Category Archives: China’s Informatization – 中國信息化

中國軍隊對耗散戰的戰術運用:智慧戰爭中的有效方法論

Chinese Military’s Tactical Use of Dissipative Warfare: Effective Methodology within Intelligent Warfare

隨著智慧化技術快速發展及在軍事上的廣泛應用,智慧化戰爭正成為資訊化戰爭後的新戰爭形態,而耗散戰則成為智慧化戰爭的典型方式。 所謂耗散戰,是指智慧化戰爭體系透過對內富聚融合,對外突變湧現,達成集物質消耗、能量釋散和資訊擴散於一體的綜合戰力的作戰方式。 加強耗散戰研究,有利於我們深入揭示智慧化戰爭制勝機理,贏得未來戰爭賽局主動權。

耗散戰是時代發展的必然結果

耗散戰表現在智慧化時代中物理域、資訊域和認知域的綜合對抗,體現為政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等形式的高度統一,反映了智慧化戰爭體系 所具有的開放性、複雜性和湧現性。

適應智慧化時代的安全情勢要求。 進入智慧化時代,寬網路、大數據、大模型、雲端運算、深度學習等技術快速發展,各政治集團、國家、民族之間的聯繫更加廣泛。 在政治多元、經濟交融、社會開放、科技革命等多重因素作用下,非傳統安全興起並與傳統威脅交織,智慧化戰爭主體與範疇不斷拓展,戰爭時間與空間不斷外延,戰爭與和平如影相 隨並交織一體,戰爭體系將進一步超越局部地域限制,從相對封閉走向更開放,形成更高層次和更大範圍的對抗。 耗散戰強調智慧化戰爭體系在物理域、資訊域和認知域的綜合發力,把政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等形式高度統一併納入敵我對抗範疇,適應了 世界安全情勢發展的時代要求。

符合戰爭形態演變的客觀法則。 戰爭體系的耗散現象自戰爭產生以來便始終存在,只不過在智能化戰爭形態出現之前,由於技術的製約,一直處於較為低級的、簡單的狀態,戰爭對抗僅能表現為物質消耗、能量釋 散和訊息擴散中的某一種形式。 農業時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以物質要素為主導的、以人體為中心的冷兵器戰爭。 工業化時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以能量要素為主導的、以平台為中心的熱核兵器和機械化戰爭。 在資訊化時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以資訊要素為主導的、以網信體系為中心的資訊化戰爭。 進入智慧化時代,智慧化科技將敵我對抗中的認知優勢、決策優勢和行動優勢高度統一起來,實質是將物質、能量和資訊三者高度統一,透過以智賦能、以智聚能、 以智釋能,形成了以智慧要素為主導的、以智慧演算法為中心的智慧化戰爭形態,主要表現形式即為反映智慧化戰爭複雜體系對抗的耗散戰。

具有堅實的哲學理論基礎支撐。 社會形態是戰爭形態的母體,探索和認識智能化戰爭,必須基於歷史唯物主義和辯證唯物主義的基本原理,綜合考察戰爭形態的演進和智能化戰爭所處的社會形態,構建新的戰爭概念和 語境體系。 從哲學角度看,物質、能量和資訊是構成世界的三大要素,物質體現本源的存在,能量體現運動的存在,訊息則體現聯繫的存在,三者遞進交替主導著社會形態和戰爭形態的 演進和運行。 依照辯證唯物論的否定之否定原理,在資訊時代之後的智慧時代,主導社會的要素將繼物質、能量、資訊後再次輪到物質,只不過這個物質是高度資訊化後螺旋式上升後形成的 新型物質,其主要特徵就是具有了智慧化技術屬性。 因此,從本質上講,耗散戰是智慧要素將以前低階戰爭形態中物質、能量和資訊的特性優勢高度統一起來,將戰爭中普遍存在的物質消耗、能量釋散和資訊擴散等形式高度 統一起來,反映了智慧化戰爭的典型特徵。

深刻把握耗散戰的內在要義

耗散戰基於現實世界、涵蓋虛擬世界,適應了智慧化技術快速發展、非傳統安全威脅興起、戰爭主體和範疇不斷拓展的趨勢,呈現出許多新特性。

對抗綜合博弈。 隨著智慧化戰爭形態加速向更高深度和廣度發展,政治、經濟、文化、外交等領域相互聯繫和影響更具廣泛性,戰爭重心開始從軍事系統向社會系統偏移,戰爭利益攸關方 的對抗將體現為政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等多種形式的綜合博弈,追求的戰爭優勢不再只限於軍事對抗領域。 戰爭制勝方必須適應戰爭體系的開放性、複雜性和湧現性要求,從單一物質、能量和資訊的粗放式消耗和運用轉變到以智慧優勢主導戰爭體系的耗散,力爭在多領域的綜合博弈 中贏得主動和優勢。

主體跨域多元。 智慧化戰爭的主體日益泛化,傳統戰爭需要動員的戰爭潛在力量將處於常態化對抗狀態。 政治力量、各類機構和人員與傳統意義上在戰場廝殺的部隊和軍人一起構成戰爭的主體。 多元化戰爭主體將跨越現實域和虛擬域,出現在陸、海、空、天、電、心理等多個空間域,涵蓋物理域、資訊域、認知域等,涵蓋政治、經濟、文化、 外交等多類社會域。 如社會平民可以用智慧型手機收集軍事戰場上的信息並傳遞給戰爭利益攸關方,造成對戰爭關鍵訊息的擴散,進而影響戰爭決策或一場戰役和戰鬥的勝敗。

力量一體富聚。 虛實力量一體。 圍繞著戰爭目的,一切可能運用的現實力量和虛擬力量將在智能化技術支撐下實現一體化,在平行戰場上按職履責、按規行動;有無力量一體。 無人作戰力量將在經歷人工操作、人工授權、人為監督階段後,實現高度的自主性,並可與各類有人力量按需部署、按需組合,在共同的戰爭規則約束下有效協同、並行 共生;多方力量一體。 基於各領域的廣泛聯繫和戰爭體系的共同目的,黨政軍警民等各方力量將軍事行動與政治、經濟、外交、輿論、法理鬥爭密切配合、統一行動,形成綜合戰力。 總之,在國家或政治集團的一體籌劃下,智慧化戰爭的多元參戰力量雖然物理分散,但能夠圍繞共同的戰爭目的,實現邏輯集中、即時富聚,優勢互補、一體聚優。

效能累積湧現。 高階戰爭形態在具有新質技術特徵的同時,仍涵括低階戰爭形態的特徵優勢。 耗散戰強調在多域持續進行綜合對抗,這既包括物質層面的彈藥、物資、器材甚至作戰人員的消耗,也包括能量層面的不斷匯集和釋放,更包括透過資訊層面的數據、知識、演算法 等的擴散與融合,對人的思考認知、價值追求、道德觀念、情感意志、行為模式等產生不可限制的影響。 在核武的常態嚇阻下,智慧化戰爭呈現出血腥味下降,但政治孤立、經濟封鎖、文化衝突、外交扼殺等將更加嚴峻激烈的局面。 當軍事、政治、經濟、文化、外交等各系統角色持續發揮,效能累積達到某一程度,戰爭體係就會增加負熵,進而實現戰力突變和體系效能湧現,從而獲得戰爭優勢。

在選準作戰重心中打好耗散戰

智慧化戰爭體系透過對內富聚融合,對外突變湧現,跨域增效、以智耗散,達成體係作戰效能最大化,這是耗散戰蘊含的製勝機理。 要在智慧化戰爭中贏得勝勢,必須明確耗散戰的作戰重心,針對對手體系短板弱點,找準戰爭準備的發力點。

著眼體系開放性,封閉孤立對手戰爭體系。 截斷對手戰爭體系與外在戰場環境的物質、能量和資訊交流,使之缺乏物質、能量和資訊來源管道,逐漸走向孤立、封閉和虛弱狀態。 如在戰略層面,採取政治孤立的方式,使對手戰爭體系處於孤立狀態,造成體系熵增。 在戰役層面,可利用切斷資料來源、毀滅資料備份、資料作假、竄改資訊等方法,綜合採用軟硬手段,迫其戰爭體係向封閉狀態轉化,進而降低對方體系效能。

著眼體系複雜性,分域破擊對手戰爭體系。 智慧化戰爭體係要素間連結越多、連結程度越緊密,體系結構可靠性就越低。 運用複雜系統中各分層相對獨立的原理,可製訂戰略全局、戰役局部和戰術行動策略,實現對敵戰爭體系的分層分域破擊。 如在戰略層面,採用經濟封鎖的方式,大大削弱對手的戰爭實力和發展潛力。 在戰役層面,利用作戰系統通訊網路的脆弱性,以網電複合攻擊為基本路徑與手段,採用「毀端、擊元、孤群、斷網、破雲」等方式,破擊對方作戰系統結構 ,促使對方戰爭體系「坍塌」。

著眼體系湧現性,拆解疏散對手戰爭體系。 智慧化戰爭體系只有出現突變和湧現效應,才能快速形成發揮體系效能,獲得耗散戰優勢。 如果只是單一組分或要素發揮作用,不可能形成優勢湧現。 可以預見,當前興起的ChatGPT等技術以及未來更高級的智慧化技術,將提供理解和發現戰爭複雜體系運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式,以及探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段, 戰爭對抗優勢方將透過虛實結合、平行一體的對抗方式,降低對手戰爭體系的耦合度,達成拆解疏散敵戰爭體系的目的。

Modern English:

Introduction

With the rapid development of intelligent technology and its widespread application in military affairs, intelligent warfare is becoming a new form of warfare after information warfare, and dissipative warfare has become a typical method of intelligent warfare. The so-called dissipative warfare refers to a combat method in which the intelligent warfare system achieves comprehensive combat power integrating material consumption, energy release and information diffusion through internal integration and integration and external mutation. Strengthening research on dissipative warfare will help us deeply reveal the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and win the initiative in future war games.

Dissipative war is the inevitable result of the development of the times

Dissipative warfare is manifested in the comprehensive confrontation of the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain in the intelligent era. It is reflected in the high degree of unity in the form of political contest, economic competition, military offense and defense, cultural conflict and diplomatic checks and balances, reflecting the intelligent war system. openness, complexity and emergence.

Adapt to the security situation requirements of the intelligent era. Entering the era of intelligence, technologies such as wide networks, big data, big models, cloud computing, and deep learning are developing rapidly, and the connections between political groups, countries, and ethnic groups have become more extensive. Under the influence of multiple factors such as political pluralism, economic integration, social openness, and technological revolution, non-traditional security has emerged and is intertwined with traditional threats. The subjects and categories of intelligent warfare have continued to expand. The time and space of war have continued to expand. War and peace are like shadows. As they become more integrated, the war system will further transcend local geographical restrictions, move from a relatively closed world to a more open one, and form a higher-level and wider-scale confrontation. Dissipative warfare emphasizes the comprehensive development of intelligent warfare systems in the physical, information and cognitive domains. It highly unifies political contests, economic competitions, military offense and defense, cultural conflicts and diplomatic checks and balances into the scope of confrontation between ourselves and the enemy, adapting to the The requirements of the times as the world security situation develops.

It is in line with the objective laws of the evolution of war forms. The dissipation phenomenon of the war system has always existed since the birth of war. However, before the emergence of intelligent warfare, due to technological constraints, it has always been in a relatively low-level and simple state. War confrontation can only be manifested in material consumption and energy release. A form of dispersion and information diffusion. In the agricultural era, the main form of war was cold weapon warfare dominated by material elements and centered on the human body. In the era of industrialization, the main forms of warfare are thermonuclear weapons and mechanized warfare dominated by energy elements and centered on platforms. In the information age, the form of war is mainly information-based war dominated by information elements and centered on the network information system. Entering the era of intelligence, intelligent technology highly unifies the cognitive advantages, decision-making advantages and action advantages in the confrontation between ourselves and the enemy. In essence, it highly unifies matter, energy and information. Through intelligent empowerment, intelligent energy gathering, Interpreting energy through intelligence has formed an intelligent war form dominated by intelligent elements and centered on intelligent algorithms. The main form of expression is dissipative warfare that reflects the confrontation of the complex systems of intelligent warfare.

It is supported by a solid philosophical theoretical foundation. Social form is the matrix of war forms. To explore and understand intelligent warfare, we must be based on the basic principles of historical materialism and dialectical materialism, comprehensively examine the evolution of war forms and the social form in which intelligent warfare occurs, and construct a new war concept and context system. From a philosophical perspective, matter, energy and information are the three major elements that make up the world. Material embodies the existence of the source, energy embodies the existence of movement, and information embodies the existence of connections. The three progressively and alternately dominate the formation of social forms and war forms. Evolve and run. According to the principle of negation of dialectical materialism, in the intelligent age after the information age, the dominant element of society will be material again after matter, energy, and information. However, this material is formed after a spiral of high informatization. The main characteristic of new materials is that they have intelligent technical properties. Therefore, in essence, dissipative warfare is the intelligent element that highly unifies the characteristic advantages of matter, energy and information in previous low-level warfare forms, and highly integrates the common forms of material consumption, energy release and information diffusion in war. Unified, it reflects the typical characteristics of intelligent warfare.

Deeply grasp the inner essence of dissipative warfare

Dissipative warfare is based on the real world and covers the virtual world. It adapts to the rapid development of intelligent technology, the rise of non-traditional security threats, and the continuous expansion of war subjects and categories, and presents many new characteristics.

Against comprehensive games. As the form of intelligent warfare accelerates to develop to a higher depth and breadth, the political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other fields are more interconnected and have more extensive influence. The focus of war begins to shift from the military system to the social system, and the war stakeholders The confrontation will be reflected in various forms of comprehensive games such as political competition, economic competition, military offense and defense, cultural conflicts, and diplomatic checks and balances. The pursuit of war advantages is no longer limited to the field of military confrontation. The winner of the war must adapt to the openness, complexity and emergence requirements of the war system, transform from the extensive consumption and use of single materials, energy and information to the dissipation of the war system dominated by intelligent advantages, and strive to compete in comprehensive games in multiple fields Gain the initiative and advantage.

Subjects are diverse across domains. The subjects of intelligent warfare are becoming increasingly generalized, and the potential war forces that need to be mobilized for traditional warfare will be in a state of normalized confrontation. Political forces, various institutions and personnel, together with the troops and soldiers fighting on the battlefield in the traditional sense, constitute the main body of the war. Diversified war subjects will span the real domain and the virtual domain, appearing in land, sea, air, space, electricity, psychology and other spatial domains, covering the physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, etc., covering politics, economy, culture, Diplomacy and other social fields. For example, civilians can use smartphones to collect information on military battlefields and pass it on to war stakeholders, causing the spread of key war information, which in turn affects war decisions or the victory or defeat of a campaign or battle.

Strength is gathered into one body. Virtual and real power are integrated. Focusing on the purpose of war, all possible real and virtual forces that may be used will be integrated with the support of intelligent technology, and they will perform their duties and act according to regulations on parallel battlefields; they will be integrated with and without forces. Unmanned combat forces will achieve a high degree of autonomy after going through the stages of manual operation, manual authorization, and human supervision. They can be deployed and combined with various manned forces on demand, and can effectively coordinate and operate in parallel under the constraints of common war rules. Symbiosis; multiple forces integrated into one. Based on the extensive connections in various fields and the common purpose of the war system, the party, government, military, police and civilians and other forces closely coordinate and act in a unified manner with political, economic, diplomatic, public opinion, and legal struggles to form a comprehensive combat capability. In short, under the unified planning of the country or political group, although the diverse participating forces in intelligent warfare are physically dispersed, they can achieve logical concentration, instant enrichment, complementary advantages, and integration of excellence around the common war purpose.

Effectiveness emerges cumulatively. While high-level warfare forms have new technological features, they still include the characteristic advantages of lower-level warfare forms. Dissipative warfare emphasizes continuous comprehensive confrontation in multiple domains. This includes not only the consumption of ammunition, materials, equipment and even combat personnel at the material level, but also the continuous collection and release of energy at the energy level. It also includes the use of data, knowledge, and algorithms at the information level. The diffusion and integration of information, etc. will have an unlimited impact on people’s thinking and cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotions, will, behavior patterns, etc. Under the constant deterrence of nuclear weapons, intelligent warfare will become less bloody, but political isolation, economic blockade, cultural conflict, diplomatic stranglehold, etc. will become more serious and intense. When the military, political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other systems continue to play their roles and the cumulative effectiveness reaches a certain level, the war system will increase negative entropy, thereby achieving a sudden change in combat power and the emergence of system effectiveness, thereby gaining a war advantage.

Choose the right focus to fight the dissipation war well

The intelligent warfare system maximizes the combat effectiveness of the system through internal aggregation and integration, external mutation emergence, cross-domain efficiency enhancement, and intelligent dissipation. This is the winning mechanism contained in dissipative warfare. To win in intelligent warfare, it is necessary to clarify the focus of dissipative warfare, target the shortcomings and weaknesses of the opponent’s system, and identify the focus of war preparations.

Focus on the openness of the system and close and isolate the opponent’s war system. Cut off the material, energy and information exchange between the opponent’s war system and the external battlefield environment, causing it to lack material, energy and information source channels, and gradually move towards a state of isolation, closure and weakness. For example, at the strategic level, political isolation is adopted to isolate the opponent’s war system, causing an increase in system entropy. At the operational level, methods such as cutting off data sources, destroying data backups, falsifying data, and tampering with information can be used to force the opponent’s war system to transform into a closed state, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the opponent’s system.

Focus on the complexity of the system and attack the opponent’s war system by domain. The more connections and the closer the connections between the elements of an intelligent warfare system, the lower the reliability of the system structure. Using the principle that each layer in a complex system is relatively independent, we can formulate overall strategic, local campaign and tactical action strategies to achieve layered and domain-based attacks on the enemy’s war system. For example, at the strategic level, the use of economic blockade can greatly weaken the opponent’s war strength and development potential. At the operational level, the vulnerability of the communication network of the combat system is exploited, and network and electricity composite attacks are used as the basic path and means, and methods such as “destroying terminals, attacking elements, lone groups, disconnecting networks, and breaking clouds” are used to destroy the opponent’s combat system structure. , prompting the opponent’s war system to “collapse”.

Focus on the emergent nature of the system and dismantle and disperse the opponent’s combat system. Only when mutation and emergence effects occur in an intelligent warfare system can it quickly form and exert its effectiveness and gain advantages in dissipative warfare. If only a single component or element plays a role, it is impossible to form an advantage. It is foreseeable that the currently emerging technologies such as ChatGPT and more advanced intelligent technologies in the future will provide a new way of thinking for understanding and discovering the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex systems of war, as well as new means of exploring objective laws and transforming nature and society. The dominant side in war confrontation will reduce the coupling degree of the opponent’s war system through a combination of virtual and real, parallel and integrated confrontation methods, and achieve the purpose of dismantling and dispersing the enemy’s war system.

中國國防部原網站:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/888沒有湯給你html

打贏資訊化智慧化戰爭解放軍必須找到科技融合點推進戰術創新

To Win The Information-based Intelligent War China’s People’s Liberation Army Must Find Science and Technology Integration Point To Evolve Innovation of Tactics

戰法,即作戰方法,指作戰中運用的策略和技術。 戰法創新,既要深謀“策”,也要鑽研“技”。 有“策”無“技”,心有餘而力不足;有“技”無“策”,雖用力而不得法。 既要有策略指導,又具備技術支撐,方能百戰百勝。 打贏資訊化智能化戰爭,開展以謀為先、以智取勝的戰法創新,必須「策」「技」並施,有效解決理論創新與技術應用脫節、作戰行動與技術路徑脫軌等問題。

思維認知「融」。 現代科技快速發展,正推動未來作戰向高端戰爭演進。 既要搶佔理論制高點,又要塑造技術新優勢,理技深度融合創新戰法,是製勝戰場的要訣。 軍人作為戰法創新的主體,必須深刻認知現代戰爭制勝機理,根植理技融合理念,拓展理技融合思維。 目前,兩個突出問題和傾向值得注意:一是科技素養不夠,容易導致對新的戰爭形態認識不深不透,僅憑以往經驗套路研究戰法,對作戰體系中哪些技術起作用、什麼技術 真管用、對敵形成技術優勢從何入手、與強敵存在哪些技術差、如何避免被敵技術壓制等知之不深,重戰法輕技術、重“智謀”輕“智能”,創新的戰法 看似管用,其實缺乏技術支撐,風險度大。 二是把握不准作戰需求,未來戰場景象描繪不夠清晰,雖然技術原理、制勝機理明白了,但對科技在作戰行動中的運用知之不夠,忽略了人的主觀能動性對作戰效能發揮起到的決定性 作用,重技術輕戰法,就技術研技術,或只鑽研技術性能而不考慮戰法運用,或只知技術功效卻不嘗試戰法創新。 凡此,應把指戰員學科技、懂科技、用科技與科技人員學軍事、懂打仗、研戰法統籌起來協調推進,建立戰技專家融合創新機制,對接研究制勝機理,協同嵌入理技融合理念 ,交互幫帶提升戰法創新素質,形成以作戰行動牽引科技運用、以科技運用支撐作戰行動的思想認識,厚實理技融合開展戰法創新的根基。

作戰設計「融」。 世界上從來沒有完全相同的兩場戰爭,戰法創新可以繼承借鑒,不能複製翻版。 目前,軍事理論創新步伐加快、先進科技發展日新月異,戰爭形態深刻變革,呈現出混合多元、變幻莫測的顯著特徵,顛覆性技術、創新性概念、重塑性理論層出不窮。 理技融合設計未來作戰,才能找準提升戰法創新的起點。 要以敢領世界先的勇氣突破思維定勢,用超前眼光、獨特視角創新作戰理論,開發並落地作戰概念,構想作戰場景,創新戰法打法,先把未來戰場的「底圖」勾勒 好,以此對接現代科技應用、牽引先進技術研發。 同時,設計未來作戰不能超越科技極限過於遙遠地“空想”,應立足於一定時期內的科技可行性,在具有現實或可預期科技運用支撐、擁有技術實現路徑的前提下創新戰法,將技術 阻斷、技術突襲、技術壓制、技術調控嵌入作戰行動。

技高一籌「融」。 在現代戰爭中,人是決定性因素的地位沒有變,而科技對戰爭勝負的影響更加凸顯,爭奪科技勝勢在很大程度上決定戰爭勝負,必須始終把科技運用嵌入作戰鏈條、貫穿作戰全程 ,以技術效應支撐戰法運用,以技術優勢驅動作戰效能發揮。 當前,戰法創新中的理技融合,主要矛盾並非技術中少理論,而是理論中缺乏技術,最迫切的是著力推進前沿科技向作戰理論融合滲透。 要加強以武器裝備平台為依託的實質融合,著眼於最大限度地啟動作戰效能,廣泛進行基於行動效能釋放的裝備作戰運用研究、裝備作戰試驗鑑定,透過模擬推演、數據分析來偵測作戰行動的有效性 ,以「數算」驗證「勝算」。 要加強基於作戰任務選擇「最優解」技術手段的深度性融合,從研究作戰對手、確定行動方法,到擬製作戰預案、組織對抗演訓,都要充分考慮敵我技術力量對比,貫徹非對稱 作戰思想,把以優制劣、避強擊弱作為基本原則,謀求技術壓制並防敵壓制,謀求技術阻斷並防敵阻斷,謀求技術顛覆並防敵顛覆,最大限度發揮技術優勢,竭 全力限制敵方技術發揮,以此塑造有利態勢、支撐戰法運用。

集智聚力「融」。 資訊化智能化時代,不論是理論研究,或科技創新,都呈現出開放連結、交叉滲透的顯著特徵。 理技融合進行戰法創新,開放共享是重要的成長點。 推進人機一體式戰法創新,人出智謀、機器來算,以算的結果反推修訂戰法成果,在人機交互中實現理技融合;推進指技人才團隊式戰法創新,組建“ 科學家+指揮官」「戰鬥員+技術員」混合群體,實行聯調聯試、聯演聯訓、聯算聯謀,以戰法的科學性、技術的先進性謀求聯戰聯勝;推進開源眾 籌式戰法創新,軍內軍外結合,線上線下互動,以更開闊的視野、更靈活的形式,集中廣大官兵和各類專業化人才的聰明智慧,開展戰法創新領域的「創客 ”活動,發展匯聚新戰法“資源池”“成果庫”,以實現理技融合的最大效益。

實踐迭代“融”。 理論成果在實務運用中得到檢驗和昇華,科技手段在作戰行動中顯現功能與效益。 戰法創新非一日之功,理技融合也應迭代進步、滾動發展。 要注重整合應用資訊科技與智慧技術,虛擬構設未來作戰景象,在感觸與體驗智慧化作戰環境中創新戰法;要深入開展戰法創新成果虛擬模擬論證,透過虛擬實驗、模擬檢驗,充分驗證 戰法設計的可行性、作戰行動的有效性;要結合演訓活動進行技術性能檢測,透過武器裝備與資訊系統的聚能與釋能實際狀況分析,充分檢驗技術應用的功效與缺陷所在。 從而,在複盤研討、反覆論證、資料檢驗中動態發現與解決問題,理論不適用的修改理論,技術行不通的升級技術,讓戰法引進新領域技術,讓技術顛覆傳統式戰法,實現 技戰一體有機結合,持續推動戰法創新螺旋上升滾動發展。

Modern English:

Find the integration point of theory and technology for innovative tactics

Tactic, that is, combat methods, refers to the strategies and techniques used in combat. To innovate tactics, we must not only think deeply about “strategies”, but also study “techniques”. If there is “strategy” but no “skill”, the mind will be more than sufficient but the strength is insufficient; if there is “skill” but no “strategy”, no matter how hard you try, you will not be able to achieve the goal. It requires both strategic guidance and technical support to be victorious in every battle. To win information-based and intelligent wars and carry out strategic innovation that puts strategy first and wins by outsmarting, we must implement both “policy” and “technique” to effectively solve problems such as the disconnect between theoretical innovation and technological application, and the derailment of combat operations and technological paths.

