Category Archives: 認知對抗

Chinese Military’s Consideration of How to Win Intelligent Warfare – Dominance in Cognitive Confrontation



The evolution of war patterns always goes hand in hand with the industrial revolution. In recent years, the wave of intelligence has surged and has been widely and deeply applied in the military field, ushering in intelligent warfare for human society. Intelligent warfare is rooted in the intelligent society, with “human-machine intelligence fusion” as its main feature. The empowerment of intelligence makes the role of cognition in combat more prominent, and cognitive-led victory will become an important mechanism for winning wars.

  The history of the development of war naturally pushes cognition to the dominant position

  War in the information age occurs simultaneously between the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. It should be pointed out that the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain are not the exclusive domain of war in the information age. All wars and even all history are derived from the joint action of the three. They have come and gone in the long history of war, and have alternately become the dominant force in winning battles. elements.

  (1) Energy dominates playing speed and strength. When the form of war changes, the mobility, lethality and protective power in the physical domain increase, often becoming the key to victory in combat. This is true for iron weapons and war horses in cold weapon warfare, muskets and artillery in hot weapon warfare, and ships, tanks, and aircraft in mechanized warfare. To sum up, it is energy dominance. Energy dominates the game with speed and strength. Whoever has a better, faster, and stronger main battle platform is often more likely to win. However, the effectiveness of weapons cannot be infinitely developed. Nowadays, platform mobility has been limited by human physiological limits and has encountered a bottleneck. Nuclear weapons also tell us that regardless of whether there is an upper limit to the development of firepower, its use will be strictly limited.

  (2) Information takes the lead to achieve accuracy and integrity. The information domain focuses on the transmission and sharing of information. The development of information warfare has caused the confrontation between the two combatants to “gradually change from a problem of intensity, material and energy to a problem of structure, organization, information and control.” Information replaces energy and becomes the key to victory in combat. Information dominance means focusing on precision and overall control. Whoever’s weapon platform has higher strike accuracy and whose combat system has stronger information sharing capabilities will be more likely to win. However, the relationship between information advantage and decision-making advantage is not linear. As the amount of information continues to increase, the formation of decision-making advantage must also resort to intellectual support in the cognitive domain.

  (3) Cognition-led development of intelligence and design. The cognitive domain includes perception, judgment and decision-making, etc., and has been a must for military strategists since ancient times. Ancient military classics such as “Sun Tzu’s Art of War” contain rich ideas of wisdom and victory such as “predicting victory first” and “attacking with troops through strategy”. In the history of war, there are countless examples of winning by relying on strategy. Cognition leads the development of intelligence and design. Especially when the form of war matures, confrontation between evenly matched opponents will always be dominated by cognition. If we look at the development level of energy and information in the past, there are still great constraints on commanders’ planning and design of operations. So today’s great development of the two provides conditions for them to effectively achieve their intentions. Being able to do it as soon as you think of it is naturally shifting the dominant factor in winning battles to cognition. The side with higher intelligence and stronger design capabilities can often dominate the development of the battle situation.

  Intelligence will give cognitive dominance a special era connotation

  Intelligence is not about letting machine intelligence surpass, replace or eliminate humans, but rather using it to assist, liberate and enhance humans, and achieve human self-transcendence through the integration of human-machine intelligence. It enables humans, who have been using cognition to transform the world and change wars for thousands of years, for the first time to have the ability to transform cognition itself. This transformation is no longer the accumulation of knowledge, but a leap in ability; it is no longer the patent of a few elites. Rather, it is a characteristic of society as a whole. When it widely penetrates into the combat field, the form of war will enter the intelligent war, and cognitive dominance will take on a new connotation.

  (1) Expansion of cognitive space. In today’s era, human factors and weapon factors are becoming more and more closely integrated. The most typical examples are drones and intelligence. “Intelligence” mainly refers to autonomous systems, that is, simulating and materializing human intelligence and transplanting it into machines. Machine intelligence empowerment will allow autonomous systems to easily break through human physiological limits, enter environments that humans cannot bear at a speed beyond human reach, and rely on a certain amount of “on-site intelligence” to complete tasks that humans are unable or unwilling to complete. It may not really improve people’s cognition, but it will definitely extend people’s cognition in space and expand the combat space to extreme areas such as deep space, deep sea, and deep earth.

