,嵌入人工智慧技術的智慧兵器,可在瞬息萬變的戰場環境中準確、連續地追蹤目標,自主探測,自主處理戰場態勢訊息,自主辨識敵我,自主靈活採用彈藥載荷。

同時,透過統一的標準協定、共享機制,形成多維覆蓋、網路無縫連結、使用者隨機存取、資訊資源按需提取、組織保障靈活快速的雲端環境,實現「資料倉儲」「雲端大腦」 “數位參謀”,為智慧兵器提供全覆蓋的雲環境支撐。不同空間的智慧兵器在資訊科技的連結下成為資訊網路的一個節點,不再孤立無援。在大體系支撐下,智慧兵器集偵察、辨識、定位、控制、攻擊於一身,發現就能「秒殺」。作戰過程中,隨著戰場態勢的發展及作戰需要,處於不同空間的智慧兵器自主行動,誰合適、誰主導,誰有利、誰發射,分散的火力、資訊力、機動力、防護力,在最恰當的時間、最恰當的地點精確釋放。圍繞統一作戰目標,形成「態勢共享-同步協作-聚焦釋能」的戰鬥力產生鏈路,自主組織作戰行動。

遠距聚焦式技術保障

智慧兵器依託於人工智慧、資訊網路等高新技術,其作戰效能發揮,離不開操作系統、軟體等的穩定運行,離不開後方技術專家及保障人員。智慧化作戰行動的組織實施,對物資、交通等傳統保障的依賴大幅降低,保障的重點將向智力、知識、資訊、網路、軟體等方面傾斜。

戰場上,兵力兵器規模減小,而軟體設計、網路控制、資訊資源、裝備維修等技術保障力量空前增加。戰時,遠程聚焦式技術保障,不僅要突出技術預儲預置,還要依托感知與反應技術,將整個戰場空間的感知系統、控制系統、電腦和用戶終端聯為一體,構成互聯互通、一體化的技術保障網絡。特別是利用嵌入在智慧兵器和後方保障設施中的人工智慧技術,即時取得智慧兵器的運作狀態,及時發現其技術故障和保障需求,即時更新保障方案,向保障單位分發技術保障需求;後方技術保障力量,透過網路對前端智慧兵器進行“會診”,實施遠端功能恢復及技術資訊支援。

(編按:黃子娟、王吉全)

中國軍事原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0329/c1011-29896888.html

Chinese Military Emphasis of Dedicated Research on Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍方重視認知領域作戰的專門研究

現代英文音譯:

In today’s era, the world pattern and social form are evolving rapidly, intelligent technology and cutting-edge cross-cutting technologies are constantly making new breakthroughs, new developments and new applications, and the scope of human action is accelerating from the physical domain, information domain, and social domain to the cognitive domain. Recent local wars in the world have shown that the status of cognitive domain operations has been rapidly improving and its role has become increasingly prominent. It has become the trend of the times and the key fulcrum for shaping the situation in advance, effectively balancing and influencing wars.

Clarify the basic methods of cognitive domain operations

Cognition is the reflection of the objective world in the subjective world of human beings, mainly involving knowledge, experience, consciousness, emotion and psychology. The targets of cognitive domain operations are mainly people who are in the main position in the war, with the characteristics of low cost, high efficiency and strong concealment. Entering the 21st century, the development of advanced science and technology and the changes in social structure have made cognitive domain operations a new high ground for the game between major powers, and even a “shortcut” to defeat the enemy without fighting.

Strengthen cognitive effects through continuous action in the physical domain. Cognitive domain warfare has always been associated with social development and human warfare. Before the mechanized era, cognitive domain warfare was mainly carried out through violent destruction of the physical domain by military forces, coupled with the flexible use of military strategies, and taking advantage of military forces to seize decisive results, to continuously strengthen the cognitive domain warfare effect. For example, the comparison of the number of military forces of both sides, the vastness of the occupied territory, the scale of the resources controlled, the support of peripheral countries, and the acceptance of the risk of failure, etc., can indirectly achieve the result of changing the enemy’s cognition, reluctantly accepting failure, and being forced to compromise. In 1945, Japanese fascism was at the end of its rope, but it was still dreaming of resisting stubbornly until the Chinese military and civilians launched a full-scale counterattack, the United States used atomic bombs to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet army sent troops to Northeast China, forcing it to realize that defeat was inevitable and had to surrender unconditionally.

Using the interaction between the virtual and the real in the social domain to influence cognitive effects. War is the product of social development. In the information age, the rapid development of information networks has highlighted the role of the social domain. Cognitive domain warfare no longer emphasizes violent change of cognition, but pays more attention to the use of media platforms such as online media, radio and television, newspapers and magazines, and interviews to emotionally attract, anti-intellectual propaganda, corrupt and degenerate, and polarize various social groups. Collect the discordant factors in the emotional appeals, life needs, and value identification of typical social groups, and plan, step by step, and premeditatedly in the fields of politics, economy, diplomacy, finance, society, and culture, through the methods of continuously detonating topics, intensifying contradictions, adding fuel to the fire, continuing fermentation, and creating divisions, ultimately causing social unrest and even overthrowing the national regime. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, the upheaval in Eastern Europe, and the “color revolutions” in many parts of the world since the 1990s all have this shadow.

Targeting the cognitive domain to directly intervene in cognitive results. The way humans understand the world will transform the objective world in the same way, which is exactly the point of action of cognitive domain operations. Entering the intelligent era, breakthroughs have been made in cutting-edge fields such as biological intersection and brain control, and intelligent technologies such as advanced algorithms and brain-computer interfaces have been continuously upgraded. Advanced technologies such as big data and cloud computing have been rapidly developed and applied. Cognitive domain operations in the intelligent era pay more attention to the role of intelligent technology. Through the deep interaction between real life and the virtual world of the Internet, the information collected and obtained is richer, the data is more complete, and the elements are more complete. Cognitive domain operations can already bypass the traditional physical domain and social domain based on the widely distributed intelligent information network, the surrounding visible intelligent terminals and the colorful intelligent applications, break through the tangible blockade restrictions of the other party, and directly implement the “downward strike” of the cognitive domain on the core circle, elite class and the general public of the predetermined target through targeted and precise push.

Clarify the mechanism of cognitive domain operations

Entering the era of intelligence, human thinking has become a new direction for war planning and a new field for war games. Its essence is to face the spiritual level of the combat target, and to list human will, belief, thinking, psychology, etc. as combat targets. By maintaining one’s own cognitive advantage and attacking the enemy’s cognitive disadvantage, the cognitive domain attack and defense confrontation is carried out. The specific action mechanism also presents the characteristics of multi-domain action and mixed superposition.

Implement value standard penetration. Values ​​are the principle standards for people to distinguish right from wrong and good from bad. They are at the core of generating motivations for personnel behavior, play a leading role in driving group behavior patterns, and are the key to seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations are mainly based on network psychology and cybernetics to identify and predict human group behavior and individual activities, and then create more accurate specific group interaction concepts. On this basis, targeting the opponent’s value orientation, using the opponent’s cultural language, and comprehensively using strong media, social networks, and intelligent technologies, deliberately weave “information cocoons”, malicious narrative editing hints, mobilize the emotions of the target group, advocate minority extreme orientations, induce value deviations, kidnap and manipulate public opinion, and ultimately make cognitive domain operations effective. The foundation of the opponent’s belief, the destination of the soul, and the spiritual home. In recent local conflicts, the United States and Western countries have launched cognitive domain operations through narrative fabrication, script arrangement, and rhetoric manipulation, attempting to cause oppressive pressure on the opponent in multiple fields at all times, and many countries who are unaware of the situation have been dragged into it unknowingly.

Creating psychological and emotional internal friction. Psychological fluctuations and emotional changes are natural biological attributes of human beings, and are also the breakthrough points for cognitive domain operations to strike, weaken, and disintegrate the enemy’s will to fight. Cognitive domain operations are based on the basic principles of psychology, neurology, and brain science, emphasizing the use of human psychological weaknesses such as fear, anxiety, suspicion, and doubt, and are carried out or implemented simultaneously at the strategic, campaign, and tactical levels. Cognitive domain operations mainly use deep fakes, scene posing, and algorithm recommendations to fabricate remarks on mainstream social platforms to discredit opponents. Foreign armies have used Internet celebrities, virtual accounts, and zombie armies to confuse cognition, disrupt public opinion, and deviate from the rhythm. By creating insecurity and exaggerating uncertainty within the enemy, group conflicts are intensified; by creating internal rifts, unity and harmony are destroyed; by amplifying distrust and increasing decision-making doubts, internal fighting and internal friction are increased. Ultimately, based on the traceless implantation, seamless connection, invisible operation, and senseless substitution of psychological emotions, “winning without fighting” is achieved.

Conduct human consciousness guidance and control. The integrated development of cognitive science and advanced technology has prompted cognitive domain operations to develop in the direction of computational intelligence, perceptual intelligence and cognitive intelligence, with stronger penetration and deeper influence. Major breakthroughs have been made in technologies such as multimodal emotion recognition, activation and protection based on big data. After mining and analyzing information data, the cognitive state of social groups can be seen at a glance, and the mental portrait of target personnel can be detailed. Based on efficient and flexible cognitive scenarios, subtle emotional associations and tendency intervention of brain-computer interfaces, cognitive domain operations can unconsciously influence and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition. Intelligent cognitive weapon systems can effectively limit the enemy’s acquisition of useful information, induce the enemy to use erroneous data, reduce the speed of command decision-making, interfere with the operation of cognitive modes, and block correct cognitive output. Reports show that NATO, led by the United States, is actively promoting the weaponization of brain science and cognitive science research results, and is attempting to achieve cognitive control of the enemy by collecting, deciphering and interfering with the brain waves of combat targets.

Build a strong confrontation system for cognitive domain operations

The local war practices in recent years have shown that military force and technological advantages alone cannot completely determine the outcome of a war, and cognitive domain operations have an increasingly significant impact on the course of a war. They can not only trigger the start of a war, direct the continuation of a war, but also affect the end of a war. Therefore, it is particularly necessary to build a strong and resilient cognitive domain combat confrontation system.

Smooth the command and control mechanism of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations involve a wide range of fields and cover a lot of content. They require a combination of long-term preparation and short-term promotion, strengthening construction and preemptive preparation. Establish a firm overall national security concept, formulate an overall strategy for coping with cognitive domain operations, take the initiative to break the situation and shape the momentum, participate in global governance, strengthen China’s voice, and purify the public opinion environment. Overall consideration of the establishment of command organizations, integration of command nodes in different strategic directions, opening up multi-domain command and control links, improving cross-domain command processes, and flexible multi-domain integration guidance and control methods. Overall design of a multi-domain and cross-departmental collaboration framework, combined with national security situation analysis, regularly promote the operation of the collaboration mechanism. Sort out the list of responsibilities of each command level, draw clear functional boundaries in each field, and clarify cross-domain collaboration matters, operating procedures and standard requirements. Establish a cognitive early warning mechanism, divide combat intensity, organize virtual exercises and multi-level confrontations, and improve the ability to deal with cognitive domain threats.

Integrate the elements and forces of cognitive domain operations. Cognitive domain operations have both the threat of “gray rhinos” and the variables of “black swans”, so it is necessary to strengthen prevention and forge strong forces. Combine the design of the cognitive domain combat command system and provide multi-domain counterattack forces. Strengthen the response forces in traditional fields, expand the scope of functional business, and deepen the selection and training of professional talents. Develop new counterattack forces and integrate advantageous resources in emerging fields such as social media, psychological cognition, and intelligent unmanned. Activate civilian forces and international high-quality resources to create a cross-domain crisis response team and counterattack force cluster with systematic support, complete elements, and superb professional skills. Combine confrontation exercises and social practices, invest new forces, integrate new technologies, and add new means to strengthen the evaluation and inspection of containment and countermeasures.

Strengthen the basic engineering of cognitive domain operations. As the research and practice of cognitive domain operations continue to deepen, many new technologies and new theories will inevitably emerge, which need to be closely tracked and followed. Strengthen the research on global hot spots, pay attention to the changes in the gray area, and keep abreast of the latest developments in foreign cognitive domain operations and the latest trends in force deployment. Strengthen the analysis of war cases and explore new factors and elements of cognitive domain operations. Organize special topics to gather wisdom and analyze new mechanisms and laws of cognitive domain operations. Analyze the strategies and means of opponents, track and grasp their strategic adjustments and focus, and carry out counter-strategies and response research by level and field. Analyze the new means, technologies and practices of opponents using social media, international organizations and agents to carry out cognitive domain operations, so as to prevent and foresee in advance.

原始現代國語:

引 言

當今時代,世界格局與社會形態加速演進,智慧科技與前沿交叉技術不斷取得新突破新發展新應用,人類的作用領域正由物理域、資訊域、社會域向認知域不斷加速拓展。近幾場世界局部戰爭顯示,認知域作戰的地位快速提升、作用日益凸顯,已成為先期塑勢、有效制衡、影響戰爭的時代風口和關鍵支點。

釐清認知域作戰的基本方式

認知是客觀世界在人類主觀世界中的反映,主要涉及知識、經驗、意識、情緒和心理等多個面向。認知域作戰的對象主要是在戰爭中處於主體地位的人,具有成本低、效益高、隱蔽性強等特質。進入21世紀,先進科技的發展與社會結構的變遷,使得認知域作戰成為大國博弈的新高地,甚至成為不戰而屈人之兵的「捷徑」。

透過物理域持續作用強化認知效果。一直以來,認知域作戰就與社會發展和人類戰爭相生相伴。機械化時代以前,受社會形態和溝通方式等限制,認知域作戰主要透過軍事力量在物理域的暴力破壞,再加上軍事謀略的靈活運用,並藉勢軍事力量奪取決定性戰果,來持續強化認知域作戰效果。例如,雙方軍事力量的數量對比、佔領疆域的廣闊程度、掌控資源的規模體量、外圍國家的支持力度和失敗風險的接受程度等,從而間接達成改變敵方認知、無奈接受失敗和被迫作出妥協的結果。 1945年,日本法西斯已經窮途末路,卻還在妄想負隅頑抗,直到中國軍民發動全面反攻和美國動用原子彈轟炸廣島、長崎以及蘇軍出兵中國東北,迫使其認識到敗局已定,不得不無條件投降。

借助社會域虛實互動影響認知效果。戰爭是社會發展的產物。在資訊化時代,資訊網絡的快速發展促使社會域的角色得以凸顯。認知域作戰不再強調暴力改變認知,而是更重視利用網路媒體、廣播電視、報紙雜誌和訪談交流等介質平台,來對各類社會群體進行情感拉攏、反智宣傳、腐蝕墮化和分化渲染。蒐集典型社會群體的情感訴求、生活需求和價值認同等方面的不和諧因素,有策劃、有步驟、有預謀地在政治、經濟、外交、金融、社會、文化等領域,透過連貫引爆話題、激化矛盾、拱火澆油、持續發酵和製造撕裂等方式,最終引發社會動盪,甚至傾覆國家政權。 1990年代以來的蘇聯解體、東歐劇變以及世界多地的「顏色革命」等,都有這方面的影子。

瞄準認知域直接介入介入認知結果。人類以什麼方式認識世界就會以什麼方式來改造客觀世界,這正是認知域作戰的作用點。進入智慧化時代,生物交叉、腦控控腦等前沿領域連續取得突破,先進演算法、腦機介面等智慧技術不斷迭代升級,大數據、雲端運算等先進技術快速發展應用。智慧化時代的認知域作戰更重視發揮智慧科技的作用,透過現實生活和網路虛擬世界的深度互動,收集獲取資訊更加豐富,數據更加完整,要素更加齊全。認知域作戰已經可以基於廣域分佈的智慧化資訊網路、週邊可見的智慧化終端和多彩多樣的智慧化應用程序,繞過傳統的物理域、社會域,衝破對方有形封鎖限制,透過定向精準推播,對預定對象的核心圈層、菁英階層和社會大眾等目標,直接實施認知域的「降域打擊」。

明晰認知域作戰的作用機制

進入智慧化時代,人類思維成為戰爭策動的新方向和戰爭賽局的新領域。其本質上是面向作戰對象的精神層面,把人的意志、信念、思維、心理等列為作戰目標,透過保持己方認知優勢、攻擊敵方認知劣勢來展開認知域攻防對抗,具體的作用機理也呈現出多域作用、混合疊加的特徵。

實施價值標準滲透。價值觀念是人們明辨是非、區分好壞的原則標準,在生成人員行為動機中居於核心地位,在驅動群體行為模式中發揮主導作用,是奪取認知域作戰主動權的關鍵。認知域作戰主要基於網路心理學和控制論,來辨識預測人類群體行為和個體活動,進而創造更準確的特定群體互動觀念。在此基礎上,針對對手價值取向,使用對方文化語系,綜合運用強勢媒體、社交網絡和智能技術等,蓄意編織“信息繭房”,惡意敘事剪輯暗示,調動目標群體情緒,鼓吹小眾偏激取向,誘導價值觀念偏移,綁架操縱民心民意,最終使認知域作戰效能直抵對手的信念根基、靈魂歸宿和精神家園。近期局部衝突中,美西方國家透過敘事編造、劇本編排和話術操控,大肆展開認知域作戰,企圖給對手造成全時段多領域的壓迫式緊逼,不明就裡的諸多國家在不知不覺中被裹挾進去。

製造心理情感內耗。心理波動和情緒變化是人類自然的生物屬性,也是認知域作戰打擊、削弱、瓦解敵方戰爭意志的突破。認知域作戰基於心理學、神經學和腦科學等學科基本原理,強調利用恐懼、焦慮、猜忌、懷疑等人類心理弱點,在戰略、戰役和戰術層面同步展開或重點實施。認知域作戰主要透過深度偽造、場景擺拍和演算法推薦等手段,在主流社群平台,大肆砲制言論抹黑對手。外軍曾藉助網路大V、虛擬帳號和殭屍軍團等,混淆認知、攪亂輿論、偏節奏。透過在敵方內部製造不安全感,誇大不確定性,來激化群體矛盾;透過製造內部撕裂,來破壞團結和諧;透過放大不信任度,增加決策疑慮,來加大內鬥內耗。最終基於心理情緒的無痕植入、無縫關聯、無形操作和無感代入,實現「不戰而勝」。