“Integration” of thinking and cognition. The rapid development of modern science and technology is promoting the evolution of future combat to high-end warfare. It is necessary to seize the theoretical commanding heights and create new technological advantages. In-depth integration of science and technology and innovative tactics are the keys to victory on the battlefield. As the main body of innovation in tactics, military personnel must have a deep understanding of the winning mechanism of modern warfare, root the concept of integrating science and technology, and expand the thinking of integrating science and technology. At present, two outstanding problems and tendencies are worth noting: First, insufficient scientific and technological literacy, which can easily lead to an in-depth understanding of new forms of warfare. Only relying on past experience and routines to study tactics, and which technologies are effective and which technologies in the combat system. I don’t know much about how effective it is, where to start to form a technological advantage over the enemy, what are the technical differences with powerful enemies, how to avoid being suppressed by the enemy’s technology, etc. We emphasize tactics over technology, emphasis on “wisdom” over “intelligence”, and innovative tactics. It seems to work, but in fact it lacks technical support and is highly risky. The second is that the combat needs are not accurately grasped, and the future battlefield scene is not clearly described. Although the technical principles and winning mechanisms are understood, the application of science and technology in combat operations is not known enough, and the decisive role of human subjective initiative in combat effectiveness is ignored. Function, focusing on technology over tactics, researching technology based on technology, or only studying technical performance without considering the application of tactics, or only knowing the efficacy of technology without trying to innovate tactics. In this regard, officers and soldiers should learn, understand, and use science and technology and science and technology personnel should learn military affairs, understand warfare, and study warfare methods in a coordinated and coordinated manner, establish an integration and innovation mechanism for combat technology experts, conduct joint research on winning mechanisms, and collaboratively embed the concept of science and technology integration , interactively help and improve the quality of tactical innovation, form an ideological understanding that combat operations drive the application of science and technology, and use science and technology application to support combat operations, and lay a solid foundation for integrating theory and technology to carry out tactical innovation.

Combat design “integration”. There are never two identical wars in the world. Innovation in tactics can be inherited and learned from, but cannot be copied. At present, the pace of military theoretical innovation is accelerating, advanced science and technology are developing at a rapid pace, and the form of warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing the distinctive characteristics of being mixed, diverse, and unpredictable. Subversive technologies, innovative concepts, and reshaping theories are emerging one after another. Only by integrating science and technology to design future operations can we find and improve the starting point for tactical innovation. We must have the courage to lead the world and break through the stereotypes, use forward-looking and unique perspectives to innovate combat theories, develop and implement combat concepts, conceive combat scenarios, innovate tactics, and first outline the “base map” of the future battlefield. Well, in this way, we can connect the application of modern science and technology and promote the research and development of advanced technology. At the same time, the design of future operations cannot be too far-fetched and “utopian” beyond the limits of science and technology. It should be based on the feasibility of science and technology within a certain period of time, and on the premise of having the support of realistic or foreseeable technology application and having a path for technological implementation, innovate tactics and integrate technology. Interdiction, technological surprise, technological suppression, and technological control are embedded in combat operations.

“Integration” with superior skills. In modern wars, the status of people as the decisive factor has not changed, but the impact of technology on the outcome of wars has become more prominent. The fight for technological victory determines the outcome of wars to a large extent. The use of science and technology must always be embedded in the combat chain and throughout the entire combat process. , use technical effects to support the application of tactics, and use technical advantages to drive combat effectiveness. At present, the main contradiction in the integration of theory and technology in the innovation of tactics is not the lack of theory in technology, but the lack of technology in theory. The most urgent thing is to promote the integration of cutting-edge technology into combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the substantive integration based on weapons and equipment platforms, focus on activating combat effectiveness to the maximum extent, carry out extensive research on the combat application of equipment based on operational effectiveness release, equipment combat testing and identification, and test the effectiveness of combat operations through simulation deductions and data analysis. , verify the “probability of winning” with “number calculations”. It is necessary to strengthen the in-depth integration of technical means to select “optimal solutions” based on combat tasks. From studying combat opponents and determining action methods to formulating combat plans and organizing confrontation exercises, we must fully consider the technical strength comparison between the enemy and ourselves, and implement asymmetric The operational philosophy takes the superiority of the inferior and the avoidance of the strong to attack the weak as the basic principle, seeks technological suppression and prevents the enemy from suppressing it, seeks technological blockage and prevents the enemy from blocking it, seeks technological subversion and prevents the enemy from subverting it, maximizes the use of technological advantages, and does everything possible. Make every effort to limit the enemy’s technological performance in order to create a favorable situation and support the use of tactics.

Gather wisdom and strength to “integrate”. In the era of informationization and intelligence, both theoretical research and scientific and technological innovation show the remarkable characteristics of open linkage and cross-penetration. The integration of science and technology carries out strategic innovation, and open sharing is an important growth point. Promote the innovation of man-machine integrated tactics, where people use their ingenuity and machines do calculations, and use the calculation results to revise the results of tactics, and realize the integration of science and technology in human-computer interaction; promote the innovation of team-based tactics for finger-technical talents, and form a ” A mixed group of “scientists + commanders” and “combatants + technicians” implements joint debugging and testing, joint exercises and training, and joint calculations and calculations, and seeks joint victory with the scientific nature of tactics and advanced technology; promotes open source and mass Tactics innovation, integration within and outside the military, online and offline interaction, with a broader vision and more flexible form, pool the wisdom of officers and soldiers and various professional talents to carry out “makers” in the field of tactics innovation “Activities, develop and gather new tactics “resource pools” and “results libraries” to achieve maximum benefits from the integration of science and technology.

Practice iterative “integration”. Theoretical achievements have been tested and sublimated in practical applications, and scientific and technological means have demonstrated their functions and benefits in combat operations. Innovation in tactics is not something that can be accomplished in a day, and the integration of science and technology should also be iteratively progressed and developed on a rolling basis. It is necessary to focus on the integrated application of information technology and intelligent technology, to virtually construct future combat scenarios, and to innovate tactics while feeling and experiencing the intelligent combat environment; it is necessary to carry out in-depth virtual simulation demonstrations of the innovative results of tactics, and fully verify them through virtual experiments and simulation tests. The feasibility of tactical design and the effectiveness of combat operations; technical performance testing must be carried out in conjunction with drills and training activities, and the efficacy and flaws of technical applications must be fully tested by analyzing the actual energy collection and release of weapons, equipment and information systems. Therefore, problems can be discovered and solved dynamically during review discussions, repeated demonstrations, and data testing, and we can modify theories where the theory is not applicable and upgrade technologies where technology is not feasible, so that tactics can introduce new field technologies, and technology can subvert traditional tactics and achieve success. The organic combination of technology and combat continues to promote the spiral and rolling development of tactical innovation.

中國國防部原文來源: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/888沒有湯適合你.html

中國軍隊做好戰爭準備,科學研究旨在實現戰場統治

Chinese Military Readies for War with Scientific Research Designed to Achieve Domination on the Battlefield

4月下旬,軍事科學院戰爭研究院順利完成上報兩項作戰重大問題研究工程的立項論證建議書。 這是研究院著眼履行核心職能,科研攻關始終瞄準備戰打仗的具體實踐。

戰爭研究院是全軍專門研究戰爭、設計戰爭的科學研究機構。 作為新組成單位,大項任務多、臨時任務多、論證申報任務多是他們科學研究工作的主要特徵。 年初,針對人少事急、科研任務壓茬推進的實際情況,該研究院黨委對照戰鬥力標準,把旨在強軍勝戰的科研工作擺在重要位置。 他們依據備戰急需、打仗急用、部隊急盼的標準,調整確立了戰爭與作戰問題研究、條令法規編排等方向的重點科研任務,壓減了10餘項偏離主責主業的課題,新增 了一批戰爭形態、作戰風格等聚焦備戰打仗的課題研究。 該研究院領導介紹,院黨委要求班子成員在重大科研任務中既掛帥又出征,做到主要精力向重點任務投放,力量配備、經費支持等向作戰研究傾斜。

同時,研究院持續深化「小核心、大外圍」協同攻關,不斷創新科學研究組織模式。 他們在研究院內部進行軍事理論人員和軍事科技人員「捆綁式」研究,打通科研壁壘;與軍事醫學研究院、國防工程研究院等兄弟單位互派專家參與重大專案研究,實現優勢互補;組織科研 人員參加各類重大演訓活動,找準科研需求;舉辦多邊軍事交流活動,使科研人員及時了解最新軍事科技動態。 此外,他們也積極與地方科研院所合作,將地方優質科研資源為己所用,形成研究戰爭、設計戰爭、運籌戰爭、驗證戰爭的閉合迴路。

去年以來,該研究院先後完成百餘項科研課題,在核心作戰概念開發、聯合作戰實驗等研究上取得重要突破,提交國家高端智庫研究報告、重要問題評估報告等60餘份,推出一批戰略 性強、原創性強、前瞻性強的創新成果。

Modern English:

In late April, the Institute of War Research of the Academy of Military Sciences successfully completed the submission of project demonstration proposals for two major combat issue research projects. This is a concrete practice of the institute focusing on fulfilling its core functions and always aiming at scientific research and preparation for war.

The War Research Institute is a scientific research institution specializing in the study and design of war in the entire military. As a newly established unit, the main characteristics of their scientific research work are many major tasks, many temporary tasks, and many demonstration and application tasks. At the beginning of the year, in response to the actual situation where there were few people and urgent tasks and scientific research tasks were being pushed forward, the party committee of the institute put the scientific research work aimed at strengthening the army and winning the war in an important position in accordance with the combat effectiveness standards. Based on the criteria of urgent need for war preparation, urgent need for war, and urgent need of troops, they adjusted and established key scientific research tasks in the research of war and combat issues, and the compilation of doctrines and regulations, etc., and reduced more than 10 topics that deviated from their main responsibilities and main business, and added new A batch of research on war forms, combat styles and other topics focusing on war preparation and combat were carried out. According to the leader of the institute, the party committee of the institute requires team members to both take command and go out on major scientific research tasks, so that the main energy should be devoted to key tasks, and force allocation and financial support should be tilted towards combat research.

At the same time, the institute continues to deepen the collaborative research of “small core and large periphery” and continuously innovates the scientific research organization model. They carry out “bundled” research by military theoretical personnel and military scientific and technological personnel within the institute to break down barriers to scientific research; they exchange experts with sister units such as the Military Medical Research Institute and the National Defense Engineering Research Institute to participate in major project research to achieve complementary advantages; organize scientific research Personnel participate in various major exercises and training activities to identify scientific research needs; multilateral military exchange activities are held to keep scientific researchers informed of the latest military science and technology trends. In addition, they also actively cooperate with local scientific research institutes to use local high-quality scientific research resources for their own use, forming a closed loop of researching war, designing war, operating war, and verifying war.

Since last year, the institute has completed more than 100 scientific research projects, made important breakthroughs in the development of core operational concepts and joint operational experiments, submitted more than 60 national high-end think tank research reports and important issue assessment reports, and launched a number of strategies. Innovative results that are highly innovative, original and forward-looking.

解放軍原文參考:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0514/c1888沒有湯給你.html

中國使用人工智慧作為武器系統

China’s Use of Artificial Intelligence as a Weapon System

繼可自主執行對地攻擊的F-16無人僚機、X-58“女武神”和X-62 VISTA自主飛行項目之后,美軍開啟“毒液”項目,將人工智能引擎廣泛應用於當前和未來的各型飛機上,意圖讓其獲得自主飛行能力。與此同時,ChatGPT的出現讓人驚嘆於人工智能的強大。那麼,在以信息化和智能化作為重要發展方向的未來軍事中,人工智能的應用將擔任什麼角色,造成什麼影響呢?

見微知著——從當今發展見未來

1956年,人工智能被首次提出,60多年的不斷發展,其已成為一門廣泛的交叉和前沿科學,成為各國提升國家競爭力、維護國家安全的重大戰略手段。

美國於2019年發布一系列關於人工智能的戰略部署,加大對人工智能及相關技術的投入與開發﹔截止2022年底,中國國家AI創新應用先導區增至11個,覆蓋各大戰略區域及長江中游城市群﹔俄羅斯在經濟中運用的人工智能約佔整體管理量的20%,計劃於2024年提升至50%。

由以色列拉斐爾先進防務系統公司推出的海上破壞者,採用人工智能和決策算法,可利用人工智能進行深度學習巡航導彈以適應各種場景。作為世界上首款高智能巡航導彈,該導彈能自動識別目標,在GPS失效的情況下仍能自主完成精准命中目標。

在人工智能的幫助下,各類無人裝備進行著相對應的工作以滿足預警、探測、偵查、作戰等功能,自主分析態勢,獲取情報,並依此進行智能決策,指揮控制,最終達到適應復雜、高強度、高不確定性的戰場環境。

尖矛利盾——以攻守對立促成長

隨著信息化不斷發展,現代戰爭現代戰爭高強度、高動態、多領域等特征愈發明顯,逐漸由信息化向智能化演進,需要壓縮OODA環,充分發揮智能武器的優勢,不斷提高戰場態勢快速感知和快速准確決策的能力,提升裝備的集群作戰能力。

在實戰中,真實戰場局勢風雲變幻,天氣、士兵狀態、物資情況等影響因素眾多,所帶來的數據量大,人工智能處理起來相對困難。同時,如果雙方都使用人工智能來指導戰爭,將導致一方所需要處理的數據量與預測量成指數提高,而目前採用的弱人工智能可能無法處理如此巨大的數據量。而且人工智能對於戰場數據的分析屬於黑盒結構,指揮官無法預測其做出決策的邏輯判斷以及預期效果,容易與實時的戰爭形勢不符,發生嚴重決策錯誤。

目前,世界各國都認識到了人工智能對於戰爭的重要性,都在積極研發新型穩定的人工智能。早在2018年,美就已經投入了51億美元建立了專門的人工智能研究機構,而各國也在不斷與民間的人工智能系統合作,不斷強化軍用人工智能,將其用於自動化的無人機器,並為這種機器加裝武器設備與敵我判別標識系統。同時,人工智能對於通信的加密以及數據圖像的強有效的分析將導致各國衛星受到嚴密關注,很容易觸發各國敏感神經,打破戰略對峙局面。

觀往知來——鑒傳統經驗善規章

近期爆火的強人工智能ChatGPT已經達到了能夠幫助人類撰寫論文的水平,甚至讓學術界都感嘆“博學而專業”。隨著信息時代的發展,各國意識到了傳統的戰爭形式已不完全適用於現代戰爭。在如今高強度網絡信息的影響下,利用人工智能影響一國的科技研發、輿論甚至選舉,以更低的成本產生更高的效益。

綜合目前人工智能的表現,其在未來戰爭中可能會逐漸接手一些事務進行處理並提供參考意見,但戰爭的主體仍是人類,所以我們更應該合力加強對人工智能的管理,將其應用於民生而非軍事領域,全方位改善人類生活,為維護國家安全和人類和平福祉而共同努力。

Modern English:

Following the F-16 unmanned wingman, X-58 “Valkyrie” and X-62 VISTA autonomous flight projects that can independently perform ground attacks, the US military launched the “Venom” project to widely apply artificial intelligence engines to current and future aircraft. On various types of aircraft, the intention is to allow them to obtain autonomous flight capabilities. At the same time, the emergence of ChatGPT makes people marvel at the power of artificial intelligence. So, in the future military where informatization and intelligence are important development directions, what role will the application of artificial intelligence play and what impact will it have?

Seeing the subtleties and knowing the work – looking at the future from today’s development

Artificial intelligence was first proposed in 1956. After more than 60 years of continuous development, it has become an extensive cross-cutting and cutting-edge science, and a major strategic means for countries to enhance national competitiveness and maintain national security.

The United States released a series of strategic deployments on artificial intelligence in 2019 to increase investment and development in artificial intelligence and related technologies; by the end of 2022, China’s national AI innovation application pilot zones will have increased to 11, covering major strategic regions and the Yangtze River Midstream city agglomeration: The artificial intelligence used in Russia’s economy accounts for about 20% of the overall management volume, and plans to increase it to 50% in 2024.

The Maritime Destroyer, launched by Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, uses artificial intelligence and decision-making algorithms. It can use artificial intelligence to conduct deep learning cruise missiles to adapt to various scenarios. As the world’s first highly intelligent cruise missile, the missile can automatically identify targets and accurately hit targets autonomously even when GPS fails.

With the help of artificial intelligence, various types of unmanned equipment perform corresponding tasks to meet the functions of early warning, detection, reconnaissance, combat, etc., independently analyze the situation, obtain intelligence, and make intelligent decisions, command and control accordingly, and ultimately achieve adaptation Complex, high-intensity, high-uncertainty battlefield environment.

Sharp spears and sharp shields—promoting growth through offensive and defensive opposition

With the continuous development of informatization, the characteristics of modern warfare such as high intensity, high dynamics, and multiple fields have become more and more obvious. It is gradually evolving from informatization to intelligence. It is necessary to compress the OODA loop, give full play to the advantages of smart weapons, and continuously improve the battlefield situation. The ability to sense quickly and make quick and accurate decisions improves the equipment’s swarm combat capability.

In actual combat, the real battlefield situation is constantly changing, and there are many influencing factors such as weather, soldier status, and material conditions. The resulting data volume is large, and it is relatively difficult for artificial intelligence to process it. At the same time, if both sides use artificial intelligence to guide the war, the amount of data one side needs to process will increase exponentially with the amount of predictions, and the weak artificial intelligence currently used may not be able to handle such a huge amount of data. Moreover, artificial intelligence’s analysis of battlefield data has a black-box structure. Commanders cannot predict the logical judgment and expected effects of their decisions, which can easily be inconsistent with the real-time war situation and lead to serious decision-making errors.

At present, all countries in the world have realized the importance of artificial intelligence in warfare and are actively developing new and stable artificial intelligence. As early as 2018, the United States has invested US$5.1 billion to establish a specialized artificial intelligence research institution, and various countries are also continuing to cooperate with civilian artificial intelligence systems to continuously strengthen military artificial intelligence and use it for automated drones. , and equip this machine with weapons and equipment and a identification system for identifying friend and foe. At the same time, artificial intelligence’s encryption of communications and powerful and effective analysis of data images will cause satellites of various countries to receive close attention, which can easily trigger the sensitive nerves of various countries and break the strategic confrontation.

Observe the past and know the future – learn from traditional experience and good rules

The recently popular strong artificial intelligence ChatGPT has reached a level that can help humans write papers, and even makes the academic community lament that it is “erudite and professional”. With the development of the information age, countries have realized that traditional forms of warfare are no longer fully suitable for modern warfare. Under the influence of today’s high-intensity network information, artificial intelligence can be used to influence a country’s technological research and development, public opinion and even elections, producing higher benefits at lower costs.

Based on the current performance of artificial intelligence, it may gradually take over some matters to handle and provide reference opinions in future wars. However, the main body of the war is still human beings, so we should work together to strengthen the management of artificial intelligence and apply it to people’s livelihood. In the non-military field, we strive to improve human life in all aspects and work together to safeguard national security and human peace and well-being.

中國人民解放軍 作者:國防科技大學國際問題研究中心研究員 梁庭宇、李彥達、楊靖凱、梅鐘文 (責編:陳羽、鄧志慧)

原創中文國防部網站:http://military.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2023/xxx/S888-1010.html

中國軍用反衛星武器研製

Chinese Military Anti-Satellite Weapons Development

2021-06-24來源:政協

神舟十二號伸出機械臂的相關圖片傳出後,美媒隨即對相關信息進行了新一輪的報導,同時指出“這可能與神舟十二號的指揮官所言相同”。 美國太空軍之前就說過,中國可以俘虜美軍,衛星也是一樣,早在今年4月,美國太空軍司令部司令詹姆斯·迪金森將軍就在媒體鏡頭前公開宣稱,中國已經研製出 一顆配備大型機械臂的衛星,而中國正試圖將這顆衛星用於軍事目的,用來“抓取”美軍衛星。

那麼,什麼是反衛星技術?