  (2) Improvement of cognitive efficiency. There are countless examples of cognitive victory, but there are only two reasons for this. Either rely on perceptual cognition, that is, intelligence. In the age of information scarcity, the level of decision-making is positively correlated with the amount of information. From small to large amounts of information, the quality of decision-making improves almost linearly. It is said that “if you know your enemy and yourself, victory is not in danger; if you know the sky and the earth, victory is endless.” Either rely on rational cognition, that is, judgment and strategy. Clausewitz said: “Three-quarters of the situations on which actions are based in war seem to be hidden in the clouds and are more or less unreal.” Excellent commanders can always reveal ” The information behind “The Mist” is what is said to be “what everyone knows, it has already been written; what I see, it has not yet been formed.” But when information moves from scarcity to overload or even “explosion”, the function curve between decision quality and information quantity begins to decline, making it increasingly difficult to use complex information to form accurate judgments. At this time, intelligence seems to be coming as planned. Computational intelligence may not surpass humans in terms of logical capabilities, but its powerful processing speed can solve the decision-making dilemma caused by information overload.

  (3) Cognitive interconnection and sharing. Combat is a violent confrontation between armed groups. Regardless of decision-making or actions, timely and effective communication between combatants is required. The advantage of information dominance is information sharing. However, due to the subjectivity of cognition, people often have different understandings of information, or even completely different opinions. The same information does not mean that the same information works in the same direction. With the development of machine intelligence, brain-computer interface and other technologies, their “silicon brains” will rely on the linkability that is significantly better than that of the human brain to promote the evolution of the network form from the Internet of Things to the Internet of Brains, and combat interaction will subsequently be based on information sharing. Moving towards situation sharing and decision-making sharing, the combat system will truly be realized and exerted.

  Cognitive dominance will be widely used in intelligent warfare

  Winning by instant advantage means “having the comprehensive capabilities and favorable situation to defeat the opponent at the moment when force is launched against the enemy, at the decisive point of the war.” It is the fundamental winning mechanism of war. The dominant factor in seizing and maintaining immediate advantages varies with changes in war forms. In intelligent warfare, cognition dominates.

  (1) Relying on the advantage of cognitive control of time to predict and strike preemptively to a new level. Time is the only irreducible factor in combat, and preemption is the eternal winning mechanism. Intelligent warfare will increasingly seize control of time advantage. First, you must first sense the enemy. In 2017, the US military proposed the concept of “algorithmic warfare”, which is to use intelligent analysis technology to quickly extract high-value intelligence from massive amounts of data. The popularization of intelligence in the future will push forward the intelligent perception of intelligence to ensure that enemies are discovered from the source. Secondly, we must make decisions before the enemy. The hybrid intelligence of human-machine integration and the network intelligence of up-down linkage will help realize distributed synchronized combat planning, and all levels within the organization can realize the integrated generation of combat plans. The third is to act before the enemy. The troops can prepare for combat in advance according to the specific process of joint decision-making. Once the combat plan is generated, they can immediately switch to combat.

  (2) Relying on cognition to create military superiority, unmanned swarms and group operations will become typical new tactics. Victory with more and less is the embodiment of “victory with instant advantage” in the use of combat forces. In intelligent warfare, victory with more and less is mainly the use of cognitive materialization, that is, machine intelligence, to shape military superiority and implement unmanned swarm or group operations. . First of all, the development of intelligent and additive manufacturing technologies has enabled autonomous systems to achieve cost savings and gain an absolute advantage over the enemy in terms of the number of platforms with the same investment. Secondly, when autonomous systems enter the battlefield, no matter how brave or tenacious they are, even the best soldiers cannot match them. Unmanned or manned-unmanned coordinated swarm operations will be both violent, saturated, and economical. In addition, the unmanned group combat formed by the combination of machine intelligence and bionics will demonstrate powerful systematic combat capabilities through self-learning, self-collaboration, self-healing and even self-evolution capabilities.