開展人體意識導控。認知科學和先進科技的融合發展,促使認知域作戰正朝著運算智慧、感知智慧和認知智慧的方向發展,具有更強穿透力和更深影響力。基於大數據的多模態情緒辨識、啟動和防護等技術已取得重大突破,經過資訊資料的挖掘分析,社會群體的認知狀態一覽無餘,目標人員的精神畫像細緻入微。基於高效彈性的認知場景、潛移默化的情緒關聯和腦機介面的傾向性幹預,認知域作戰可以不知不覺地影響和塑造對手思維認知。智慧化認知武器系統能夠有效限制敵獲取有用資訊、誘導敵使用錯誤資料、降低指揮決策速度、幹擾認知模式運作、阻斷正確認知輸出。有報告顯示,以美國為首的北約正積極推動腦科學和認知科學研究成果武器化,並企圖透過採集、破解、幹擾作戰對象的腦電波,達成對敵認知控制。

建強認知域作戰的對抗體系

近年來局部戰爭的實踐顯示,單憑武力和技術優勢並不能完全左右戰爭,認知域作戰對戰爭進程的影響愈發明顯。其既可以引發戰爭開始,也可以導演戰爭持續,還可以影響戰爭結束。因此,建強托底管用、韌性的認知域作戰對抗體係就顯得格外必要。

暢通認知域作戰指控機制。認知域作戰涉及領域廣,涵蓋內容多,需要長線準備和短線促進相結合,強化建設、先手準備。樹牢整體國家安全觀,制定因應認知域作戰整體方略,主動破局塑勢,參與全球治理,強化中國聲音,淨化輿論環境。統籌考量指揮機構設置,整合不同策略方向指揮節點,打通多域指控鏈路,完善跨域指揮流程,靈活多域融合導控方法。整體設計多領域跨部門協作框架,結合國家安全情勢分析,定期推動協作機制運作。整理各指揮層級職責清單,劃清各領域職能邊界,明確跨領域協作事項、作業流程及標準要求。建立認知預警機制,進行作戰強度劃分,組織進行虛擬演練與多層次對抗,提升因應認知域威脅處置能力。

整合認知域作戰要素力量。認知域作戰既具有「灰犀牛」的威脅,又充滿「黑天鵝」的變數,需要加強防範、鍛造過硬力量。結合認知域作戰指揮體系設計,搭配多域反制力量。強化傳統領域因應力量,拓展職能業務範疇,深化專業人才選拔培訓。發展新型反制力量,整合社群媒體、心理認知、智慧無人等新興領域優勢資源。盤活民間力量與國際優質資源,打造系統配套、要素齊全、專業精湛的跨領域危機應變團隊與反制力量群聚。結合對抗演練與社會實踐,投入新力量、融入新科技、加入新手段,加強遏制與反製手段的評估檢驗。

強固認知域作戰基礎工程。隨著認知域作戰研究和實踐不斷深入,必將產生許多新技術和新理論,需要密切追蹤關注。加強全球熱點研究,聚焦灰色地帶變化,及時掌握外國認知域作戰最新發展、力量部署最新動向。加強戰例案例分析,挖掘認知域作戰新因子新要素。組織專題集智攻關,分析認知域作戰新機理新法則。透析對手策略手段,追蹤掌握其策略調整與關注重點,分層級分領域進行反制策略與因應研究。研析對手使用社群媒體、國際組織和代理人等工具進行認知域作戰的新手段新技術新做法,做到防範在先、預見在前。

中國原創軍事資源:http://www.71.cn/2023/0425/1198888shtml

Chinese People’s Liberation Army Analysis of How Their Military Implements Strategic & Tactical Warfare

中國人民解放軍分析軍隊如何執行戰略戰術戰

現代漢語音譯:

To implement the general principle of “the CMC is in overall control, the theater commands are responsible for combat, and the services are responsible for construction,” the services need to accurately grasp the interaction between combat and construction, strengthen coordination with the theater commands, and form a work pattern with clear rights and responsibilities, positive interaction, smooth and efficient operations. They should focus their main tasks, main responsibilities, and main energy on building and managing the troops. They should always adhere to the principles of leading construction in accordance with combat, building for combat, managing for combat, and using construction to promote combat, comprehensively improve the level of practical military training, and provide theater commands with high-quality combat forces.

Get the coordinates of building for war

The coordinates are the direction of the times for building for war. Only when the direction is clear can the construction be accelerated according to the track. Entering the new era, the firepower intensity, mobility speed, strike accuracy and intelligence level of weapons and equipment have greatly increased, the battlefield space has been continuously expanded, the coupling of combat operations has become closer, and the battlefield situation has changed more rapidly. Wars have gradually shown the characteristics of platform combat, system support, tactical operations, and strategic guarantees. In particular, the use of intelligent, stealth, and unmanned combat, as well as aerospace forces, new concept weapons, and highly effective destructive ammunition have fundamentally changed the concept of war time and space. The war form has accelerated the evolution from mechanized informationization to informationization and intelligence, and intelligent warfare has begun to emerge. The main construction of the military service should be the combat effectiveness of informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, rather than the combat effectiveness of mechanized warfare. The military service should focus on informationized warfare with intelligent characteristics, turn its attention to intelligent military transformation, fully imagine the future war form, scale, intensity, spatial region, etc., and use concepts that transcend the times to lead the construction vision forward and forward; it is necessary to deeply study the victory mechanism, scientifically judge, and build what kind of troops are needed to win future wars, so as to be targeted.

Find the right target for construction

The target is not only a beacon of construction and development, but also a scale to test combat effectiveness. Only by setting up the correct target can the military build for war and guide the innovation and development of weapons and equipment, system organization and combat theory without deformation or distortion. The military builds for war, and the enemy is not an ordinary opponent, but a strong enemy in the world military game. This requires the military to build for war, and it must lock on the strong enemy, insist on focusing all its attention on defeating the strong enemy, and work hard to defeat the strong enemy. Closely aiming at the world’s first-class standards, the focus should be on firmly grasping the characteristics of future combat systems and system confrontations, exploring standardized and modular construction issues, and forming an integrated and linked system combat capability; focusing on the requirements of all-domain operations, focusing on tackling realistic issues such as rapid response, long-range delivery, and integrated support, and building a strong rapid and mobile cross-domain action capability. We must seize the key of balancing strong enemies, strengthen targeted research on strong enemies, focus on building what the enemy fears, and develop more things that can balance strong enemies. We must strive to have a chance of winning in battles, bargaining chips in negotiations, and confidence in deterrence. We must focus on solving bottleneck problems such as the construction of new forces of the military, the use of high-tech equipment, and information and intelligent integration, and comprehensively build a world-class military.

Innovation and construction as the forerunner of the war

Theory is the forerunner of practice, and scientific military theory is combat effectiveness. Whoever can grasp the pulse of future war development and possess superb war design capabilities will win the initiative in war and even the final victory. The military should build for war, and it cannot just go wherever it wants. It should put research and construction in a strategic position, carry out forward-looking, targeted, and reserve innovative research, propose new concepts, find new breakthroughs, and form innovative theories that are contemporary, leading, and unique. The military should build for war, and it must focus on the current practice and future development of war, clarify the vertical evolution axis, focus on shaping the future battlefield and changing the research of future combat rules, and promote the reshaping of concepts and the reconstruction of systems as soon as possible; focus on cutting-edge technology and future intelligent war design, and make great efforts to achieve major breakthroughs in new technologies and new forms of war; focus on continuously promoting the development of new concepts such as combat thinking, action style, and capability requirements, and form forward-looking thinking on future combat operations. At the same time, the new theories and concepts should be systematized and concretized, and become a “roadmap” for planning and designing the construction of force systems, the development of weapons and equipment, the transformation of military training, and the training of combat talents. It is necessary to form a closed loop from practice to theory and then from theory to practice, allow military theoretical research to draw rich nutrients from practice, allow advanced and mature theoretical results to enter the military decision-making and practical links, and achieve a virtuous interaction between theory and practice.

Build a hard core of construction for war

Science and technology are the most revolutionary force. Scientific and technological innovation has always been a race against time and speed. If you don’t work hard to innovate, you will fall behind and be beaten. If you innovate slowly, you will also fall behind and be beaten. Today, scientific and technological innovation has become the core strategy for many countries and militaries to seek advantages. The military must pay close attention to the leading role of science and technology in building for war. By integrating the most cutting-edge and even imagined future science and technology into the overall construction plan, it will lead the basic direction of construction and development, and actively explore the scientific and technological innovation path of using the future army to fight a future war with the future enemy; it must implement the strategy of strengthening the military with science and technology, demand combat effectiveness from scientific and technological innovation, vigorously cultivate new scientific and technological growth points, and strive to increase the contribution rate of scientific and technological innovation to the development of the combat effectiveness of the military; it must face the world’s scientific and technological frontiers, the main battlefields of the future, and the major needs of combat, accelerate the pace of innovation, and plan and demonstrate that one item must be launched, especially to let disruptive technology run ahead, strive to run faster, and win new advantages. Obviously, talent is the key to building a hard core for war. Talent is the most difficult preparation. Whoever has more high-quality new military talents will be able to gain or gain more winning opportunities on the battlefield in the future. We must accurately grasp the characteristics and laws of modern warfare and the requirements for military transformation and construction, so as to train the talents needed for war and prioritize the talents that are most in short supply, so that the supply side of talent training can be accurately matched with the demand side of future battlefields.

Laying a solid foundation for building for war

Fighting is hard-hitting, while training is practical. The root of “war” lies in “construction”, and the foundation of “construction” lies in “training”. Military training, as the regular and central work of the troops, is not only the basic way to generate and improve combat effectiveness, but also the most direct preparation for military struggle. In the new era, the form of war is accelerating towards informationization and intelligence, the mission and tasks of the army are constantly expanding, the level of informationization and intelligence of weapons and equipment is gradually improving, and the conditions for training support are gradually improving. It is urgent for the services to comprehensively upgrade their combat capabilities from considering the interaction of multiple fields such as the form of war, combat methods, weapons and equipment, and personnel quality, to analyzing the influence of many factors such as known and unknown, possible and impossible, and possible and impossible. To build for war, we must focus on training against strong enemies, practice reconnaissance, coordination, equipment, and support around the progress of the real enemy situation, practice strong force deployment, practice fast battlefield construction, practice real equipment data, and practice strong support support; we must aim at the latest enemy situation in multiple fields such as land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace, and carry out real, difficult, strict, and practical full-element training in the re-enactment of the scene, “fight” with strong enemies, and let the troops hone their skills and strengthen their strength in the real confrontation; we must pursue extreme training, constantly impact the limits of people and equipment, so that the physiological and psychological limits of officers and soldiers, the performance limits of equipment, and the combat effectiveness limits of the combination of people and weapons can be fully exerted. Only by using “forced to the extreme, difficult to the extreme” training to present all shortcomings and weaknesses and overcome them can we cope with the most brutal battlefield. Some tactics and methods trained beyond the limit are often the key move and fatal blow to defeat the enemy in actual combat.

Do a good job in coupling construction with combat

The fundamental purpose of war and construction is to be able to fight and win. We must accelerate the realization of functional coupling under the new system and work together to accelerate the generation of combat effectiveness. To build an army that adapts to future combat needs is to build troops that can complete future combat tasks and have corresponding combat capabilities. Combat requirements are the specific embodiment of such task requirements and capabilities. Construction for war should be based on the needs of fulfilling missions and tasks, and should be designed in advance for future combat military needs. Military needs should be used to guide various military constructions, and combat needs should be continuously refined and dynamically adjusted to promote the coupling of war and construction. By strengthening the demonstration and research of future combat needs and making good top-level planning, we can grasp the direction and focus of military construction in general, consider the comprehensive development of military weapons and equipment and personnel quality from a strategic height and long-term development, clarify the focus, insist on doing what we should do and not doing what we should not do, concentrate on developing strategic and key projects, give priority to emergency operations, correctly handle the primary and secondary, urgent and slow, light and heavy aspects of military construction, firmly grasp the main and key aspects, and promote coordinated and coordinated military construction, scientific and reasonable, standardized and orderly, and sustainable development. Scientific combat effectiveness assessment can not only scientifically and specifically understand the composition and strength of one’s own combat effectiveness, but also help to take targeted measures to promote the coupling of construction and combat, timely discover and correct deficiencies in construction, truly realize the scientific development, intensive and efficient development of the army, and promote combat effectiveness construction to a higher level.

Strictly grasp the test of building for war

Whether a unit is well built and has the ability to win a battle must ultimately be tested through military practice. After a comprehensive test of military practice, problems in unit construction will inevitably be exposed, thereby promoting the army to make corresponding adjustments in the content, focus and direction of construction. Through repeated tests of military practice, new requirements and new goals are constantly put forward for unit construction, thereby leading the development of unit construction to a higher stage. Make good use of network simulation confrontation test. The informatization and intelligence of network simulation confrontation make the cognition, decision-making, feedback, correction, and action of simulation confrontation more close to actual combat, revolutionize the process of military activities, and then have a positive effect on weapons and equipment, command and control, force organization and other fields, thereby promoting the continuous leap in the combat effectiveness of the troops, and even giving birth to new war styles and changing the mechanism of winning wars. Make good use of on-site live-fire exercises. As a pre-practice of future wars, live-fire exercises can not only effectively test the actual combat capabilities of the troops, but more importantly, they can discover some weak links in the construction of the troops, optimize and improve them in a targeted manner, and obtain the maximum combat effectiveness return. Make good use of war practice tests. The leading role of war practice in unit construction is irreplaceable. The harsh practice of war can truly test which troop construction is suitable and which is unsuitable for future wars, and then correct deviations and mistakes in many aspects such as construction guidance, construction focus, and construction methods, so as to prepare for winning the next war.

現代國語軍語:

貫徹「軍委管總、戰區主戰、軍種主建」總原則,軍種部隊需要準確掌握戰與建互動規律,加強同戰區對接,形成權責清晰、正向互動、順暢高效的工作格局,把主要任務、主要職責、主要精力放在建設、管理部隊上,始終堅持以戰領建、抓建為戰、抓管為戰、以建促戰,全面提高軍事訓練實戰化水平,為戰區提供優質作戰力量。

把準抓建為戰的座標

座標是抓建為戰的時代方位,只有方位明晰,建設才能依軌加速。進入新時代,武器裝備的火力強度、機動速度、打擊精度、智能化程度大幅躍升,戰場空間不斷拓展,作戰行動耦合更加緊密,戰場態勢變換更加迅速,戰爭逐漸呈現出平台作戰、體系支撐,戰術行動、戰略保障等特點,特別是智能化、隱身化、無人化作戰以及空天力量、新概念武器、高效毀傷彈藥的運用,從根本上改變了戰爭時空概念,戰爭形態加速由機械化信息化朝向資訊化智能化演變,智能化戰爭初見端倪。軍種主建,建的應是具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的戰鬥力,而不是機械化戰爭的戰鬥力。軍種抓建為戰,必須聚焦具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭,把目光投向智慧化軍事變革,充分設想未來戰爭形態、規模、強度、空間地域等,用超越時代的理念,引領建設視野向前再向前;必須深研製勝機理,科學研判,打贏未來戰爭需要什麼部隊就建設什麼部隊,做到有的放矢。

找準抓建為戰的靶標

標靶既是建設發展的燈塔,也是檢驗戰鬥力的天秤。只有樹立正確靶標,軍種抓建為戰才能有的放矢,不變形、不走樣地牽引武器裝備、體制編制和作戰理論創新發展。軍種抓建為戰,戰的不是一般對手,而是世界軍事賽場上的強敵。這就要求軍種抓建為戰,必然要鎖定強敵,堅持全部心思向打敗強敵聚焦、各項工作向戰勝強敵用勁。緊緊瞄準世界級標準,重點要牢牢把握未來作戰體系與體系對抗的特徵,探索標準化、模組化建設問題,形成一體聯動的體係作戰能力;圍繞全局作戰要求,聚力攻關快速反應、遠程投送、融合保障等現實課題,建強快速機動跨域行動能力。抓住制衡強敵這個關鍵,加強對強敵的針對性研究,堅持敵人怕什麼就重點建什麼,發展什麼能製衡強敵就多備幾手,力求做到戰有勝算、談有籌碼、懾有底氣,著力解決軍種新型力量建設、高新裝備運用、資訊智慧整合等瓶頸問題,全面建成世界一流軍隊。

創新抓建為戰的先導

理論是實踐的先導​​,科學的軍事理論就是戰鬥力。誰能把準未來戰爭的發展脈動、擁有高超的戰爭設計能力,誰就能贏得戰爭的主動權甚至最後的勝利。軍種抓建為戰,不能走到哪算哪,要把研戰謀建擺在戰略位置,開展前瞻性、針對性、儲備性創新研究,提出新概念、尋找新突破,形成具有時代性、引領性、獨特性的創新理論。軍種抓建為戰,必須著眼戰爭當前實踐和未來發展,理清縱向演進軸線,把重點放在塑造未來戰場、改變未來作戰規則研究上,盡快推動觀念重塑、體系重構;放在聚焦前沿科技領域、未來智慧化戰爭設計上,下氣力在戰爭新技術、新形態方面實現重大突破;放在持續推進作戰思想、行動樣式、能力需求等新概念的開發上,形成對未來作戰行動的前瞻性思考。同時把新理論新概念體系化、具體化,成為規劃設計力量體系建構、武器裝備發展、軍事訓練轉變、作戰人才培育的「路線圖」。要形成從實踐到理論、再從理論到實踐的閉環迴路,讓軍事理論研究從實踐中汲取豐厚養分,讓先進成熟的理論成果進入軍事決策和實踐環節,實現理論和實踐良性互動。