理論上,哪裡有衛星,哪裡就有反衛星技術。 人造衛星分為三種,一種是科學衛星,一種是技術實驗衛星,第三種是應用衛星。 按用途可分為民用衛星和軍用衛星,軍用衛星又分為通信、氣象、偵察、導航、大地測量、攔截衛星等。

反衛星的原因

在現代戰爭中,天空對地面始終保持著巨大的作戰優勢。 人造衛星的出現,將這種優勢延伸到了外層空間。 在未來的戰爭中,誰能控制太空,誰就擁有戰爭的主動權。 成為各國軍事競爭的焦點。

人造衛星,特別是軍用人造衛星,由於速度快,每秒可飛行七八公里,90分鐘可繞地球一圈; 他們視野開闊,視野開闊,同樣的視角是飛機觀察的數万倍; 限制很少,可以自由飛越地球上的任何區域,在給己方帶來極大便利的同時,也給敵方帶來了巨大的潛在威脅。

因此,自1960年代以來,以美俄為代表的世界軍事強國都致力於研製“帶導反衛星”、“帶衛星反衛星”、“反衛星”等反衛星武器。 與能量”。 將其作為控制空間、消除威脅、奪取制空權的重要武器。

反衛星技術

反衛星技術是指從地面、空中或外太空攻擊敵方衛星的軍事技術。 目前,反衛星技術主要有核能反衛星技術、直升式動能反衛星技術、定向能反衛星技術和同軌反衛星技術。 核能反衛星技術殺傷距離大,技術門檻低,但因其產生的附帶傷害巨大,實用價值不大。 直升式動能反衛星技術可以看作是反導技術的延伸,是軍事強國廣泛採用的具有精確制導技術的反衛星手段。

以激光武器為代表的定向能反衛星技術和俘虜同軌反衛星技術不易產生空間碎片,可將低、中、高軌道衛星全部納入攻擊範圍, 具有很大的作戰應用潛力,已經獲得。 世界各國受寵,競相發展。 與此同時,電子對抗、網絡攻擊等隱蔽、隱形的衛星軟殺傷技術也逐漸顯現出鋒芒。

反衛星戰術

一般來說,反衛星戰術有四種:同軌、直升、定向能和電磁干擾。 主要通過反衛星衛星和反衛星導彈以及反衛星電子乾擾站來實現。

共軌反衛星武器發射到目標衛星的軌道上,對其進行跟踪,然後利用動能或核爆將其摧毀。 其作用距離遠,殺傷半徑大,即使在武器本身製導精度較差的情況下也能摧毀目標。 但它的缺點是精度低,反應慢,從發射到銷毀需要數天時間; 另外,核彈的附加殺傷效果大,容易對己方衛星造成威脅; 而且一旦使用,就有引發核戰爭的危險。

直升式反衛星導彈是指反衛星導彈不進入目標衛星軌道,僅依靠導彈上的小型跟踪器在目標衛星進入時直接發現目標衛星。

掠過長空,直接將其毀滅。

定向能反衛星是指利用激光、粒子束、高功率微波束等武器,以高能激光束、粒子束、微波束照射目標衛星,使其完全毀壞或使敏感電子元器件失效 並失去工作能力。 .

電磁干擾反衛星是利用衛星電子乾擾技術,阻止衛星與地面站之間的通信,從而達到使衛星失效的目的。 這是最早、最常見、最基本的反衛星戰術。

我國的反衛星技術

蘇聯是最早研製衛星技術的國家,美國是最早研製反衛星技術的國家。 世界反衛星技術史基本上就是兩國之間的一場較量。

我國從2005年開始進行反衛星試驗,前期主要以測試武器的功能為主。 雖然起步較晚,但並沒有落後。 在反衛星導彈和人造衛星方面取得了顯著成果。

2007年1月11日,我國在西昌衛星發射中心發射了一枚SC-19,又名DN-1。 導彈攜帶一枚動能彈頭,以每秒8公里的速度摧毀軌道高度。 長863公里、重750公斤的“風雲一號”氣象衛星已經報廢。 這是我國首次成功攔截人造衛星。 從此,我國正式進入反衛星技術領域。

隨後,我國先後研製了二代DN-2和三代DN-3兩種新型反衛星導彈,並分別於2013年5月和2017年7月23日進行了兩次成功試驗。DN的研製成功 -1、DN-2、DN-3反衛星導彈已實現低、中、高軌道全覆蓋,人造衛星基本在我國反衛星導彈的打擊範圍內。 技術已進入世界一流水平。

除了反衛星導彈,我國還研製了一顆衛星用於反衛星實驗。 衛星配備機械臂,可以改變軌道,對其他衛星進行全方位探測。 應用方便靈活。 技術開發的最新成果。

反衛星趨勢

為爭奪太空優勢和保障國家安全,反衛星武器和衛星防御之爭將愈演愈烈。 目前,反衛星技術主要在以下幾個方面發展:反衛星與反導相結合,發展導彈防禦系統,進一步提高動能武器的反衛星能力。

彈道導彈防禦系統與動能反衛星武器有著密不可分的關係,因為能夠在大氣層外攔截彈道導彈的武器都具有一定的反衛星能力。 導彈技術的發展推動反衛星技術的發展是當前國際反衛星的趨勢之一。

發展微型衛星,發揮反衛星能力。 現代微型衛星研製週期短、建設成本低、系統投資少、抗毀壞能力強、設備更新快。 它可以移動到地球同步軌道上的任意位置,甚至可以圍繞其他衛星進行近距離作戰和發動攻擊。 它有很大的潛力。

目前,以美國為首的軍事強國在反衛星武器研製上已經從裝載普通炸藥的“殺手”衛星和“微型尋的導彈”轉變為新概念武器。 定向能武器已經成為反衛星武器。 武器是新利器,其中激光反衛星武器是最具威懾力和最有效的武器。 激光反衛星武器的發展重點是陸基和天基反衛星技術。 軟硬結合,更加註重電子對抗等軟殺傷手段的運用。 傳統電子乾擾等軟殺傷技術的創新、發展和應用,通過研製可逆非物理反衛星武器,在一定時間內乾擾、欺騙或阻止目標衛星執行有效功能。 時間。 國家高度重視並不斷開發該領域。

目前,自主進近、交會對接等複雜航天技術已

適用於反衛星武器。 交會對接技術解決了這個問題。

(作者係全國政協委員、北方戰區某部總工程師

Modern English Translation:

2021-06-24Source: People’s Political Consultative Conference

After the related picture of Shenzhou 12 extending its mechanical arm came out, the US media immediately carried out a new round of reports on the relevant information, and pointed out at the same time that “this may be the same as what the commander of the US space force said before. China can capture the US military. The same is true for satellites. As early as April this year, General James Dickinson, commander of the U.S. Space Force Command, publicly declared in front of media cameras that China has developed a satellite equipped with a large robotic arm, and China is trying to use this satellite for military purposes. Used to “grab and capture” US military satellites.

So, what is anti-satellite technology?

In theory, where there are satellites, there is anti-satellite technology. There are three types of artificial satellites, one is scientific satellites, the other is technology experiment satellites, and the third is application satellites. According to the purpose, it can be divided into civilian satellites and military satellites, and military satellites are divided into communication, meteorology, reconnaissance, navigation, geodetic, interception satellites, etc.

The reason for anti-satellite

In modern warfare, the sky has always maintained a huge combat advantage over the ground. The emergence of artificial satellites has extended this advantage to outer space. In future wars, whoever can control space will have the initiative in war. It has become the focus of military competition among various countries.

Artificial satellites, especially military artificial satellites, fly seven or eight kilometers per second because of their fast speed, and can circle the earth in 90 minutes; they have a wide field of vision and a wide field of vision, and the same viewing angle is tens of thousands of times that of aircraft observation; there are few restrictions and they can fly over freely Any area on the earth, while bringing great convenience to one’s own side, also brings huge potential threats to the enemy.

Therefore, since the 1960s, the world’s military powers represented by the United States and Russia have been committed to the development of anti-satellite weapons such as “anti-satellite with guides”, “anti-satellite with satellites” and “anti-satellite with energy”. Take it as an important weapon for controlling space, eliminating threats, and seizing control of the sky.

Anti-satellite technology

Anti-satellite technology refers to military technology that attacks enemy satellites from the ground, air or outer space. At present, anti-satellite technologies mainly include nuclear energy anti-satellite, direct-ascent kinetic energy anti-satellite, directed energy anti-satellite, and co-orbit anti-satellite technology. Nuclear energy anti-satellite technology has a large killing distance and low technical threshold, but because of the huge collateral damage it produces, its practical value is not great. The direct-ascent kinetic energy anti-satellite technology can be regarded as an extension of the anti-missile technology, and it is an anti-satellite method widely used by military powers with precision guidance technology.

The directed energy anti-satellite technology represented by laser weapons and the captive co-orbit anti-satellite technology are not easy to generate space debris, and can include all low-, medium-, and high-orbit satellites in the attack range, which has great potential for combat application and has been obtained. Countries all over the world are favored and competing for development. At the same time, hidden and invisible satellite soft-killing technologies such as electronic countermeasures and network attacks are also gradually showing their edge.

Anti-satellite tactics

Generally speaking, there are four types of anti-satellite tactics: co-orbit, direct ascent, directed energy, and electromagnetic interference. It is mainly realized by anti-satellite satellites and anti-satellite missiles and anti-satellite electronic jamming stations.

Co-orbital anti-satellite weapons are launched into the orbit of the target satellite, track it, and then use kinetic energy or nuclear explosion to destroy it. It has a long range of action and a large killing radius, and it can still destroy the target even when the guidance accuracy of the weapon itself is poor. But its disadvantages are low accuracy, slow response, and it takes several days from launch to destruction; in addition, the additional damage effect of nuclear bombs is large, and it is easy to pose a threat to one’s own satellite; and once used, there is a danger of triggering a nuclear war .

The direct-ascent anti-satellite missile means that the anti-satellite missile does not enter the orbit of the target satellite, but only relies on the small tracker on the missile to directly find the target satellite when the target satellite passes over the sky, and directly destroys it.

Directed energy anti-satellite refers to the use of weapons such as lasers, particle beams, and high-power microwave beams to irradiate target satellites with high-energy laser beams, particle beams, and microwave beams to completely destroy them or disable sensitive electronic components and lose their ability to work. .

Electromagnetic interference anti-satellite is the use of satellite electronic interference technology to prevent communication between satellites and ground stations, thereby achieving the purpose of invalidating satellites. This is the earliest, most common, and most basic anti-satellite tactic.

my country’s anti-satellite technology

The Soviet Union was the first country to develop satellite technology, and the United States was the first country to develop anti-satellite technology. The history of world anti-satellite technology is basically a battle between the two countries.

my country started to conduct anti-satellite tests in 2005. In the early stage, it mainly focused on testing the functions of weapons. Although it started late, it did not lag behind. Remarkable results have been achieved in anti-satellite missiles and satellites.

On January 11, 2007, my country launched an SC-19, also known as DN-1, at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. The missile carried a kinetic energy warhead and destroyed the orbital altitude at a speed of 8 kilometers per second. The “Fengyun-1” meteorological satellite, which is 863 kilometers long and weighs 750 kilograms, has been scrapped. This is the first time that my country has successfully intercepted an artificial satellite. Since then, my country has officially entered the field of anti-satellite technology.

Afterwards, my country successively developed two new anti-satellite missiles, the second-generation DN-2 and the third-generation DN-3, and conducted two successful tests in May 2013 and July 23, 2017. The successful research and development of DN-1, DN-2 and DN-3 anti-satellite missiles have fully covered low, medium and high orbits, and artificial satellites are basically within the strike range of my country’s anti-satellite missiles. Technology has entered the world-class level.

In addition to anti-satellite missiles, my country has also developed a satellite for anti-satellite experiments. The satellite is equipped with a mechanical arm, which can change orbits and perform all-round detection of other satellites. It is convenient and flexible in application. The latest achievements in technological development.

Anti-satellite trends

In order to compete for space superiority and ensure national security, the struggle for anti-satellite weapons and satellite defense will intensify. At present, anti-satellite technology is mainly developed in the following aspects: the combination of anti-satellite and anti-missile, and the development of missile defense system to further improve the anti-satellite capability of kinetic energy weapons.

There is an inseparable relationship between ballistic missile defense systems and kinetic energy anti-satellite weapons, because weapons capable of intercepting ballistic missiles outside the atmosphere all have anti-satellite capabilities to a certain extent. The development of missile technology to promote the development of anti-satellite technology is one of the current international anti-satellite trends.

Develop micro-satellites and exert their anti-satellite capabilities. Modern micro-satellites have a short development cycle, low construction costs, low system investment, strong anti-destruction capabilities, and fast equipment updates. It can move to any position on the geosynchronous orbit, and can even perform close operations around other satellites and launch attacks. It has great potential.

At present, the military powers headed by the United States have changed from the idea of ​​”killer” satellites loaded with ordinary explosives and “miniature homing missiles” to new concept weapons in the development of anti-satellite weapons. Directed energy weapons have become anti-satellite weapons. Weapons are new sharp weapons, and among them, laser anti-satellite weapons are the most deterrent and most effective weapons. The development of laser anti-satellite weapons focuses on ground-based and space-based anti-satellite technologies. Combine soft and hard, and pay more attention to the use of electronic countermeasures and other soft killing methods. The innovation, development, and application of traditional electronic jamming and other soft-kill technologies, through the development of reversible non-physical anti-satellite weapons, can interfere with, deceive, or prevent target satellites from performing effective functions within a certain period of time. Countries attach great importance to and continue to develop field of.

At present, complex aerospace technologies such as autonomous approach and rendezvous and docking have been applied to anti-satellite weapons. Rendezvous and docking technology solves this problem.

(The author is a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the chief engineer of a certain department in the northern theater)

Original Chinese Source: http://www.cppcc.gov.cn/zxww/2021/06/24/ARTI1624501659719410.shtml

中國軍隊聚焦認知域戰是主攻戰場對抗的新著力點

Chinese Military Focus on Cognitive Domain Warfare is the New Focus of Main Effort for Battlefield Confrontation

來源:人民網
認知域作戰是指運用輿論、心理、法律等多域手段,運用現代網絡、媒體、文字、圖片、視頻、數字等多維技術開展輿論宣傳。 、心理攻防,以及爭奪人心、顛覆信心、影響信仰、爭奪思想、意識形態鬥爭等重要形式,旨在爭奪人們在思想、信仰、價值觀、個人態度、情感、認同、 和判斷傾向。 認知領域戰是傳統輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰、貿易戰、外交戰、科技戰、意識形態戰等多領域戰的複雜集合。

目前,認知域作戰已經成為國家間軍事鬥爭和其他領域鬥爭的重要基礎,認知域目標驅動的語言對抗成為認知域作戰的重要形式,值得高度重視。 .

影響作戰對象的語言對策新前沿

認知領域作戰是當代認知科學研究和發展的伴隨成果。 它是人們積極探索大腦的認知活動,以期對大腦有更複雜、更抽象、更透徹的認識而產生的新戰場。 高級深度隱蔽活動是對行動對象影響的高端形式。 無論是信息行動的對象、信息的生產者、信息的內容本身,還是信息的傳播渠道,認知域中的操作都貫穿著認知的特徵,從一開始就突出認知層面的行動 結束。

從信息接收者的角度來看,這種認知是針對對手受眾的深度認知,包括其人民、軍隊、軍方指揮官或重要領導人、政商界重要人物,甚至直接包括 對方國家或軍隊的領導人。 具體的重要將領等,也可以是具體的人群或人群。 它可以涉及個人或群體的認知偏好、認知缺陷、認知習慣、認知偏見、認知誤解; 它還可以是個人和群體的信仰、價值觀、政治認同、族裔認同、社會和文化認同以及情感態度。

從信息提供者和內容的角度來看,應該融入信息生產者的認知設計和安排,包括對文本的獨特認知,如文本的話語方式、文本的敘述方式、 觀察事物的視角、敘述的認知重點和深度、句子的組織形式、句子的價值觀念傾向、句子概念的可接受性等。

在信息發布和傳播的渠道上,文本形式更接近多媒體多模態形式,更接近網絡空間的需要,更接近當代智能手機的優勢,更接近當前新興媒體時代的特徵,即 是,更符合受眾接受的認知特徵,即認知習慣和認知傾向。 文本的傳播形式充分考慮了國際傳播中的認知效應,尤其是跨文化、跨語言、跨媒體、跨群體的認知傳播。 這樣,文本會更好地從認知層面影響受眾。

語言對抗應對戰鬥風格的變化並產生新的戰術

縱觀人類歷史,不難發現,軍事鬥爭的風格一直在不斷變化。 從最初借助冷兵器的肉搏戰,發展到機械力與熱兵器的較量,也發展到高科技戰爭條件下信息能力的製衡。 每一次變化都帶來戰術上的深刻變化。 在當前機械化、信息化、智能化並存的過渡階段,人們不僅關注戰場物理域和信息域的主導權爭奪,更關注對戰場主體的控制。 戰爭-人類認知領域,即思維方式、認知模式和風格、價值觀、情感態度、文化模式、溝通模式、心理優勢和劣勢、認知偏好、文化和知識圖譜以及意識形態認同。 後者涉及基本情況

對社會人事和社會存在的影響,即認知領域運作的新興領域,其策略具有很強的特殊性。

話題靈活性和機動性:認知域作戰可以在認知域中選擇多個話題進行靈活機動的作戰行動。 根據現狀和需要,選題可以選擇涉及比較宏觀的戰略層面(比如對方整個社會的意識形態和製度等),或者中等層面的運動層面(比如社會問題) 在對方社會的局部或方向:社會福利政策或環保政策等),也可以選擇涉及社會中非常微觀的戰術問題(比如社會不公平、不公正、不美好的一面) 由某個人或特定事件反映)。 宏觀、中觀和微觀認知領域相互聯繫、相互轉化。 很可能一個微觀問題也會成為一個宏觀的戰略問題。 要根據與整個軍事行動的關係提出問題,認知域作戰要服從整體作戰行動,服務於宏觀政治外交形勢的需要。 更重要的是平時要準備好選題,平時要收集各種選題的數據,尤其要關注現實社會中的各種重要數據。 一旦需要,這些數據可以迅速轉化為箭矢、子彈、砲彈射向敵人的認知領域,甚至成為影響全局的戰略武器。

作戰層面的可控性:認知戰的重要設計是在作戰層面整體可控可調,可以根據形勢變化進行升級或縮減。 如果需要戰略層面,指揮員可以啟用戰略層面的設計和兵力投入; 如果需要campaign級別,也可以在相應的campaign級別進行控制; 如果只是在特定的小問題層面需要,也可以控制在相應的小眾局部層面,讓整個操作為整體作戰操作的需要服務。 這裡的戰略、戰役和戰術,更多的是指作戰設計和力量投入。 由於戰場態勢瞬息萬變,一些問題在層面上也可能發生變化,從戰略問題到影響戰役和戰術層面的效果; 有些問題,由於戰術問題的特殊性,成為影響全局的戰役層面的問題。

新興媒體主導:認知領域的主要影響渠道已經從傳統的紙質媒體和平面媒體轉向新興媒體。 傳統媒體主要依靠單一的媒介,如報紙、雜誌、書籍、傳單、海報等來傳遞信息; 後來的電視帶來了三維媒體。 在互聯網時代,尤其是互聯網2.0時代和智能通訊設備的誕生,人們更多地依賴多媒體、多模態、短視頻和文字來傳遞信息。 智能手機、智能平板、智能播放器等各種先進設備的問世,各種新型社交軟件和工具的誕生,使新媒體成為人們交流、溝通的主要工具。 新興媒體、新興社交軟件和工具已經成為各種力量在社會保障、輿論保障、意識形態保障、社會保障、政治保障等方面較量和鬥爭的重要空間。 互聯網安全,尤其是對新興社交媒體、新興社交軟件和工具等的安全把握能力,某種程度上是一個國家認知領域安全的關鍵。 新興媒體工具和新媒體空間的信息化已經成為各國認知戰的主戰場、主陣地和主空間。 值得指出的是,影響人們認知的思想和理論,將成為認知域運作各個層次上最具影響力的武器。

語言對抗適應智能時代,認知計算提升新算力

人工智能時代,在大數據分析與應用、超級計算能力、智能計算能力、自然語言處理能力、智能手機傳播能力和新一代網絡通信能力的基礎上,人類開始能夠理解 整個社會和整個網絡。 對不同領域、地域群體、不同地域群體、特定個體的語言文化、心理認知、群體情感、社會行為進行精準建模與分析。 尤其是人的內心深處

對大腦認知、人腦思維、思維方式、習慣偏好、圖像圖式、認知框架,甚至神經網絡、人機協作、腦控技術等的理解和掌握,只要有足夠多樣的動態數據, 人們可以計算和模擬所有人的心理活動、情感活動、認知活動、輿論和行為模式。 通過深算、精算、巧算,準確把握人的認知世界,形成對人認知領域的理解。 精細而深入的控制。 這一方面呈現出以下特點:

計算全維性:認知領域作為一個新興領域,可以全方位數字化,可以全方位、全過程、全個體進行計算。 它可以廣泛收集各種類型的信息,然後將其反映為作戰對手多樣化主要因素的大數據信息,從而可以對整體、組、組、個體數據以及它們之間進行各種計算。 各種活動都可以通過計算完成、顯示和準確掌握。

計算認知:認知領域的計算體現了很強的認知能力,能夠揭示更多肉眼難以觀察到的各種事物、事件、人物之間的關係,能夠揭示同一事件框架下各種概念之間的關係。 概念之間的聚類和層次關係反映了概念之間或顯性或隱性、直接或間接的深層認知聯繫,揭示了概念之間複雜的概念網絡系統,讓人看到一個完全超越普通肉眼的深層認知世界 觀察。 .