  (3) Relying on cognition to expand spatial advantages, cross-domain efficiency enhancement and global integration will reach a new level. Intelligence will not only create a new combat space, but also expand the breadth and depth of joint operations. Autonomous systems with certain cognitive capabilities can secretly maneuver to deep space and deep sea space near key targets or important passages to conduct infiltration and latent operations, forming a new cross-domain check and balance advantage against the enemy. “The defenders’ towers are silent and their traces are gone. They are more mysterious than ghosts and gods. They are underground and cannot be seen. The attackers are fast and fierce, as fast as thunder and lightning. They are in the sky and cannot be caught and prepared.” It can form a new asymmetry to the enemy. Advantage. Use intelligent sensing to form a more accurate understanding of the combat environment, use intelligent decision-making to implement a more reasonable allocation of combat resources, use intelligent networks to provide more flexible access to combat platforms, and achieve flexible deployment of combat forces, full-domain linkage, and efficient energy release.

  (4) Aiming at the enemy’s cognition, attacking the mind and controlling the brain, control replaces destruction as a new way to win. Compared with the traditional “conquering the enemy without fighting”, intelligent warfare has greatly expanded its ability to attack the mind and control the brain. The former puts more emphasis on “win on the road” and focuses on deterring opponents; the latter focuses more on influencing and controlling opponents. In December 2017, Russia’s base in Syria was attacked by a “swarm” of 13 small drones. Russia controlled 6 of them using electronic warfare means, which was the prototype of mind control. One is to fabricate information to influence. In the future, real-life audio and video synthesis, pervasive network attacks, and immersive virtual reality will provide more effective means to influence the opponent’s cognition. The second is to tamper with the program to influence. Such as using “core attack warfare” to tamper with the algorithm of the enemy’s command and decision-making system. The third is to directly control the enemy’s decision-making. Use cyber warfare, electromagnetic warfare and other methods to control the enemy’s “brain” attacks to achieve the goal of stopping and winning the war at the minimum cost.


戰爭形態嬗變總是與產業革命相伴相生。 近年來,智慧化浪潮洶湧而來,並在軍事領域廣泛深入應用,使人類社會迎來智慧化戰爭。 智能化戰爭根植於智慧社會,以「人機智能融合」為主要特徵,智能的賦能使認知在作戰中的地位更加凸顯,認知主導制勝將成為戰爭制勝的重要機制。


  資訊時代戰爭同時發生在物理域、資訊域和認知域之間。 需要指出,物理域、資訊域和認知域都不是資訊時代戰爭的專屬領域,一切戰爭甚至一切歷史,都源自於三者的共同作用,它們在戰爭歷史長河中此起彼伏,交替成為作戰制勝的主導 要素。

  (一)能量主導打速度、打力量。 當戰爭形態發生嬗變,物理域的機動性、殺傷力和防護力的躍升,經常成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 冷兵器戰爭的鐵器、戰馬,熱兵器戰爭的火槍、火砲,機械化戰爭的船、坦克、飛機都是如此,概括起來就是能量主導。 能量主導打速度、打力量,誰的主戰平台更好、更快、更強,往往誰就更容易取勝。 但武器效能不能無限發展,如今平台機動力已經囿於人的生理極限而遭遇瓶頸;核武又告訴我們,不管火力發展有無上限,使用必將嚴格受限。

  (二)資訊主導打精度、打整體。 資訊域重點在於資訊的傳輸和共享。 資訊化戰爭的發展,使作戰雙方的對抗“逐漸從強度、物質和能量問題轉變為結構、組織、資訊和控制問題”,資訊取代能量成為作戰制勝的關鍵。 資訊主導就是打精度、打整體,誰的武器平台打擊精度更高,誰的作戰體系資訊共享能力更強,誰就更容易取勝。 但資訊優勢到決策優勢的關聯也並非線性,隨著資訊量的持續提升,決策優勢的形成還要訴諸認知域的智力支撐。