打造抓建為戰的硬核

科技是最具革命性的力量。科技創新歷來是與時間和速度的賽跑。不努力創新就會落後挨打,創新速度慢了也同樣會落後挨打。今天,科技創新已成為許多國家和軍隊尋求優勢的核心策略。軍種抓建為戰,必須高度關注科技引領作用的發揮,透過把當前最前沿甚至是設想中的未來科學技術融入建設整體規劃之中,引領建設發展的基本方向,積極探索用未來的我軍與未來的敵人打一場未來戰爭的科技創新路徑;必須落實科技強軍戰略,向科技創新要戰鬥力,大力培育新的科技增長點,著力提高科技創新對軍種戰鬥力發展的貢獻率;必鬚麵向世界科技前沿、面向未來主要戰場、面向作戰重大需求,加快創新速度,規劃論證好一項就要上馬一項,特別是要讓顛覆性技術跑在前面,力爭跑出加速度,贏得新優勢。顯然,打造抓建為戰的硬核,人才是關鍵。人才是最艱鉅的準備,誰擁有更多高素質新型軍事人才,誰就能在未來戰場上提早獲得或多獲得一些致勝先機。要準確掌握現代戰爭特徵規律和軍種轉型建設要求,做到打仗需要什麼人才就培養什麼人才、什麼人才最緊缺就優先鍛造什麼人才,使人才培養供給側同未來戰場需求側精準對接。

夯實抓建為戰的根基

打仗硬碰硬,訓練實打實。 「戰」的根本在於「建」,「建」的基礎在於「練」。軍事訓練作為部隊的經常性中心工作,既是產生和提高戰鬥力的基本途徑,也是最直接的軍事鬥爭準備。新時代,戰爭形態加速向資訊化智能化發展,軍隊使命任務不斷拓展,武器裝備資訊化智能化水準逐步提高,訓練保障條件逐步改善,迫切需要軍種部隊從考慮戰爭形態、作戰方法、武器裝備、人員素質等多個領域的相互作用,到分析已知與未知、可能與不可能、可為與不可為等諸多因素的影響,全面升級實戰能力。抓建為戰,必須聚焦強敵練兵,圍繞真實敵情的進展,練偵察、練協同、練裝備、練保障,練實力量布勢、練快戰場建設、練真裝備數據、練強保障支撐;必須瞄準陸海空及太空、網路空間等多領域最新敵情,在情景重現中開展真、難、嚴、實的全要素訓練,與強敵“過招”,讓部隊在真刀真槍對抗中礪功、強實力;必須追求極限訓練,不斷向人和裝備極限衝擊,使官兵的生理心理極限、裝備的性能極限、人與武器結合的戰鬥力極限全面迸發。唯有用「逼到絕境、難到極致」的訓練呈現所有短板弱項,並加以克服,才能應付最殘酷的戰場。一些超越極限訓出的戰術戰法,往往是實戰中勝敵的關鍵一招、致命一擊。

搞好抓建為戰的耦合

戰與建,根本目的都是為了能打仗、打勝仗,必須在新體制下加快實現功能耦合,為加速戰鬥力生成共同發力。建構適應未來作戰需求的軍隊,說到底是建設能完成未來作戰任務、具備相應作戰能力的部隊,作戰需求就是這種任務需求和能力的具體展現。抓建為戰應根據履行使命任務需要,針對未來作戰軍事需求超前設計,以軍事需求牽引軍隊各項建設,不斷細化和動態化調整作戰需求促進戰建耦合。透過加強未來作戰需求論證研究搞好頂層規劃,從整體上把握軍隊建設的方向和重點,從戰略高度和長遠發展考慮軍隊武器裝備、人員素質的全面發展,明確重點,堅持有所為有所不為,集中力量發展戰略性、關鍵性項目,優先保障應急作戰,正確處理軍隊建設的主與次、急與緩、輕與重,緊緊抓住主要的、關鍵的,推動軍隊建設協調配套,科學合理,規範有序,持續發展。科學的戰鬥力評估不僅能夠科學具體地認識己方戰鬥力的組成及其強弱,還有利於採取針對性措施促進抓建為戰的耦合,及時發現並糾正建設中的不足,真正實現軍隊建設的科學發展、集約高效,促進戰鬥力建設上台階。

嚴格抓建為戰的檢驗

一支部隊建設得好不好,是不是已經具備打勝仗的能力,最終還是要透過軍事實踐來檢驗。經過軍事實踐的全面檢驗,必然暴露部隊建設上存在的問題,從而推動軍隊在建設內容、重點、方向上做出相應的調整。透過這樣一次次軍事實踐的反覆檢驗,不斷地給部隊建設提出新要求新目標,由此引領部隊建設向著更高的階段發展。用好網路模擬對抗檢驗。網路模擬對抗資訊智慧化,使得模擬對抗的認知、決策、回饋、修正、行動等更趨於實戰,革命性地改造軍事活動流程,進而對武器裝備、指揮控制、力量編組等多個領域產生正面作用,由此促進部隊戰鬥力不斷躍升,甚至催生新的戰爭樣式、改變戰爭制勝機制。用好現地實兵演習檢驗。作為未來戰爭的預實踐,實兵演習不僅能有效檢驗部隊的實戰能力,更為重要的,是能發現部隊建設中存在的一些薄弱環節,有針對性地加以優化改進,獲得最大限度的戰鬥力回報。用好戰爭實踐檢驗。戰爭實踐對部隊建設的引領作用不可取代。嚴酷的戰爭實踐,可以真正檢驗部隊建設哪些適合、哪些不適合未來戰爭,進而修正在建設指導、建設重點、建設方法等諸多方面的偏差和失誤,為打贏下一場戰爭做好準備。

中國軍事資源:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/48713888.html

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:王雪平  許炎 朱曉萌 責任編輯:

喬楠楠 2020-09-17 08:38:16

Chinese Military Focuses On Information Networks as Emphasis to Winning the Cognitive War

中國軍隊以資訊網為打贏認知戰爭的重點

國語音譯:

In today’s era of integrated development of informatization and intelligence, information networks will play an irreplaceable and important role in cognitive warfare with their advantages of deep reach, wide audience, and strong interactivity. With the blessing of information networks, cognitive warfare will be even more powerful and at ease. A deep understanding of the mechanisms, basic forms, methods and means of information networks’ role in cognitive warfare will help to timely grasp the initiative in cognitive warfare and lay the foundation for victory.

The Mechanism and Law of Information Network Cognitive Warfare

The essence of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks is to provide massive amounts of information through core algorithms, create biased cognitive scenarios, and influence the thinking and cognition of people and intelligent machines. This process integrates the operating rules of information networks and the internal mechanisms of thinking and cognition, has strong predictability, and is the underlying architecture and key point that must be grasped in information network cognitive warfare.

Sticky effects based on path dependence. The highly developed information network in today’s society provides an inseparable platform for people to study, work, live, and entertain, as well as for military construction, operations, and military struggle preparations, forming an interconnected path dependence between them. With information as the core and the Internet as the medium, this platform connects different groups of people, societies, countries, including the military, through invisible stickiness. It not only opens up the entire world into a closely connected global village, but also objectively provides a basis for carrying out cognitive operations. , influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, and provide a bridge and link to win the cognitive war. In 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton delivered an “Internet Freedom” speech, advocating the “Internet Freedom” strategy in an attempt to use the channel formed by people’s high dependence on the Internet to influence the thinking and cognition of people in rival countries, especially the younger generation, and spread American values. .

Interactive influence based on information exchange. Education believes that interactive communication can effectively overcome the cognitive barriers formed by one-way information transmission, reach consensus, form empathy, and strengthen empathy through information exchange, emotional integration, and mutual promotion of needs. A big difference between information networks and traditional communication media is that they provide a carrier that can interact and communicate on a large scale, at a fast pace, and with high efficiency. In this carrier, the information-dominant party can repeatedly confirm the influence, adjust methods and strategies, and intervene in the thinking and cognition of the other party through the interactive mechanism provided by the carrier based on the other party’s ideological fluctuations, emotional changes, attitude feedback, etc. For a long time, the United States has maintained a “engagement + containment” strategy toward China. One of the important considerations is that this kind of contact can effectively overcome the communication barriers and information gaps formed by simple blockade and confrontation, enhance the interaction between the two governments and the people, and thus find opportunities to open gaps and influence our ideas and ideologies. Although this strategy occurs in the traditional field, it is inherently consistent with the interactive influence mechanism of information networks based on information exchange.

Induced influence based on preset scenarios. The concealment, virtuality and permeability of information networks enable their controllers to create highly deceptive, tempting and inflammatory information scenarios through technical and strategic means such as water army flooding, information filtering and “fishing in troubled waters”, so that the opponent is deeply trapped in it without knowing it, but develops towards the preset process and results. This directional manipulation of information networks can subtly and efficiently influence, infect and shape the opponent’s thinking and cognition, so that they are unconsciously led by the rhythm, and achieve a much better combat effect than confrontation. On the eve of the Iraq War, the US media spread false information such as the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq through the Internet and other platforms, accusing the Saddam regime of collusion with al-Qaeda, corruption, and unprovoked killing of the Iraqi people. At the same time, they tried every means to cover up the truth, filter out the anti-war voices of their own people, and strive to create an atmosphere that the Saddam regime is evil and hateful and the whole United States is united against the enemy.

The basic form of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks

The laws of war and the winning mechanism determine the basic shape of war. The regular mechanism of information network’s role in cognitive warfare inherently determines the external form of this kind of war. The most basic and representative ones include information confusion warfare, thinking misleading warfare and will-destroying warfare.

Information confusion war. It is to infuse the network with a large amount of complex information that combines reality and reality, and is both real and illusory, causing the enemy’s information network capacity to be overloaded, dysfunctional, and out of order, or causing specific audiences to become “deaf, blind, and insensible,” causing cognitive congestion and cognitive impairment. and impaired decision-making and judgment. This form of war is often used in the early stages of combat and on opaque battlefields. The party with information superiority can cause the enemy to fall into a state of confusion and panic, resulting in loss of perception, loss of thinking, and confusion. According to Bloomberg, the Space Force, the newly established sixth military branch of the United States, plans to purchase 48 jamming systems by 2027, aiming to interfere with satellite signals of major powers “in the event of conflict.” The military forces of many countries generally feel that the information they obtain now is not too little but too much. The huge amount of information coming from all directions has caused huge pressure on situational awareness and analysis and judgment.

War of misleading thinking. It is to form a tendentious information scene by instilling specific information containing the intention of the information network controller, misleading, deceiving and influencing the thinking and ideas of specific countries, armies and people, causing them to deviate from the correct development track and move in a direction that is beneficial to oneself and harmful to the enemy. The direction deviation is the highest state and common practice of cognitive attack. This kind of misdirection is premised on strong external pressure, based on specious strategies, and uses mixed information as a weapon. It targets the opponent’s thinking characteristics and weak links to implement clearly oriented deception, causing the opponent to lose its way in tension and panic. Unknowingly fell into the “trap”. In recent years, while implementing the strategy of great power competition, some countries have used online trolls to fabricate false information, create false information, and spread true rumors to stir up trouble around our country and instigate some countries that have had grievances with our country in history and friction in reality. The purpose of provoking quarrels and provoking troubles is to induce us to divert our attention, weaken the investment of resources and strength in the main strategic directions, deviate from the track of rejuvenation of a strong country, and seek to reap the benefits of the fishermen.

Will-destroying war. Futurist Alfred Toffler said that whoever controls the human mind controls the entire world. War is ultimately a confrontation between people. People’s psychological activities greatly affect their mental state, which in turn affects their will to fight. Will-destroying war is different from traditional warfare that indirectly affects people’s will through material destruction. It directly affects the psychological activities, mental state and thinking decisions of key figures, affecting military morale, fighting will and combat operations. With the development of science and technology and social progress, the intervention in people’s will has evolved from the traditional strategy-based intervention to the “technology + strategy” stage. More than ten years ago, scientists developed a “sound wave cluster” weapon that emits extremely narrow sound wave “sound columns” from hundreds of meters away through an electromagnetic network, interfering with the enemy’s judgment and even causing strong-willed soldiers to become insane. In recent years, studies have shown that artificial speech synthesis technology based on brain wave signals can extract signals from the brain and synthesize speech that humans can directly understand.

Information network plays a major role in cognitive warfare

“Technology + strategy” constitutes the basic means of modern cognitive warfare. As a product of the development of modern science and technology, the information network’s role in cognitive warfare is mainly reflected in “technology + strategy”. This provides a basic entry point for us to understand and grasp the methods and scientific paths of the role of information networks in cognitive warfare, so as to win the war.

Big data shaping. As the core component of information networks, data is not only the carrier of information, but also the “new oil” that drives the value of information networks, and is the basic ammunition for cognitive warfare. By constructing complex information scenarios for my own use through massive data, it can confuse the opponent’s thinking, mislead and deceive the opponent’s thinking, or destroy belief and will, which constitutes the basic logic of cognitive warfare in the role of information networks. In this logical architecture, data is undoubtedly the most basic resource and the core element. A few years ago, authoritative departments calculated that the world produces about 2.5 exabytes (EB) of data every day, of which only 20% is structured data that can be directly utilized, and the remaining 80% needs to be analyzed, screened, and screened. These geometrically growing data resources provide inexhaustible “data ammunition” for shaping data information scenarios and implementing cognitive warfare.

Intelligent push. In the information network era, intelligent push has become a convenient channel for people to absorb external information, gain thinking recognition, emotional resonance, and influence others’ thinking cognition. Using advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence to collect, organize, and analyze people’s thinking inertia and behavioral preference data, forming anthropomorphic customized perception push, can produce an “echo wall” of social cognitive convergence and an information cocoon that shackles people. At the same time, it is also conducive to empathizing with others, understanding the opponent’s thinking trends and possible actions, and taking targeted countermeasures. In life, we all have the experience of a large amount of similar information being pushed in after shopping online or searching for a certain type of information once or several times. This intelligent push method is applied to cognitive operations, which can easily enable the information leader to use information network data to make forward-looking analysis and judgment on the decisions and actions that the command and decision-making level of the combat target may make, and induce them to make the decision actions they want to see or make corresponding countermeasures in advance.

Emotionally imbued. Freud said that we are not pure intelligence, pure soul, but a collection of impulses. In the information network space, conceptual cognition that can be widely and rapidly spread is often not a calm, rational and objective thinking analysis, but mostly impulsive and irrational emotional mobilization. This is determined by the fast pace of information dissemination and news release “pre-emptively”. The cognitive need to respond quickly to this information, in turn, leads to “fast thinking” conditioned reflexes, impulsive, and emotional reactions, transforming seemingly isolated social cases into strongly oppressive, inciting psychological suggestions and Behavior-driven, explosive behavior prompts irrational decision-making. A diplomatic cable disclosed by WikiLeaks in June 2009 described an extravagant banquet for the Ben Ali regime in Tunisia and described the regime as a “mafia” of corruption and tyranny, which deepened the resentment of the country’s citizens. Emotions thus became an important driver of the “Jasmine Revolution” that overthrew Ben Ali’s regime.

