Category Archives: 新軍事變革

Chinese Military Considerations for the Effective Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare During Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍事在認知域作戰中有效運用證據進行輿論戰的思考

翻譯成現代英文:

 In the operational chain of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the collection and application of evidence is a fundamental link of great value, and is an important starting point for the preparation of cognitive domain construction at all levels. Combining the special background of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to study evidence, accurately grasp its characteristics and laws, continuously study strategies and usage, and improve the effective application of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is of great reference significance for our army to fight the proactive battle of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the future.

Keywords: cognitive domain; public opinion warfare; evidence

With the formation of the three major operational dimensions of the modern information battlefield, namely the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain, cognitive domain operations have received increasing attention in the context of future intelligent hybrid warfare. Cognitive domain operations refer to a type of operations that directly acts on the brain’s cognition through special means to influence its emotions, motivations, judgments and behaviors, and even achieve the purpose of controlling the brain. As a cognitive carrier, the brain may become the main battlefield of future wars, and the right to control the brain will soon become the key to cognitive domain operations and the highest level of war control. In this sense, cognitive domain operations are cognitive confrontation actions that influence the decision-making and behavior of the target audience by influencing their cognition in order to achieve the strategic goals of national security. In the meantime, evidence has become an important factor affecting cognition, and evidence game is a basic link that must be paid attention to in planning and implementing public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. According to the general consensus of the legal community, evidence refers to the basis for determining the facts of an event in accordance with the rules of litigation. The evidence of public opinion warfare referred to in this article is derived from this. It can be seen that only by grasping evidence more accurately and timely and using evidence more prudently and appropriately can we more effectively destroy the enemy’s cognition, consolidate our own cognition, and shape the cognition of neutral forces, and provide effective support for the comprehensive victory of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain.

1. A deep understanding of the three values ​​of evidence in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain is the prerequisite for the effective use of evidence

Information is the basic “ammunition” of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As one of the ammunition, evidence has great value and can be examined from the following three dimensions.

1. Evidence is an indispensable cognitive weapon in the public opinion war in the cognitive domain and has fighting value.

To examine the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is to explore the essence of fact-finding in public opinion warfare from the cognitive level. The cognitive domain takes the human brain as the main combat space. Evidence, as a trace left by a certain “past fact”, undoubtedly exists regardless of whether people can find it. However, some evidence is specially proposed and emphasized at certain times, and its purpose must be to prove certain facts, cater to certain views, and influence certain attitudes. In fact, it is the process of proving the subject’s own cognition shaping, viewpoint presentation and value dissemination. With the help of the cognitive justification theory of contemporary epistemic evidentialism, it is demonstrated that there is an unignorable logical connection between belief attitude and cognitive justification: the epistemological rationality of belief attitude depends on the quality of evidence possessed by the believer at that time. It can be said that the value of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is highly consistent with the weapon context of informationized cognitive warfare. High-quality evidence can influence cognition in a high-quality manner and is an indispensable and irreplaceable weapon of struggle. This “basis of proof” is not only a spear and a sharp sword to strike and change the enemy’s cognition and make cognitive attacks in the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, but also a solid shield to guide and consolidate one’s own cognition and make cognitive protection.

(II) Evidence is the basis for the value guidance of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has guiding value

Authenticity is the essential characteristic of facts, but not the essential characteristic of evidence. Evidence is not equivalent to objective facts. It can be said that there are no false facts, but there are false evidence. According to the rules of evidence law, facts proved by evidence are possible facts, not necessarily inevitable. The result it produces may be a “wrong” result, but this so-called “wrong” is still a legitimate result in legal procedures. To be precise, although it is wrong, it is legitimate. Based on this dialectical logic, the evidential facts recognized by public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain are not equivalent to objective facts in themselves, and there may be differences between the evidential facts and objective facts. Evidence may be true or false, or half true and half false. It does not pursue an absolutely true and correct result, but a “legitimate” result that can influence cognition. Through these cognitive elements presented in the form of evidence, because of the “legitimate” label, they are more persuasive and authoritative, and have the guiding value of influencing cognition and behavior.