  (三)認知主導打智能、打設計。 認知域包括感知、判斷和決策等,自古以來便為兵家之所必爭。 《孫子兵法》等古代兵經有「廟算先勝」「上兵伐謀」等豐富的智勝思想,戰爭史上依靠謀略取勝的戰例更是不勝枚舉。 認知主導打智能、打設計。 尤其是當戰爭形態趨於成熟,勢均力敵的對手之間的對抗,總是會以認知為主導。 如果說過去能量和資訊的發展水平,對指揮官籌劃設計作戰還有很大限制。 那麼今天兩者的極大發展,則為他們有效達成意圖提供了條件。 想到即能做到,正在使作戰制勝的主導要素自然地向認知轉移,智能水平更高、設計能力更強的一方,往往就能主導戰局發展。


  智能化不是要讓機器智能超越、取代或淘汰人,而是用它輔助、解放和增強人,透過人機智能融合,實現人的自我超越。 它使千百年來一直利用認知改造世界、改變戰爭的人類,首次有能力改造認知本身,這種改造不再是知識的積累,而是能力的躍升;不再是少數精英的專利, 而是整個社會的特徵。 當它廣泛滲透到作戰領域,戰爭形態便跨入智能化戰爭,認知主導也有了新的內涵。

  (一)認知空間拓展。 在當今時代,人的因素、武器因素結合得越來越緊密。 最典型的例子就是無人機、智慧化。 「智能化」主要指自主系統,即模擬、物化人的智能,並移植到機器中。 機器智能賦能將使自主系統輕鬆突破人的生理極限,以人類無法企及的速度,進入人類無法承受的環境,並憑藉一定的“現場智能”,完成人類不能或不願完成的任務。 它未必能真正提升人的認知,但卻一定會在空間上延伸人的認知,使作戰空間向深空、深海、深地等極限領域拓展。

  (二)認知效率提升。 認知制勝的戰例不可勝數,但個中原因不外有二。 要么靠感性認知,即情報。 資訊匱乏年代,決策水準與資訊量成正相關,資訊量由小到大,決策品質幾乎線性提升,所謂「知彼知己,勝乃不殆;知天知地,勝乃不窮」。 要麼靠理性認知,即判斷和謀略。 克勞塞維茲說:「戰爭中行動所依據的情況有3/4好像隱藏在雲霧裡一樣,是或多或少不真實的。」優秀指揮官總是能夠憑藉經驗和推理,揭示出「 迷霧」背後的訊息,所謂「眾人所知,已成已著也;我之所見,未形未萌也」。 但當資訊從匱乏走向過載甚至“爆炸”,決策品質與資訊量間的函數曲線也開始下滑,利用繁雜資訊形成準確判斷變得難上加難。 此時,智能化似乎如約而至,計算智能未必可在邏輯能力上逾越人類,但其強大的處理速度,卻恰好使資訊過載帶來的決策困境迎刃而解。

  (三)認知互連共享。 作戰是武裝團體間的暴力對抗,無論決策或行動,都需要作戰人員之間進行及時有效地交流。 資訊主導的優點是資訊分享,但由於認知的主觀性,人們對資訊的理解往往見仁見智,甚至大相逕庭,相同資訊並不意義相向而行。 隨著機器智慧、腦機介面等技術的發展,它們的「矽腦」將憑藉明顯優於人腦的可連結性,推動網路形態由物聯網向腦聯網演進,作戰互動將隨之由資訊共享 邁向態勢共享、決策共享,作戰體系將真正實現並向發力。


  即時優勢制勝,就是“在向敵發力的那一時刻,在戰爭決定點的對抗,具有能戰勝對方的綜合能力和有利態勢”,它是戰爭的根本製勝機理。 奪取和維持即時優勢的主導要素因戰爭形態變化而不同,在智慧化戰爭中是認知主導。