計算智能:認知領域的計算體現了強智能。 這種智能表現在計算上,會得出智能的結論。 例如,通過大量文本的收集和數據挖掘,我們可以找到由於人力有限而無法看到的各種主題、觀點、傾向、人群、立場和訴求之間的關係,從而 對某個問題形成更全面的認識。 全面、深入、準確、系統的認識,做出科學優化的決策。 這種決策可能符合人類智能,也可能超過甚至遠遠超過人類智能。 利用好認知計算的力量,特別是結合本國和對手的數據,可以更好地做到早預防、早預警、早部署,可以做到最好、最好、最快、最準的打擊 和反擊。 也更能體現高效、有力、針對性的保障。 這裡的認知計算更多的是一個可能出現在不同人群、不同時間段、不同背景、整個網絡域或局部網絡域、特定特定網絡域內的宏觀-中觀或微觀層面的問題。 團體。 特別是對與對手對局時雙方可能呈現的主動和被動情況的分析和考察,以及認知域的攻防等。

發揮話語主體地位釋放話語權新應用

認知域作戰有一個非常重要的支撐,即主要依靠語言媒介發揮作用,主要通過語篇層面發揮影響,主要通過語篇的敘事性對認知域形成隱性效應,主要 externing influence on the cognitive domain through cultural models 通過跨文化交際所發揮的潛在作用,顯性或隱性作用。 主要體現在以下幾個方面:

文本話語唯一性:認知領域需要信息來影響。 雖然信息可能依靠視頻畫面的特殊視覺效果來展現,但從根本上說,文本所表達的整合話語的獨特性成為認知衝擊的主要支撐。 其中,話語表達的方式、話語表達的技巧、話語表達的說服力和感染力的主要設計,尤其是話語敘事的獨特性,將是影響人們認知的關鍵。 這可能包括敘事視角、敘事主題、風格、敘事故事框架、敘事語言創新、敘事關鍵句,敘事包含哲學、人文、宗教、社會、自然等,以及敘事中不同參與者的身份,多樣化的內容。 評價敘事、真實性、深度和情感

敘事的溫度,敘事對觀點的潛移默化影響,以及敘事所釋放的個人情感、價值觀、意識形態和立場評價。 文本語篇的獨特性是文本在認知域操作中發揮認知影響的重要依托。 充分利用文本的複雜性,發揮不同文本各自的優勢,充分發揮文本內涵的隱性和顯性認知影響,已成為文本話語認知領域作戰的關鍵。 最重要的是創新文本話語,以全新的話語、更新穎的表達方式、更獨特的表達方式贏得讀者,讓讀者潛移默化地理解和感受文本中的思想,並默默接受。 文字的思想。

文化模式的潛能:要在認知領域作戰,必須深入把握不同國家、民族文化的特點和模式。 不同的國家、不同的民族有著不同的文化模式、哲學思維、傳統文化、宗教信仰、風俗習慣、思維方式等明顯不同; 不同文化的公民也有不同的民族心理和民族認知模式,也應該有屬於自己民族和文化的典型認知偏好,以及相應的缺點和弱點,其中一些明顯與其他民族在本民族中存在巨大差異 國,甚至產生誤解和敵意。 因此,在文化層面,認知領域的作戰,就是把握不同國家的整體文化模式,為不同國家的不同群體建立文化模式,為不同國家的不同事物建立不同的認知模式,全面掌握某一國家的文化模式。 一系列事物中的文化模式。 對問題和問題的整體態度和做事方式,特別是對一些典型案例、文化禁忌、宗教要求、精神追求、一般觀念等,需要利用已有的理論和發現,綜合建構不同的基本表現 對一些典型的、敏感的、重要的問題進行認知領域的群體研究,從而為下一步的認知操作提供重要的參考和指導。 加強對敵不同人員特別是軍人、要職人員文化模式的研究,包括將軍、官兵等基本文化特徵和模型的研究與構建,如心理認知行為 人物和文化模型畫像,已經成為認知域操作的核心實踐。 分析普通民眾,尤其是普通公民和公民,以及特定人群,包括特殊NGO力量的認知模式也具有重要價值。

跨文化戰略傳播:認知域操作是國際語言文化傳播,需要遵循國際傳播規律。 掌握國際傳播的基本範式,將本國故事與國際表達巧妙結合,將對方的語言文化與自己的故事和思想巧妙結合; 善於結合不同的藝術形式,包括文字、圖片、繪畫、音樂(聲音)、視頻等手段或多模態手段,實現信息的國際傳播。 同時,還要在戰略層面統籌多維度、宏觀溝通:運用多種手段,依托軍民融合、軍民協同、軍民融合開展溝通; 除了非政府組織,特別是依靠非政府力量、專家、意見領袖和普通民眾來幫助軍隊開展認知域作戰; 統一設置議題,發出多方位、多人、多方位的聲音,形成戰略溝通態勢,形成重大行動、重大問題、重大危機處置和應急處置的良好局面。 控制等,形成良好的輿論氛圍,產生積極影響,消除不利影響或消除不利影響。 尤其要建立一支精通外語、通曉跨文化、通曉國際交流規律、能在國際多維平台上暢所欲言的精幹團隊。 這些人員通常可以藉助常見或特殊問題進行廣泛的問題認知、收集和討論,建立人脈和粉絲群; 更重要的是,在關鍵時刻,通過自己的粉絲團,發揮影響力,完成戰略傳播任務。

目前,隨著混合戰、多域戰和全球戰的普及,認知域戰已經成為一種常見的混戰方式。 、法律戰發展的高級階段、複雜階段和升級階段。 它的興起更具欺騙性、曖昧性、隱蔽性、嵌入性、植入性和不可觀察性,特別是考慮到它與當代新興媒體的深度融合,不斷學習和借鑒多學科、跨學科、交叉的新思想、新技術、新方法。 於是,認知領域的戰鬥成為我們必須高度警惕的戰斗形式。 (國防科技大學文理學院教授、博士生導師 梁曉波)

【本文為國家社科基金重大項目《國防和軍隊改革視角下的國防語言能力建設》的階段性成果】

Modern English Version:

Source: 

People’s Daily Online

Cognitive domain combat refers to the use of multi-domain means such as public opinion, psychology, and law, and the use of modern network, media, text, pictures, video, digital and other multi-dimensional technologies to carry out public opinion propaganda, psychological attack and defense, and The important forms of fighting for people’s hearts, subverting confidence, influencing beliefs, fighting for thinking, and ideological struggle are intended to compete for people’s initiative in thinking, beliefs, values, personal attitudes, emotions, identification, and judgmental tendencies. Cognitive domain warfare is a complex collection of multi-domain warfare such as traditional public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, trade war, diplomatic warfare, technological warfare, and ideological warfare.

At present, combat in the cognitive domain has become an important basis for military struggles and struggles in other fields between countries, and language confrontation driven by goals in the cognitive domain has become an important form of combat in the cognitive domain, which deserves great attention.

A New Frontier for Language Countermeasures to Influence on Objects of Operation

Cognitive domain combat is the accompanying result of the research and development of contemporary cognitive science. It is a new combat field created after people actively explore the cognitive activities of the brain to gain a more complex, abstract and thorough understanding of the brain. Advanced deep covert activities are the high-end form of influence on the object of action. Regardless of whether it is the object of information action, the producer of information, the content of information itself, or the channel of information, operations in the cognitive domain all run through the characteristics of cognition, and highlight actions from the cognitive level from beginning to end.

From the perspective of the recipients of the information, this cognition is aimed at the deep cognition of the opponent’s audience, including its people, the army, military commanders or important leaders, important figures in the political and business circles, and even directly including the leaders of the opponent’s country or the military. Specific important generals, etc., can also be specific groups of people or people. It can involve the cognitive preferences, cognitive shortcomings, cognitive habits, cognitive biases, cognitive misunderstandings of individuals or groups; it can also be the beliefs, values, political identity, ethnic identity, social and cultural identity and emotional attitudes of individuals and groups.

From the perspective of the information provider and content, it should be infused with the cognitive design and arrangement of the information producer, which includes the unique cognition of the text, such as the discourse mode of the text, the narrative mode of the text, the perspective of observation of things, the narrative Cognitive focus and depth, organizational form of sentences, tendencies such as value concepts of sentences, acceptability of concepts of sentences, etc.

In terms of channels for information distribution and dissemination, the form of text is closer to the multimedia multimodal form, closer to the needs of cyberspace, closer to the advantages of contemporary smartphones, and closer to the characteristics of the current emerging media era, that is, more in line with the audience The cognitive characteristics of acceptance are cognitive habits and cognitive tendencies. The form of dissemination of the text fully considers the cognitive effect in international communication, especially the cognitive communication across cultures, languages, media, and groups. In this way, the text will better influence the audience from the cognitive level.

Language confrontation responds to changes in combat styles and generates new tactics

Throughout human history, it is not difficult to find that the style of military struggle has been constantly changing. From the initial physical fight with the help of cold weapons, it has developed into a contest of mechanical power with hot weapons, and has also developed into a check and balance of information capabilities under the conditions of high-tech warfare. Every change brings about profound changes in tactics. In the current transitional stage of co-existence of mechanization, informationization and intelligence, people not only pay attention to the struggle for dominance in the physical domain and information domain of the battlefield, but also pay more attention to the control of the main body of war-human cognitive domain, that is, the way of thinking, Cognitive models and styles, values, emotional attitudes, cultural models, communication models, psychological strengths and weaknesses, cognitive preferences, cultural and knowledge maps, and ideological identity. The latter involves the basic situation of social personnel and social existence, that is, the emerging field of cognitive domain operations exerting influence, and its tactics have strong particularities.

Topic flexibility and mobility: Cognitive domain operations can select many topics in the cognitive domain to carry out flexible and mobile combat operations. According to the current situation and needs, the topic can be chosen to involve a relatively macro strategic level (such as the ideology and system of the other party’s entire society, etc.), or a medium-level campaign level (such as social issues in a local area or direction of the other party’s society: Social welfare policies or environmental protection policies, etc.), you can also choose to involve very microscopic tactical issues in society (such as the unfair, unjust, and not beautiful side of society reflected by a certain person or a specific event). The macro, meso, and micro cognitive domains are interconnected and transform into each other. It is very likely that a micro issue will also become a macro strategic issue. The question should be raised according to the relationship with the entire military operation, and the cognitive domain operation must be subordinated to the overall combat operation and serve the needs of the macro political and diplomatic situation. More importantly, the topics should be prepared in normal times, and the data of various topics should be collected in normal times, especially paying attention to various important data in the real society. Once needed, these data can be quickly transformed into arrows, bullets, and shells fired at the enemy’s cognitive domain, and even become strategic weapons that affect the overall situation.

Controllability at the combat level: The important design of cognitive warfare is that at the combat level, it is controllable and adjustable as a whole, and can be upgraded or reduced according to changes in the situation. If the strategic level is needed, the commander can enable the design and force input at the strategic level; if the campaign level is needed, it can also be controlled at the corresponding campaign level; if it is only needed at the specific small problem level, it can also be controlled at the corresponding The niche local level makes the whole operation serve the needs of the overall combat operation. The strategy, campaign and tactics here refer more to combat design and power input. Since the battlefield situation may change rapidly, some issues may also change at the level, from strategic issues to affect the effects of campaign and tactical levels; some issues, due to the particularity of tactical issues, become campaign-level issues that affect the overall situation.

Emerging media dominance: The main influence channel of the cognitive domain has shifted from traditional paper media and print media to emerging media. Traditional media mainly rely on a single medium, such as newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, posters, etc. to convey information; the later generation of television brought three-dimensional media. In the Internet era, especially the Internet 2.0 era and the birth of smart communication devices, people rely more on multimedia, multi-modality, and short videos and texts to transmit information. The introduction of various advanced devices such as smart phones, smart tablets, and smart players, and the birth of various new social software and tools have made new media the main tool for people to communicate and communicate. Emerging media, emerging social software and tools have become an important space for various forces to compete and struggle in social security, public opinion security, ideological security, social security, and political security. Internet security, especially the ability to grasp the security of new social media, emerging social software and tools, etc., is to some extent the key to the security of a country’s cognitive domain. The information of emerging media tools and new media spaces has become the main battlefield, main position and main space for cognitive warfare in various countries. It is worth pointing out that the thoughts and theories that influence people’s cognition will become the most influential weapons at all levels of cognitive domain operations.

Language confrontation adapts to the age of intelligence, cognitive computing enhances new computing power

In the era of artificial intelligence, on the basis of big data analysis and application, supercomputing ability, intelligent computing ability, natural language processing ability, smart phone dissemination ability and new generation network communication ability, human beings have begun to be able to understand the whole society and the whole network. Carry out precise modeling and analysis of language culture, psychological cognition, group emotion, and social behavior in different domains, local groups, different local groups, and specific individuals. Especially people’s deep understanding and grasp of brain cognition, human brain thinking, thinking mode, habit preference, image schema, cognitive framework, and even neural network, human-computer collaboration, brain control technology, etc., as long as there are enough diverse dynamic data , people can calculate and simulate all people’s psychological activities, emotional activities, cognitive activities, public opinion, and behavioral patterns. Through deep calculations, actuarial calculations, and clever calculations, people can accurately grasp people’s cognitive world and form an understanding of people’s cognitive domain. fine and deep control. This aspect presents the following characteristics:

Computational all-dimensionality: As an emerging field, the cognitive domain can be digitized in all aspects and can be calculated in all directions, the whole process and the whole individual. It can collect various types of information extensively, and then can be reflected as information about Big data with diversified main factors of combat opponents, so that various calculations can be carried out for the whole, groups, groups, and individual data and between them. All kinds of activities can be completed, displayed and accurately grasped through calculation.

Computational cognition: Computation in the cognitive domain embodies strong cognition, and it can reveal more relationships between various things, events, and characters that are difficult to observe with the naked eye, and can reveal the relationship between various concepts in the same event frame. The clustering and hierarchical relationship between concepts reflects the deep cognitive connection between concepts, whether explicit or implicit, direct or indirect, and reveals the complex concept network system between concepts, allowing people to see a deep cognitive world that is completely beyond the ordinary naked eye observation. .

Computing intelligence: Computing in the cognitive domain embodies strong intelligence. This kind of intelligence is manifested in the calculation, and it will draw intelligent conclusions. For example, through the collection of a large amount of text and data mining, we can find the relationship between various themes, viewpoints, tendencies, groups of people, positions, and appeals that cannot be seen due to limited human power, so as to form a more comprehensive understanding of a certain issue. Comprehensive, in-depth, accurate and systematic understanding to make scientific and optimized decisions. This kind of decision-making may be in line with human intelligence, or it may exceed or even far exceed human intelligence. By making good use of the power of cognitive computing, especially by combining the data of the country and the opponent, we can better achieve early prevention, early warning, and early deployment, and can achieve the best, best, fastest and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. It can also better reflect efficient, powerful and targeted protection. Cognitive computing here is more about a possible macro-meso or micro-level issue that may arise in different groups of people, in different time periods, in different backgrounds, in the entire network domain or in a local network domain, or within a specific group. In particular, the analysis and inspection of the active and passive situations that may be presented by both parties when playing games with opponents, and the attack and defense of the cognitive domain, etc.

Give full play to the status of discourse subject and release the new application of discourse power

Cognitive domain combat has a very important support, that is, it mainly relies on the language medium to play its role, exerting influence mainly through the discourse level, forming a hidden effect on the cognitive domain mainly through the narrative nature of discourse, and mainly exerting influence on the cognitive domain through cultural models Potential role, overt or implicit role exerted through cross-cultural communication. It is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

Text Discourse Uniqueness: Cognitive Domains Need Information to Influence. Although the information may be displayed by relying on the special visual effects of video pictures, fundamentally speaking, the uniqueness of the integrated discourse expressed by the text becomes the main support for the cognitive impact. Among them, the mode of discourse expression, the skill of discourse expression, the main design of persuasion and appeal of discourse expression, especially the uniqueness of discourse narrative will be the key to affect people’s cognition. This may include narrative perspectives, narrative themes, styles, narrative story frameworks, narrative language innovations, narrative key sentences, narratives contain philosophy, humanities, religion, society, nature, etc., and the identities of different participants in the narrative , the diversified evaluation of narrative, the authenticity, depth and emotional temperature of narrative, the subtle influence of narrative on viewpoints, and the personal emotions, values, ideology, and position evaluation released by narrative. The uniqueness of text discourse is an important reliance on cognitive influence exerted by text in cognitive domain operations. Making full use of the complexity of texts, giving full play to the respective advantages of diverse texts, and giving full play to the implicit and explicit cognitive influences of text connotations have become the key to combat in the cognitive domain of text discourse. The most important thing is to innovate text discourse, to win readers with brand-new discourse, more novel expressions, and more unique expressions, so that readers can understand and feel the thoughts in the text subtly, and accept them silently. The thought of the text.

Potential of cultural models: To fight in the cognitive domain, we must deeply grasp the characteristics and models of different countries and national cultures. Different countries and different nationalities have different cultural models, philosophical thinking, traditional culture, religious beliefs, customs, and ways of thinking are obviously different; citizens of different cultures also have different national psychology and national cognition Models should also have typical cognitive preferences belonging to their own nation and culture, as well as corresponding shortcomings and weaknesses, and some of them obviously have a huge difference from other nationalities in their own country, and even have misunderstandings and hostility. Therefore, at the cultural level, combat in the cognitive domain is to grasp the overall cultural models of different countries, build cultural models for different groups in different countries, build different cognitive models for different things in different countries, and fully grasp a certain country’s cultural models in a series of things. The overall attitude and way of doing things on issues and issues, especially for some typical cases, cultural taboos, religious requirements, spiritual pursuits, general concepts, etc. It is necessary to use existing theories and findings to comprehensively construct the basic performance of different groups of people in the cognitive field on some typical, sensitive, and important issues, so as to provide important reference and guidance for the next step of cognitive operations. Strengthen the research on the cultural patterns of different personnel of the enemy, especially military personnel, personnel in key positions, including the research and construction of basic cultural characteristics and models of generals, officers, soldiers, etc., such as the psychological cognitive behavior of characters and cultural model portraits, It has become the core practice of cognitive domain operations. It is also of great value to analyze the cognitive patterns of ordinary people, especially ordinary citizens and citizens, as well as specific groups of people, including special NGO forces.

Cross-cultural strategic communication: Cognitive domain operations are international language and cultural communication, which need to follow the laws of international communication. To grasp the basic paradigm of international communication, to skillfully combine national stories with international expressions, to skillfully combine the other party’s language and culture with their own stories and ideas; to be good at combining different art forms, including words, pictures, paintings, music (Sound), video and other means or multi-modal means to achieve the international dissemination of information. At the same time, it is also necessary to coordinate multi-dimensional and macroscopic communication at the strategic level: use various means, rely on military-civilian integration, military-civilian coordination, and military-civilian integration to carry out communication; in addition to non-governmental organizations, especially rely on non-governmental forces, experts, opinion leaders, and ordinary people To help the military carry out cognitive domain operations; to set up issues in a unified way, to make multi-point, multi-person and multi-dimensional voices, to form a strategic communication situation, to form a good situation for emergency solutions for major actions, major issues, major crisis management and control, etc., to form a good atmosphere of public opinion, and to create Positive effects, eliminating adverse effects or extinguishing adverse effects. In particular, it is necessary to establish a capable team that is proficient in foreign languages, understands cross-cultural skills, understands the laws of international communication, and can skillfully speak out on international multi-dimensional platforms. These personnel can usually carry out extensive issue awareness, collection and discussion, establish personal connections and fan groups with the help of common or special issues; more importantly, at critical moments, through their fan groups, exert influence and complete strategic communication tasks .

At present, with the popularity of hybrid warfare, multi-domain warfare and global warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become a common method of hybridization and mixing. , The advanced stage of the development of legal warfare, the complex stage and the escalation stage. Its rise is more deceptive, ambiguous, concealed, embedded, implanted and unobservable, especially considering its deep integration with contemporary emerging media, and continuous learning and reference into multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary new ideas, new technologies, and new methods. As a result, combat in the cognitive domain has become a form of combat that we must be highly vigilant against. (Liang Xiaobo, professor and doctoral supervisor of the College of Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology)

[This article is a phased achievement of the National Social Science Fund’s major project “National Defense Language Capacity Building from the Perspective of National Defense and Military Reform”]

Original Chinese Military Source: http://military.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2022/0517/c1011-32423539.html

中國特色治網之道和網絡強國戰略思想

The Way of Internet Governance with Chinese Characteristics and the Strategic Thought of Network Power

網絡安全和信息化事關黨的長期執政,事關國家長治久安,事關經濟社會發展和人民群眾福祉。習近平同志站在我們黨“過不了互聯網這一關,就過不了長期執政這一關”的政治高度,準確把握信息化變革帶來的機遇和挑戰,明確提出要努力把我國建設成為網絡強國。中央黨史和文獻研究院編輯的《習近平關於網絡強國論述摘編》一書的第三部分,以“努力把我國建設成為網絡強國”為題,收入了習近平同志的相關論述。

縱觀世界文明史,人類先後經歷了農業革命、工業革命、信息革命。每一次產業技術革命,都給人類生產生活帶來巨大而深刻的影響。如今,以互聯網為代表的信息技術日新月異,引領了社會生產新變革,創造了人類生活新空間,拓展了國家治理新領域,極大提高了人類認識世界、改造世界的能力。互聯網讓世界變成了“雞犬之聲相聞”的地球村,相隔萬里的人們不再“老死不相往來”。世界因互聯網而更多彩,生活因互聯網而更豐富。

人類社會正在經歷偉大的信息革命,中國正處在信息化快速發展的歷史進程之中,信息革命時代潮流與中華民族偉大復興歷史進程發生了歷史性交匯,為我們全面建設社會主義現代化國家帶來新的機遇和挑戰。習近平同志指出,信息化為中華民族帶來了千載難逢的機遇。我們正逢其時,要順勢而為、乘勢而上、相向而行。

隨著網絡信息技術日新月異,全面融入社會生產生活,也深刻改變著全球經濟格局、利益格局、安全格局。世界主要國家都把互聯網作為經濟發展、技術創新的重點,把互聯網作為謀求競爭新優勢的戰略方向。能不能適應和引領互聯網發展,成為決定大國興衰的一個關鍵。誰掌握了互聯網,誰就把握住了時代主動權;誰輕視互聯網,誰就會被時代所拋棄。一定程度上可以說,得網絡者得天下。信息化為我國搶占新一輪發展制高點、構築國際競爭新優勢提供了有利契機。

中國高度重視互聯網發展,自接入國際互聯網以來,我們按照積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全的思路,加強信息基礎設施建設,發展網絡經濟,推進信息惠民。同時,我們依法開展網絡空間治理,網絡空間日漸清朗。儘管起步稍晚,但經過二十多年努力,迅速縮短了同發達國家的信息化差距,成為舉世矚目的網絡大國。同時也要看到,雖然我國網絡信息技術和網絡安全保障取得了不小成績,但同世界先進水平相比還有很大差距。我們在自主創新方面還相對落後,區域和城鄉差異比較明顯,國內互聯網發展瓶頸仍然較為突出。

黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央審時度勢、高瞻遠矚,順勢應時,吹響了向網絡強國進軍的號角。 2014年2月27日,在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上,習近平同志提出,要從國際國內大勢出發,總體佈局,統籌各方,創新發展,努力把我國建設成為網絡強國。

建設網絡強國是黨中央從黨和國家事業發展全局出發作出的重大決策。黨的十八大以後,黨中央從進行具有許多新的歷史特點的偉大斗爭出發,重視互聯網、發展互聯網、治理互聯網,作出一系列重大決策、提出一系列重大舉措,推動網信事業取得了歷史性成就。

我們提出建設網絡強國戰略目標,網信工作頂層設計和總體架構基本確立,出台《關於加強網絡安全和信息化工作的意見》,基本理順互聯網管理領導體制機制,形成全國“一盤棋”工作格局;網絡意識形態安全得到切實維護,做大做強網上正面宣傳,在管網治網上出重拳、亮利劍,打贏網絡意識形態領域一系列重大斗爭,根本扭轉了過去網上亂象叢生、陣地淪陷、被動挨打的狀況,網絡空間正能量更加強勁、主旋律更加高昂;國家網絡安全屏障進一步鞏固,制定實施網絡安全法,加強網絡安全保障能力建設,關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護不斷強化,網絡違法犯罪活動得到有效遏制,全社會網絡安全意識和防護能力明顯增強;網信軍民融合取得階段性成效,網絡安全威懾反制能力不斷增強;注重發揮信息化對經濟社會發展的驅動引領作用,“互聯網+”行動計劃深入實施,數字經濟、共享經濟蓬勃發展;信息領域核心技術創新取得積極進展,新一代移動通信(5G)、高性能計算、量子通信等技術研究實現突破,一批網信企業躋身世界前列;網絡空間國際話語權和影響力顯著提升,高舉網絡主權大旗,推動構建網絡空間命運共同體,積極參與全球互聯網治理進程,創設並成功舉辦世界互聯網大會,中國理念、中國主張、中國方案贏得越來越多認同和支持;加快網絡基礎設施建設和信息化服務普及,網上交易、手機支付、共享出行等新技術新應用廣泛普及,電子政務加速發展,網絡扶貧紮實推進,社會治理和基本公共服務水平持續提升,人民群眾有了更多獲得感、幸福感、安全感。這些歷史性成就的取得,充分證明黨中央關於加強黨對網信工作集中統一領導的決策和對網信工作作出的一系列戰略部署是完全正確的。

新時代呼喚新思想,新實踐孕育新理論。在努力建設網絡強國的進程中,我們不斷推進理論創新和實踐創新,不僅走出一條中國特色治網之道,而且提出一系列新思想新觀點新論斷,形成了網絡強國戰略思想。概括起來,主要有以下幾個方面。

第一,明確網信工作在黨和國家事業全局中的重要地位。我們提出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化,網絡安全和信息化事關黨的長期執政,事關國家長治久安,事關經濟社會發展和人民群眾福祉,過不了互聯網這一關,就過不了長期執政這一關,要把網信工作擺在黨和國家事業全局中來謀劃,切實加強黨的集中統一領導。

Network security and informatization are related to the long-term governance of the party, the long-term stability of the country, economic and social development and the well-being of the people. Comrade Xi Jinping stood at the political height of our party “If you can’t pass the hurdle of the Internet, you can’t pass the hurdle of long-term governance”, accurately grasped the opportunities and challenges brought about by the informatization revolution, and clearly stated that we should strive to build our country into a cyber power. The third part of the book “Excerpts of Xi Jinping’s Discussions on Internet Power” edited by the Central Academy of Party History and Documentation is titled “Strive to Build my country into a Cyber ​​Power” and includes relevant expositions by Comrade Xi Jinping.