(III) Evidence is the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and has winning value

As the basis for completing the special mission of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, the winning value of evidence should not be underestimated. First, the effective use of evidence can minimize the deviation in factual characterization of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. By sorting out and integrating evidence materials, making clear logical connections between scattered and multi-perspective evidence, constructing a chain of evidence that is favorable to us and pointing to clear factual characterization, we can accurately associate and interpret objective facts. Preventing cognitive bias and passive public opinion caused by unclear and inaccurate factual characterization can improve the accuracy and clarity of fact identification. Secondly, the effective use of evidence can minimize the strategic decision-making cost of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain. As the saying goes, words are not enough. Without the effective support of evidence, public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain will be separated from the objective basis for the generation of combat effectiveness and become a complete self-talk. Its strategic decision-making efficiency will inevitably decrease and the decision-making cost will inevitably soar. Third, the effective use of evidence can minimize the legal risk of public opinion in the cognitive domain. The main sources of legal risks in the cognitive domain of public opinion are the deviation of values, the lack of legitimacy, and the indifference of humanitarianism… In this regard, through scenario pre-setting, targeted evidence lists, active storage of evidence materials, and reasonable and rational construction of the use of evidence, we can achieve a certain degree of risk warning, risk avoidance, and risk resolution.

2. Accurately grasping the three major shifts of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain is the key to the effective use of evidence

Compared with the physical and information domains, evidence in the cognitive domain presents distinct characteristics in the public opinion war. In terms of the purpose of proof, it guarantees the realization of policy and strategic goals and serves the political intention of the public opinion war in the cognitive domain; in terms of the means of proof, truth and falsehood are often intertwined, creating many situations where the truth and falsehood are unclear; in terms of the content of proof, it must be able to clearly, conclusively and promptly prove the justice and legality of our actions and the meaninglessness and illegality of the enemy. It is mainly reflected in three changes.

1. Shifting from “restoring the truth” to “influencing cognition” and highlighting cognitive attributes with goal orientation

In the public opinion war under the cognitive domain, the fundamental purpose of evidence has shifted from “approaching the truth, restoring facts, and promoting objective scene reconstruction” to “influencing the cognition of the target audience and realizing national security interests”. From the initial objective basis for reflecting the battlefield situation to the powerful weapon of public opinion war under the cognitive domain, it is neither simply an objective fact to be proved nor just a material and means to prove facts. Evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain must have a clear position. Before proving, it is necessary to first clarify whose point of view is proved? Whose facts are proved? Whose interests are protected? It is absolutely impossible to be value-free without its basic position. Evidence serves political purposes and strategic intentions, guides the target audience to move towards the established cognitive goals, and accepts, identifies, and shapes the corresponding argumentation conclusions. Its collection and use are all determined by strategic determination, combat intentions, and battlefield situation. Whether it is true or false, good or bad, it must serve the overall strategic situation and needs to be judged in combination with combat effectiveness.

2. Shifting from “raw collection” to “scientific compilation” to assist cognitive decision-making with intelligent means

Cognition is the process of actively processing information, including three links: information input, processing and output. Corresponding to the evidence action of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain, it is to collect evidence, analyze and compile evidence, and make decisions and use evidence. It must be recognized that the public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain in the digital era is essentially a strategic action to manipulate information and shape cognition in the public opinion field, and the quality requirements of evidence materials are more stringent. If there is insufficient understanding of evidence, and evidence collection is simply regarded as taking photos and recording scenes, it is far from meeting the requirements of the new digital cognitive domain public opinion battlefield environment. It must be assisted by intelligent means and transformed into scientific evidence collection, analysis and compilation. Scientific evidence can, to a certain extent, get rid of human dependence on experience consciousness, eliminate the ambiguity, fragmentation and one-sidedness of human cognition under certain conditions, and assist cognitive domain combat commanders to make more accurate command decisions. In reality, there is indeed a phenomenon that the evidence is true, but the cognition generated is false. Only through a series of intelligent compilation work such as collection, classification, compilation, comparison, verification, reasoning, judgment, and integration of evidence information perceived across the entire domain, and using the scientific presentation of evidence to influence cognition in a targeted manner, can the process of evidence information fusion and command decision-making results be made corresponding and unified, making accurate decision-making the key to winning the war of public opinion in the cognitive domain.

3. Shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance” to prove quality and improve cognitive effectiveness

In the cognitive domain, it is far from enough to simply record objective phenomena as evidence in the public opinion war. It also needs to have special guidance and appeal in order to form a strong communication power and influence, aiming to stimulate certain emotions of the target audience and trigger specific cognition. It is necessary to shift from “objective presentation” to “emotional resonance”. Only by awakening the empathy experience of the target audience through sophisticated and appropriate evidence presentation can the expected proof effect be produced. For example, a bloody knife cannot directly support or oppose any proposition by itself. Unless someone perceives the knife, forms a feeling state, and associates it with other evidence, it can produce a proof effect. Therefore, the evidence of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be perceptible. Whether it is true evidence or false evidence, these evidences are not responsible for restoring the truth of the facts, nor are they used only to prove the legality or illegality of a certain action or behavior. They are intended to shock the target audience with thoughts and generate emotional waves, and play cognitive effects such as shaking the morale of the army, inspiring morale, gaining support from many people, inspiring sympathy, guiding public opinion, and breaking the enemy’s spirit, ensuring that the reason can be said and spread. Otherwise, no matter how good the proof logic is, its effectiveness will be greatly reduced due to the lack of communication and appeal, and it may even be ineffective in the fierce cognitive game.