原始繁體中文:

在資訊化智慧化融合發展的當今時代,資訊網絡以其觸角深、受眾廣、互動性強等優勢,在認知戰中將發揮無可取代的重要作用。有了資訊網絡的加持,認知戰將如虎添翼、如魚得水。深刻掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的機制法則、基本形態、方法手段等,有助於及時掌控認知戰主動權,為贏得勝利奠定基礎。

資訊網路作用認知戰的機理規律

資訊網路作用認知戰的本質在於透過核心演算法,提供大量訊息,營造傾向性認知場景,影響人和智慧機器的思考認知。這個過程融合資訊網路運作規律和思考認知內在機理,具有很強的可預測性,是資訊網路認知戰必須掌握的底層架構和關鍵之點。

基於路徑依賴的粘性影響。當今社會高度發展的資訊網絡,提供了一個人們學習、工作、生活、娛樂,軍隊建設、作戰和軍事鬥爭準備須臾離不開的平台,在彼此之間形成一個互聯互通的路徑依賴。這個平台以資訊為核子、網路為媒,透過無形的黏性把不同人群、社會、國家包括軍隊連結在一起,既將整個世界打通成一個緊密聯繫的地球村,客觀上也為開展認知作戰、影響對手思維認知、制勝認知戰爭提供了橋樑和紐帶。 2009年美國國務卿希拉蕊曾發表「網路自由」演說,鼓吹「網路自由」策略,企圖利用人們對網路的高度依賴形成的作用通道,影響對手國民眾特別是青年世代的思維認知,傳播美式價值觀。

基於資訊交換的互動影響。教育學認為,互動交流能有效克服訊息單向傳遞所形成的認知屏障,在彼此訊息交換、情感融通、需求相促中達成共識、形成同理心、強化同理。資訊網路與傳統溝通溝通媒介的一個很大不同,在於提供了一個能大範圍、快節奏、高效率互動交流的載體。在這載體中,資訊強勢一方能透過載體提供的互動機制,依據另一方的思想波動、情緒變化、態度回饋等,反覆確認影響,調整方法策略,介入另一方的思考認知。長期以來,美國對華保持「接觸+遏制」策略,一個很重要的考慮就在於這種接觸能有效克服單純封鎖對抗形成的溝通壁壘和資訊鴻溝,增強兩國政府和民眾之間的互動,從而尋找機會打開缺口,影響我們的思想觀念和意識形態。這項策略雖然發生在傳統領域,但與資訊網路基於資訊交換的互動影響機理內在一致。

基於預設場景的誘導影響。資訊網路的隱密性、虛擬性、滲透性,使其掌控者能透過水軍灌水、資訊過濾、「渾水摸魚」等技術和謀略手段,營造極具欺騙性、誘惑性、煽動性的資訊場景,使對手深陷其中而不自知,反而朝著預設的過程和結果發展。這種對資訊網路的指向性操控,能潛移默化地高效影響、感染和塑造對手的思維認知,使之不知不覺被帶節奏,收到遠比對抗硬槓好得多的作戰效果。伊拉克戰爭前夕,美國媒體透過網路等平台大肆散佈伊拉克存在大規模殺傷性武器等虛假訊息,指責薩達姆政權與蓋達組織相互勾連、腐敗成風,還無端殘害伊拉克人民,同時又想方設法掩蓋事實真相,過濾本國人民的反戰聲音,極力營造薩達姆政權邪惡可恨、全美上下同仇敵愾的氛圍。

資訊網路作用認知戰的基本形態

戰爭規律和致勝機制決定戰爭的基本形態。資訊網路作用認知戰的規律機制內在規定這種戰爭的外在呈現形態。其中最基本、最具代表性的包括資訊迷茫、思維誤導戰和意志毀傷戰。

資訊迷茫戰。就是用海量虛實結合、亦真亦幻的複雜信息灌注網絡,使敵對方信息網絡容量過載、功能失常、運轉失序,或導致特定受眾對象“失聰失明失感”、認知能力擁堵、思維認知和決策判斷受阻。這戰爭形態常用於作戰初期和不透明戰場,擁有資訊優勢的一方能使敵對方陷入茫然不知所措的恐慌狀態,從而感知失靈、思維失據、自亂陣腳。彭博社稱,美國成立不久的第六大軍種——太空軍,計劃2027年前採購48套幹擾系統,旨在“與大國發生衝突情況下”,幹擾迷茫其衛星信號。不少國家軍隊普遍感到,現在獲取的資訊不是太少了而是太多了,來自四面八方的巨量資訊大量聚集,給態勢感知和分析判斷造成巨大壓力。

思維誤導戰。就是透過灌輸包含資訊網路掌控方意圖指向的特定訊息,形成傾向性訊息場景,誤導欺騙和影響特定國家、軍隊和人群思維理念,使之偏離正確發展軌道,朝著於己有利、於敵有損的方向偏移,是認知攻擊的最高境界和慣常做法。這種誤導以強大的外部壓力為前提,以似是而非的策略為基礎,以摻雜水分的信息為武器,針對對手思維特點和薄弱環節,實施導向鮮明的誘騙,使對手在緊張慌亂中迷失方向,不知不覺落入「圈套」。這些年來,一些國家在實施大國競爭戰略的同時,透過網路水軍虛構假情況、製造假資訊、散佈真謠言,在我國週邊煽風點火,鼓動一些在歷史上與我國有積怨、現實中有摩擦的國家尋覓滋事,目的就是要誘導我們轉移注意力,削弱在主要戰略方向上的資源力量投入,偏離強國復興的軌道,謀取漁翁之利。

意志毀傷戰。未來學家托夫勒說,誰控制了人的心理,誰就控制了整個世界。戰爭說到底是人與人的對抗,人的心理活動很大程度影響人的精神狀態,進而影響作戰意志。意志毀傷戰與傳統作戰透過物質摧毀間接影響人的意志不同,它透過直接影響關鍵人物的心理活動、精神狀態和思考決策,影響軍心士氣、戰鬥意志和作戰行動。隨著科技發展和社會進步,對人的意志的干預,已經由傳統以謀略為主演進到“技術+謀略”階段。早在十多年前就有科學家研製出“聲波集束”武器,通過電磁網絡從數百米外發射極為狹窄的聲波“音柱”,幹擾敵人判斷甚至使意志堅強的軍人精神錯亂。近年來有研究表明,基於腦電波訊號的人工語音合成技術可提取大腦中的訊號,合成人類能夠直接理解的語音。

資訊網路作用認知戰的主要手段

「技術+謀略」構成現代認知戰的基本手段。資訊網絡作為現代科技發展的產物,其對認知戰的作用手段也主要體現在「技術+謀略」上。這為我們認識和掌握資訊網路作用認知戰的方式方法、科學路徑,從而製勝戰爭提供了基本切入點。

大數據構塑。數據作為資訊網路的核心構件,不僅是資訊的載體,而且是資訊網路價值驅動的“新石油”,更是作用認知戰的基本彈藥。透過大量資料構塑為我所用的複雜資訊場景,或對對手進行思維認知迷茫,或給予思維誤導欺騙,或進行信念意志摧毀,構成資訊網路作用認知戰的基本邏輯。在這邏輯架構中,資料無疑是最基礎的資源、最核心的元素。遠在幾年前,權威部門就統計,全球每天生產約2.5艾字節(EB)的數據,其中僅20%是可以直接利用的結構化數據,其餘80%則需要進行分析、甄別、篩選。這些幾何級數成長湧現的資料資源,為構塑資料資訊場景、實施認知戰提供了取之不盡用之不竭的「資料彈藥」。

智能化推送。資訊網路時代,智慧化推播成為人們攝取外在訊息,獲得思維認同、情感共鳴、影響他人思維認知的便捷管道。運用人工智慧等先進技術收集、整理、分析人的思維慣性、行為偏好數據,形成擬人化客製化感知推送,能夠產生社會認知趨同的「回音壁」和桎梏人的信息繭房,同時也有利於推己及人、了解對手的思維趨向和可能行動,有針對性地採取應對措施。生活中,我們都有一次或幾次網上購物、搜索某類信息後,大量類同信息推送進來的經歷,這種智能化推送手段應用到認知作戰中,很容易使信息主導方通過信息網絡數據,對作戰對象指揮決策層可能作出的決策、採取的行動等予以前瞻分析研判,誘導其作出希望看到的決策行動或預先作出相應的應對措施。

情緒浸染。佛洛伊德說,我們不是純粹的智慧、純粹的靈魂,而是衝動的集合。在資訊網路空間,能夠得到廣泛且快速傳播的觀念認知,往往不是冷靜理性客觀的思考分析,多是衝動非理性的情緒情緒動員。這是由資訊傳播、新聞發布「先發制人」的快節奏決定的。對這些資訊做出快速反應的認知需求,反過來又導致「快速思維」條件反射性、衝動性、情緒化反應,將看似孤立的社會個案轉化為具有強烈壓迫性、煽動性的心理暗示和行為驅動,暴發性催生非理性決策行動。 2009年6月維基解密披露的一份外交電文中,描繪了突尼斯本·阿里政權家族宴會的奢靡場景,並煞有介事地將該政權形容為腐敗暴政的“黑手黨”,這加深了該國國民怨恨情緒,因而成為引燃推翻本·阿里政權的「茉莉花革命」重要推手。

中國國防部資源:

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-11/18/content_303888.htm

Chinese Military Success in Confident Cognitive Confrontation Conflict

中國軍隊在自信認知對抗衝突中取得成功

現代英語音譯:

Looking at the war conflicts that have broken out in recent years, the cognitive domain as an independent domain has become a battleground for various countries, and cognitive confrontation has become the focus of both sides’ offensive and defensive actions. In essence, cognitive domain operations mainly achieve the purpose of taking the cognitive initiative and defeating the opponent by influencing and shaping the opponent’s thinking, psychology, beliefs, and will, and then influencing and changing his decision-making and actions. At present, cognitive domain operations are gradually showing outstanding features such as rich content, diverse means, and concealed forms. In-depth study of the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and seizing the initiative in cognitive domain operations are the key to winning future informationized and intelligent wars.

Adapt to the situation, develop and innovate winning concepts

Military practice has repeatedly proven that the outcome of a war is not only a confrontation of military strength and weapons, but also a contest of ways of thinking and combat concepts. To occupy a dominant and proactive position in the field of cognition, it is particularly critical at present to establish new guiding concepts that are suitable for the information age.

Gather energy and excellence. Concentrating energy and excellence is an innovative development of the traditional concentration of superior forces. It is not only an important guideline for winning information wars with intelligent characteristics, but also a key move to seize the comprehensive advantage of cognitive confrontation. In recent years, technologies such as information networks and cluster control have become increasingly mature, continuously promoting the transformation of operations into wide-area distribution and real-time optimization. In line with this, under the cognitive domain, more emphasis should be placed on comprehensively implementing policies, gathering energy across domains, and seizing advantages at decisive nodes and hubs to achieve quick control and quick decisions to win.

Data leads. As a new type of war resource, data has become the basis for modern war command decisions and the blood of system operation. Giving full play to the advantages of data resources and taking the initiative in cognitive domain operations is an important part of seizing the strategic commanding heights. It is necessary to further strengthen data awareness and data thinking, strive to improve the literacy of data decision-making and data guidance, and truly make data a “boost” for cognitive victory.

Intelligent collaboration. The continuous development of artificial intelligence technology and the continuous enhancement of autonomous perception, decision-making, and evaluation capabilities based on network information systems are promoting the maturity of man-machine dynamic sharing of information, intelligent planning and assignment of tasks, and close collaboration and precise attack. In the cognitive domain, intelligent collaboration will become an important starting point. Information integration, human-machine collaboration, optimal decision-making, and real-time mutual assistance will become necessary means to gain the upper hand on the battlefield, take the initiative, and seek victory.

Follow the inherent rules and closely follow the value of offense and defense

Cognitive domain operations do not exist independently, but enter the perceptual space through physical domain actions and information domain flows, influencing the opponent’s value judgment and changing the opponent’s cognitive system in cognitive offense and defense, thereby triggering the opponent’s cognitive “avalanche” effect, putting the opponent in a “land of defeat” situation. For this purpose, it is necessary to conduct in-depth research and analysis of the opponent’s political, economic, military, cultural and other factors, discover the core values ​​that affect the opponent’s combat cognition, and then comprehensively adopt strategies, technologies and other means to deeply influence and shape the opponent’s thinking cognition and value judgment.

It must be noted that the release of operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain is often highly durable. Only by adopting a series of uninterrupted, normalized and flexible means based on foresight and long-term planning, can we gradually build common values ​​​​within the opponent. In order to have an impact, we can achieve the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations. In the information age, Western developed countries often use network communication technology to subtly influence and shape the thinking, cognition, and value system of their opponents, thereby shaking the ideological and cultural foundation of their opponents and building the basis of public opinion for cognitive domain operations. The many “color revolutions” that have occurred around the world in recent years are largely the result of Western countries’ long-term infiltration and manipulation of public opinion and the gradual release of their operational effectiveness in the cognitive domain.

There is no doubt that the confrontation that occurs in the cognitive domain ultimately affects the human brain, affecting people’s emotions, motivations, judgments and actions, and even controlling people’s thinking. Because of this, some people believe that as the engine of cognition, the “brain” may become the main target and main battlefield in future wars. It is worth noting that a distinctive feature of modern cognitive domain operations is the increasing frequency of technology applications and its prominent role. Especially with the in-depth intervention of information technology, artificial intelligence, etc., cognitive domain operations will pay more attention to the competition of comprehensive technical strength. From this perspective, only by seeking breakthroughs and taking the initiative in cognitive technologies such as big data, cloud computing, information networks, artificial intelligence, brain control, and the metaverse can we gain cognitive advantages.

Focus on maximum efficiency and adhere to the combination of software and hardware

Cognitive space is highly scalable, but in essence it is still a mapping of human activities and social relationships, closely related to and interacting with the real world. Without strong support from specific military operations in the physical domain, operations in the cognitive domain will ultimately be difficult to produce real results. From this perspective, cognitive domain operations are not isolated actions. Only by clarifying the inherent laws of the comprehensive application of soft power in the cognitive domain and hard power in the physical domain, integrating cognitive offense and defense into the joint operations chain, and realizing the close integration of combat forces in different fields, Only through mutual support and organic integration can the maximum effectiveness of cognitive domain operations be achieved.

In the information age, the focus of cognitive confrontation is not simply to completely eliminate the enemy, but to put more emphasis on accurately releasing combat energy through precise time, precise information and precise actions, thereby depriving or reducing the enemy’s decision-making ability. On the one hand, we must focus on making full use of asymmetric means to destroy the enemy’s intelligence, command, communication, strike, and support links through efficient and fast operations in land, sea, air, space and other tangible combat domains, destroy the enemy’s war potential foundation, and firmly establish Seize the initiative on the battlefield. On the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize taking precautions, arranging virtual space confrontations in advance, always paying attention to spiritual and will confrontations, and actively seeking ways to form strong psychological oppression and disintegrate the opponent’s will to resist. In order to achieve the superposition of the two effects, we should pay close attention to the linkage and cooperation between the signal fire strike in the physical domain and the comprehensive destruction and paralysis in the cognitive domain, closely track the effects of accurately attacking the enemy’s decision-making, actions, spirit and beliefs based on the network information system, and be proactive Explore the strategy of fighting with the fundamental purpose of conquering the heart and mind.

Targeting system operation paralyzes fighting will

No matter how the times develop and technology advances, people are always the decisive factor in the outcome of a war and the core force supporting the operation of the combat system. Among them, the will to fight can be said to be the spiritual core that supports combat. Cognitive domain operations require a wide range of measures, especially the use of intelligence warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare, network warfare and other lethal means to attack, weaken and deprive the enemy of the spiritual core of its fighting will, so that it can It surrendered psychologically and volitionally, and eventually led to the collapse of its combat system.

Cognitive domain operations in the information age have the characteristics of large-scale and all-domain operations. Depriving the enemy of the will to fight emphasizes interference, influence, and control in multiple fields, multiple dimensions, and multiple time periods, and achieves awareness of the enemy through overall joint efforts. advantages to realize one’s own combat plans. For example, we can accurately grasp the opponent’s cognitive foundation, thinking patterns, cultural habits, etc., and take targeted actions such as creating a situation, changing the atmosphere, stimulating psychology, and penetrating and corroding to disintegrate the integrity and unity of the opponent’s cognitive system and strongly weaken the opponent’s determination and will. Another example is to widely adopt various cognitive means and actively use offensive operations in the physical domain and information domain to powerfully destroy the opponent’s key nodes, interfere with the opponent’s cognitive judgment, and delay the opponent’s effective response to destroy and deprive its soldiers of morale. We can also adopt targeted strategies based on the opponent’s traditional culture, rational logic, and personality shortcomings, and carry out step-by-step and systematic actions at all levels in the military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and public sentiment areas, and formulate a new model by changing the original cognition. Effective control to dissolve and soften their will to fight. With the in-depth development of technology, cognitive equipment represented by brain-controlled weapons in the future may have the ability to directly interfere with or control the enemy’s brain cognition, not only causing confusion in their consciousness, but even inducing them to take actions that violate the common sense of war. .

Focus on proactive adaptation and optimization of combat design

Although cognitive domain operations play an increasingly prominent role in modern warfare, it cannot be assumed that cognitive domain operations are omnipotent or even replace traditional combat operations. The realization of the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is a complex system engineering. In order to take the cognitive initiative and adapt to information warfare, we must proceed from the strategic overall situation and strive to optimize combat design in practice.

Integration of skills. In cognitive domain operations, the use of strategy is an inherent part of it. Although technical factors are increasingly important in modern cognitive domain operations, the role of strategy is still difficult to replace. It can be said that the development and evolution process of cognitive domain operations is, to some extent, a process of mutual promotion and close integration of strategy and technology. In this process, strategies are enriched by the addition of technology, and technology becomes stronger by the application of strategies. To grasp the cognitive initiative and fight the battle of cognitive initiative, we must not only make good use of strategies, but also strengthen the application of technology, organically combine strategy and technology, and strive to strengthen the comprehensive effectiveness of cognitive offense and defense.

Combination of offense and defense. Cognitive domain operations are a unity of opposites between offense and defense. They are cognitive offensive and defensive activities that carry out influence and counter-influence, penetration and counter-infiltration, destruction and counter-destruction, control and counter-control in the cognitive space. It is necessary to clearly understand the strengths and weaknesses of the opponent, seize the cognitive loopholes of the opponent, and concentrate on pursuing and attacking them to paralyze their psychological defenses and fully occupy the cognitive initiative. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the quasi-offensive and defensive conversion nodes and strengthen global cognitive protection. We must stick to our own perceptions, clearly promote our own values ​​and war stance, unify our will, unite our troops, and inspire morale. Strengthen protective and concealment measures in important cognitive areas, reduce the perceptibility of our own political, economic, social, information and other sensitive areas, strengthen relevant confidentiality protection methods, and effectively build a strong cognitive protection security barrier.