Looking at the history of world civilizations, humanity has successively undergone agricultural revolution, industrial revolution and information revolution. Every revolution in industrial technology has had a huge and profound impact on human production and life. Today, information technology represented by the Internet is changing with each passing day, leading new changes in social production, creating a new space for human life, expanding new areas of national governance, and greatly improving human ability to understand and transform the world. The Internet has turned the world into a global village where “the voices of chickens and dogs hear each other”, and people separated by thousands of miles no longer “do not communicate with each other”. The world is more colorful because of the Internet, and life is richer because of the Internet.

Human society is undergoing a great information revolution, and China is in the historical process of rapid development of informatization. The trend of the era of information revolution and the historical process of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation have had a historic intersection, which has brought great benefits to us in building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. New opportunities and challenges. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that informatization has brought golden opportunities to the Chinese nation. We are at the right time, and we must follow the trend, ride on the trend, and meet each other halfway.

With the rapid development of network information technology and its comprehensive integration into social production and life, it has also profoundly changed the global economic pattern, interest pattern, and security pattern. Major countries in the world regard the Internet as the focus of economic development and technological innovation, and regard the Internet as a strategic direction for seeking new competitive advantages. Whether it can adapt to and lead the development of the Internet has become a key to determining the rise and fall of a big country. Whoever controls the Internet will grasp the initiative of the times; whoever despises the Internet will be abandoned by the times. To a certain extent, it can be said that those who win the Internet win the world. Informatization provides a favorable opportunity for my country to seize the commanding heights of a new round of development and build new advantages in international competition.

China attaches great importance to the development of the Internet. Since its access to the international Internet, we have strengthened the construction of information infrastructure, developed the network economy, and promoted information to benefit the people in accordance with the ideas of active utilization, scientific development, law-based management, and security assurance. At the same time, we have carried out cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, and cyberspace has become increasingly clear. Although it started relatively late, after more than 20 years of hard work, it quickly narrowed the informatization gap with developed countries and became a network powerhouse that has attracted worldwide attention. At the same time, we must also see that although my country’s network information technology and network security have made great achievements, there is still a big gap compared with the world’s advanced level. We are still relatively backward in terms of independent innovation, the differences between regions and urban and rural areas are relatively obvious, and the bottleneck of domestic Internet development is still relatively prominent.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has judged the situation, looked far ahead, followed the trend, and sounded the clarion call to march towards a cyber power. On February 27, 2014, at the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, Comrade Xi Jinping proposed that we should proceed from the international and domestic trends, make an overall layout, coordinate all parties, innovate and develop, and strive to build my country into a cyber power .

Building a cyber power is a major decision made by the Party Central Committee based on the overall development of the Party and the country. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee proceeded from the great struggle with many new historical characteristics, attached importance to the Internet, developed the Internet, and governed the Internet. sexual achievement.

We put forward the strategic goal of building a strong network country, basically established the top-level design and overall structure of network information work, issued the “Opinions on Strengthening Network Security and Informatization Work”, basically straightened out the Internet management leadership system and mechanism, and formed a national “one game of chess” work pattern; The security of Internet ideology has been effectively safeguarded, positive online propaganda has been made bigger and stronger, and heavy blows and sharp swords have been used to manage and control the Internet. A series of major struggles in the field of Internet ideology have been won, which has fundamentally reversed the past. In the situation of being occupied and passively beaten, the positive energy of cyberspace is stronger and the main theme is more high-spirited; the national network security barrier is further consolidated, the network security law is formulated and implemented, the construction of network security guarantee capabilities is strengthened, and the security protection of key information infrastructure is continuously strengthened. Activities have been effectively curbed, and the awareness of network security and protection capabilities of the whole society have been significantly enhanced; the military-civilian integration of network information has achieved phased results, and the network security deterrence and countermeasure capabilities have been continuously enhanced; attention has been paid to the driving and leading role of informatization in economic and social development, “Internet + “The action plan has been implemented in depth, the digital economy and the sharing economy have flourished; positive progress has been made in core technology innovation in the information field, breakthroughs have been made in the research of new-generation mobile communication (5G), high-performance computing, quantum communication and other technologies, and a number of network information enterprises have entered the world In the forefront; the international discourse power and influence of cyberspace have been significantly improved, holding high the banner of cyber sovereignty, promoting the construction of a community of shared future in cyberspace, actively participating in the process of global Internet governance, creating and successfully hosting the World Internet Conference, and winning More and more recognition and support; speed up the construction of network infrastructure and the popularization of information services, the widespread popularization of new technologies and new applications such as online transactions, mobile payment, and shared travel; the accelerated development of e-government affairs; The service level continues to improve, and the people have a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security. The achievement of these historic achievements fully proves that the Party Central Committee’s decision on strengthening the party’s centralized and unified leadership over cybersecurity and informatization work and a series of strategic deployments for cybersecurity and informatization work are completely correct.

The new era calls for new ideas, and new practices breed new theories. In the process of striving to build a strong network country, we have continuously promoted theoretical innovation and practical innovation, not only blazing a way to govern the network with Chinese characteristics, but also put forward a series of new ideas, new viewpoints and new conclusions, forming the strategic thinking of a strong network country. To sum up, there are mainly the following aspects.

First, clarify the important position of cybersecurity and informatization work in the overall situation of the party and the country. We propose that there will be no national security without network security, and no modernization without informatization. If we do not pass the hurdle of being in power for a long time, we must place cybersecurity and informatization work in the overall planning of the party and the country, and earnestly strengthen the party’s centralized and unified leadership.

Second, clarify the strategic goal of building a cyber power. We propose that we must accelerate the construction of a cyber power from the height of realizing the “two centenary” goals and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In accordance with the requirements of strong technology, strong content, strong foundation, strong talents, and strong international discourse power, we must move towards the basic popularization of network infrastructure, significant enhancement of independent innovation capabilities, comprehensive development of the digital economy, strong network security guarantees, and balanced network offensive and defensive capabilities. Keep moving forward, and finally achieve the goal of advanced technology, developed industry, both offensive and defensive capabilities, full control of network control, and indestructible network security.

Third, clarify the principles and requirements for building a cyber power. We propose that we must adhere to the principles of innovative development, governing by law, ensuring security, promoting benefits and eliminating disadvantages, and benefiting the people, adhere to innovation-driven development, cultivate new kinetic energy with informatization, and use new kinetic energy to promote new development; adhere to the rule of law, so that the Internet will always be under the rule of law. We will continue to operate healthily on track; adhere to the correct concept of network security, and build a national network security barrier; adhere to the principle of equal emphasis on preventing risks and promoting healthy development, and grasp opportunities and challenges, so that the Internet can better benefit the society; The people have a greater sense of gain in sharing the fruits of Internet development.

Fourth, clarify the international propositions for Internet development and governance. We propose to adhere to the four principles of global Internet governance: respecting Internet sovereignty, maintaining peace and security, promoting openness and cooperation, and building a good order. The five-point proposal for building a community of shared future in cyberspace, such as ensuring network security and building an Internet governance system, emphasizes joint advancement of development, joint maintenance of security, joint participation in governance, and joint sharing of achievements, and jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, and cooperative cyberspace.

Fifth, clarify the basic methods for doing a good job in cybersecurity and informatization work. We realize that cybersecurity and informatization work involves many fields, and it is necessary to strengthen overall planning and coordination, implement comprehensive management, and form a strong work force. It is necessary to grasp the dialectical relationship between security and development, freedom and order, openness and autonomy, management and service, and comprehensively promote various tasks such as network content construction, network security, informatization, and international governance of cyberspace.

General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the network power, adhere to the Marxist position, viewpoint and method, based on the new era background of human beings entering the information society, systematically summed up our party’s practical experience in network management and network governance, and profoundly answered why we should build a network power and how to build a network power. A series of major theoretical and practical issues such as building a powerful network country, with a high-level view, overall control, profound thinking, and rich connotations, have become the guide to action leading the development of my country’s Internet information industry, and are the fundamental principles for doing a good job in Internet information work. Continuously enrich and develop.

Focusing on the overall development of human society, Comrade Xi Jinping creatively put forward the concept of making the Internet better benefit the world and the people of all countries, and building a community with a shared future in cyberspace. He proposed a Chinese plan for global Internet development and governance, and contributed Chinese wisdom. The mind of a responsible big country and Comrade Xi Jinping’s broad mind of the leader of a big country to seek peace and development for the world and civilization and progress for mankind.

We must combine in-depth study of Comrade Xi Jinping’s important expositions on building a strong network country, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve “two safeguards”, constantly explore new paths for building a strong network country, and open up a new realm of global network governance , Let the Internet become a powerful boost to realize the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

(Author: Xu Shan, Director of the Second Division of the First Research Department of the Central Academy of Party History and Documentation, Deputy Editor)

普通話來源:http://www.cac.gov.cn/2021-03/08/c_161677810000.htm

The People’s Republic of China’s International Cooperation Strategy in Cyberspace

中華人民共和國網絡空間國際合作戰略

中華人民共和國網絡空間國際合作戰略

Table of contents

  preamble

  Chapter 1 Opportunities and Challenges

  Chapter II Basic Principles

   1. The principle of peace

   2. Principle of Sovereignty

   3. The principle of co-governance

   4. The principle of inclusiveness

  Chapter III Strategic Objectives

   1. Safeguarding Sovereignty and Security

   2. Building an international rule system

   3. Promoting Fair Internet Governance

   4. Protect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens

   5. Promoting Digital Economy Cooperation

   6. Build an online cultural exchange platform

  Chapter 4 Action Plan

   1. Advocate and promote peace and stability in cyberspace

   2. Promoting the construction of a rules-based cyberspace order

   3. Continue to expand partnerships in cyberspace

   4. Actively promote the reform of the global Internet governance system

   V. Deepen international cooperation in combating cyber terrorism and cybercrime

   6. Advocate the protection of citizens’ rights and interests such as the right to privacy

   7. Promote the development of the digital economy and the sharing of digital dividends

   8. Strengthen the construction and protection of global information infrastructure

   9. Promoting Network Cultural Exchange and Mutual Learning

  conclusion

preamble

  ”Cyberspace is a common space for human activities, and the future and destiny of cyberspace should be shared by all countries in the world. Countries should strengthen communication, expand consensus, and deepen cooperation to jointly build a community of shared future in cyberspace.”

  • Chinese President Xi Jinping, December 16, 2015   In today’s world, information technology represented by the Internet is changing with each passing day, leading new changes in social production, creating a new space for human life, expanding new areas of national governance, and greatly improving human beings’ ability to understand and transform the world.   As a common wealth of human society, the Internet has turned the world into a “global village”. Countries are interconnected in cyberspace, their interests are intertwined, and they share weal and woe. Maintaining peace and security in cyberspace, promoting openness and cooperation, and jointly building a community with a shared future in cyberspace conform to the common interests of the international community and are also the common responsibility of the international community.   The “Cyberspace International Cooperation Strategy” comprehensively declares China’s policy stance on international issues related to cyberspace, and systematically explains the basic principles, strategic goals and action points of China’s external work in the cyber field, aiming to guide China’s participation in cyberspace international cooperation in the future. Exchanges and cooperation, promote the joint efforts of the international community, strengthen dialogue and cooperation, jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, and orderly cyberspace, and establish a multilateral, democratic, and transparent global Internet governance system.

Chapter 1 Opportunities and Challenges

  Against the backdrop of multi-polarization of the world, economic globalization, cultural diversity, and profound changes in the global governance system, mankind has ushered in a new era of information revolution. The information and communication technology represented by the Internet is changing with each passing day, profoundly changing people’s production and lifestyle, and increasingly stimulating market innovation, promoting economic prosperity, and promoting social development. Cyberspace has increasingly become a new channel for information dissemination, a new space for production and life, a new engine for economic development, a new carrier for cultural prosperity, a new platform for social governance, a new link for exchanges and cooperation, and a new frontier for national sovereignty.

  Cyberspace has brought great opportunities to mankind, but it has also brought many new issues and challenges. The security and stability of cyberspace has become a global concern that concerns the sovereignty, security and development interests of all countries. Problems such as unbalanced development, unsound rules, and irrational order in the Internet field have become increasingly prominent. The “digital divide” between countries and regions continues to widen. Critical information infrastructure has relatively large risks and hidden dangers. It is difficult for the global Internet basic resource management system to reflect the wishes and interests of most countries. Cyber ​​terrorism has become a global public hazard, and cybercrime is spreading. Misuse of information and communication technologies to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries and engage in large-scale network surveillance occurs from time to time. Cyberspace lacks international rules that generally and effectively regulate the behavior of al

l parties, and its own development is constrained.

  In the face of problems and challenges, no country can survive alone. The international community should conduct dialogue and cooperation in the spirit of mutual respect, mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, and realize global governance of cyberspace based on rules.

Chapter II Basic Principles

  China has always been a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development, and a defender of international order. China unswervingly follows the path of peaceful development, adheres to the correct concept of justice and interests, and promotes the establishment of a new type of international relations featuring win-win cooperation. The theme of China’s cyberspace international cooperation strategy is peaceful development, with win-win cooperation as the core, and advocating peace, sovereignty, co-governance, and universal benefits as the basic principles of international exchanges and cooperation in cyberspace.

  1. The principle of peace

  Cyberspace is interconnected and the interests of all countries are increasingly intertwined. A safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace is of great significance to all countries and the world.

  The international community must earnestly abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, especially the principles of non-use or threat of use of force and peaceful settlement of disputes to ensure peace and security in cyberspace. All countries should jointly oppose the use of information and communication technologies to carry out hostile and aggressive acts, prevent cyber arms races, prevent conflicts in cyberspace, and insist on peacefully resolving disputes in cyberspace. We should abandon the Cold War mentality, zero-sum game and double standards, and seek peace through cooperation on the basis of fully respecting the security of other countries, and strive to realize our own security in common security.

  Cyber ​​terrorism is a new threat affecting international peace and security. The international community should take practical measures to prevent and cooperate in combating cyber terrorism. Prevent terrorists from using the Internet to spread terrorist extremist ideas, plan and implement terrorist activities.

  2. Principle of Sovereignty

  The principle of sovereign equality established in the Charter of the United Nations is the basic norm of contemporary international relations, covering all areas of state-to-state exchanges, and should also apply to cyberspace. Countries should respect each other’s right to independently choose the path of network development, network management model, Internet public policy, and equal participation in international cyberspace governance, and refrain from engaging in cyber hegemony, not interfering in the internal affairs of other countries, and not engaging in, condoning or supporting cyberspace that endangers the national security of other countries. Activity.

  Clarifying the sovereignty of cyberspace can not only reflect the responsibilities and rights of governments to manage cyberspace in accordance with the law, but also help countries build a platform for positive interaction between governments, enterprises and social groups, and create a platform for the development of information technology and international exchanges and cooperation. A healthy ecological environment.

  The governments of all countries have the right to manage the network according to law, have jurisdiction over the information and communication infrastructure, resources, and information and communication activities within their own borders, and have the right to protect their own information systems and information resources from threats, interference, attacks and destruction, and to ensure the security of citizens in cyberspace. legal interest. Governments of all countries have the right to formulate their own Internet public policies, laws and regulations without any external interference. While exercising their own rights in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality, countries also need to fulfill corresponding obligations. Countries must not use information and communication technology to interfere in other countries’ internal affairs, and must not use their own advantages to damage the security of other countries’ information and communication technology product and service supply chains.

  3. The principle of co-governance

  Cyberspace is a common activity space for mankind, and it needs to be jointly built and governed by all countries in the world. The international governance of cyberspace should first adhere to multilateral participation. Countries, regardless of size, strength, wealth or poverty, are equal members of the international community and have the right to equally participate in the construction of international order and rules in cyberspace through international network governance mechanisms and platforms, so as to en

sure that the future development of cyberspace is shared by people of all countries. master.

  Second, multi-party participation should be adhered to. The role of the government, international organizations, Internet companies, technical communities, non-governmental organizations, and individual citizens should be brought into play to build an all-round and multi-level governance platform. Countries should strengthen communication and exchanges, improve dialogue and consultation mechanisms in cyberspace, and jointly formulate international rules in cyberspace. As an important channel, the United Nations should give full play to its coordinating role, coordinate the positions of all parties, and build international consensus. Other international mechanisms and platforms should also give play to their respective advantages and provide useful supplements. The international community should jointly manage and fairly distribute basic Internet resources, establish a multilateral, democratic, and transparent global Internet governance system, and realize Internet resource sharing, responsibility sharing, and cooperative governance.

  4. The principle of inclusiveness

  The integrated development of the Internet and various industries has had an overall and revolutionary impact on the economic structure, social form and innovation system of various countries, providing a strong impetus for world economic growth and the realization of sustainable development goals. Promoting the universal benefits of the Internet to benefit all regions and countries will provide assistance for the effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  The international community should continue to promote openness and cooperation in the Internet field, enrich the connotation of openness, improve the level of openness, build more platforms for communication and cooperation, promote complementary advantages and common development in cyberspace, ensure that everyone shares the fruits of Internet development, and realize the goals set by the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society. The goal of building a people-oriented, development-oriented and inclusive information society.

  Countries should actively promote bilateral, regional and international development cooperation, especially increase financial and technical assistance to developing countries in network capacity building to help them seize digital opportunities and bridge the “digital divide”.

Chapter III Strategic Objectives

  The strategic objectives of China’s participation in international cooperation in cyberspace are to firmly safeguard China’s cyber sovereignty, security and development interests, ensure the safe and orderly flow of Internet information, improve the level of international connectivity, maintain peace, security and stability in cyberspace, promote the international rule of law in cyberspace, and promote The development of the global digital economy will deepen cultural exchanges and mutual learning on the Internet, so that the achievements of Internet development will benefit the whole world and better benefit the people of all countries.

  1. Safeguarding Sovereignty and Security

  China is committed to maintaining peace and security in cyberspace, and building a fair and reasonable international order in cyberspace on the basis of national sovereignty, and is actively promoting and consolidating international consensus in this regard. China firmly opposes any country interfering in the internal affairs of other countries through the Internet, and maintains that all countries have the right and responsibility to maintain their own cyber security, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of all parties in cyberspace through national laws and policies. The tendency to strengthen armaments and strengthen deterrence in cyberspace is not conducive to international security and strategic mutual trust. China is committed to promoting all parties to effectively abide by the basic norms of international relations such as peaceful settlement of disputes and non-use or threat of use of force, establish consultation and mediation mechanisms, prevent and avoid conflicts, and prevent cyberspace from becoming a new battlefield.

  The construction of national defense forces in cyberspace is an important part of China’s national defense and military modernization, and it follows the consistent military strategy of active defense. China will give full play to the important role of the military in safeguarding national cyberspace sovereignty, security and development interests, accelerate the construction of cyberspace forces, improve cyberspace situational awareness, network defense, support national cyberspace operations and participate in international cooperation capabilities, and curb and control cyberspace. A major crisis in space, to ensure national network security, maintain national security and social stability.