3. Innovative evidence in the three ways of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is the path to effective use of evidence

In the public opinion war in the cognitive domain, evidence is sometimes an offensive weapon, sometimes a means of deterrence, and sometimes a tool for bargaining… How to cleverly deploy troops and gain the initiative on this battlefield? It is necessary to judge the situation, deeply study the techniques, present accurately, and implement them purposefully, systematically, and strategically. According to the logical order of evidence participation from weak to strong, the understanding of evidence from shallow to deep, and the evidence tactics from passive to active, there are three ways to use evidence: objective, directional, and strategic.

1. Attaching importance to the objective use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

Evidence has incomparable persuasiveness, and public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must attach importance to speaking with evidence. The most basic approach is to solidly promote the objective collection and use of evidence. First, it is necessary to discover and extract evidence from a large amount of materials to preliminarily solve the problem of evidence admissibility. Secondly, the evidence collected must withstand the test and judgment of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain to solve the problem of evidence availability. The basic logical line of evidence collection and use is: objectively obtain evidence materials – based on the acquired evidence materials, sort out, match, integrate, and analyze which existing evidence materials can prove objective facts that have an impact on cognition – solve the problem of “what can be proved”. If objective evidence collection is not done well, it is easy for the enemy to take it out of context, generalize, and even confuse right and wrong. On the one hand, through the objective presentation of original evidence, the illegality and provocation of the other party’s behavior are exposed, the legitimacy and justice of our actions are explained, the truth of the incident is intuitively and powerfully clarified, and the psychological defense of the other party is effectively disintegrated, the other party’s fighting will is shaken, and a strong psychological offensive and deterrence effect is formed; on the other hand, it effectively boosts our military morale, inspires fighting spirit, and enhances psychological protection in the cognitive battlefield. In short, we must strive to objectively make good use of “real evidence that can gain the initiative” and expose “false evidence in the hands of evidence dealers.”

2. Strengthening the guiding use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain

It is necessary to fully realize that the probative value of evidence needs to be realized through interpretation, which leaves sufficient space for guiding the collection and use of evidence in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. On the basis of the objective collection and use of evidence, through more proactive reverse thinking, another logical line of evidence collection and use can be found: first clarify what facts need to be proved in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain – then consider how to compile and interpret the existing evidence materials in a biased manner according to the demand orientation – solve the problem of “how to interpret and use the evidence materials”. Under the demand-oriented role, by actively presetting the facts to be proved, consciously do a good job of evidence association and effectiveness interpretation. It can be said that the process of compiling objective original evidence is the process of evidence interpretation. Scattered evidence materials, after being fully interpreted and compiled with subjective intentions, will form a closed evidence chain with directionality. These directional evidence products guide the audience from “seeing” evidence to “understanding” evidence, which is a weapon that can influence the generation of combat effectiveness in the public opinion war under the cognitive domain. In fact, the party with a stronger ability to interpret evidence selfishly is often more able to dominate the development of the battle.

3. Strategic Use of Evidence in Public Opinion Warfare under the Design Cognitive Domain

The ultimate target of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain is cognitive ability, and the dominant factor for winning the battle will naturally shift to cognition. Therefore, the high-skilled use of evidence in public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain must be achieved with the help of the systematic vision and strategic thinking of strategists. The logical line of evidence collection and use here is: consider evidence as an indispensable key element of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain and incorporate it into the overall strategic planning link – preset a list of key evidence according to different scenarios – actively create conditions to obtain key evidence – solve the problem of “how to achieve the strategic intention and combat determination of public opinion warfare in the cognitive domain from the evidence level”. Under special conditions, even through sophisticated arrangements, with active and proactive “creative design” to lay out the fog of evidence, prompt the enemy to reveal its shortcomings, expose its weaknesses, and make actions and reactions that are beneficial to us, forming a complete and conclusive chain of evidence, so as to achieve the purpose of releasing special information, propaganda against the enemy’s mind, political and diplomatic hints, etc., consume the enemy’s cognitive ability, disrupt its thinking, interfere with its judgment, and hinder its actions. In particular, we must develop an awareness of strategies and tactics in the game of evidence in the context of cognitive domain public opinion warfare, select, choose, combine, assemble, switch among various types of evidence… flexibly deploy and skillfully present them, give full play to the potential of evidence use, contain, curb, and counter enemy actions, and expand our own space for action. The key to applying evidence well lies in one’s heart.