現代國語軍語:

適應情勢發展革新制勝理念

軍事實踐一再證明,戰爭的勝負不單單是兵力兵器的對抗,更是思維方式、作戰理念的較量。要在認知領域佔據優勢主動地位,當前特別關鍵的是確立與資訊時代相適應的新型指導理念。

集能聚優。集能聚優是對傳統集中優勢兵力的創新發展,不僅是打贏具有智慧化特徵的資訊化戰爭的重要遵循,也是奪佔認知對抗綜合優勢的關鍵一招。近幾年,資訊網路、叢集控制等技術日益成熟,不斷推動作戰朝向廣域分佈、即時聚優方向轉變。與之相適應,認知域下更要強調在具有決定意義的節點樞紐,綜合施策、跨域集能、奪控優勢,實現快速控局、速決制勝。

數據主導。數據作為一種新型戰爭資源,已成為現代戰爭指揮決策的依據、系統運作的血液。充分發揮資料資源優勢,佔據認知域作戰主動,是搶佔戰略制高點的重要一環。要進一步強化數據意識、數據思維,努力提升數據決策、數據引導的素養,真正讓數據成為認知致勝的「助推劑」。

智能協同。人工智慧技術的不斷發展,基於網路資訊體系的自主感知、決策、評估等能力的不斷增強,正推動著人機動態分享資訊、智慧規劃分配任務、密切協同精準出擊日趨成熟。認知域下,智慧協同將成為重要抓手,資訊互融、人機協作、優算決策、即時互助將成為贏得戰場先機、佔據主動、謀求勝勢的必要手段。

遵循內在規律緊扣價值攻防

認知域作戰並非獨立存在,而是透過物理域行動、資訊域流轉進入感知空間,在認知攻防中影響對手價值判斷、改變對手認知體系,進而引發對手認知「雪崩」效應,置對手於「兵敗如山倒」境地。基於此目的,必須深入研究分析對手的政治、經濟、軍事、文化等要素,發掘影響對手作戰認知的核心價值,進而綜合採取謀略、技術等手段,深度影響塑造對手思維認知、價值判斷。

必須看到,認知域作戰效能的釋放往往具有較強的持久性,只有在深謀遠慮、長期佈局的基礎上,透過採取一系列不間斷、常態化柔性手段,在對手內部漸進式構築共同價值觀,才能形成影響,進而實現認知域作戰功效。在資訊時代,西方已開發國家往往藉由網路傳播技術潛移默化地影響、塑造對手的思維認知、價值體系,進而動搖對手思想文化根基,建構認知域作戰輿論基礎。近年來世界各地發生的多起“顏色革命”,背後很大程度上正是西方國家長期滲透操縱輿論、認知域作戰效能逐漸釋放顯現的結果。

毋庸置疑,發生在認知域的對抗最終還是作用於人的大腦,影響人的情緒、動機、判斷和行動,甚至控制人的思考。正因如此,有人認為,作為認知的引擎,「大腦」有可能成為未來戰爭的主目標、主戰場。值得關注的是,現代認知域作戰的一個顯著特徵,就是科技的應用趨頻、作用突顯。尤其是隨著資訊科技、人工智慧等深度介入,認知域作戰將更重視科技綜合實力的比拼。從這個角度說,只有在大數據、雲端運算、資訊網路、人工智慧、控腦、元宇宙等認知技術上尋求突破、佔據主動,才能贏得認知優勢。

著眼最大效能堅持軟硬結合

認知空間具有強烈的伸縮性,但就本質而言仍是人類活動及社會關係的映射,與現實世界緊密關聯、相互作用。缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的強力支撐,認知域作戰終將難以產生真正效果。從這個角度看,認知域作戰不是孤立的行動,只有釐清認知域作戰軟力量與物理域硬實力綜合運用的內在規律,將認知攻防融入聯合作戰鏈條,實現不同領域作戰力量緊密結合、互為支撐、有機融合,才能發揮認知域作戰最大效能。

在資訊時代,認知對抗的重心絕非單純追求徹底消滅敵人,而是更強調透過精準的時間、精準的資訊和精準的行動,精確釋放作戰能量,進而剝奪或降低敵方決策能力等。一方面要注重充分借助非對稱手段,透過陸、海、空、天等有形作戰域的高效快捷行動,破壞敵情報、指揮、通信、打擊、保障鏈路,擊垮敵戰爭潛力基礎,牢牢把握戰場主動權。另一方面要強調未雨綢繆、事先佈置虛擬空間對抗,始終關注精神意志對抗,積極尋求形成強大心理壓迫、瓦解對手抵抗意志的方法途徑。為了實現兩者效果疊加,應高度關注物理域的信火打擊與認知域的綜合毀癱聯動配合,密切跟踪基於網絡信息體系,精確打擊敵方決策、行動以及精神、信念的效果,積極主動摸索以攻心奪志為根本目的的戰法打法。

瞄準體系運行癱瘓戰鬥意志

無論時代如何發展,科技如何進步,人始終是戰爭勝負的決定性因素和支撐作戰體系運作的核心力量。在這當中,戰鬥意志可謂是支撐作戰的精神核心。認知域作戰正是要廣泛採取各種措施,尤其是藉助情報戰、心理戰、輿論戰、網路戰等殺傷手段,對敵方戰鬥意志這一精神內核進行打擊、削弱和剝奪,使其在心理、意誌上屈服,最終導致其作戰體係自行瓦解。

資訊時代的認知域作戰,具有大範圍、全領域的特點,剝奪敵方戰鬥意志強調在多個領域、多個維度、多個時段施加干涉、影響、控制,透過整體合力達成對敵認知優勢,實現己方作戰企圖。如精準掌握對手認知基礎、思考模式、文化習慣等,針對性採取營造態勢、改變氛圍、刺激心理、滲透侵蝕等行動,以瓦解對手認知體系整體性統一性,強力削弱對手決心意志。再如廣泛採取各種認知手段,積極借助物理域資訊域攻勢行動,強力摧毀對手關鍵節點,幹擾對手認知判斷,遲滯對手有效反應,以摧毀剝奪其兵心士氣。也可以根據對手傳統文化、理性邏輯以及性格短板等,採取針對性策略,有步驟、成系統地進行軍事、經濟、文化、外交、民心各方面各層級行動,在改變原有認知中形成有效控制,以消解軟化其戰鬥意志。隨著技術的深度發展,未來以控腦武器為代表的認知裝備可能具備直接幹擾或控制敵方大腦認知的能力,不僅能造成其意識混亂,甚至會誘發其做出違背戰爭常理的行動。

注重主動適應優化戰鬥設計

儘管認知域作戰在現代戰爭中的地位作用日益突顯,但不能就此認為認知域作戰無所不能,甚至取代傳統作戰行動。認知域作戰綜合效能的發揮,是一項複雜的系統工程。為了佔據認知主動、適應資訊化戰爭,必須從戰略全局出發,在實踐中努力優化作戰設計。

謀技融合。在認知域作戰中,謀略運用是其與生俱來的固有內容。儘管技術因素在現代認知域作戰中的重要性日益上升,但謀略的地位作用仍難以取代。可以說,認知域作戰發展演變的過程,某種程度就是謀略與科技相互促進、緊密融合的過程。在這過程中,謀略因科技的加入而更加豐富,科技因謀略的運用而更加強勁。要掌握認知主動權、打好認知主動仗,不只要善用謀略,也要強化技術應用,將施謀與用技有機結合,努力強化認知攻防綜合效能。

攻防結合。認知域作戰是進攻與防禦的對立統一體,是在認知空間展開影響與反影響、滲透與逆滲透、破壞與反破壞、控制與反控制的認知攻防活動。要認清強弱優劣,抓住對手認知漏洞,集中力量窮追猛打,以癱瘓其心理防線,全面佔據認知主動。同時,要把準攻防轉換節點,加強全域認知防護。要固守己方認知,旗幟鮮明宣揚己方價值理念、戰爭立場,統一意志、凝聚兵心、激發士氣。加強重要認知領域的防護隱密措施,降低己方政治、經濟、社會、資訊等敏感領域的可感知性,強化相關保密防護手段,實際築牢認知防護安全屏障。

中國軍事原文來源:

中国军网 国防部网 // 2023年1月10日 星期二

http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-01/10/content_331888.htm

Chinese Military and Determining A Winning Mechanism of Intelligent Warfare Strategy

中國軍隊與智慧戰爭戰略制勝機制的確定

現代英語音譯:

Through the smoke of war, we can see that today’s war has developed from barbaric flesh-and-blood battles and battles to capture cities and territories to information-led precise beheadings and fierce competition on the intellectual battlefield. This objective fact tells us that war, as a specific complex social phenomenon, will present different war forms and winning mechanisms in different historical periods. As American futurist Toffler pointed out, “Artificial intelligence is like previous missiles and satellites. Whether you are prepared or not, it will enter the historical stage of human civilization war.” President Xi clearly pointed out: “If we do not understand the winning mechanism of modern war, then we can only look at a diorama and miss the point.” The winning mechanism of war refers to the way in which various war factors play a role in winning a war. and the laws and principles of interconnection and interaction. Compared with information-based warfare in the traditional sense, the winning mechanism of future intelligent warfare has undergone significant changes.

The method of confrontation has changed from “system confrontation” to “algorithmic game”, and algorithmic advantages dominate war advantages.

Algorithms are strategic mechanisms for solving problems. In fact, an “algorithm” is a series of clear instructions for solving a problem. It is a clear step to solve a certain type of problem according to certain rules. In future wars, the party that masters the advantages of algorithms can quickly and accurately predict battlefield situations, innovate optimal combat methods, and achieve the war goal of “victory before fighting”.

Algorithms are the key to leading intelligent warfare. First, algorithmic advantages dominate cognitive advantages. After big data is processed through high-performance and efficient algorithms, massive data is quickly converted into useful intelligence. Therefore, the party with the advantage of the algorithm can dispel the “battlefield fog” caused by the lack of timely processing of data, making the understanding more profound. Second, the algorithm advantage dominates the speed advantage. Compared with classical algorithms, quantum algorithms have achieved exponential acceleration effects. In addition, quantum computers have increased from 1 qubit in 2003 to 1,000 qubits in 2015. The computing efficiency is 100 million times faster than that of classical computers. Artificial intelligence has achieved a qualitative leap. Third, algorithmic advantages dominate decision-making advantages. Algorithms, with their high-speed and precise calculations, replace people’s “meditation” and repeated exploration, thereby accelerating knowledge iteration. Mastering super powerful algorithms can quickly propose flexible and diverse combat plans and countermeasures in response to changes in the enemy’s situation, constantly disrupting the enemy’s established intentions and deployment.

Algorithms are at the heart of the jump in war effectiveness. First, war is more efficient. With the support of algorithms, artificial intelligence can react hundreds to thousands of times faster than humans. In 2016, the “Alpha” intelligent software developed by the United States has a reaction speed 250 times faster than humans. It controlled a third-generation aircraft to defeat a manned fourth-generation aircraft in a simulated air battle. Second, the war endurance is stronger. Artificial intelligence is not limited by physiological functions and can continuously perform repetitive and mechanical tasks. In September 2016, an F-16 fighter jet reached 8 times gravity during training, causing the pilot to lose consciousness. However, before the plane hit the ground, the onboard “automatic anti-collision system” automatically pulled the plane up, avoiding the tragedy. occur. Third, the outcome of the war is better. With the support of massive data and supercomputing capabilities, artificial intelligence judgment and prediction results are more accurate. The combined use of manned and unmanned equipment in the U.S. military’s search and hunt for bin Laden is a successful example.

Combat elements are changing from “information-led” to “machine-based warfare”, and machine-based warfare reshapes the combat process

In the future, intelligent technology will penetrate into all elements and processes of war. The Internet of Things, the Internet of Intelligence, and the Internet of Brains have become the basis of war. The four domains of physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, and social domain are deeply integrated, making the battlefield holographically transparent. There are people to control the war and no one to fight on the battlefield. Intelligent weapons and equipment will reshape the combat process “from sensor to shooter”.

“Detection” with a keen eye. “Reconnaissance” refers to intelligent intelligence reconnaissance. It can use multi-dimensional sensors such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity for virtualized collaborative networking, self-organized dynamic scheduling, automatic mining of multi-source intelligence, and order-based on-demand use to maximize information shortage or information redundancy. The “fog of war” brought about by the epidemic has opened up the “eyes” to see through intelligent warfare.

Loop “control”. “Control” refers to intelligent command and control. Focusing on the core of decision-making advantages, we use the human-machine collaboration technology of “human in the loop” and adopt three decision-making and control methods of “human in the loop”, “human in the loop” and “human outside the loop” according to the autonomous authority of the machine. , forming a comprehensive advantage with superior decision-making quality and action speed.

Smart “hit”. “Strike” refers to intelligent offensive and defensive operations. Relying on the advantages of system structure and algorithm, it mobilizes all-domain multi-dimensional, manned and unmanned combat platforms in real time, quickly couples combat forces, builds combat systems on demand, focuses on targets, independently implements “distributed” and “swarm” collaborative operations, and quickly resolves battles after they are completed. Couple and wait for the battle, so that the troops can gather and disperse randomly. At the end of 2015, Russia invested 6 tracked unmanned combat vehicles, 4 wheeled unmanned combat vehicles and 1 drone to support the Syrian government forces in storming Islamic extremist strongholds and achieved the world’s first unmanned combat victory. Victory in the tough battle dominated by cars. During the battle, about 70 extremist militants were killed, while only four Syrian government troops were injured.

The decision-making method changes from “human brain decision-making” to “intelligent decision-making”, and intelligent decision-making optimizes combat operations

With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain”, “digital staff” and “virtual warehousing”, war decision-making has evolved from pure human brain decision-making to human-machine hybrid decision-making, cloud-brain intelligent decision-making and neural network decision-making.

Human-machine hybrid decision-making. Reasonable division of labor and interaction and collaboration between humans and machines are the best solutions to explore and solve problems. The advantages of the human brain are creativity, flexibility, and initiative; the advantages of machines are fast speed, high precision, and resistance to fatigue. Artistic tasks such as high-level decision-making are handled by the human brain, and big data calculations are completed by machines. Human-computer interaction allows machines to “listen” to understand human language, “see” human movements and expressions, “understand” human emotions and intentions, and present the calculation process and results in a way that is easy for humans to understand.

Cloud brain intelligent decision-making. In future intelligent warfare, there will be a “brain” metaphor center, and distributed combat units will be linked through the cloud brain. This cloud brain is not only a physical information, physiological information and psychological information center, but also a military command center. Cloud brain decision-making is based on the intelligent “network, cloud and terminal” system. “Net” is an intelligent combat basic network integrating intelligent battlefield perception, decision-making and weapons control systems. “Cloud” is built on the basis of “network”, with the intelligent resource service layer as the main body. It is not only a “resource pool” that integrates various combat resources, but also an “intelligent cloud” that provides intelligent services for combat operations. Due to the coupling of multiple centers, rapid networking and decision-making can be achieved even when bombarded by information. “End” refers to the combat resource end, discrete intelligence and networked intelligence in combat processes, which can not only make independent decisions, but also provide distributed intelligent resources for the war system, allowing the new war system to emerge with group intelligence.

Neural network decision-making. In July 2018, Russia developed artificial neural network fully automatic software that can destroy immediately upon discovery. The intelligent decision-making tool developed by the US military is intended to shorten the decision-making cycle and improve decision-making efficiency. The application of neural networks was once limited to tactical-level calculations, making it difficult to make qualitative analysis and decisions on strategic-level macro-complex situations. “AlphaGo” has made a breakthrough in the field of Go by simulating the working mechanism of the human brain’s neural network. In the future, the super self-evolution and strategic decision-making capabilities of deep neural networks will realize a combat cycle of “people outside the loop”.

The combat style has changed from “breaking links and breaking bodies” to “extreme operations”, which subvert traditional combat methods.

Extreme warfare breaks through the boundaries of traditional warfare, subverts traditional combat styles, dramatically increases war effectiveness, and creates a truly all-weather, all-time, all-dimensional, all-domain intelligent warfare.

Break through the limits of human physiology and thinking. First, the combat space and fields have been extremely expanded. Intelligent warfare in the future will be three-dimensional, all-dimensional, and all-domain operations. The war space will expand from the traditional space field to the polar regions, deep seas, outer space, and other extremes. It will especially penetrate into the cognitive domain, information domain, and penetrate into other fields, including combat fields. More blurry. Second, the combat process has been extremely accelerated. Unmanned autonomous warfare has greatly compressed the “observation-judgment-decision-action” cycle, developing from the “instant destruction” of information warfare to the “instant destruction” of intelligent warfare. The victory of intelligent warfare is achieved by advancing the warning time, shortening the decision-making time, and extending the combat operations forward to achieve the effect of preemptive layout and preemptive strike. Third, combat operations are extremely flexible. In intelligent warfare, artificial intelligence can propose extremely rich combat plans, and the unmanned combat platform can quickly switch between different functional roles, making combat operations more bold and adventurous, and tactics more unexpected. Even if one of the combat elements loses its function, the “decentralization” function will ensure that the function of the group is not affected.

Subvert the traditional combat style. The first is intrusive lone wolf operations. That is, a single unmanned system operates independently. The second is the manned and unmanned coordinated system attack battle. That is, based on intelligent unmanned systems, through mixed operations with and without unmanned equipment, combat objectives can be quickly achieved. The third is the independent operation of unmanned system formations. Multiple sets of unmanned systems constitute a combat unit that can perform complex tasks such as multi-target attacks. The fourth is mothership swarm operations. Using the mothership as the transportation carrier and command center, a manned and unmanned hybrid swarm combat style is formed.

It has the combat effectiveness of “nuclear power”. Intelligent warfare maximizes the characteristics and potential of intelligent robots, leading to combat effectiveness approaching the limit. First, the target is small and difficult to find. For example, miniaturized stealth robots are difficult to detect with radar and sonar. The U.S. hybrid UAV with an Optode chip embedded in the Dragonfly is smaller, lighter and more stealthy, with a battery life of up to several months. Second, confrontation is difficult and costly. For example, as long as a beetle-sized micro-drone scans a human face, it can directly hit the target’s head after data analysis and determination, and it can carry enough ammunition to penetrate the brain. Third, the cost is low and the damage is great. In the future, the use of intelligent weapons in extreme operations will have the power of nuclear weapons, especially extremely large-scale intelligent weapons and equipment, extremely low-cost robot automatic production, and extremely flexible robot swarm operations, which may exceed the maximum explosion power of nuclear weapons.