  1. Building an international rule system   As a new frontier, cyberspace urgently needs to formulate relevant rules and codes of conduct. China advocates the formulation of international rules and norms of national behavior in cyberspace that are generally accepted by all countries under the framework of the United Nations, establish the basic norms that countries and various actors should follow in cyberspace, regulate the behavior of all parties, and promote cooperation among countries to maintain cyberspace security. , stability and prosperity. China supports and actively participates in the international rule-making process, and will continue to strengthen dialogue and cooperation with the international community and make its own contribution.   China is a staunch defender of cyber security. China is also a victim of hacker attacks. China opposes any form of hacker attacks. No matter what kind of hacker attacks are illegal and criminal, they should be cracked down in accordance with laws and relevant international conventions. Cyber ​​attacks are usually transnational and difficult to trace. China advocates that all countries jointly maintain cyberspace security through constructive consultation and cooperation.   3. Promoting Fair Internet Governance   China advocates building a multilateral, democratic and transparent global Internet governance system through equal participation and joint decision-making by the international community. All countries should enjoy equal rights to participate in Internet governance. Basic Internet resources should be allocated fairly, and key information infrastructure such as Internet root servers should be jointly managed. It is necessary to ensure the inclusiveness and openness of relevant international processes and strengthen the representation and voice of developing countries.   China supports the strengthening of communication and cooperation among various stakeholders, including governments, international organizations, Internet companies, technical communities, non-governmental organizations, and individual citizens. All stakeholders should play a role that matches their own roles in the above-mentioned governance model, and the government should play a key leading role in Internet governance, especially public policy and security, to achieve joint participation, scientific management, and democratic decision-making.   4. Protect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens   China supports the freedom and openness of the Internet, fully respects the rights and basic freedoms of citizens in cyberspace, protects the public’s right to know, participate, express, and supervise in cyberspace, and protects personal privacy in cyberspace. At the same time, cyberspace is not a “place outside the law”. Like the real society, cyberspace should not only promote freedom, but also maintain order. China is committed to promoting the effective governance of cyberspace and realizing the organic integration of free flow of information with national security and public interests.   5. Promoting Digital Economy Cooperation   China vigorously implements the strategy of network power, national informatization strategy, national big data strategy, and “Internet +” action plan, vigorously develops e-commerce, strives to promote the deep integration of the Internet and the real economy, promotes the optimization of resource allocation, and promotes the improvement of total factor productivity. Play an active role in promoting innovative development, transforming the mode of economic growth, and adjusting the economic structure.   China upholds the market concept of fairness, openness and competition, and while developing itself, adheres to the principles of cooperation and inclusiveness, promotes the development of investment and trade around the world, and promotes the development of the global digital economy. China advocates the promotion of fair and free trade in the international community, opposes trade barriers and trade protectionism, promotes the establishment of an open and secure digital economic environment, and ensures that the Internet serves economic development and innovation. China advocates further promoting the realization of fair, reasonable and universal Internet access, the popularization of Internet technology, and the diversity of Internet languages, strengthening exchanges and cooperation between China and other countries and regions in network security and information technology, and jointly promoting the development of Internet technology and innovation, to ensure that everyone can share the digital dividend equally, and to achieve sustainable development of cyberspace.   China insists on ensuring development through security and promoting security through development. To maintain the healthy and strong development of the digital economy, we should neither pursue absolute security to hinder the vitality of development, restrict openness an
  2. d interoperability, and imprison technological innovation, nor should we avoid necessary security supervision measures on the grounds of market liberalization and trade liberalization. Different countries and regions have different levels of Internet development and network security protection capabilities. We should provide assistance within our capabilities to developing countries to improve their network security capabilities, bridge the “digital divide” between developing countries and developed countries, and achieve mutual benefit and win-win digital economy. Make up for the shortcomings of global network security.
  3.   6. Build an online cultural exchange platform
  4.   The Internet is an important carrier for spreading the excellent culture of mankind and promoting positive energy. Cyberspace is the common spiritual home of mankind. All countries should strengthen cooperation, jointly shoulder the heavy responsibility of using the Internet to inherit excellent culture, cultivate and develop a positive Internet culture, give full play to the important role of culture in nourishing human beings, conserving society, and promoting economic development, and jointly promote the construction of Internet civilization and the prosperity and development of Internet culture .
  5.   China is willing to work with other countries to give full play to the advantages of the Internet communication platform, build a bridge of international exchanges through the Internet, and promote exchanges and mutual learning of excellent cultures of various countries. Strengthen the capacity building of network culture dissemination, promote the diversified development of international network culture, enrich people’s spiritual world, and promote the progress of human civilization.
  6. Chapter 4 Action Plan
  7.   China will actively participate in relevant international processes in the cyber field, strengthen bilateral, regional and international dialogue and cooperation, enhance international mutual trust, seek common development, and jointly deal with threats, with a view to finally reaching international rules for cyberspace that are generally accepted by all parties, and building a fair and reasonable global Cyberspace Governance System.
  8.   1. Advocate and promote peace and stability in cyberspace
  9.   Participate in discussions on bilateral and multilateral confidence-building measures, take preventive diplomacy measures, and respond to various cyber security threats through dialogue and consultation.
  10.   Strengthen dialogue, study new threats in the cyber domain that affect international peace and security, jointly curb the abuse of information technology, and prevent an arms race in cyberspace.
  11.   Promote discussions in the international community on the peaceful nature of cyberspace, and study the application of international law to cyberspace from the perspective of maintaining international security and strategic mutual trust and preventing cyber conflicts.
  12.   2. Promoting the construction of a rules-based cyberspace order
  13.   Give full play to the important role of the United Nations in the formulation of international rules in cyberspace, support and promote the adoption of information and network security-related resolutions by the United Nations General Assembly, and actively promote and participate in processes such as the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on Information Security.
  14.   The member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization submitted the updated text of the “International Code of Conduct for Information Security” to the UN General Assembly in January 2015. The “Code of Conduct” is the first document in the world that comprehensively and systematically expounds the code of conduct in cyberspace. It is an important public security product provided by China and other SCO member states to promote the international community to formulate a code of conduct in cyberspace. China will continue to strengthen international dialogue on this initiative and strive for broad international understanding and support for it.
  15.   Support the universal participation of the international community in international discussions and consultations on cyber issues on an equal basis.
  16.   3. Continue to expand partnerships in cyberspace
  17.   China is committed to establishing extensive cooperative partnerships with all parties in the international community, actively expanding dialogue mechanisms on cyber affairs with other countries, and extensively carrying out bilateral cyber foreign policy exchanges and practical cooperation.
  18.   Hold international conferences such as the World Internet Conference (Wuzhen Summit), continue to hold bilateral Internet forums with relevant countries, hold seminars on Internet issues under the framework of China, Japan, South Korea, the ASEAN Regional Forum, and the Boao Forum for Asia, etc., to expand the network dialogue and cooperation platform.
  19.   Promote and deepen practical cooperation in cyber s
  20. ecurity between the SCO and BRICS countries. Promote the balanced development of the ASEAN Regional Forum cyber security process. Actively promote and support CICA, Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, China-Arab Cooperation Forum, China-CELAC Forum, Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization and other regional organizations to carry out cyber security cooperation. Promote the initiative of APEC, G20 and other organizations to cooperate in the fields of Internet and digital economy. Explore exchange dialogues with other regional organizations in the cyber arena.
  21.   4. Actively promote the reform of the global Internet governance system
  22.   Participate in the follow-up process of the implementation of the outcomes of the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, promote the international community to consolidate and implement the consensus on the outcomes of the summit, and fairly share the results of the development of the information society.
  23.   Promote the mechanism reform of the United Nations Internet Governance Forum, and promote the forum to play a greater role in Internet governance. Strengthen the forum’s decision-making capabilities on Internet governance matters, promote the forum to obtain a stable source of funding, and develop open and transparent procedures for selecting relevant members and submitting reports.
  24.   Participate in international discussions aimed at promoting the fair distribution and management of key Internet resources, actively promote the international reform of ICANN, make it a truly independent international organization, and continuously improve its representativeness and openness in decision-making and operation transparent. Actively participate in and promote global Internet governance platform activities such as the “Future of the Internet” action initiative of the World Economic Forum.
  25.   V. Deepen international cooperation in combating cyber terrorism and cybercrime
  26.   Discuss the code of conduct and specific measures for the international community to cooperate in combating cyber terrorism, including exploring the formulation of an international convention against terrorism in cyberspace, to enhance the consensus of the international community on combating cybercrime and cyberterrorism, and provide a basis for countries to carry out specific law enforcement cooperation.
  27.   Support and promote the UN Security Council to play an important role in international cooperation against cyber terrorism.
  28.   Support and promote the work of the United Nations to combat cybercrime, participate in the work of the United Nations Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, the United Nations Group of Governmental Experts on Cybercrime and other mechanisms, and promote the discussion and formulation of global international legal instruments against cybercrime within the framework of the United Nations.
  29.   Strengthen regional cooperation, rely on the Asia-Pacific region’s annual meeting and coordination mechanism to carry out cooperation in combating information technology crimes, actively participate in relevant cooperation with regional organizations such as the ASEAN Regional Forum, and promote the institutional arrangements for the BRICS countries to combat cybercrime and cyberterrorism.
  30.   Strengthen policy exchanges and law enforcement cooperation with other countries to combat cybercrime and cyberterrorism. Actively explore the establishment of an institutionalized dialogue and exchange platform for combating cyber terrorism, establish a bilateral police cooperation mechanism with the police of other countries, improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, and strengthen the exchange of technical experience in combating cybercrime.
  31.   6. Advocate the protection of citizens’ rights and interests such as the right to privacy
  32.   Support the discussions of the United Nations General Assembly and the Human Rights Council on privacy protection issues, and promote the establishment of principles of personal privacy protection in cyberspace. Promote countries to take measures to stop the use of the Internet to infringe on personal privacy, and exchange practices and practices on respecting and protecting personal privacy in cyberspace.
  33.   Promote enterprises to raise awareness of data security protection, support enterprises to strengthen industry self-discipline, and discuss best practices in cyberspace personal information protection. Promote cooperation between the government and enterprises to jointly protect personal privacy in cyberspace.
  34.   7. Promote the development of the digital economy and the sharing of digital dividends
  35.   Promote the implementation of the goal of building a people-centered, development-oriented, and inclusive information society set by the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, so as to promote the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  36.   Support Internet-based innovation and entrepreneurship, and promote the digital transformation of industry, agriculture, and service industries. Promote the informatization development of small, medium and micro enterprises. Promote investment in the ICT sector. Expand broadband access and improve broadband quality. Improve the digital skills of the public and increase digital inclusion. Enhance the availability, integrity, confidentiality and reliability of online transactions, and develop credible, stable and reliable Internet applications.
  37.   Support the provision of cyber security capacity building assistance to developing countries, including technology transfer, key information infrastructure construction and personnel training, etc., to transform the “digital divide” into digital opportunities, and allow more developing countries and their people to share the benefits brought by the Internet. Development Opportunities.
  38.   Promote the formulation of comprehensive cyberspace trade rules and promote the effective coordination of relevant policies of various countries. Carry out international cooperation in e-commerce, and improve the level of facilitation in customs clearance and logistics. Protect intellectual property rights, oppose trade protectionism, form a world network market, and promote the prosperity and development of the global network economy.
  39.   Strengthen Internet technology cooperation and sharing, promote technical cooperation among countries in the fields of network communications, mobile Internet, cloud computing, Internet of Things, and big data, jointly solve Internet technology development problems, and jointly promote the development of new industries and new formats. Strengthen talent exchanges and jointly cultivate innovative network talents.
  40.   Closely combined with the “Belt and Road” construction, promote and support China’s Internet companies in the joint manufacturing, finance, information and communication fields to take the lead in going out, participate in international competition in accordance with the principle of fairness, jointly explore the international market, and build a cross-border industrial chain system. Encourage Chinese enterprises to actively participate in the capacity building of other countries, help developing countries develop distance education, telemedicine, e-commerce and other industries, and promote the social development of these countries.
  41.   8. Strengthen the construction and protection of global information infrastructure
  42.   Jointly promote the construction of global information infrastructure and pave the way for smooth information flow. Promote the interconnection of information infrastructure with neighboring countries and other countries and the construction of the “Belt and Road”, so that more countries and people can share the development opportunities brought by the Internet.
  43.   Strengthen international cooperation, raise the awareness of protecting critical information infrastructure, promote the establishment of an orderly sharing mechanism for government, industry and enterprise network security information, and strengthen the security protection of critical information infrastructure and its important data.
  44.   Promote countries to reach a consensus on the protection of critical information infrastructure, formulate cooperation measures for the protection of critical information infrastructure, and strengthen legislation, experience and technical exchanges on the protection of critical information infrastructure.
  45.   Promote the strengthening of cooperation among countries in early warning and prevention, emergency response, technological innovation, standards and regulations, and information sharing, and improve the ability to prevent and respond to cyber risks.
  46.   9. Promoting Network Cultural Exchange and Mutual Learning
  47.   Promote the development of network cultural cooperation among countries, let the Internet fully display the achievements of civilizations of all countries and nations, become a platform for cultural exchanges and mutual learning, and enhance emotional exchanges and spiritual communication between people of all countries. Taking the animation and game industry as one of the key areas, pragmatically carry out cultural cooperation with countries along the “Belt and Road”, and encourage Chinese enterprises to fully rely on local cultural resources to provide differentiated online cultural products and services. Utilize domestic and foreign online culture expo trading platforms to promote Chinese online cultural products to go global. Support Chinese enterprises to participate in important international network cultural exhibitions. Promote the overseas landing of Internet cultural enterprises.
  48. conclusion
  49.   The 21st century is the era of network and information technology. At a new historical starting point, China has proposed the grand goal of building a cyber power. This is an important measure to implement the “Four Comprehensives” strategi
  50.   The 21st century is the era of network and information technology. At a new historical starting point, China has proposed the grand goal of building a cyber power. This is an important measure to implement the “Four Comprehensives” strategi
  51. c layout, and it is inevitable to realize the “Two Centenary” goals and the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. choose. China has always been a builder, maintainer and contributor of cyberspace. The development of China’s Internet information industry will not only benefit the Chinese people, but also contribute to the security and development of the global Internet.
  52.   While promoting the strategic deployment of building a cyber power, China will uphold the concept of a new type of international relations centered on win-win cooperation, and is committed to joining hands with the international community to strengthen communication and exchanges, deepen mutually beneficial cooperation, build new partners for cooperation, and create A community with a shared future for mankind, making greater contributions to building a safe, stable, and prosperous cyberspace.

第四章行動計劃

一、倡導和促進網絡空間的和平與穩定

二、推動以規則為基礎的網絡空間秩序建設

三、繼續擴大網絡空間夥伴關係

四、積極推進全球互聯網治理體系改革

五、深化打擊網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪國際合作

6.倡導保護公民隱私權等權益

七、促進數字經濟發展和共享數字紅利

八、加強全球信息基礎設施建設和保護

九、促進網絡文化交流互鑑

結論

前言

“網絡空間是人類共同活動的空間,網絡空間的前途命運由世界各國共同承擔。各國應加強溝通,擴大共識,深化合作,共同構建網絡空間命運共同體。”

  • 中國國家主席習近平,2015 年 12 月 16 日

當今世界,以互聯網為代表的信息技術日新月異,引領社會生產新變革,為人類生活創造新空間,拓展國家治理新領域,極大提高人類認識和改造能力 世界。

互聯網作為人類社會的共同財富,已經把世界變成了一個“地球村”。 各國在網絡空間互聯互通,利益交融,休戚與共。 維護網絡空間和平與安全,促進開放合作,共建網絡空間命運共同體,符合國際社會的共同利益,也是國際社會的共同責任。

《網絡空間國際合作戰略》全面宣示了中國在網絡空間相關國際問題上的政策立場,系統闡述了中國網絡空間對外工作的基本原則、戰略目標和行動要點,旨在指導中國參與網絡空間國際合作。 未來。 交流合作,推動國際社會共同努力,加強對話合作,共同建設和平、安全、開放、合作、有序的網絡空間,建立多邊、民主、透明的全球互聯網治理體系。

第一章機遇與挑戰

在世界多極化、經濟全球化、文化多元化、全球治理體系深刻變革的背景下,人類迎來了信息革命的新時代。 以互聯網為代表的信息通信技術日新月異,深刻改變著人們的生產生活方式,日益激發市場創新,促進經濟繁榮,促進社會發展。 網絡空間日益成為信息傳播的新渠道、生產生活的新空間、經濟發展的新引擎、文化繁榮的新載體、社會治理的新平台、交流合作的新紐帶, 國家主權的新領域。

網絡空間給人類帶來了巨大機遇,但也帶來了許多新問題和新挑戰。 網絡空間安全穩定已成為全球性問題,事關各國主權、安全和發展利益。 互聯網領域發展不平衡、規則不健全、秩序不合理等問題日益突出。 國家和地區之間的“數字鴻溝”不斷擴大。 關鍵信息基礎設施存在較大風險和隱患。 全球互聯網基礎資源管理體系難以體現大多數國家的意願和利益。 網絡恐怖主義已成為全球公害,網絡犯罪蔓延。 濫用信息通信技術干涉別國內政、進行大規模網絡監視的行為時有發生。 網絡空間缺乏普遍有效地規範所有人行為的國際規則

各方,自身發展受到製約。

面對問題和挑戰,任何國家都不可能獨善其身。 國際社會應本著相互尊重、互諒互讓的精神開展對話合作,實現網絡空間全球治理以規則為基礎。

第二章 基本原則

中國始終是世界和平的建設者、全球發展的貢獻者、國際秩序的維護者。 中國堅定不移走和平發展道路,堅持正確義利觀,推動建立以合作共贏為核心的新型國際關係。 中國網絡空間國際合作戰略的主題是和平發展,以合作共贏為核心,把倡導和平、主權、共治、普惠作為網絡空間國際交流與合作的基本原則。

一、和平原則

網絡空間互聯互通,各國利益日益交融。 一個安全、穩定、繁榮的網絡空間,對各國和世界都具有重要意義。

國際社會必須切實遵守《聯合國憲章》的宗旨和原則,特別是不使用或威脅使用武力以及和平解決爭端的原則,確保網絡空間的和平與安全。 各國應共同反對利用信息通信技術實施敵對侵略行為,防止網絡軍備競賽,防止網絡空間衝突,堅持和平解決網絡空間爭端。 我們應該摒棄冷戰思維、零和博弈和雙重標準,在充分尊重別國安全的基礎上,以合作求和平,努力在共同安全中實現自身安全。

網絡恐怖主義是影響國際和平與安全的新威脅。 國際社會應採取切實措施防範和合作打擊網絡恐怖主義。 防止恐怖分子利用互聯網傳播恐怖極端思想,策劃實施恐怖活動。

二、主權原則

《聯合國憲章》確立的主權平等原則是當代國際關係的基本準則,涵蓋國與國交往的各個領域,也應適用於網絡空間。 各國應尊重彼此自主選擇網絡發展道路、網絡管理模式、互聯網公共政策和平等參與國際網絡空間治理的權利,不搞網絡霸權,不干涉別國內政, 不從事、縱容和支持危害他國國家安全的網絡空間活動。 活動。

明確網絡空間主權,不僅可以體現政府依法管理網絡空間的責任和權利,還有助於各國搭建政府、企業和社會團體良性互動的平台,為網絡空間的發展創造平台。 信息技術與國際交流與合作。 健康的生態環境。

各國政府有權依法管理網絡,對本國境內的信息通信基礎設施、資源和信息通信活動具有管轄權,有權保護本國的信息系統和信息資源 免受威脅、干擾、攻擊和破壞,並確保公民在網絡空間中的安全。 合法權益。 各國政府都有權制定自己的互聯網公共政策和法律法規,不受任何外來干涉。 各國在按照主權平等原則行使自身權利的同時,也需要履行相應的義務。 各國不得利用信息通信技術干涉別國內政,不得利用自身優勢損害別國信息通信技術產品和服務供應鏈安全。

三、共治原則

網絡空間是人類共同的活動空間,需要世界各國共同建設、共同治理。 網絡空間國際治理首先應堅持多邊參與。 各國不分大小強弱貧富,都是國際社會的平等成員,都有權通過國際網絡治理機制和平台,平等參與網絡空間國際秩序和規則建設,共同維護網絡安全。

確保網絡空間的未來發展屬於各國人民。 掌握。

二是堅持多方參與。 發揮政府、國際組織、互聯網企業、技術社群、非政府組織、公民個人的作用,構建全方位、多層次的治理平台。 各國應加強溝通交流,完善網絡空間對話協商機制,共同製定網絡空間國際規則。 聯合國作為重要渠道,應充分發揮協調作用,協調各方立場,凝聚國際共識。 其他國際機制和平台也應發揮各自優勢,提供有益補充。 國際社會應共同管理和公平分配互聯網基礎資源,建立多邊、民主、透明的全球互聯網治理體系,實現互聯網資源共享、責任共擔、合作治理。

四、包容性原則

互聯網與各行業的融合發展,對各國經濟結構、社會形態和創新體系產生了全面的、革命性的影響,為世界經濟增長和可持續發展目標的實現提供了強勁動力。 推動互聯網普惠惠及所有地區和國家,將為有效落實2030年可持續發展議程提供助力。

國際社會應繼續推進互聯網領域開放合作,豐富開放內涵,提高開放水平,搭建更多交流合作平台,促進網絡空間優勢互補、共同發展,讓共享成果共享。 促進互聯網發展,實現聯合國信息社會世界峰會確定的目標。 建設以人為本、面向發展、包容的信息社會的目標。

各國應積極推進雙邊、區域和國際發展合作,特別是加大對發展中國家網絡能力建設的資金和技術援助,幫助發展中國家抓住數字機遇,彌合“數字鴻溝”。

第三章 戰略目標

中國參與網絡空間國際合作的戰略目標是堅定維護國家網絡主權、安全和發展利益,保障互聯網信息安全有序流動,提升國際互聯互通水平,維護網絡空間和平、安全與穩定, 推動網絡空間國際法治建設,推動全球數字經濟發展,深化互聯網文化交流互鑑,讓互聯網發展成果惠及全世界,更好造福各國人民。

一、維護主權安全

中國致力於維護網絡空間的和平與安全,致力於構建以國家主權為基礎的公平合理的網絡空間國際秩序,積極推動和凝聚國際共識。 中方堅決反對任何國家通過互聯網干涉別國內政,主張各國都有權利和責任維護自身網絡安全,通過國家法律和法規保護各方在網絡空間的合法權益。 政策。 網絡空間加強軍備和威懾的傾向不利於國際安全和戰略互信。 中國致力於推動各方切實遵守和平解決爭端、不使用或威脅使用武力等國際關係基本準則,建立磋商和調解機制,預防和避免衝突,防止網絡空間成為 一個新的戰場。

網絡空間國防力量建設是我國國防和軍隊現代化建設的重要組成部分,始終堅持積極防禦的軍事戰略。 中國將充分發揮軍隊在維護國家網絡空間主權、安全和發展利益中的重要作用,加快網絡空間力量建設,提高網絡空間態勢感知、網絡防禦、保障國家網絡空間作戰和參與國際合作能力, 遏制和控製網絡空間。 應對重大太空危機,保障國家網絡安全,維護國家安全和社會穩定。

二、構建國際規則體系

網絡空間作為新領域,迫切需要製定相關規則和行為準則。 中國主張在聯合國框架下制定各國普遍接受的網絡空間國際規則和國家行為規範,確立各國和各行為體在網絡空間應遵循的基本準則,規範各方行為, 推動各國合作維護網絡空間安全。 ,穩定和繁榮。 中國支持並積極參與國際規則制定進程,將繼續加強與國際社會的對話與合作,做出自己的貢獻。