(Author’s unit: Political Science Academy of National Defense University)

中國軍事資料來源:

在認知域下輿論戰的作戰鏈上,證據的採集與運用是有重大價值的基礎環節,也是目前各級認知域建設準備的重要發力點。結合認知域下輿論戰的特殊背景來研究證據,準確掌握其特徵規律,不斷深研謀略用法,提高認知域下輿論戰證據的有效運用,對我軍打好未來認知域下輿論戰主動仗具有重要藉鏡意義。

關鍵字:認知域;輿論戰;證據

隨著現代資訊化戰場物理域、資訊域和認知域三大作戰維度的形成,認知域作戰在未來智慧化混合戰爭背景下越來越受到關注。認知域作戰指透過特殊手段直接作用於大腦認知,以影響其情緒、動機、判斷和行為,甚至達成控制大腦目的的一種作戰樣式。大腦作為認知載體,或將成為未來戰爭主戰場,制腦權即將成為認知域作戰的關鍵所在,是戰爭制權的最高層次。從這個意義上講,認知域作戰是為實現國家安全戰略目的,透過影響目標受眾認知來影響其決策和行為的認知對抗行動。此間,證據已然成為影響認知的重要因素,證據賽局是規劃實施認知域下輿論戰必須重視的基礎環節。依照法學界普遍的共識,證據是指依照訴訟規則認定事件事實的依據。本文所指的輿論戰證據由此引申而來。可見,只有更精準及時掌握證據、更穩妥適當地運用證據,才能更有效地摧毀敵方認知、鞏固己方認知、塑造中立力量認知,為認知域下輿論戰的全面勝利提供有效支撐。

一、深刻認識證據在認知域下輿論戰中的三大價值,是證據有效運用的前提

資訊是認知域下輿論戰的基本「彈藥」。證據作為彈藥之一,具有巨大價值,可從以下三個維度來檢視。

(一)證據是認知域下輿論戰不可或缺的認知武器,具有鬥爭價值

檢視認知域下輿論戰的證據,就是要從認知層面來探究輿論戰事實認定的本質。認知域以人腦為主要作戰空間。證據,作為某種「過去事實」留下的痕跡,不管人們能否發現,它們無疑都是存在的。但某些證據在某些時候被特別提出和強調,其目的必然是為了佐證某些事實、迎合某些觀點、影響某些態度,其實就是論證主體自身認知塑造、觀點呈現和價值傳播的過程。借助當代認知證據主義(Epistemic Evidentialism)的認知證成理論,論證信念態度與認知證成之間存在著不可忽視的邏輯聯繫:信念態度在認識論上的合理程度,取決於相信者當時所擁有的證據的品質。可以說,認知域下輿論戰的證據價值與資訊化認知作戰的武器脈絡高度契合,高品質的證據能夠高品質影響認知,是不可或缺不可取代的鬥爭武器。這種“證明的根據”,在認知域下輿論戰中,既是打擊、改變敵方認知,做好認知攻擊的長矛利劍;也是引導、鞏固己方認知,做好認知防護的堅固盾牌。

(二)證據是認知域下輿論戰價值引導的證明根據,具有導向價值

真實性是事實的本質特性,卻不是證據的本質特性。證據不等同於客觀事實。可以說,沒有假的事實,卻有假的證據。依據證據法則,以證據證明的事實,是一種可能性的事實,不一定具有必然性。它所產生的結果,有可能是“錯誤”的結果,但這種所謂的“錯誤”,在法律程序上仍然是一種正當化的結果。準確地說,它雖然是錯的,但卻是正當的。基於這種辯證的邏輯,認知域下輿論戰認可的證據事實,本身並不等同於客觀事實,其證據事實與客觀事實之間可以存在差異。證據可能是真是假,也可能半真半假,它追求的並不是絕對真實正確的結果,而是一種能夠影響認知的「正當化」結果。透過這些以證據方式呈現出來的認知要素,因為有「正當化」標籤,更具說服力和權威性,具有影響認知和行為的導向價值。