  (一)依靠認知奪控時間優勢,先知先決、先發制人達到新境界。 時間是唯一不可還原的作戰要素,先發制人是亙古不變的致勝機理,智慧化戰爭對時間優勢的奪控將更趨激烈。 首先要先敵感知。 2017年美軍提出「演算法戰」概念,就是要利用智慧分析技術,從海量資料中快速擷取高價值情報。 而未來智能的普及,將前推情報的智能感知,從源頭確保先敵發現。 其次要先敵決策。 人機融合的混合智能,上下連動的網路智能,將協助實現分散式的作戰同步籌劃,編成內各層級可實現作戰方案一體生成。 第三要先敵行動。 部隊可依連動決策的具體進程,緊前展開作戰準備,一旦作戰方案生成,可立即轉入作戰。

  (二)依靠認知塑造兵力優勢,無人集群、族群作戰將成為典型新戰法。 以多勝少是「即時優勢制勝」在作戰力量運用上的具體化,智能化戰爭的以多勝少,主要是利用認知物化,即機器智能,塑造兵力優勢,實施無人集群或族群作戰 。 首先,智慧和積層製造技術的發展,使自主系統實現成本跳水,可在同等投入獲取平台數量的對敵絕對優勢。 其次,自主系統走上戰場,無論勇敢或堅韌,即使最優秀的士兵也無法比肩,無人或有人—無人協同集群作戰將兼具猛烈性、飽和性和經濟性。 此外,機器智能與仿生學結合形成的無人族群作戰,將透過自我學習、自我協同、自我療癒甚至自我進化能力,展現強大的體系化作戰能力。

  (三)依賴認知拓展空間優勢,跨域增效、全域融合將升至新境界。 智慧化不僅會催生新的作戰空間,同時帶來聯合作戰在廣度和深度上的拓展。 具備一定認知能力的自主系統,可秘密機動至重點目標或重要通道附近的深空、深海空間,實施滲透潛伏作戰,對敵形成新的跨域制衡優勢。 「守者韜聲滅跡,幽比鬼神,在於地下,不可得而見之;攻者,勢迅聲烈,疾若雷電,如來天上,不可得而備也”,可對敵人形成新的非對稱 優勢。 利用智慧感知對作戰環境形成更精準認知,利用智慧決策對作戰資源實施更合理調配,利用智慧網路為作戰平台提供更靈活接入,實現作戰力量彈性部署、全域連動、高效釋能。

  (四)瞄準敵方認知攻心控腦,控制取代摧毀成為制勝新途徑。 較之傳統的“不戰而屈人之兵”,智能化戰爭的攻心控腦大有拓展。 前者更強調“道勝”,重視嚇阻對手;後者更多的是影響和控制對手。 2017年12月,俄羅斯駐敘利亞基地遭受13架小型無人機「蜂群」攻擊,俄以電子戰手段控制其中6架,即為攻心控腦之雛形。 一是虛造訊息來影響。 未來,以假亂真的聲像合成,無孔不入的網路攻擊,身臨其境的虛擬現實,將為影響對手認知提供更多有效手段。 二是篡改程序來影響。 如利用「攻芯戰」來篡改敵方指揮決策系統的演算法。 三是直接控制敵方決策。 利用網路戰、電磁戰等方式對敵實施控「腦」攻擊,以最小代價實現止戰、勝戰之目的。

2019年12月24日 11:00:48 資料來源: 解放軍報 作者:董治強

Chinese Military Use of Cognitive Confrontation within the Combat Domain



Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its effect. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of combat in the cognitive domain, spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there had been no Allied Forces, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the “overlord plan” strategy of “building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses secretly”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military operations in the physical domain, and then the specific military operations in the physical domain realize the material transformation of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, no matter how brilliant it is, if there is no implementation by the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our military’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough, and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of conjoining warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, but did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute, Academy of Military Sciences)