中國是網絡安全的堅定捍衛者。 中國也是黑客攻擊的受害者。 中方反對任何形式的黑客攻擊。 無論何種黑客攻擊行為違法犯罪,都應依據法律和相關國際公約予以打擊。 網絡攻擊通常是跨國的,難以追踪。 中方主張各國通過建設性協商與合作,共同維護網絡空間安全。

三、促進互聯網公平治理

中國主張通過國際社會平等參與、共同決策,構建多邊、民主、透明的全球互聯網治理體系。 各國應享有平等參與互聯網治理的權利。 公平配置互聯網基礎資源,共同管理互聯網根服務器等關鍵信息基礎設施。 要確保相關國際進程的包容性和開放性,加強發展中國家的代表性和發言權。

中方支持政府、國際組織、互聯網企業、技術社區、非政府組織、公民個人等各利益攸關方加強交流與合作。 在上述治理模式中,各利益相關方應發揮與其作用相匹配的作用,政府應在互聯網治理尤其是公共政策和安全領域發揮關鍵主導作用,實現共同參與、科學管理、民主決策。 製作。

四、保障公民合法權益

中國支持互聯網自由開放,充分尊重公民在網絡空間的權利和基本自由,保障公眾在網絡空間的知情權、參與權、表達權和監督權,保護個人在網絡空間的隱私權。 同時,網絡空間也不是“法外之地”。 與現實社會一樣,網絡空間既要促進自由,又要維護秩序。 中國致力於推進網絡空間有效治理,實現信息自由流動與國家安全和公共利益有機結合。

五、推進數字經濟合作

中國大力實施網絡強國戰略、國家信息化戰略、國家大數據戰略和“互聯網+”行動計劃,大力發展電子商務,著力推動互聯網與實體經濟深度融合,促進優化 資源配置,促進全要素生產率的提高。 在推動創新發展、轉變經濟增長方式、調整經濟結構中發揮積極作用。

中國秉持公平、開放、競爭的市場理念,在發展自身的同時,堅持合作包容原則,推動全球投資貿易發展,推動全球數字經濟發展。 中國主張在國際社會促進公平、自由貿易,反對貿易壁壘和貿易保護主義,推動建立開放、安全的數字經濟環境,確保互聯網服務經濟發展和創新。 中方主張進一步推動實現公平、合理、普遍上網、互聯網技術普及和網絡語言多樣化,加強中國與其他國家和地區在網絡安全和信息技術領域的交流與合作,共同推動互聯網發展。 發展和創新互聯網技術,確保人人平等分享數字紅利,實現網絡空間可持續發展。

中國堅持以安全保障發展,以發展促進安全。 保持數字經濟健康強勁發展,既不能追求絕對安全阻礙發展活力,也不能限制開放和開放。

互操作性,禁錮技術創新,也不能以市場自由化、貿易自由化為由迴避必要的安全監管措施。 不同國家和地區的互聯網發展水平和網絡安全防護能力不同。 應為發展中國家提高網絡安全能力提供力所能及的幫助,彌合發展中國家與發達國家之間的“數字鴻溝”,實現數字經濟互利共贏。 彌補全球網絡安全的短板。

6.搭建線上文化交流平台

互聯網是傳播人類優秀文化、弘揚正能量的重要載體。 網絡空間是人類共同的精神家園。 各國應加強合作,共同肩負起利用互聯網傳承優秀文化的重任,培育和發展積極向上的互聯網文化,充分發揮文化在滋養人類、涵養社會、促進經濟發展等方面的重要作用, 共同推動網絡文明建設和網絡文化繁榮發展。

中國願同各國一道,充分發揮互聯網傳播平台優勢,通過互聯網搭建國際交流橋樑,促進各國優秀文化交流互鑑。 加強網絡文化傳播能力建設,促進國際網絡文化多元化發展,豐富人們的精神世界,推動人類文明進步。

第四章行動計劃

中國將積極參與網絡領域相關國際進程,加強雙邊、區域和國際對話與合作,增進國際互信,謀求共同發展,共同應對威脅,最終達成網絡空間國際規則。 為各方普遍接受,構建公平合理的全球網絡空間治理體系。

一、倡導和促進網絡空間的和平與穩定

參與雙邊和多邊互信措施討論,採取預防性外交措施,通過對話協商應對各種網絡安全威脅。

加強對話,研究網絡領域影響國際和平與安全的新威脅,共同遏制信息技術濫用,防止網絡空間軍備競賽。

推動國際社會討論網絡空間的和平性質,從維護國際安全和戰略互信、防止網絡衝突的角度研究國際法在網絡空間的適用。

二、推動以規則為基礎的網絡空間秩序建設

充分發揮聯合國在製定網絡空間國際規則方面的重要作用,支持和推動聯合國大會通過信息和網絡安全相關決議,積極推動和參與網絡空間國際規則等進程。 聯合國信息安全政府專家組。

上海合作組織成員國於2015年1月向聯合國大會提交了《信息安全國際行為準則》的更新文本。《行為準則》是世界上第一份全面系統闡述的文件 網絡空間行為準則。 它是中國和其他上合組織成員國為推動國際社會制定網絡空間行為準則而提供的重要公共安全產品。 中方將繼續就“一帶一路”倡議加強國際對話,爭取國際社會廣泛理解和支持。

支持國際社會普遍平等參與網絡問題國際討論和磋商。

三、繼續擴大網絡空間夥伴關係

中國致力於同國際社會各方建立廣泛的合作夥伴關係,積極拓展同各國網絡事務對話機制,廣泛開展雙邊網絡外交政策交流和務實合作。

舉辦世界互聯網大會(烏鎮峰會)等國際會議,繼續與有關國家舉辦雙邊互聯網論壇,在中日韓、東盟地區論壇、博鰲論壇等框架下舉辦互聯網問題研討會 亞等,拓展網絡對話合作平台。

推動和深化網絡領域務實合作

上合組織與金磚國家之間的安全。 推動東盟地區論壇網絡安全進程均衡發展。 積極推動和支持亞信、中非合作論壇、中阿合作論壇、中拉論壇、亞非法律協商組織等區域組織開展網絡安全合作。 推動APEC、G20等組織在互聯網和數字經濟領域開展合作的倡議。 探索與網絡領域其他區域組織的交流對話。

四、積極推進全球互聯網治理體系改革

參與聯合國信息社會世界峰會成果落實後續進程,推動國際社會鞏固和落實峰會成果共識,公平分享信息社會發展成果 信息社會。

推進聯合國互聯網治理論壇機制改革,推動論壇在互聯網治理中發揮更大作用。 加強論壇對互聯網治理事項的決策能力,推動論壇獲得穩定的資金來源,制定公開透明的相關成員遴选和報告提交程序。

參與旨在促進互聯網關鍵資源公平分配和管理的國際討論,積極推動ICANN的國際化改革,使其成為真正獨立的國際組織,不斷提高其決策的代表性和公開性、透明化的運作。 積極參與和推動世界經濟論壇“互聯網的未來”行動倡議等全球互聯網治理平台活動。

五、深化打擊網絡恐怖主義和網絡犯罪國際合作

討論國際社會合作打擊網絡恐怖主義的行為準則和具體措施,包括探討制定打擊網絡空間恐怖主義國際公約,增進國際社會打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義的共識,提供依據 為各國開展專項執法合作。

支持和推動聯合國安理會在打擊網絡恐怖主義國際合作中發揮重要作用。

支持和推動聯合國打擊網絡犯罪工作,參與聯合國預防犯罪和刑事司法委員會、聯合國網絡犯罪問題政府專家組等機制的工作,推動全球網絡犯罪問題的討論和製定。 聯合國框架內打擊網絡犯罪的國際法律文書。

加強區域合作,依托亞太地區年會協調機制開展打擊信息技術犯罪合作,積極參與與東盟地區論壇等區域組織的相關合作,推動金磚國家製度安排 打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義。

加強與其他國家的政策交流和執法合作,打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義。 積極探索建立打擊網絡恐怖主義制度化對話交流平台,與各國警方建立雙邊警務合作機制,完善打擊網絡犯罪司法協助機制,加強打擊網絡犯罪技術經驗交流。

6.倡導保護公民隱私權等權益

支持聯合國大會和人權理事會就隱私保護問題進行討論,推動建立網絡空間個人隱私保護原則。 推動各國採取措施制止利用互聯網侵犯個人隱私,交流尊重和保護網絡空間個人隱私的做法和做法。

推動企業提高數據安全保護意識,支持企業加強行業自律,探討網絡空間個人信息保護最佳實踐。 推動政企合作,共同保護網絡空間個人隱私。

七、促進數字經濟發展和共享數字紅利

推動落實聯合國信息社會世界峰會確定的建設以人為本、以發展為導向、包容性的信息社會目標,推動落實2030年可持續發展議程。

支持互聯網創新

推動工業、農業、服務業數字化轉型。 促進中小微企業信息化發展。 促進對 ICT 領域的投資。 擴大寬帶接入,提高寬帶質量。 提高公眾的數字技能並增加數字包容性。 增強網上交易的可用性、完整性、保密性和可靠性,發展可信、穩定、可靠的互聯網應用。

支持向發展中國家提供網絡安全能力建設援助,包括技術轉讓、關鍵信息基礎設施建設和人員培訓等,將“數字鴻溝”轉化為數字機遇,讓更多發展中國家和人民共享 互聯網帶來的好處。 發展機會。

推動制定完善的網絡空間貿易規則,促進各國相關政策有效協調。 開展電子商務國際合作,提高通關和物流便利化水平。 保護知識產權,反對貿易保護主義,形成世界網絡市場,促進全球網絡經濟繁榮發展。

加強互聯網技術合作與共享,推動各國在網絡通信、移動互聯網、雲計算、物聯網、大數據等領域的技術合作,共同解決互聯網技術發展難題,共同推動新產業新發展 格式。 加強人才交流,共同培養網絡創新人才。

緊密結合“一帶一路”建設,推動和支持中國聯合製造、金融、信息通信等領域的互聯網企業率先走出去,按照公平原則參與國際競爭,共同探索 國際市場,構建跨境產業鏈體系。 鼓勵中國企業積極參與他國能力建設,幫助發展中國家發展遠程教育、遠程醫療、電子商務等產業,促進這些國家社會發展。

八、加強全球信息基礎設施建設和保護

共同推進全球信息基礎設施建設,暢通信息暢通。 推動與周邊國家和其他國家信息基礎設施互聯互通和“一帶一路”建設,讓更多國家和人民共享互聯網帶來的發展機遇。

加強國際合作,提高關鍵信息基礎設施保護意識,推動建立政府、行業、企業網絡安全信息有序共享機制,加強關鍵信息基礎設施及其重要數據的安全保護。

推動各國就關鍵信息基礎設施保護達成共識,制定關鍵信息基礎設施保護合作措施,加強關鍵信息基礎設施保護立法、經驗和技術交流。

推動各國加強預警防範、應急處置、科技創新、標準法規、信息共享等方面的合作,提高防範和應對網絡風險的能力。

九、促進網絡文化交流互鑑

推動各國網絡文化合作發展,讓互聯網充分展示各國各民族文明成果,成為文化交流互鑑的平台,增進各國人民情感交流和精神交流。 將動漫遊戲產業作為重點領域之一,務實開展與“一帶一路”沿線國家的文化合作,鼓勵中國企業充分依托當地文化資源,提供差異化的網絡文化產品和服務。 利用國內外網絡文化博覽交易平台,推動中國網絡文化產品走出去。 支持中國企業參加國際重要網絡文化展覽。 推動互聯網文化企業海外落地。

結論

21世紀是網絡和信息技術的時代。 在新的歷史起點上,中國提出了建設網絡強國的宏偉目標。 這是實施“四個全面”戰略的重要舉措

佈局,是實現“兩個一百年”奮鬥目標和中華民族偉大復興中國夢的必然選擇。 選擇。 中國始終是網絡空間的建設者、維護者和貢獻者。 中國互聯網信息產業的發展,不僅造福於中國人民,也將為全球互聯網的安全與發展作出貢獻。

在推進建設網絡強國戰略部署的同時,中國將秉持以合作共贏為核心的新型國際關係理念,致力於同國際社會攜手加強溝通交流,深化互利合作 ,打造新的合作夥伴,打造人類命運共同體,為建設安全、穩定、繁榮的網絡空間作出更大貢獻。

資料來源:中國外交部

中國軍方看外軍網絡戰發展新動向

Chinese Military Perspective on the New Development Trends in Foreign Military Network Warfare

After decades of development, cyberspace has become an important field of production and life in human society, and has become the fifth-dimensional battlefield after “land, sea, air, and sky.” In recent years, the United States and other developed countries have rushed to introduce cyberspace strategies, build (expand) cyber warfare forces, and implement cyber offensive and defensive operations. The moves in the construction, development, and application of cyber warfare deserve the attention of the world.

Pay attention to cyberspace security, and accelerate the establishment of supporting strategies and regulations

Since cyberspace security is a security issue in an emerging field, most countries lack supporting strategies and systems of laws and regulations. In recent years, major countries in the world have positioned it as a major security field, and the pace of promulgating network security strategies and regulations has been significantly accelerated. For example, since the first national network security strategy was proposed in 2000, the United States has continuously formulated, expanded, and updated various policies, strategies, regulations, and regulations in the field of network security. The network strategy alone includes the “National Network Strategy”, “International Cyberspace Strategy”, ” The Cyber ​​Strategy of the Ministry of National Defense and the cyber strategy of the military services, etc., are used to standardize and guide the development and application of cyber warfare. In October 2014, the U.S. military also issued the world’s first joint doctrine “Cyberspace Operations”, which elaborated and standardized the concepts, actions, and tasks of cyberspace operations. In response to cyber attacks by the United States and NATO, Russia announced the “Russian Federation Cyber ​​Security Strategic Concept” in 2014, and promulgated a new version of the “Information Security Doctrine” in 2016, proposing to ensure network information security. In order to strengthen the overall guidance of network security affairs, India issued the “National Cyber ​​Security Policy” in 2013 and plans to issue a “National Cyber ​​Security Strategy”; the Indian military has formulated policies such as the “Army Cyber ​​Security Policy” and “Navy Information Security Policy” regulations.

Strengthen the professional construction of cyber warfare forces, and pay attention to the use of non-governmental network forces

In recent years, the establishment, integration, and expansion of specialized cyber warfare forces have become a trend among foreign militaries. The United States was the first country to propose the concept of cyber warfare, and it was also the first country to form a professional cyber warfare force. The U.S. military established the Cyber ​​Command in 2010, and upgraded it to a first-level joint operations command in 2018. The number of cyber task forces under its jurisdiction has reached 133, with about 6,200 personnel. Russia established a professional information warfare unit in 2013, and cyber warfare is an important function of it. The Japanese Self-Defense Force established the Cyber ​​Defense Team in 2014, initially with more than 100 members, and has now increased to nearly 300, and plans to expand to a thousand in the future. The United Kingdom also announced in 2020 that it will soon create a national cyber force. On this basis, foreign militaries have generally carried out systematic design and layout of cyber warfare forces. In the field of cyber warfare, forces such as network attack, network defense, and network operation and maintenance are inseparable; externally, network warfare forces are integrated and integrated with information warfare forces such as signal reconnaissance and electronic warfare. For example, the commander of the U.S. Cyber ​​Command also serves as the director of the National Security Agency, and the network attack and defense are integrated with signal intelligence and reconnaissance. The Japanese Self-Defense Force has set up a special first-level command to oversee space, network, and electronic warfare affairs.

It is worth noting that foreign military forces constitute the “regular army” of cyber warfare forces, and private cybersecurity companies, technology companies, hacker organizations, etc. have also become important cyber offensive and defensive forces and have attracted much attention. The notorious “Eye of Sauron” and “Equation Group” and other hacker organizations are inextricably linked to the US military. In recent years, Iran, Russia, and Venezuela have encountered cyber attacks, all of which have the shadow of “Equation Group”. The Indian Army is also considering absorbing its rich IT talents to form a cyber warfare reserve force to further strengthen its cyber warfare capabilities.

Actively develop and build a network arsenal, and intelligent weapon systems are beginning to emerge

Cyber ​​weapons are special weapons used for network attack and defense. They can be viruses, loopholes, denial of service attacks, phishing attacks and other offensive and defensive technologies, or network attack and defense system platforms. Anatoly Smirnov, chairman of the International Information Security Association of the Russian Federation, disclosed in 2019 that many Western countries were developing cyber weapons; the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan also made no secret of possessing cyber weapons. According to the disclosures of Snowden and WikiLeaks, U.S. intelligence agencies and the U.S. military have built a systematic offensive cyber arsenal, some of which can be called “weapons of mass destruction” in cyberspace. In 2020, Patrick Saunders, commander of the British Strategic Command, took the initiative to declare that the UK has developed a “destructive” cyber weapon, which can effectively kill the enemy’s power grid and other facilities and equipment.

In terms of network system platforms, the U.S. military has built the most complete network warfare system platform in the world, including accusation management systems such as joint network command and control and unified platform, basic systems for network warfare planning and execution such as the IKE project, and network warfare and network warfare systems such as “Shute”. A weapon system with integrated firepower. In terms of network monitoring and defense, India has developed and built system platforms such as a central monitoring system, network traffic analysis system, and network security monitoring and evaluation system.

Cyber ​​weapons have a natural “kinship” with smart technology. At present, weapon systems in the fields of network situation monitoring, network attack and defense, and password deciphering have already taken shape in intelligentized countries in cyberspace dominant countries. With the development of artificial intelligence technology, the trend of intelligent network weapons will become more and more obvious.

Focus on enhancing the actual combat capabilities of network attack and defense, and innovate network training methods

In view of the reality and destructiveness of cyber threats, foreign militaries attach great importance to testing the security of information network systems and improving the cyber offensive and defensive capabilities of military and government agencies through cyber exercises and training activities in the context of actual combat.

In terms of participating forces, it covers the military, government agencies, reserves and civilian cyber forces. In the method mode, opponents are generally set to ensure the confrontation of the exercise. Some also innovatively use the method of offering rewards to attract hackers to “legally” attack specific target networks and help find network system defense loopholes. In terms of the training environment, actively build a network shooting range to simulate the information network environment of one’s own side and the opponent’s. The United States, Britain, Japan, Canada and NATO have all established professional cyber ranges. As the world’s largest multinational cyber exercise, NATO’s “Lock Shield” exercise simulated a country’s information network environment in 2019. The content of the drill includes responsiveness testing, defense vulnerability inspection, and election interference analysis. India regularly holds “Cyber ​​Fortress” exercises. It is said that in the “Cyber ​​Fortress-8” exercise organized in 2015, the Indian Army’s cyber brigade used remote penetration and other means to successfully obtain the administrator authority of a certain network system of the Indian Army, and found that 13 major categories of security vulnerabilities were identified. In addition, the U.S. military has begun to practice the integration of cyber warfare and operations in other fields. In the U.S. military’s “Schriever” exercise, the integration of space operations and cyber warfare is one of the important contents.

At present, some countries have regarded some serious cyber attacks as acts of war. As the international rules of conduct in cyberspace restrict and deter cyber attacks more and more, cyber exercises may replace real network operations and become foreign military training and upgrading. The primary path to network offensive and defensive capabilities.

Emphasis on pre-emptive offensive operations, actual combat tends to integrate deterrence and multi-domain integration

The hugeness, complexity, and fragility of the network system make network defense difficult and costly. For this reason, the United States and other countries have gradually changed their network security policy and operational thinking from the initial comprehensive defense to preemptive offensive operations, emphasizing Conduct pre-emptive offensive operations in hostile networks to eliminate potential or actual threats.

Driven by offensive thinking, cyber warfare is common in international conflicts, and the targets of attacks are no longer limited to military targets. The United States is the first country to apply cyber warfare to actual combat. In 2009, the U.S. military used the “Stuxnet” virus to carry out cyber attacks on Iran’s nuclear facilities, causing more than 1,500 centrifuges to be scrapped and the Iranian nuclear process to be paused. In 2020, after the assassination of Soleimani, the U.S. military launched cyber attacks on the command and control of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, missiles, and air defense systems to deter and prevent Iran from carrying out military retaliation. Of course, the idea of ​​offensive cyber warfare does not require absolute cyber superiority. Some non-cyber powers have also proposed the idea of ​​using asymmetric cyber capabilities to carry out preemptive attacks on the enemy’s weaknesses, and then achieve the goal of using the small to gain the big and the weak in the network game. Mandatory.

It is worth noting that in recent international conflicts, the trend of multi-domain integration in the fields of cyber warfare and firepower warfare, electromagnetic spectrum warfare, and cognitive domain warfare has become very obvious. For example, when armed conflicts broke out between Azerbaijan and Armenia in the Naka region in 2020, the two sides launched cyber offenses and defenses in cyberspace on the one hand, and on the other hand launched fierce confrontations in the cognitive domain around international and domestic public opinion, military morale, legal principles and morals.