國語音譯:

2019年01月15日08:00 | 来源:解放军报

透过战争的硝烟,我们可以看到,今天的战争已经从蒙昧野蛮的血肉之搏、攻城略地的兵戎相见发展到信息主导的精确斩首、智域疆场的激烈角逐。这一客观事实告诉我们,战争作为一种特定的复杂社会现象,在不同的历史时期会呈现出不同的战争形态与制胜机理。正如美国未来学家托夫勒指出,“人工智能就像先前的导弹、卫星一样,无论你是否有所准备都将登上人类文明战争的历史舞台”。 习主席明确指出:“如果不把现代战争的制胜机理搞清楚,那就‘只能是看西洋镜,不得要领’。”战争制胜机理,是指为赢得战争胜利,战争诸因素发挥作用的方式及相互联系、相互作用的规律和原理。未来智能化战争与传统意义上的信息化战争相比,制胜机理发生了显著变化。

对抗方式从“体系对抗”向“算法博弈”转变,算法优势主导战争优势

算法是求解问题的策略机制。实际上,“算法”是一系列解决问题的清晰指令,是按照一定规则解决某一类问题的明确步骤。未来战争掌握算法优势的一方,能快速准确预测战场态势,创新最优作战方法,实现“未战而先胜”的战争目的。

算法是主导智能化战争的关键。第一,算法优势主导认知优势。大数据通过高性能、高效率的算法进行处理后,将海量数据快速转换为有用的情报。因此,占有算法优势的一方,能驱散因数据得不到及时处理而产生的“战场迷雾”,使得认知更为深刻。第二,算法优势主导速度优势。量子算法相比于经典算法,实现了指数级的加速效果,再加上量子计算机从2003年的1位量子比特,到2015年1000位量子比特,计算效率比经典计算机快了一亿倍,使人工智能实现了质的飞跃。第三,算法优势主导决策优势。算法以其高速、精确的计算,代替人的“冥思苦想”和反复探索,从而加速知识迭代。掌握超强算法能够针对敌情变化快速提出灵活多样的作战方案与应对之策,不断打乱敌既定企图和部署。

算法是战争效能跃升的核心。一是战争效率更高。在算法的支撑下,人工智能的反应速度是人类的成百上千倍。2016年,美国研发的“阿尔法”智能软件,反应速度比人类快250倍,在模拟空战中操控三代机击败了有人驾驶的四代机。二是战争耐力更强。人工智能不受生理机能限制,可连续执行重复性、机械性任务。2016年9月,一架F-16战机在训练中达到8倍重力过载,导致飞行员失去知觉,然而,在飞机撞击地面前,机载“自动防撞系统”自动将飞机拉起,避免了悲剧发生。三是战争结局更好。在海量数据和超算能力支持下,人工智能的判断和预测结果更加准确。美军寻找和捕杀本·拉登行动,有人和无人装备的组合运用就是一个成功的战例。

作战要素从“信息主导”向“机器主战”转变,机器主战重塑作战流程

未来智能科技将渗透到战争全要素全过程。物联网、智联网与脑联网成为战争的基础,物理域、信息域、认知域、社会域四域深度融合,使战场全息透明,战争控制有人,战场交锋无人。智能化武器装备将重塑“从传感器到射手”的作战流程。

慧眼“侦”。“侦”,即智能化情报侦察。能将陆、海、空、天、电等多维传感器,进行虚拟化协同组网、自组织动态调度、多源情报自动挖掘、订单式按需使用,最大程度上拨开信息不足或信息冗余带来的“战争迷雾”,开启透视智能化战争的“慧眼”。

回路“控”。“控”,即智能化指挥控制。围绕决策优势这一核心,运用“人在回路”的人机协同技术,按照机器的自主权限,采取“人在回路中”“人在回路上”“人在回路外”三种决策与控制方式,以高敌一筹的决策质量和行动速度形成全面优势。

智能“打”。“打”,即智能化攻防作战。依托体系结构和算法优势,实时调集全域多维、有人无人作战平台,快速耦合作战力量,按需构建作战体系,聚焦目标,自主实施“分布式”“蜂群式”协同作战,交战完毕迅速解耦待战,做到兵无常势、聚散随机。2015年底,俄罗斯投入6台履带式无人战车、4台轮式无人战车和1架无人机,支援叙利亚政府军强攻伊斯兰极端势力据点,取得了世界上第一场以无人战车为主的攻坚战胜利。战斗中约70名极端势力武装分子被击毙,而叙利亚政府军只有4人受伤。

决策方式从“人脑决策”向“智能决策”转变,智能决策优化作战行动

随着智能辅助决策技术和“云端大脑”“数字参谋”“虚拟仓储”的出现,战争决策由单纯的人脑决策发展为人机混合决策、云脑智能决策和神经网络决策。

人机混合决策。人与机器的合理分工与交互协同是探索解决问题的最优方案。人脑的优势在于创造性、灵活性、主动性;机器的优势在于速度快、精度高、抗疲劳。高层决策等艺术性强的工作由人脑来处理,大数据计算由机器完成。人机交互是让机器能“听”懂人类语言、“看”懂人类动作与表情、“理解”人的情绪和意图,把计算过程和结果用人容易理解的方式呈现出来。

云脑智能决策。未来智能化战争,将有一个“大脑”的隐喻中心,分布式的作战单元将通过云大脑链接。这个云大脑既是物理信息、生理信息和心理信息中心,也是军事指控中心。云脑决策以智能“网、云、端”体系为依托。“网”,是集智能化战场感知、决策和武器控制系统于一体的智能型作战基础网络。“云”,依“网”而建,以智能型资源服务层为主体,既是融合各类作战资源的“资源池”,也是为作战行动提供智能化服务的“智能云”。由于多中心的耦合,即使遭受信息轰炸也能快速组网和决策。“端”,是指作战资源端,作战流程上的分立智能和联网智能,既能自主决策,又能为战争体系提供分布式智能资源,使新的战争体系涌现出群体智能。

神经网络决策。2018年7月,俄罗斯研制的人工神经网络全自动软件,能做到发现即摧毁。美军研发的智能化决策工具,意在缩短决策周期,提高决策效率。神经网络的应用曾局限于战术级计算,难以对战略级宏观复杂态势做出定性分析和决策。“阿尔法狗”通过模拟人脑神经网络工作机制在围棋领域取得突破。未来深度神经网络的超强自我进化和战略决策能力,将实现“人在回路外”的作战循环。

作战样式从“断链破体”向“极限作战”转变,极限作战颠覆传统作战手段

极限作战突破了传统战争的界限,颠覆了传统的作战样式,使战争效能剧增,出现了真正意义上的全天候、全时空、全方位、全领域的智能化战争。

突破人类生理和思维极限。一是作战空间和领域极度拓展。未来智能化作战是立体、全维、全领域作战,战争空间将从传统的空间领域,向极地、深海、太空等极限拓展,特别是向认知域、信息域渗透并贯穿其他领域,作战领域更加模糊。二是作战进程极度加快。无人自主作战大幅压缩“观察—判断—决策—行动”周期,从信息化战争的“瞬时摧毁”发展为智能化战争的“即时摧毁”。智能化战争的胜利,是通过预警时间提前、决策时间缩短,作战行动向前延伸,达到先手布局、先发制人的效果。三是作战行动极度灵活。智能化战争中,人工智能能够提出极为丰富的作战方案,加之无人作战平台,能够在不同功能角色之间快速切换,作战行动更为大胆冒险,战术战法更为出乎意料。即使作战要素中的某一个丧失功能,“去中心化”的功能也会确保群体功能不受影响。

颠覆传统作战样式。一是侵入式独狼作战。即单套无人系统独立作战。二是有人无人协同体系破击战。即基于智能无人系统,通过有无人装备混合作战,快速达成作战目的。三是无人系统编队独立作战。多套无人系统构成作战单元,可执行多目标攻击等复杂任务。四是母舰蜂群集群作战。以母舰为运输载体和指挥中心,形成有人无人混合集群作战样式。

具备“核威力”的作战效能。智能化战争把智能机器人的特性和潜能发挥到极致,导致作战效能接近极限。一是目标小、难发现。比如微型化隐身机器人,雷达和声呐很难发现。美国在“蜻蜓”中嵌入“光极”芯片的混合无人机,更小更轻更隐秘,续航时间高达几个月。二是对抗难,代价高。比如甲虫大小的微型无人机只要扫描到人脸景象,经数据分析和确定即可直接撞向目标头部,携带的弹药足以穿透大脑。三是造价低、破坏大。未来运用智能化武器极限作战具有核武器的威力,特别是极大体量的智能化武器装备,极低成本的机器人自动生产,极度灵活的机器人集群作战,可能会超越核武器爆炸威力的极大化。

中國政府原文來源:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0115/c1011-3053888.html

Social Cognition: Important Starting Point for Chinese Military Cognitive Domain Operations

社會認知:中國軍事認知領域作戰的重要起點

現代英語音譯:

Social cognition refers to how individuals understand and think about others, and form inferences about others or things based on social information in the environment. Social cognition is the basis of individual behavior and an important starting point for cognitive domain operations. As a member of society, people are naturally affected by social cognition. Analyzing the social path to the effectiveness of cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for strengthening the construction of cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda

Cognitive attack and defense is not achieved overnight and needs to be carried out continuously over a long period of time. Operations in the cognitive domain often begin before the war. They comprehensively use political, economic, diplomatic and other means to affect various social fields of the target country. They actively shape social cognition through public opinion propaganda and form mainstream social opinions that are beneficial to one’s own side. They play a comprehensive role in wartime. The wonders of checks and balances.

Focus on overall mobilization. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. Implementing cognitive domain operations requires effective public opinion preparation in the early stage, and on this basis, a unified and self-interested social cognitive situation can be formed. Psychologist Lasswell once said: “There is no doubt that the government’s guidance of public opinion is an inevitable development trend of large-scale modern war.” Before launching a war, we must aim to win the advantage of public opinion and carry out cognitive planning in advance. Strive for the broadest domestic and international support. The focus of cognitive domain operations that precede war is to create a mainstream social opinion through news and public opinion, and conduct comprehensive social mobilization to prepare for, launch, and win the war, so as to effectively guide the public to support the government. decision-making and seeking political support from the international community.

Strengthen strategic layout. Cognitive domain operations during war preparations should focus on advance strategic planning and public opinion shaping. According to the needs of the country and the government, we should actively publicize our country’s advantages and justice, and deeply expose and criticize the enemy’s sinister intentions and weak nature, so as to This will form a mainstream social opinion that victory is inevitable in a righteous war and those who dare to fight and win will create a good cognitive situation in order to deter opponents and win support. Through effective public opinion building, we can declare our determination and will to win, demonstrate adequate war preparations and strong military capabilities, influence, intervene and shape the cognitive psychology of the target, effectively stimulate our own confidence and morale, and dispel the enemy’s motivation. The will to resist, maximize the strategic initiative and popular support, firmly grasp the leadership of the war and the right to speak morally, so that the hostile party can realize the unbearable consequences, and then achieve the purpose of early deterrence and flexible control of the situation.

Pay close attention to legal disputes. War has always emphasized the importance of division and success. Mastering the power to define and interpret war in cognitive narratives, forming a consistent mainstream social opinion, condensing the value identity of the country or nation, and mobilizing a wide range of forces and resources are important goals for early cognitive domain operations. Providing a good narrative representation of justice and creating a social understanding that the master is famous, that justice is in our hands, and that the law is in our hands is a “sharp sword” that is unsheathed before the war, and a “heavy weapon” that is launched before the war. To this end, cognitive domain operations need to proactively create topics, try to characterize the war, justify the action, and do a good job in the narrative of “legitimate defense”, the definition of “forced legality”, and the interpretation of “last resort”, so as to defend the right to justice in war. become the mainstream opinion of society.

Using social media platforms to intervene in social cognition

The emergence of mobile, intelligent, and social information dissemination patterns has made network cognitive attack and defense an important means of cognitive domain operations. It has effectively expanded the accessibility and arrival rate of cognitive domain operations. Judging from the cognitive attack and defense in recent local wars, multi-level, multi-theme, and universal social media cognitive attack and defense can quickly mobilize public opinion and influence the direction of the war. It can not only form public opinion hot spots according to battlefield needs, It can trigger cognitive radical changes and can bypass the enemy’s public opinion blockade to implement cognitive penetration.

Dominate the direction of cognition with the help of information flow. Compared with traditional media, social media platforms are more interactive and have wider coverage. The decentralized “difference narrative” and the fragmented “personal narrative” of netizens are more likely to influence public opinion and interfere with social perception to a large extent. Know and judge. The display of the power of identity in the network society has a very important impact on changing the direction of public opinion, which also makes information flow an important variable in cognitive domain operations. In modern cognitive domain operations, the characteristics of “information weaponization” and “public opinion weaponization” are more prominent. Through data manipulation, current limiting, blocking and deletion, robot forwarding, etc., the information flow of social media can be effectively controlled and the formation of information can be formed in a short time. Public opinion hot spots and social consensus focus promote the formation of an “information waterfall” in which the public is swayed by mainstream public opinion, thereby solidifying their cognition.

Cognitive influence through public figures. To a certain extent, the more developed information dissemination is, the more attention is a scarce resource, and the more information that arouses the audience’s awareness needs to be carefully crafted and explored. In cognitive domain operations, how to attract the attention of the target audience with specific information has become the first step. The initiators of cognitive domain operations can put carefully packaged information on social media platforms through the voices of public figures such as Internet celebrities and top influencers, so as to attract the attention of target audiences and increase the visibility and reach of self-interested information. Rate. Information disseminated by public figures can suddenly emerge from the complex public opinion field, become a reference for people’s thinking, and become the mainstream opinion in inter-group interactions and circle-group interactions, thereby expanding the volume of one’s own propaganda, condemning and suppressing the other party’s propaganda, and guiding Shape the public to form qualitative cognition.

Use emerging technologies to empower cognitive offense and defense. Technology has changed the style of combat and greatly expanded the means of cognitive confrontation. For example, the emergence of emerging technologies such as algorithm push, intelligent voice, deep forgery, false reality, and augmented reality has enriched the selection of strategies and tools for cognitive domain operations to fully penetrate into society. In future cognitive domain operations, it will be possible to use intelligent monitoring systems to enhance cognitive situational awareness, use big data technology to accurately draw the cognitive picture of key groups, and use algorithm technology to continuously influence the cognitive thinking of target objects. The use of artificial intelligence technology to carry out saturated and precise cognitive attacks on specific audiences, the use of deep forgery technology to interfere with the enemy’s decision-making cognition, and the use of brain-computer interface, neuroscience and other technologies to directly affect military personnel will become a dominant force in influencing social cognition and It is an important means to determine the direction of public opinion and facilitate the achievement of combat objectives more directly and efficiently.

Keeping up with the progress of military operations affects social cognition

War practice shows that military operations play a key supporting role in shaping cognition. In modern warfare, military operations and cognitive attack and defense go hand in hand and work together. The two influence and support each other. The powerful shaping of the battlefield situation can greatly change social cognition, and the smooth deployment of military operations can promote radical changes in social cognition. , making it develop in the preset direction.

Collaborate with military deterrence operations to undermine public sentiment. Creating a favorable situation through military deterrence operations is an important part of war preparation and an effective means to improve the effectiveness of war. In cognitive domain operations, we must adhere to the synchronization of cognitive offensive and defensive operations with military operations to understand tasks, judge situations, synchronize research and planning, decision-making and deployment, and synchronize plans, arrangements, organization and implementation. We can skillfully use the deterrent effect of military operations to amplify the effects of cognitive attacks. To achieve the purpose of disintegrating the morale of the target audience. In the future, cognitive domain operations should be based on the simultaneous launch of military deterrence operations, fully release the information of military deterrence operations, and demonstrate one’s comprehensive strength, war potential, equipment performance, military and civilian will, etc. to the enemy through multiple means, thereby forming a positive influence on the enemy’s society and people Powerful deterrence and containment effect.

Combine the favorable battlefield situation to divide the camp. Changes in the battlefield situation often cause shocks in public opinion, which then spread and penetrate into society, creating a strong cognitive impact. Therefore, when implementing cognitive domain operations, we must have the courage to break through the stereotypes, design the goals and tasks of cognitive attacks in advance, combine the favorable situation on the battlefield, and use the powerful deterrent effect of military operations to stimulate cognitive changes in the target audience. If the war situation goes smoothly, we can further publicize and amplify the effectiveness of military operations, use public opinion to build momentum, create an atmosphere of intimidation that threatens to overwhelm the enemy, and force the enemy’s people to shake their confidence and give up their support.

Integrating military combat effectiveness softens the will. Use military operations to exert pressure and promote radical changes in social cognition. We must be good at seizing the effects of military operations to make a fuss about it, skillfully transform military victory into cognitive strength, and continuously strengthen the deterrent effect on cognitive attacks on target objects. . In the process of implementing cognitive domain operations, it is necessary to seamlessly embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction” and fully integrate military combat effectiveness to strengthen “soft kill” effects such as cognitive deterrence, cognitive interference, and cognitive destruction, and promote The psychological cognition of the people in the enemy’s society undergoes radical changes, which strengthens their fear of war and anti-war sentiments. They are then induced by the extended effect of combat effectiveness in a timely manner, prompting a series of adverse chain reactions within their society to soften their will to resist and their confidence in combat.