現代戰爭根據物質形態的特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域和認知域。 這三個領域相互作用,形成軍事對抗的場域和土壤。 認知域操作雖然發生在認知領域,但其操作支援往往跨越各領域。 戰爭實踐表明,隨著物理領域硬打擊效能的增強,往往可以加速認知形成,認知實現更能滿足作戰需求。


當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界。 相互連結的不同物體的集合極大地增強了獨立個體單獨行動的功能。 認知域操作從來都不是認知載體之間孤立的操作。 將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合,與整個作戰體系緊密結合,才能充分發揮戰鬥力。

認知的起點。 存在決定意識。 思維和認知不是天上來的仙女,而是現實世界的真實或曲折的反映。 離開了物質世界的基礎,思考和認知就會失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的基礎、決策和行動的準確性,使人難以信任、認知、依賴。 即使是最迷幻的科幻戰爭,仍然會參考真實的作戰目標、具體的作戰目標以及相應的作戰路徑。 因此,情報偵察分析成為指揮組織部隊、規劃不可或缺的重要環節。 「沒有調查就沒有話語權」被視為決策必須遵循的金科玉律。 戰場模擬模擬已成為作戰行動成功的重要一步。 歷史上,大部分功將的作戰指揮和經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,都是建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析的基礎上的。 沒有現實世界的硬派支撐,「人類一思考,上帝就笑」。

認知效應的基礎。 認知領域作戰的一條金科玉律是,認知層面的軟實力必須有實體層面的硬實力支撐,才能確保並強化其效果。 強大的軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上的持續勝利是贏得認知戰爭的核心支撐。 如果美國沒有超強的綜合國力和優越的技術的高壓壓力,其「星際大戰計畫」可能無法真正發揮作用。 認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的支撐,永遠不會產生疑、迷、震懾、克敵的良好效果。 要掌握思維認知的主動權,掌握認知域作戰的主動權,不僅要加強認知本體建設,提高直接運用策略和技術手段加強自我保護、幹預和影響對手的能力。思維和認知,還積極努力在物理領域利用軍事行動在物理領域的傳導效應,增強思維和認知。

認知實現的起點。 馬克思主義認為,理論一旦掌握了群眾,也就成為物質力量。 從認知領域的戰鬥來看,認知上層建築層面的精神創造並不會自動轉化為物質力量。 只有執著於一定的物質載體和實踐把握,才有可能實現精神到物質、意識的轉變。 實現的關鍵飛躍。 正如二戰時,如果德軍沒有繞過馬其諾防線,突破阿登森林,向法國腹地發起奇襲,就不可能展現「德軍認知成就」的先見之明。曼斯坦計畫」; 同樣,如果沒有盟軍,軍隊在東西兩進的諾曼第成功登陸,也未能凸顯出「明修棧道、暗藏倉庫」的「霸王計畫」戰略的巧妙之處。 思維認知透過人傳遞到物理域的具體軍事行動,再由物理域的具體軍事行動實現物質轉化。



物理領域軍事打擊支持認知攻防所採用的手段和方式,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般法則。 基本方式可分為增強支援、確認支援和變現支援。

增強支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊加強了思維和認知的形成和發展。 思維認知雖然依賴認知載體本身的品質,但如果沒有物理領域軍事行動的支持,就很難實現。 物理領域軍事行動在認知領域最基本的作用就是為思考認知的形成與發展提供堅實的支持。 思考和認知只有建立在真實的身體行動的基礎上,才能穩定、深遠。 例如,朝鮮戰爭初期,朝鮮人民軍勢不可擋時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島戰局、地理、天氣特點,準確預測了美軍登陸,尤其是當時美軍和韓國軍隊的各種行動等等時間地點。 同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇偉也根據志願軍的後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,對「拜拜攻勢」做出了判斷,用「磁性戰術」與我作戰。 這些都是物理領域的戰鬥對思維認知的形成與發展的增強。