At present, the low-intensity and ambiguous nature of cyber warfare attracts some international actors to frequently carry out cyberspace operations regardless of the consequences, and the risk of conflict escalation out of control is constantly accumulating. To this end, all countries in the world should start consultations and negotiations on international rules of conduct in cyberspace and cyber arms control as soon as possible, jointly restrict military activities in cyberspace, create a new pattern of cybersecurity, and build a community of shared future in cyberspace.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

經過幾十年的發展,網絡空間已經成為人類社會生產生活的重要領域,成為繼“陸、海、空、天”之後的第五維戰場。 近年來,美國等發達國家紛紛出台網絡空間戰略,建設(壯大)網絡戰力量,實施網絡攻防作戰。 網絡戰建設、發展和應用的動向值得世人關注。

關注網絡空間安全,加快建立配套戰略法規

由於網絡空間安全是一個新興領域的安全問題,大多數國家缺乏配套的戰略和法律法規體系。 近年來,世界主要國家將其定位為重大安全領域,出台網絡安全戰略和法規的步伐明顯加快。 例如,自2000年第一個國家網絡安全戰略提出以來,美國不斷制定、擴充和更新網絡安全領域的各種政策、戰略、規章制度。 僅網絡戰略就有《國家網絡戰略》、《國際網絡空間戰略》、《國防部網絡戰略》和《軍種網絡戰略》等,用於規範和指導發展 2014年10月,美軍還發布了世界上第一個聯合條令“網絡空間作戰”,對網絡空間作戰的概念、行動和任務進行了闡述和規範。 北約、俄羅斯2014年公佈《俄羅斯聯邦網絡安全戰略構想》,2016年頒布新版《信息安全條令》,提出保障網絡信息安全。為加強網絡安全統籌指導 事務方面,印度2013年出台《國家網絡安全政策》,併計劃出台《國家網絡安全戰略》;印度軍方制定了《陸軍網絡安全政策》、《海軍信息安全政策》等政策 安全策略”的規定。

加強網絡戰力量專業化建設,重視利用民間網絡力量

近年來,網絡戰專業化力量的建立、整合和壯大成為外軍發展趨勢。 美國是最早提出網絡戰概念的國家,也是最早組建專業網絡戰部隊的國家。 美軍於2010年成立網絡司令部,2018年升格為一級聯合作戰司令部,下轄的網絡特遣部隊已達133個,人員約6200人。 俄羅斯於2013年成立專業信息戰部隊,網絡戰是其重要職能。 日本自衛隊在2014年成立了網絡防衛隊,最初有100多名成員,現在已經增加到近300人,未來還計劃擴大到千人。 英國也在2020年宣布將很快創建一支國家網絡部隊。 在此基礎上,外軍普遍進行了網絡戰力量的系統化設計和佈局。 在網絡戰領域,網絡攻擊、網絡防禦、網絡運維等力量密不可分; 對外,網絡戰力量與信號偵察、電子戰等信息戰力量融合融合。 比如美國網絡司令部司令兼任國家安全局局長,網絡攻防與信號情報偵察相結合。 日本自衛隊設立了專門的一級司令部,負責監管太空、網絡和電子戰事務。

值得注意的是,外國軍隊構成了網絡戰力量的“正規軍”,民間網絡安全公司、科技公司、黑客組織等也成為重要的網絡攻防力量,備受關注。 臭名昭著的“索倫之眼”和“方程組”等黑客組織都與美軍有著千絲萬縷的聯繫。 近年來,伊朗、俄羅斯、委內瑞拉等國都遭遇過網絡攻擊,都有“方程組”的影子。 印度陸軍也在考慮吸納其豐富的IT人才,組建網絡戰後備力量,進一步加強網絡戰能力。

積極發展建設網絡化武庫,智能武器系統初現端倪

網絡武器是用於網絡的特殊武器

攻防。 它們可以是病毒、漏洞、拒絕服務攻擊、釣魚攻擊等攻防技術,也可以是網絡攻防系統平台。 俄羅斯聯邦國際信息安全協會主席阿納托利·斯米爾諾夫在2019年透露,許多西方國家正在研發網絡武器; 美國、英國、德國和日本也毫不掩飾擁有網絡武器。 根據斯諾登和維基解密的披露,美國情報機構和美國軍方已經建立了一個系統的進攻性網絡武器庫,其中一些武器堪稱網絡空間的“大規模殺傷性武器”。 2020年,英國戰略司令部司令帕特里克桑德斯主動宣稱,英國已經研製出“破壞性”網絡武器,可以有效殺傷敵方電網等設施設備。

在網絡系統平台方面,美軍建成了世界上最完備的網絡戰系統平台,包括聯合網絡指揮控制、統一平台等指控管理系統,IKE等網絡戰規劃與執行基礎系統。 項目,以及“樹特”等網絡戰和網絡戰系統。 具有綜合火力的武器系統。 在網絡監控防禦方面,印度開發建設了中央監控系統、網絡流量分析系統、網絡安全監控評估系統等系統平台。

網絡武器與智能技術有著天然的“親緣關係”。 目前,網絡態勢監測、網絡攻防、密碼破譯等領域的武器系統在網絡空間主導國家的智能化國家已經形成。 隨著人工智能技術的發展,網絡化武器的智能化趨勢將越來越明顯。

著力提升網絡攻防實戰能力,創新網絡訓練方式

鑑於網絡威脅的真實性和破壞性,外軍十分重視通過實戰背景下的網絡演習和訓練活動,檢驗信息網絡系統的安全性,提高軍政機構的網絡攻防能力。

在參與力量方面,它涵蓋了軍隊、政府機構、預備役和民間網絡力量。 在方法模式中,一般都會設置對手,以保證練習的對抗性。 有的還創新性地採用懸賞的方式,吸引黑客“合法”攻擊特定目標網絡,幫助尋找網絡系統防禦漏洞。 在訓練環境方面,積極建設網絡靶場,模擬己方和對方的信息網絡環境。 美國、英國、日本、加拿大和北約都建立了專業的網絡靶場。 作為全球規模最大的多國網絡演習,北約“鎖盾”演習模擬了2019年一個國家的信息網絡環境,演練內容包括響應能力測試、防禦漏洞檢查、選舉干擾分析等。 印度定期舉行“網絡堡壘”演習。 據稱,在2015年組織的“網絡堡壘-8”演習中,印陸軍網絡旅利用遠程滲透等手段,成功獲取了印軍某網絡系統的管理員權限,並發現13 確定了主要類別的安全漏洞。 此外,美軍也開始實踐網絡戰與其他領域作戰的融合。 在美軍的“施里弗”演習中,太空作戰與網絡戰的融合是重要內容之一。

目前,一些國家已將一些嚴重的網絡攻擊行為視為戰爭行為。 隨著網絡空間國際行為準則對網絡攻擊的約束和威懾越來越強,網絡演習有可能取代真正的網絡作戰,成為外國軍事訓練和升級。 網絡攻防能力的主要途徑。

強調先發製人的進攻作戰,實戰趨向綜合威懾和多域融合

網絡系統的龐大性、複雜性和脆弱性使得網絡防禦難度大、成本高。 為此,美國等國逐漸將網絡安全政策和作戰思路從最初的全面防禦轉變為先發製人的進攻作戰,強調在敵對網絡中進行先發製人的進攻作戰,以消除潛在或實際的威脅。

在進攻性思維的驅使下,網絡戰在國際衝突中屢見不鮮,

攻擊目標不再局限於軍事目標。 美國是第一個將網絡戰應用到實戰中的國家。 2009年,美軍利用“震網”病毒對伊朗核設施進行網絡攻擊,導致1500多台離心機報廢,伊朗核進程暫停。 2020年,蘇萊曼尼遇刺後,美軍對伊朗革命衛隊的指揮控制、導彈、防空系統等發起網絡攻擊,以威懾和阻止伊朗進行軍事報復。 當然,進攻性網絡戰的思路並不需要絕對的網絡優勢。 一些非網絡大國也提出了利用非對稱網絡能力對敵方弱點進行先發製人攻擊的想法,進而在網絡博弈中達到以小博大、以弱勝強的目的。 強制的。

值得注意的是,在近期的國際衝突中,網絡戰與火力戰、電磁頻譜戰、認知域戰等領域的多域融合趨勢十分明顯。 例如,2020年阿塞拜疆與亞美尼亞在納卡地區爆發武裝衝突,雙方一方面在網絡空間展開網絡攻防,另一方面圍繞國際國內展開認知領域的激烈交鋒。 民意、軍隊士氣、法理和道德。

當前,網絡戰的低烈度和模糊性,吸引了一些國際行為體不顧後果地頻繁開展網絡空間作戰,衝突失控升級的風險不斷累積。 為此,世界各國應盡快啟動網絡空間國際行為規則和網絡軍控磋商談判,共同製約網絡空間軍事活動,打造網絡安全新格局,構建網絡空間共享共同體。 網絡空間的未來。

Chinese Military Source: http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2021-04/08/content_XXXXX.htm

中國軍隊探索信息戰制勝戰略

Chinese Military Exploring the Strategy of Winning Superiority in Information Warfare

來源:中國國防報

In the era of information warfare, due to changes in the mechanism of winning wars, the strategy of winning with the inferior to the superior has also changed accordingly. Under the new situation, exploring the new characteristics, new laws, and new strategies of informatization warfare to win the war with the inferior has very important practical significance for winning future wars.

Information has become the dominant factor in winning a war, and the victory of the inferior is concentrated in seizing information superiority

As information technology is widely used in the military field, informationized weapons and equipment have become the main weapons on the battlefield. Information flow will determine material flow, force flow and energy flow, and become the dominant element of combat effectiveness, penetrating every corner of the battlefield. Competing for information superiority and linking multidimensional forces such as land, sea, air, space, and electricity have become the focus of confrontation in informationized warfare. Taking the information combat system as the primary target of using troops, finding the weak parts of the opponent’s information system, concentrating on destroying them, and making the opponent’s intelligence information system and command and control system paralyzed or unable to operate normally has become an important way for the inferior equipment to defeat the strong enemy. By striking information targets, one hair can affect the whole body and even directly achieve the purpose of war.

The more the party has the advantage of information technology, the more afraid the disadvantaged party will adopt asymmetric means of confrontation. As someone pointed out: our practice of using information as the focus of operations can become our strength, but it is also easy to become a vulnerable weakness. Therefore, aim at the weaknesses and weaknesses of the powerful enemy’s informationized combat platform, concentrate elite weapons and trumpet weapons and equipment, avoid the enemy’s sharp edge, take a slanted sword, and attack its weak links, such as comprehensively using information attack, navigation countermeasures, photoelectric interference and other means to destroy enemy information Even if only one or two of the network system, reconnaissance and early warning system, command and control system, and navigation and positioning system are successful, it can disrupt its overall structure and combat order, effectively paralyze its combat system, and finally achieve the effect of four or two.

System confrontation has become the basic law of victory in war, and the superiority of the inferior is highlighted by the weakening and deprivation of the enemy’s systematic combat advantages

In informationized warfare, the integration, complementarity, and interdependence of the various services and arms have increased, and the confrontation between the combat systems of the two hostile parties has become increasingly prominent. War is no longer a confrontation of single functions between combat units, but a systemic confrontation based on the comprehensive integration of various combat units and combat elements. The overall function of the combat system has a major impact on the success or failure of a war. In the face of an enemy with systemic advantages, it is very difficult to rely on a single force and a single means to achieve victory over the superior. Whether it can weaken and deprive the combat advantages of a powerful enemy system has become a key link in information warfare to achieve victory over the superior.

The practice of several local wars in recent years has proved that the party with inferior equipment can effectively destroy the key targets of the enemy’s combat system by developing and using some advanced weapons and combining them with other weapons and equipment when there is a “generational difference” in the overall combat capability. It is entirely possible to cause a powerful enemy’s overall operational dysfunction or paralysis. The larger and more sophisticated the combat system of a strong enemy in information technology, the easier it is to expose its vulnerable side. Once it is destroyed, it will often cause serious consequences. During the Iraq war, the U.S. military was shocked by the fact that GPS precision-guided weapons lost their accuracy after being interfered by the Iraqi army’s GPS jammers. During the Kosovo War, the soldiers and civilians of Yugoslavia used flexible and diverse computer network warfare, which also caused NATO’s computer network system to be attacked and paralyzed many times.

Quick decision has become the basic requirement for winning a war, and more emphasis is placed on immediate linkage to form a local advantage over the enemy by using the inferior to win the superior

The depreciation of the space factor and the sharp increase in the value of the time factor in the informationized battlefield lead to the acceleration of the combat rhythm, the shortening of the duration of the war, and the significant enhancement of the quick decision of the war. Although the basic combat procedures and information flow have not undergone fundamental changes, the processes of discovering targets, making decisions, issuing orders, and troop actions are carried out almost simultaneously in real time. The U.S. military’s book “Awe and Fear–The Way to Quickly Conquer the Enemy” pointed out that when talking about the quick victory of information warfare: “From a technical point of view, the speed here includes the formulation of combat plans, combat determination, and deployment and use of troops. Everything requires the troops to respond quickly in the shortest possible time.” In the Afghan war, it took about 19 minutes for the U.S. military to go from the “discovery-location-aiming-attack-assessment” kill chain, while it only took 10 minutes in the 2003 Iraq war about.

At the same time, various information-based weapons can carry out rapid and deadly long-range precision strikes, making the disadvantaged party form a passive situation where they cannot be seen, relied on, grasped, or hit. In exchange for room for maneuver in battles and battles; through long-term local gathering of superior forces and annihilating the enemy, accumulating small victories into big victories, it becomes more difficult to finally realize the growth and decline of the enemy and our forces. We must pay attention to the function of network aggregation, select and deploy new quality and elite forces, adopt modular organization, building block combination, task combination and other force formation methods, use multi-dimensional distribution, network chain combat configuration, and use link cycle linkage and leapfrog Response methods such as direct linkage, synchronous parallel linkage, sequential connection linkage, etc., realize network aggregation efficiency, system linkage, and multi-dimensional response to obtain local strength advantages against the enemy.

Technological factors are becoming more and more important in war, and the victory of the inferior depends on the close integration of people and technology

Information technology, especially disruptive technology, has triggered revolutionary changes in weaponry, organizational structure, and combat styles, and has become a direct driving force for the transformation of information warfare. Information warfare relies on the combination and application advantages of weapon platforms to realize domain linkage and cross-domain control. The proportion of technology-intensive arms and new-quality combat forces continues to increase. The concept of inferior superiority is facing challenges. However, information-based weapons and equipment put forward higher requirements for the quality of personnel. The organic combination of information-based weapons and equipment and high-quality personnel has become a key factor in winning a war. When the disadvantaged party confronts a strong enemy, it is even more necessary to do more in terms of human subjective initiative. enough articles.

In the man-machine system composed of man and weapon, the scientific and technological content of weapons and equipment is increasing day by day, and the trend of intelligence is becoming more and more obvious. The political, theoretical, military and technological literacy of commanders has become the key factor for winning an information war. General Sullivan of the U.S. Army once said: “Even in the information age, it is still people who dominate war operations. Changes in technology, equipment, and force structure will not lead to the disappearance of courage, selflessness, camaraderie, and leadership. “Information warfare has not changed that people are the decisive factor in the outcome of a war. How to make full use of strengths and avoid weaknesses for the party with inferior weapons and equipment, give full play to the effective combination of people and technology, and make up for technological disadvantages has become a key factor in defeating an enemy with superior equipment.

The contest of intelligence and strategy has become an important aspect of winning a war, and the strategy of using the inferior to win the superior exists in the active role

If a weak army wants to defeat a strong enemy, simply competing in military strength is tantamount to hitting a rock with an egg – there is no advantage at all; simply competing in equipment technology is tantamount to using its own strengths to defeat the enemy’s strengths – always being passive; Competing with external support is tantamount to discarding the decisive role of internal factors-willing to seek defeat with inferiority. What ultimately depends on the inferior to the superior? Relying on the active role of self-consciousness, relying on intelligence and strategic competition, this is the fundamental factor to realize the transformation from weak to strong, and the inferior to the superior.

Subjective initiative is manifested in many aspects for “surviving the superior with the inferior”. Although the “potential” here has a certain relationship with the strength of the opposing sides, it still depends on the degree of the commander’s subjective initiative. Those who plan well gain power, and those who do not plan lose power. The second is to actively plan a series of strategies to actively seize the advantages of opportunities. War is a vigorous confrontation between two sides fighting wits and courage. If the weaker side can make a superior move and make a living in a row, it will surely win the first opportunity. The third is to actively create local advantages and actively establish overall victory. Global strength does not mean local overall superiority, and overall global weakness does not mean local overall inferiority. Concentrating forces to form local advantages will eventually break the comparison of advantages and disadvantages and lay the foundation for overall victory. The fourth is to make the best use of the situation and actively innovate and adapt tactics. Water is impermanent, and soldiers are impermanent. According to changes in the enemy’s situation, we can flexibly innovate and change our own tactics, and constantly change the situation of both the enemy and ourselves, so as to gradually provide conditions for our own side to change from weak to strong.

Original Mandarin Chinese:

在信息戰時代,由於戰爭制勝機制的變化,以弱勝強的製勝策略也隨之發生了變化。 新形勢下,探索信息化戰爭的新特點、新規律、新戰略,以弱勝強,對打贏未來戰爭具有十分重要的現實意義。

信息成為打勝仗的主導因素,弱者的勝利集中在奪取信息優勢

隨著信息技術在軍事領域的廣泛應用,信息化武器裝備成為戰場上的主力武器。 信息流將決定物質流、力量流和能量流,成為戰鬥力的主導要素,滲透到戰場的每一個角落。 爭奪信息優勢,聯動陸、海、空、天、電等多維力量,成為信息化戰爭的對抗焦點。 把信息作戰系統作為用兵的首要目標,發現對方信息系統的薄弱環節,集中摧毀,使對方情報信息系統和指揮控制系統癱瘓或無法正常運轉,已成為重要的作戰手段。 以劣裝備打敗強敵的方法。 通過打擊信息目標,一根頭髮絲牽一發而動全身,甚至直接達到戰爭目的。

越是擁有信息技術優勢的一方,就越害怕處於劣勢的一方採取不對稱的對抗手段。 正如有人指出的那樣:我們將信息作為作戰重點的做法可以成為我們的優勢,但也很容易成為我們脆弱的弱點。 因此,針對強敵信息化作戰平台的薄弱環節和弱點,集中精銳武器和喇叭武器裝備,避敵利刃,斜劍攻其薄弱環節,如綜合運用信息攻擊、航海導航等。 反制、光電干擾等手段破壞敵方信息 即使網絡系統、偵察預警系統、指揮控制系統、導航定位系統中只有一兩個得手,也能擾亂其整體結構和作戰秩序 ,有效地麻痺了它的戰鬥系統,最終達到四兩的效果。

體係對抗成為戰爭取勝的基本法則,劣勢通過削弱和剝奪敵方體係作戰優勢而凸顯

信息化戰爭中,各兵種融合、互補、依存度增強,敵對雙方作戰體係對抗性日益突出。 戰爭不再是作戰單位之間單一職能的對抗,而是各種作戰單位和作戰要素綜合融合的系統性對抗。 戰鬥系統的整體功能對一場戰爭的成敗具有重大影響。 面對擁有系統優勢的敵人,僅靠單一的力量和單一的手段,是很難戰勝上位的。 能否削弱和剝奪強敵系統的作戰優勢,成為信息戰制勝制勝的關鍵環節。

近年來的幾次局部戰爭實踐證明,裝備劣勢的一方在存在“代溝”的情況下,通過研製和使用一些先進武器,並與其他武器裝備相結合,可以有效摧毀敵方作戰體系的重點目標。 ”在整體作戰能力上。 完全有可能造成強敵整體作戰失靈或癱瘓。 信息化強敵的作戰體系越大越精密,越容易暴露其弱點。 一旦被破壞,往往會造成嚴重的後果。 伊拉克戰爭期間,GPS精確制導武器在受到伊拉克軍隊的GPS干擾器干擾後,精度下降,令美軍震驚。 科索沃戰爭期間,南斯拉夫軍民使用了靈活多樣的計算機網絡戰,這也導致北約的計算機網絡系統多次遭到攻擊而癱瘓。

速決已成為打贏戰爭的基本要求,更加註重即時聯動,以弱勝強,形成製敵局部優勢

信息化戰場空間因素的貶值和時間因素價值的急劇上升導致信息化戰場的加速

戰鬥節奏,戰爭持續時間的縮短,戰爭速決能力的顯著增強。 雖然基本的作戰程序和信息流沒有發生根本性的變化,但發現目標、決策、下達命令和部隊行動的過程幾乎是同時實時進行的。 美軍著作《敬畏與恐懼——速克敵之道》在談到信息戰的速勝時指出:“從技術角度看,這裡的速度包括作戰計劃的製定、作戰 決心,部署和用兵。一切都需要部隊在最短的時間內迅速做出反應。” 在阿富汗戰爭中,美軍從“發現-定位-瞄準-攻擊-評估”殺傷鏈走完大約需要19分鐘,而在2003年的伊拉克戰爭中只用了10分鐘左右。

同時,各種信息化武器可以進行快速、致命的遠程精確打擊,使處於不利地位的一方形成看不見、依靠不了、抓不住、打不著的被動局面。 以換取戰場上的迴旋餘地; 通過長期局部集結優勢兵力殲滅敵人,積小胜為大勝,最終實現敵我力量的消長變得更加困難。 要注重發揮網絡聚合作用,選拔部署新型精銳力量,採用模塊化編組、積木組合、任務組合等兵力編組方式,多維度佈局、網絡鍊式作戰配置、使用鏈條 循環聯動、蛙跳式直接聯動、同步並聯、順序連接聯動等響應方式,實現網絡聚合高效、系統聯動、多維響應,獲取對敵局部兵力優勢。

技術因素在戰爭中越來越重要,弱者的勝利取決於人與技術的緊密結合

信息技術特別是顛覆性技術引發了武器裝備、組織結構、作戰方式的革命性變革,成為信息化戰爭變革的直接驅動力。 信息戰依托武器平台的組合和應用優勢,實現域聯動和跨域控制。 技術密集型兵種和新型作戰力量比重不斷提高。 自下而上的概念正面臨挑戰。 但信息化武器裝備對人員素質提出了更高的要求。 信息化武器裝備與高素質人才的有機結合,成為打贏戰爭的關鍵因素。 當弱勢一方面對強敵時,更需要在人的主觀能動性上多做一些事。 足夠的文章。

在人與武器組成的人機系統中,武器裝備的科技含量與日俱增,智能化趨勢越來越明顯。 指揮官的政治素養、理論素養、軍事素養和科技素養成為打贏信息戰的關鍵因素。 美國陸軍將軍蘇利文曾說過:“即使在信息時代,主導戰爭行動的仍然是人。技術、裝備和部隊結構的變化不會導致勇氣、無私、友情和領導力的消失。” “信息戰沒有改變人是決定戰爭勝負的因素。 武器裝備劣勢黨如何揚長避短,充分發揮人與科技的有效結合,彌補科技劣勢,成為以優裝備克敵制勝的關鍵因素。

智謀與謀略的較量成為戰爭取勝的重要方面,以弱勝強的戰略存在於主動作用中

弱軍欲勝強敵,單純比武無異於以卵擊石——毫無優勢可言; 單純的比拼裝備技術,無異於以己之長克敵之長——永遠被動; 與外援競爭,無異於捨棄了內因的決定作用——以弱求敗。 到底是什麼決定了下位者對上位者的影響? 依靠自覺的主動作用,依靠智慧和戰略競爭,這是實現由弱變強的根本因素,而

比上級高。

“以弱勝強”的主觀能動性表現在很多方面。 這裡的“勢”雖然與對方的實力強弱有一定的關係,但還是要看指揮官主觀能動性的高低。 計劃好者得勢,計劃不周者失勢。 二是積極謀劃系列戰略,積極搶占先機。 戰爭是雙方鬥智斗勇的激烈交鋒。 弱小的一方若能出高招,連續謀生,必能奪得先機。 三是積極打造局部優勢,積極確立全局勝利。 全球強不代表局部整體優勢,全球整體弱不代表局部整體劣勢。 集中力量形成局部優勢,終將打破優勢劣勢比較,為全面勝利奠定基礎。 四是因勢利導,積極創新調整戰術。 水無常,兵無常。 根據敵情變化,靈活創新和改變己方戰術,不斷改變敵我雙方形勢,逐步為己方由弱變強提供條件。

Source URL: http://www.mod.gov.cn/XXX/jmsd/4820576.html?big=fan