繁體中文:

社會認知,是指個體如何理解與思考他人,並根據環境中的社會訊息形成對他人或事物的推論。 社會認知是個體行為的基礎,也是認知域作戰的重要抓手。 人作為社會中的一員,天然受到社會認知的影響。 分析認知域作戰致效的社會路徑,對於強化認知域作戰建設、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。

透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知

認知攻防並非一蹴而就,需要長期不間斷地進行。 認知域作戰,往往先於戰爭開始,綜合運用政治、經濟、外交等手段作用於對象國各個社會領域,透過輿論宣傳主動塑造社會認知,形成利於己方的社會主流意見,在戰時發揮綜合 制衡之奇效。

聚焦總體動員。 戰爭未啟,認知先行。 實施認知域作戰,需要前期進行有效的輿論鋪墊,並在此基礎上形成統一的、利己的社會認知態勢。 心理學家拉斯韋爾曾說:「毫無疑問,政府對輿論的引導是大規模現代戰爭不可避免的發展趨勢。」在戰爭發起前,要瞄準贏得輿論優勢,提前開展認知佈設, 爭取最廣泛的國內國際支持。 先於戰爭發起的認知域作戰,其重心很大程度上是透過新聞輿論來營造一種社會主流意見,為準備戰爭、發動戰爭、贏得戰爭進行全面的社會動員,以有效引導公眾支持政府的 決策、爭取國際社會的政治支持。

強化戰略布勢。 戰爭準備期間的認知域作戰,要以先期戰略布勢、輿論塑勢為重點,根據國家和政府需要,積極宣傳本國的優勢所在、正義所在,深入揭批敵人的險惡用心、虛弱本質,以 此來形成義戰必勝、敢戰敢勝的社會主流意見,為震懾對手、爭取支持塑造良好的認知態勢。 透過有效的輿論造勢,宣示己方贏得勝利的決心和意志,展現充分的戰爭準備和強大的軍事能力,對目標對象的認知心理進行影響、幹預和塑造,有效激發己方信心和士氣,消解敵人的 抵抗意志,最大限度地爭取戰略主動和民心支持,牢牢掌握戰爭主導權、道義話語權,使敵對方認識預感到難以承受的後果,進而達成先期懾止、靈活控局的目的。

緊盯法理爭奪。 戰爭歷來強調師出有名。 在認知敘事中掌握戰爭的定義權、解釋權,形成一致的社會主流意見,凝聚起國家或民族的價值認同,調動廣泛的力量和資源,是先期認知域作戰的一個重要目標。 搞好正義敘事表述,營造師出有名、正義在我、法理在手的社會認知,是先於戰爭出鞘的“利劍”,早於戰爭發起的“重器”。 為此,認知域作戰需要主動創設議題,設法為戰爭定性、為行動正名,做好「正當防衛」的敘事、「被迫合法」的界定、「最後手段」的闡釋,使捍衛戰爭正義權 成為社會主流意見。

借助社群媒體平台介入社會認知

行動化、智慧化、社會化資訊傳播模式的出現,使得網路認知攻防成為認知域作戰的重要手段,它有力地拓展了認知域作戰的可及性與到達率。 從近幾場局部戰爭中的認知攻防來看,多層次、多主題、全民化的社群媒體認知攻防,能夠快速撬動社會輿論、影響戰局走向,既可根據戰場需要形成輿論爆點促 動認知激變,又可繞過敵方輿論封鎖實施認知滲透。

借助資訊流量主導認知走向。 相較於傳統媒體,社群媒體平台的互動性更強、覆蓋範圍更廣,去中心化的「差異敘事」、網民碎片化的「個人敘事」更容易影響輿論,在很大程度上乾擾著社會認 知判斷。 網路社會中認同力量的展現,對於改變輿論走向有十分重要的影響,這也使得資訊流量成為認知域作戰中的重要變數。 現代認知域作戰,「資訊武器化」「輿論武器化」的特徵更突顯,透過資料操縱、限流封刪、機器人轉發等方式,可以有效控制社群媒體的資訊流量,能夠在短時間內形成 輿論熱點、聚焦社會共識,推動形成“資訊瀑布”,使社會民眾在其中被主流社會輿論所左右,進而使其認知形成固化。

透過公眾人物施加認知影響。 從某種程度上來說,訊息傳播越發達,注意力就越是一種稀缺資源,喚起受眾認知的訊息就越需要精心製作和發掘。 在認知域作戰中,如何使特定資訊能吸引目標受眾注意,成為首要步驟。 認知域作戰的發起方可透過網路大V、頭部網紅等公眾人物發聲的辦法,將精心包裝的訊息投放到社群媒體平台,以吸引目標受眾注意,提升利己訊息的能見度與到達 率。 經公眾人物傳播的訊息可以從紛雜的輿論場中驟然顯現出來,成為人們思考的參照物,並在群際互動、圈群互動中成為主流意見,進而擴大己方宣傳聲量、聲討壓制對方宣傳,引導 塑造民眾形成定性認知。

運用新興技術賦能認知攻防。 科技改變作戰樣式,也大大拓展了認知對抗的手段。 例如,演算法推送、智慧語音、深度偽造、虛假現實、擴增實境等新興技術的出現,就豐富了認知域作戰向社會層面全面滲透的策略手段和工具選擇。 在未來認知域作戰中,利用智慧監測系統增強認知態勢感知能力、利用大數據技術精準繪製關鍵人群認知圖景、利用演算法技術持續影響目標對象認知思維將成為可能。 利用人工智慧技術對特定受眾進行飽和式精準認知攻擊,利用深度偽造技術幹擾敵方決策認知,利用腦機介面、神經科學等技術直接作用於軍事人員等,將成為影響社會認知、主導 輿論走向的重要手段,便於更直接有效率地達成作戰目的。

跟上軍事行動進程影響社會認知

戰爭實踐表明,軍事行動對認知塑造有關鍵支撐作用。 現代戰爭中,軍事行動與認知攻防如影隨形、協同發力,兩者相互影響、互為支撐,戰場態勢的有力塑造能夠大大改變社會認知,軍事行動的順利展開能夠促進社會認知激變 ,使之朝著預設方向發展。

配合軍事威懾行動瓦解民心。 透過軍事威懾行動營造有利態勢是戰爭準備的重要內容,也是提高戰爭效益的有效手段。 認知域作戰中,堅持認知攻防行動與軍事行動同步理解任務、判斷情況,同步研究規劃、決策部署,同步計畫安排、組織實施,可以巧妙地運用軍事行動的威懾效應放大認知攻擊效果, 達到瓦解目標對象民心士氣的目的。 未來認知域作戰,應基於軍事威懾行動同步展開,充分釋放軍事威懾行動的訊息,多手段向敵方展示己方的綜合實力、戰爭潛力、裝備性能及軍民意誌等,從而對敵對方社會民眾形成 強力震懾和牽制效應。

結合有利戰場態勢分化陣營。 戰場態勢變化往往會使輿論產生震盪,進而向社會面擴散滲透,產生強大的認知衝擊力。 因而,在實施認知域作戰時,要勇於突破思維定式,超前設計認知攻擊的目標和任務,結合戰場有利態勢,借助軍事行動的強力震懾作用,促動目標受眾產生認知激變。 如戰局進展順利,則可進一步宣傳放大軍事作戰效能,利用輿論示形造勢,營造山雨欲來、泰山壓頂的威迫氣氛,迫使敵對方民眾動搖信心、放棄支持。

融合軍作戰效能軟化意志。 利用軍事行動施壓,促進社會認知激變,要善於抓住軍事作戰效果做文章,巧妙地將軍事上的勝勢轉化為認知上的強勢,不斷強化對目標對象認知攻擊的震懾力 。 在實施認知域作戰過程中,要將認知域作戰無縫嵌入「硬摧毀」中,全面融合軍事作戰效能強化認知震懾、認知幹擾、認知破擊等「軟殺傷」效果, 促使 敵對方社會民眾心理認知產生激變,強化其畏戰怯戰反戰情緒,再適時利用作戰效能的延伸效應加以誘導,促使其社會內部產生系列不良連鎖反應,以軟化其抵抗意志和作戰信心。

中國軍事原文來源: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-09/22/content_324888.htm

Chinese Military Winning Weapon of Cognitive Operations is Intelligent Algorithms

中國軍隊認知作戰制勝武器是智慧演算法

現代英文音譯:

In the era of intelligence, intelligent algorithms, as the underlying logic and implementation means for information generation, distribution, dissemination, and reception, determine the form and presentation of information. In future wars, the expansion of the application boundaries of intelligent algorithms and the development of application scenarios will promote the update and iteration of cognitive domain combat tactics. Clarifying the mechanism and implementation path of intelligent algorithms and cognitive confrontation is of great significance for innovating cognitive domain combat tactics with the help of intelligent algorithms. .

The mechanism of how intelligent algorithms influence cognitive confrontation

Intelligent algorithms can formulate optimal information recommendation strategies through comprehensive analysis and calculation of users’ personal identity, psychological characteristics, behavioral habits, interests and preferences, etc., and then use specific information to affect target cognition, and ultimately affect their real-life behavior.

Draw a portrait of your target users. The essence of user portraits is to label users to form a specific identity. Tags are similar to “pixels” in digital portraits. The more comprehensive the data is obtained, the more precise the tag description will be, and the more realistic the reflection of user behavior characteristics will be. Foreign militaries believe that in cognitive domain operations, technical means such as web crawlers and log mining are widely used to obtain basic information data, financial data, communication data, etc. of target objects. On this basis, using intelligent algorithms to deeply mine these data can systematically analyze the interests, hobbies, behavioral habits, and interpersonal relationships of the target object, and then determine its value orientation. Afterwards, by constructing multi-dimensional label vectors, clustering similar individuals, and analyzing group characteristics with similar characteristics, a group target portrait can be formed, which can be used as the basis and starting point for cognitive shaping.

Achieve personalized information customization. Adopting “divide and conquer” for different individuals and groups is the advantage of intelligent algorithms, and it is also the proper meaning of cognitive shaping. Relying on social media platforms and search engines to carry out personalized push for specific objects can greatly improve the acceptance of the target objects and avoid idling and internal consumption of information during the dissemination process. In this process, the “information cocoon” effect will further narrow the target object’s perception range, leaving it in a relatively closed information environment for a long time, thus actively accepting one-sided information. At the same time, homogeneous information will further strengthen the shaping effect. Under the combined effect of convergence psychology and group pressure, the target object may gradually lose basic logic and value judgment capabilities, thus subtly forming the cognition carefully set by the initiator. .

Demonstrate specific real-life behaviors. Cognition is the premise of behavior, and behavior reacts on cognition. Intelligent algorithms can constrain and induce real-life behavior by directional shaping of the stance and value tendencies of specific objects on political, military operations, social and other issues. The foreign military believes that by disseminating special ideas to the public, it can lead to social disorder and loss of control. For key individuals, through strategies such as controlling the brain, attacking the heart, and seizing the will, they will make mistakes in their judgment of the country’s strategic direction, doubt the war decision-making, and be negative and pessimistic about the direction of the war, thus producing the effect of “conquering the enemy without fighting.” Practice has proven that target cognitive orientation reshaping highlights specific real-life behaviors, and dynamic changes in real-life behaviors trigger real-time adjustments to user portraits, which in turn drives the adjustment and update of recommendation strategies, forming a complete closed feedback loop.

Intelligent algorithms influence the implementation path of cognitive confrontation

Intelligent algorithms have the characteristics of encapsulation and transplantation, data sharing, fast calculation, autonomous learning, etc., and there is a natural fit between them and cognitive confrontation.

Promote the coupling of confrontational forms of peace and war. The dissemination of information across time boundaries leads to conflicts in cognitive space at all times, and the time scale may vary from seconds to decades. In peacetime, the most important characteristics of cognitive confrontation tactics are concealment and long-term nature, while in wartime they are suppressive and urgent. Intelligent algorithms can further promote the coupling of peace and war in the form of cognitive confrontation through information sharing, situation updating and strategy inheritance. Based on peacetime information and wartime intelligence, comprehensive analysis and judgment of the enemy’s situation, our situation, and the battlefield environment can be automatically calculated to draw conclusions on the strengths, weaknesses, key points, and difficulties of the confrontation; based on mathematical modeling and machine learning, combined with Cognitive confrontation results and real-time battlefield situation in peacetime, and after comprehensive evaluation, optimal tactics and plans can be proposed.

Promote the combination of explicit and implicit means of confrontation. Cognitive domain operations are filled with massive and complex information in various formats and with varying strengths and weaknesses, which not only brings challenges to one’s own identification and processing, but also provides convenient conditions for confusing the opponent. Only through cognitive fusion can a comprehensive, timely and accurate judgment of the situation be formed, and then the advantages of global perception be transformed into decision-making and action advantages. Comprehensive multi-channel information for intelligent analysis and comparison, comprehensive research and judgment, can identify erroneous information, filter useless information, screen false information, and provide information support for commanders’ decision-making. For example, explicit means can be used for cognitive deterrence and will disintegration, implicit means can be used for cognitive deception and cognitive induction, and explicit and implicit means can be used for cognitive confusion.

Promote global integration of confrontation space. The cognitive confrontation space not only covers the physical domain space including land, sea, air, space, etc., but also covers the information domain space and cognitive domain space such as electromagnetic and network. Cognitive confrontation is a global fusion confrontation. Battlefield data is generated extremely quickly and in huge volumes, which places extremely high requirements on computing speed and capabilities. Relying on traditional manual calculations and computer-aided calculations can no longer meet the needs of battlefield space fusion. Semi-automatic or even automated fusion calculations must be achieved with the help of the high efficiency, strong computing power and high accuracy of intelligent algorithms. Relying on intelligent algorithms, vertical integration from cognitive perception to cognitive analysis to cognitive decision-making can be achieved; horizontally, multi-dimensional situation, power, decision-making, and scheduling across the physical domain, information domain, and cognitive domain can be achieved. Domain fusion.

(Author’s unit: National University of Defense Technology)

原始國語(繁體):

在智慧化時代,智慧演算法作為資訊生成、分發、傳播、接收的底層邏輯和實現手段,決定了資訊的產生形式和呈現方式。未來戰爭,智慧演算法應用邊界拓展與應用場景開發推動認知域作戰戰法更新迭代,釐清智慧演算法與認知對抗的作用機制與實現路徑,對於藉助智慧演算法創新認知域作戰戰法具有重要意義。

智慧演算法影響認知對抗的作用機制

智慧演算法透過對使用者個人身分、心理特徵、行為習慣、興趣偏好等進行綜合分析計算,能夠制定出最優資訊推薦策略,進而以特定資訊作用於目標認知,最終影響其現實行為。

繪就目標使用者畫像。使用者畫像的本質是將使用者進行標籤化處理,以此形成特定身分。標籤類似數位畫像中的“像素”,資料獲取越全面,標籤刻畫越精細,對使用者行為特徵的反映就越真實。外軍認為,認知域作戰中,廣泛借助網路爬蟲、日誌挖掘等技術手段,可以取得目標對象的基本資訊資料、金融資料、通訊資料等。在此基礎上,利用智慧演算法對這些資料進行深度挖掘,可以系統分析出目標物的興趣與愛好、行為習慣、人際關係,進而確定其價值取向。之後,透過建構多維度標籤向量,再對相似個體進行聚類處理,分析具有相似特徵的群體特徵,可形成群體目標畫像,並以此作為認知塑造的基礎與起點。

實現資訊個性客製。針對不同個體、不同群體採取「分而治之」是智慧演算法的優長所在,也是認知塑造的應有之義。依托社群媒體平台和搜尋引擎,針對特定物件進行個人化推送,可以大幅提高目標物件的接受程度,避免訊息在傳播過程中的空轉和內耗。在此過程中,「資訊繭房」效應將會進一步狹窄目標物件的感知範圍,使其長期處於相對封閉的資訊環境中,從而主動接受片面資訊。同時,同質化的訊息會進一步強化塑造效果,目標對像在趨同心理和群體壓力的共同作用下,可逐步喪失基本邏輯和價值判斷能力,從而潛移默化中形成發起方為其精細設定的認知。

彰顯特定現實行為。認知是行為的前提,而行為又反作用於認知。智慧演算法透過對特定對象政治、軍事行動和社會等議題的立場和價值傾向進行定向塑造,可以實現對現實行為的約束和誘導。外軍認為,透過對社會大眾傳播特殊理念,導致社會失序失控。而對於關鍵個人,透過採取控腦攻心奪誌等策略,使其對於國家戰略方向研判錯誤,對於戰爭決策感到懷疑,對於戰爭走向消極悲觀,從而產生「不戰而屈人之兵」的效果。實務證明,目標認知定向重塑彰顯現實特定行為,現實行為動態改變引發使用者畫像即時調整,進而帶動推薦策略調整更新,形成了完整的閉合回饋迴路。

智慧演算法影響認知對抗的實現路徑

智慧演算法具有封裝移植、資料共享、快速運算、自主學習等特徵,與認知對抗之間存在天然的契合性。

促進對抗形式平戰耦合。跨越時間界限的訊息傳播導致認知空間的衝突無時不在,時間尺度可能從數秒到數十年不等。在平時,認知對抗戰法最主要的特徵是隱蔽性和長期性,戰時則表現為壓制性和急迫性。智慧演算法透過資訊共享、態勢更新和策略繼承,可進一步促進認知對抗形式的平戰耦合。基於平時資訊與戰時情報,對敵情、我情、戰場環境進行全方位分析研判,可以自動計算得出對抗強點、弱點、重點、難點等方面的結論;基於數學建模和機器學習,結合平時認知對抗成果和戰場即時態勢,經過綜合評估,可以提出最優戰法和方案。

促進對抗手段顯隱結合。認知域作戰,海量、繁雜的資訊充斥其中,樣式多樣、優劣不齊,為己方辨識處理帶來挑戰的同時,也為迷惑對手提供了便利條件。只有透過認知融合才能形成對態勢的全面、及時、準確的判斷,進而將全域感知優勢轉化為決策優勢與行動優勢。綜合多通路資訊進行智慧分析比較、綜合研判,能辨識錯誤訊息、過濾無用資訊、甄別不實訊息,為指揮決策提供資訊支撐。如可採取顯性手段進行認知威懾與意志瓦解,採取隱性手段進行認知欺騙及認知誘導,並採取顯隱結合方式進行認知迷惑等。

促進對抗空間全局融合。認知對抗空間不僅涵蓋了包含陸、海、空、天等物理域空間,也涵蓋電磁、網路等資訊域空間和認知域空間。認知對抗是全局融合對抗,戰場數據生成速度極快、體量巨大,對於計算的速度和能力提出了極高要求。依靠傳統的人工運算、電腦輔助運算的模式已無法滿足戰場空間融合的需求,必須藉助智慧演算法的高效率、強算力和高準確性實現半自動化乃至自動化的融合計算。依托智慧演算法,縱向上可以實現從認知感知到認知分析,再到認知決策的全程融合;橫向上可以實現物理域、資訊域和認知域多維度態勢、力量、決策、調度的跨域融合。

中國軍事原文來源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2023-03/21/content_33888.htm?&tsrltndkrnt

Chinese Military Will Win the Initiative Globally Building Cognitive Domain Combat Arms Science

中國軍隊將贏得全球認知領域作戰武器科學建構倡議

現代英語音譯:

Cognitive domain operations, as an ancient but emerging military practice, continue to develop in the wave of the world’s new military revolution. Constructing our military’s cognitive domain combat science is of positive significance to building a world-class military.