確認類型支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊證實了預設的思維、預知和預判。 認知攻防不僅發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。 戰爭是「生死之地,生存之道」。 如果一個人的認知決策無法在實踐層面得到多方位的驗證,那麼輕舉妄動就是對戰爭最大的不負責任。 革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層始終處於整體戰略的掌控之中,賦予第一線指揮官依照整體戰略方向原則酌情行動的權力。 這是對戰略思維的正面肯定。 二戰期間,盟軍利用「虛假事實」進行誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍對歐洲大陸盟軍登陸地點的誤解,最終以最小的成本成功登陸諾曼第。 這是一次反擊。 確認。

實施支援。 為思維、認知、判斷和決策的實現提供直接的物質支持。 思維和認知必須轉化為改變世界的實際結果。 作用於對手的思維和認知不是終點而是新的起點。 接下來,必須透過「巧手」和「勇敢的心」在物質世界中付諸行動。 換句話說,簡而言之,就是為思考認知的價值實現提供直接的身體行動支撐。 這就像是諸葛亮的巧妙計劃,無論多麼輝煌,如果沒有「五虎將」和其他蜀漢將士的實施,也只能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 無論“OODA”循環的前三部分運行得多麼高效,如果缺少執行環節“A”,那麼這將是一個“死循環”。 同樣,我軍指揮決策的結果也取決於官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性執行。 執行的品質和效率直接決定指揮決策的執行效果。 就此而言,執行層面的身體動作具有極為重要的現實意義。


思考和認知必須依靠身體動作的支持,這是不依賴人的意志的客觀規律。 加強思考認知與身體打擊的溝通互動,使我們的思維和決策更加具有針對性、客觀性和可操作性,從而更好地將認知優勢轉化為行動優勢和製勝優勢,是一項極其重要的任務。 。

更加積極主動並鞏固您的認知基礎。 思維認識是否正確,從根本上取決於它是否符合客觀現實,是否適用於打擊對手。 唯有思考

而充分調查研究、實事求是、比較優勢的認識是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的。 實行絕對的、神聖的、虛無的思想或將軍的天才、智慧、靈感,是唯心主義的、片面的、有害的。 這就要求我們必須努力把思維認識建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析的基礎上,真正了解敵情、我情、他人情,真正知己知彼、知己知彼。應該了解並因地制宜。 相機移動。 同時,要把閱讀無字書與有字書結合起來,把間接理論與不斷發展變化的生活實踐結合,辯證地認識過去的經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為我們自己的經驗教訓。知識。 幫助而不是束縛,協助而不是支配。

更積極主動,強化認知理性。 經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認識來自於實踐,並透過實踐的回饋得到強化。 認知實務經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料。 形成科學認知,需要在意識與物質、思考與存在的反覆碰撞與驗證中進一步去偽存真,以提高認知理性。 認為只有從局部情況、碎片資訊和個別時期才能一勞永逸地獲得真正的知識是錯誤的,甚至是致命的。 在中國古代的赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從常識中得出了連體戰船的認識,即鐵纜可以平衡船體的晃動,但並沒有從實戰效果或連體後果中證實這一點。軍艦。 如果不懂得再造,很容易就會用鐵繩把船綁起來,把自己綁起來,最後落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗。 時代變遷,現代戰場敵情瞬息萬變。 從來沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成就。 它只能從物質中剔除雜質,提取精華,去認知,去物質確認,重新認知。 ,我們能否回歸理性。

更主動地客觀化認知結果。 認知成就只是認知載體中孕育思考和意識的結果。 如果沒有及時有效的物質改造,就會像穿著錦衣走夜路或藏寶藏山一樣,很難展現出自身的價值。 思維和認知是以物理行為為基礎的,最終要依靠物理領域的具體行為才能具體化,轉化為改變主觀世界和客觀世界的實際結果。 這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策和規劃的可操作性,為更順利的物化和轉化打開大門。 同時,要努力提高決策部署執行者的執行能力,使他們能夠正確理解決策意圖,根據具體實際創造性地採取適當的方法,最大限度地落實認知結果和經營決策計劃進行到底。 當好認知結果與戰鬥力銜接轉化的「擺渡人」、「過河橋樑」。