Statement of the Problem

Cognitive domain warfare has existed since ancient times and has almost run through thousands of years of human war history. It’s just that there was no such thing as cognitive domain warfare at that time. Instead, it was called “mind attack” and “mental warfare” by military strategists. In the 20th century, with the development of science and technology, cognitive domain operations have unique advantages, showing the characteristics of “fighting at all times and without declaring war”. Cognitive domain operations have become the ultimate domain of great power games and military confrontations, and are the highest level of modern war control.

The development of military science has its own inherent laws. The construction of our military’s cognitive domain combat science is a process that follows the development laws of military science. First of all, cognitive domain operations have strong characteristics of the times. With the development of science and technology, especially the application of science and technology such as biology, medicine, artificial intelligence, and information communication in the field of warfare, the ways to control people’s will, thinking, psychology, emotions and other cognitive systems have become more diverse and flexible. Secondly, cognitive domain operations have become the main battlefield of modern warfare. Recent local wars, especially the Russia-Ukraine conflict, have shown a new style of cognitive domain operations – cognitive domain operations have entered the war stage as an independent domain and have Established a certain theoretical and material basis.

The report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed to build the People’s Army into a world-class army by the middle of this century. To build a world-class military, it is necessary to enrich the basic connotation of “first-class” and enhance the value standard of “first-class”, and cognitive factors are indispensable elements. By constructing cognitive domain operations science, it is conducive to accelerating the overall reshaping of the military organizational form under the guidance of cognitive domain operations theory; it is conducive to correctly understanding the characteristics and laws of cognitive domain operations, and accelerating the development, utilization and implementation of cognitive domain operations means. The pace of improvement is conducive to actively taking effective measures and innovating techniques, tactics and styles of cognitive domain operations.

connotation and denotation

The advanced combat theory is an important indicator of the strength of an army’s combat effectiveness. To build our military’s cognitive domain combat science, we insist on putting ourselves first and innovating independently. On the one hand, we are based on our country’s reality, inherit and carry forward the profound wisdom of Chinese military science and our military’s unique political advantages, and at the same time, actively absorb the essence of foreign military culture.

Conceptual definition of cognitive domain warfare research. The fresh content and new characteristics of cognitive domain operations determine the new nature of cognitive domain operations science. As the core support of cognitive domain warfare, it is first necessary to clarify some key concepts of cognitive domain warfare research. One is about “cognition”. Cognition refers to the process by which the human brain or people use cognitive tools to receive, encode, store, exchange, retrieve, extract and use information. It is the subjective construction of information by cognitive subjects. This process can be broken down into four parts: perception, memory, control and reaction. The corresponding cognitive system can also be divided into four systems: perception, memory, control and reaction. The second is about the “cognitive domain”. With the introduction of the concept of “cognition” into the military field, modern warfare has formed three major combat dimensions: the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The cognitive domain has become the next two warring parties after land, sea, air, space, electricity, and network. Another space for competition. Usually manifested in the quality and ability of combat personnel, the cohesion of the troops, combat experience and training level, battlefield situation awareness, and social public opinion. The third is about “cognitive domain operations.” Compared with operations in the physical domain and information domain, the space involved in cognitive domain operations is wider. Its essence is to capture people’s will, belief, and psychology through actions in the physical domain, use of the information domain, and offense and defense in the cognitive domain. , thinking and other dominance, it is a complex collection of traditional public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, political warfare, economic warfare, cultural warfare and other means, in order to achieve the strategic goal of “complete victory” of defeating the enemy without fighting. .

The main content of cognitive domain combat science research. Cognitive domain warfare is a theory that studies the development laws of war spirit. It is an applied science that uses the results of cognitive science to study cognitive offensive and defensive operations in war. It takes all cognitive domain combat phenomena at all times and at home and abroad as the research object, and mainly studies the following contents: First, the historical theory of cognitive domain combat. In wars in history, the glorious idea and rich practice of “attacking the heart first, attacking the city first” has long been established. Disrupting enemy forces is included in the three major principles of our military’s political work. Capturing generals and transforming prisoners has become a unique front in the armed struggle led by the party, writing a glorious chapter in the history of the people’s army. This precious historical heritage should be further explored and passed on from today’s height. The second is the basic theory of cognitive domain operations. It is the cornerstone for the establishment, survival and development of a discipline, and plays a leading and foundational role in the research of this discipline. Only by pursuing in-depth and thorough research, clarifying basic issues, and smoothing out various relationships can we establish a systematic, solid, and effective basic theoretical system, and then provide strong guidance for the practice of cognitive domain operations. The third is the cognitive domain combat application theory. This is the core of cognitive domain operations research and an important theoretical basis for guiding the military’s cognitive domain operations practice. Its research must be practical, innovative, and lively. Only by closely integrating theoretical research with the combat education and training practice in the cognitive domain of the troops and the actual future combat can we form a scientific, forward-looking, operational and practical system. The cognitive domain combat application theoretical system can better serve the practice of military struggle.

The disciplinary basis of cognitive domain warfare research. To build a discipline system for cognitive domain warfare, it is not enough to merely establish its status as an independent discipline and find its position in the discipline of military science. In order to have a complete and in-depth understanding of cognitive domain warfare and to better carry out theoretical research, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between cognitive domain warfare and related disciplines. The first is cognitive domain combat science and military science. Cognitive domain operations revolve around the goals and tasks of military operations, closely coordinate with the process of military operations, and are objectively governed by the laws revealed by military theory. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully study the inner connection between cognitive domain warfare and military theory, and strive to find the theoretical resonance behind practice. The second is cognitive domain combat science and supporting disciplines. Cognitive domain combat science is a highly professional military practice activity. According to my country’s discipline classification model and standards, the results of journalism, communication, psychology, law and other disciplines are the most basic theoretical sources for the construction and actual combat application of cognitive domain combat forces. Together they form the professional field of cognitive domain combat science. Provide direct theoretical support. The third is cognitive domain combat science and related disciplines. The theoretical categories involved in human mental and psychological activities all have a direct impact or indirect relationship with cognitive domain operations. The theoretical understanding of political science, sociology, culture and other related disciplines is extensive, and the role of cognitive domain operations is will be bigger, this requires us to study the relevant disciplines of cognitive domain warfare and actively expand the theoretical thinking of cognitive domain warfare.

How to build

A new round of world military revolution has pushed cognitive domain operations onto the “fast track” of rapid development. Looking at the recent local wars, especially the Russia-Ukraine conflict, all have been branded as cognitive domain operations, and their status and role have become increasingly prominent. At the same time, the preliminary research results achieved by domestic and foreign scholars have laid a good foundation for the construction of cognitive domain combat science. It can be said that the time is basically ripe for theoretical abstraction on the basis of practice to build our military’s cognitive domain combat science.

The construction of any theoretical system must follow certain logical rules. According to the conditions for constructing the cognitive domain combat science discipline system, the following rules should be followed: First, unify the concept. In the cognitive domain combat theoretical system framework, complex and confusing concepts should not be used to ensure that judgments and conclusions are based on accurate concepts. According to the way our military’s operational regulations deal with relevant concepts, the unified concept of “cognitive domain operations” should be selected as the relative concept for building the discipline system of cognitive domain operations. The second is to clarify the logical starting point. The basic thinking point for studying the theory of cognitive domain operations is to “seize control of cognitive space.” “Seizing control of cognitive space” has a high degree of abstraction and level in the theoretical system of cognitive domain operations, and making it clear will facilitate the formation, development and application of cognitive domain operations science. The third is to find the correct subject positioning. What position cognitive domain warfare science should occupy in the military science discipline system is an important issue that must be solved when studying cognitive domain warfare science and military science. Objectively speaking, if cognitive domain warfare has entered the discipline system structure of military science, it can be positioned by directly adding it or by linking it to relevant disciplines.

Constructing cognitive domain combat science is a relatively complex system project with a long way to go. We can focus on leadership institutions, team building, academic achievements, etc. to provide reliable guarantee for the construction of cognitive domain combat science disciplines. The first is to establish a leadership organization. Under the direct leadership of the commanding authority, an authoritative organization for the research and formulation of the cognitive domain warfare discipline system with the participation of the commanding authority, experts in various fields, and military leaders will be established to be responsible for the research, demonstration, and overall planning of the cognitive domain warfare discipline system. The second is to strengthen team building. The key and core of building a discipline is the construction of academic teams. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of professional teams for cognitive domain warfare research and provide talent support for the construction and improvement of cognitive domain warfare disciplines. Through training and academic exchanges, we will improve the research quality and capabilities of existing researchers and introduce leaders in this discipline who have profound academic attainments, rigorous scholarship, and innovative academic ideas. The third is to launch academic results. Give full play to the enthusiasm and creativity of existing cognitive domain warfare researchers, increase research efforts, and continue to publish high-quality cognitive domain warfare theoretical research and application research works, teaching materials and academic papers, laying a solid foundation for building the cognitive domain warfare discipline. Solid academic foundation.

現代繁體中文:

問題的提出

認知域作戰古已有之,幾乎貫穿人類數千年戰爭史。只不過那時沒有認知域作戰的說法,而是被兵家稱之為「攻心術」「心戰」。到了20世紀,隨著科學技術發展,認知域作戰具備獨特優勢,呈現出「無時不戰、不宣而戰」的特質。認知域作戰已成為大國博弈、軍事對抗的終極之域,是現代戰爭制權的最高層次。

軍事科學發展有其內在的規律,建構我軍認知域作戰學是遵循軍事科學發展法則的過程。首先,認知域作戰具有強烈的時代特徵。隨著科學技術發展特別是生物、醫學、人工智慧以及資訊傳播等科學技術在戰爭領域的應用,控制人類的意志、思考、心理、情緒等認知系統的方式更為多元且靈活。其次,認知域作戰已成為現代戰爭主戰場,近幾場局部戰爭特別是俄烏衝突,展現認知域作戰的新樣式──認知域作戰作為獨立一域登上戰爭舞台,已經具備了一定的理論和物質基礎。

黨的十九大報告提出,到本世紀中葉將人民軍隊全面建成世界一流軍隊。要建成世界一流軍隊,就需要豐富「一流」的基本內涵,提升「一流」的價值標準,而認知要素則是不可或缺的要件。透過建構認知域作戰學,有利於在認知域作戰理論指導下,加速軍隊組織形態整體重塑;有利於正確理解認知域作戰特徵和規律,加速認知域作戰手段的開發、利用和完善的步伐;有利於積極採取行之有效的措施,創新認知域作戰的技法、戰法和樣式。

內涵與外延

作戰理論先進是否,是一支軍隊戰鬥力強弱的重要標誌。建構我軍認知域作戰學,堅持以我為主、自主創新,一方面立足我國實際,繼承和弘揚中國兵學的深邃智慧和我軍特有的政治優勢,同時,積極吸收外國軍事文化的精髓。

認知域作戰學研究的概念界定。認知域作戰的新鮮內容與新質特色,決定了認知域作戰學的新學性質。作為認知域作戰學的核心支撐,首先需要釐清認知域作戰研究的一些關鍵概念。一是關於「認知」。認知是指人腦或人利用認知工具對資訊的接收、編碼、儲存、交換、檢索、提取和使用的過程,是認知主體對資訊的主觀建構。這個過程可分解為四個部分:知覺、記憶、控制和反應,對應的認知系統也可分為知覺、記憶、控制和反應四個系統。二是關於「認知域」。隨著「認知」概念被引入軍事領域,現代戰爭已經形成了物理域、資訊域、認知域三大作戰維度,認知域成為交戰雙方繼陸、海、空、天、電、網之後的又一較量空間。通常表現為作戰人員的素質和能力,部隊的凝聚力、作戰經驗和訓練水平、戰場態勢感知程度以及社會輿論等。三是關於「認知域作戰」。與物理域、資訊域作戰相比,認知域作戰所涉及的空間更為廣闊,其實質是透過物理域的行動、資訊域的運用、認知域的攻防,奪取人的意志、信念、心理、思維等主導權,是傳統輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰及政治戰、經濟戰、文化戰等多種手段的複合集合體,欲達到不戰而屈人之兵的「全勝」戰略目標。

認知域作戰學研究的主要內容。認知域作戰學是研究戰爭精神發展規律的學說,是運用認知科學成果,研究戰爭進行認知攻防行動的應用性科學。它以古今中外一切認知域作戰現象為研究對象,主要研究以下內容:一是認知域作戰歷史理論。歷史上的戰爭,很早就有了「攻心為上,攻城為下」的光輝思想及豐富實踐。瓦解敵軍列入我軍政治工作三大原則,攻心奪將、改造俘虜成為黨領導武裝鬥爭的一條獨特戰線,書寫了人民軍隊輝煌戰史篇章。對於這份寶貴的歷史遺產,應站在今天的高度,進一步加以發掘和傳承。二是認知域作戰基礎理論。它是一門學科得以確立、生存和發展的基石,在本學科研究中起著先導和奠基作用。其研究只有求深、求透,把基本問題搞清楚,把各種關係理順暢,才能建立起系統、紮實、有效的基礎理論體系,進而為認知域作戰實踐提供有力指導。第三是認知域作戰應用理論。這是認知域作戰研究的核心,也是指導部隊認知域作戰實踐的重要理論基礎。其研究必須要求實、求新、求活,只有把理論研究與部隊認知域作戰教育訓練實踐和未來作戰實際緊密結合起來,才能形成集科學性、前瞻性、操作性和實用性為一體的認知域作戰應用理論體系,從而更好地為軍事鬥爭實踐服務。

認知域作戰學研究的學科基礎。建構認知域作戰學的學科體系,僅僅確立其獨立學科地位,找到其在軍事學科中的定位,還遠遠不夠。要完整、深入地認識認知域作戰學,同時也是為了更好地進行理論研究,必須弄清楚認知域作戰學與相關學科的關係。一是認知域作戰學與軍事學。認知域作戰圍繞著軍事行動的目標任務展開,緊密配合軍事行動過程進行,客觀地受軍事學理論所揭示的規律支配。因此,這需要認真研究認知域作戰學與軍事學理論的內在聯繫,並努力尋找實踐背後的理論共鳴點。二是認知域作戰學與支撐學科。認知域作戰學是專業性很強的軍事實踐活動。依照我國學科門類劃分模式與標準,新聞學、傳播、心理學、法學等多個學科成果是認知域作戰力量建設與實戰運用最基礎的理論來源,共同為認知域作戰學學科專業領域提供直接理論支撐。三是認知域作戰學與相關學科。人的精神心理活動所涉及的理論範疇都與認知域作戰有直接影響或間接的關係,對政治學、社會學、文化學等相關學科理論了解涉獵廣泛,認知域作戰行動發揮的作用就會越大,這需要我們對認知域作戰學相關學科加以研究,主動擴展認知域作戰的理論思維。

如何建構

新一輪世界軍事革命,將認知域作戰推向了迅速發展的「快車道」。綜觀近幾場局部戰爭特別是俄烏衝突,無不打上認知域作戰的烙印,其地位作用愈發凸顯。同時,國內外學者已取得的初步研究成果為建構認知域作戰學奠定了良好基礎。可以說,在實務的基礎上進行理論抽象,進而建構我軍認知域作戰學的時機基本上成熟。

任何一個理論體系的構建,都要遵循一定的邏輯法則。根據建構認知域作戰學學科體系的條件,主要應遵循以下法則:一是統一概念。在認知域作戰理論體系架構結構中,不應使用龐雜的、容易造成混亂的概念,以確保判斷和結論建立在準確的概念上。根據我軍作戰法規對相關概念的處理方法,應選定統一的「認知域作戰」概念作為建構認知域作戰學學科體系的相對概念。二是明確邏輯起點。研究認知域作戰理論的思考基點,就是「奪取認知空間制權」。 「奪取認知空間制權」在認知域作戰理論體系中具有較高的抽象性與層次性,予以明確便於認知域作戰學的形成、發展與應用。三是找準學科定位。認知域作戰學在軍事學科體系中應處在什麼位置,是研究認知域作戰學和軍事學必須解決的重要議題。客觀地看,認知域作戰學進入軍事學科體系結構,可以採取直接增列辦法或掛靠相關學科辦法來定位。

建構認知域作戰學是一個較為複雜的系統工程,任重道遠。可以從領導機構、團隊建立、學術成果等方面著力,為建構認知域作戰學學科提供可靠保障。一是成立領導機構。在統率機關的直接領導下,成立由統率機關、各方面專家和部隊領導參與的認知域作戰學科體系研究和製定的權威機構,負責對認知域作戰學科體系的研究論證和統籌。二是加強隊伍建設。建構學科的關鍵和核心是學術團隊的建構。要加強認知域作戰研究專業隊伍建設,為建構和完善認知域作戰學學科提供人才支援。透過訓練和學術交流,提升現有研究人員的研究素質和能力,推出學術造詣深、治學嚴謹、具有創新學術思想的本學科領導者。三是推出學術成果。充分發揮現有認知域作戰研究人員的積極性和創造性,加強研究力度,持續推出高品質的認知域作戰理論研究和應用研究著作、教材及學術論文,為建構認知域作戰學學科打下堅實的學術基礎。

中文原文科學參考:https://www.1921.org.cn/fxzl/2022/12/17/detailed_2022121733402.html