(三)證據是認知域下輿論戰完成特殊使命的基礎,具有致勝價值

作為認知域下輿論戰完成特殊使命的基礎,證據的致勝價值不容小覷。首先,證據的有效運用能夠使認知域下輿論戰在事實定性上偏差最小化。透過對證據素材進行梳理整合,對零散的、多重視角下的證據做明確的邏輯性關聯,構設於我有利的證據鏈和指向明確的事實定性,藉此對客觀事實進行精確性關聯與有效性解讀。防止因事實定性不明、不準造成的認知偏差和輿論被動,能夠提高事實認定的準確性和清晰度。其次,證據的有效運用能使認知域下輿論戰的策略決策成本最小化。所謂口說無憑,脫離了證據的有效支撐,認知域下輿論戰就脫離了戰鬥力生成的客觀基礎,淪為徹頭徹尾的自說自話,其戰略決策效率必將降低,決策成本必將飆升。第三,證據的有效運用能夠使認知域輿論法理風險最小化。認知域輿論法理風險的主要來源是價值觀的背離、合法性的缺失、人道主義的漠視……對此,透過情境預設,有的放矢地列出證據清單,積極儲備證據素材,做好證據運用的合情合理化構建,就能夠實現一定程度的風險預警、風險規避和風險化解。

二、準確掌握證據在認知域下輿論戰中的三大轉向,是證據有效運用的關鍵

相對於物理域、資訊域環境下,證據在認知域下輿論戰呈現鮮明的個性特徵。在證明目的上,保障政略與戰略目標實現,服從服務於認知域下輿論戰的政治意圖;在證明手段上,往往真偽交織,製造許多真真假假、真偽不明的情況;在證明內容上,要能明晰、確鑿、及時地證明我方行動的正義、合法和敵人的無義、非法。主要體現在三個轉變。

(一)從“還原真相”轉向“影響認知”,以目標導向凸顯認知屬性

認知域下輿論戰,證據的根本目的從「接近真相、還原事實、促進客觀情境再現」轉向了「影響目標受眾認知,實現國家安全利益」。從最初反映戰場情況的客觀根據,到認知域下輿論戰的強大武器,它既不單純是用來證明的客觀事實,也不僅僅是用來證明事實的材料和手段。認知域下輿論戰的證據必然是帶有鮮明立場的。證明前先要明確證明誰的觀點?佐證誰的事實?維護誰的利益?絕不可能脫離其基本立場而價值無涉,證據以服務政治目的和戰略意圖為己任,引導目標受眾向既定認知目標邁進,接受、認同、塑造相應的論證結論。其採集與運用,都是由戰略決心、作戰意圖、戰場態勢來決定的,到底是真是假,是好是壞,都必須服從服務於戰略大局,需要結合作戰效果加以評判。

(二)從「原始採集」轉向“科學整編”,以智慧手段輔助認知決策

認知是對資訊進行積極加工的過程,包括資訊輸入、加工和輸出三個環節。對應到認知域下輿論戰的證據行動中,就是收取採集證據、研判整編證據和決策運用證據。必須體認到,數位時代認知域下輿論戰,實質是在輿論場上進行資訊處理與認知塑造的戰略行動,對證據素材的品質要求更嚴苛。如果對證據認識不足,把取證簡單看作為是拍照錄影、記錄現場,已經遠遠不能適應新的數位化認知域輿論戰場環境的要求了。必須以智慧手段為輔助,向科學的證據蒐集、研判整編轉化。科學的證據,可以在一定程度上擺脫人類對經驗意識的依賴,消除人在一定條件下認知的模糊性、零散性和片面性,輔助認知域作戰指揮員進行更精準的指揮決策。現實中確實存在證據為真,但產生的認知卻為假的現象。只有透過對全局感知的證據資訊進行收集、分類、彙編、對比、驗證、推理、判斷、整合等一系列智能整編工作,以證據的科學呈現來定向影響認知,才能將證據信息融合的過程和指揮決策結果相對應、統一,使精準決策成為認知域下輿論戰制勝的關鍵。

(三)從“客觀呈現”轉向“情感共振”,以證明品質提升認知效能

認知域下輿論戰證據,僅作為客觀現象的簡單記錄是遠遠不夠的,還需要具有特殊的引導性、感染力,以便形成較強的傳播力和影響力,意在激發目標受眾的某種情感、引發特定認知,要從「客觀呈現」轉向「情感共振」。只有透過精巧適度的證據呈現來喚醒目標受眾的同理心體驗,才能產生預期的證明效果。例如,一把帶血的刀,其本身並不能直接支持或反對任何命題,除非有人感知到了這把刀,形成了感覺狀態,並將其與其他證據相關聯,才能產生證明效力。所以,認知域下輿論戰的證據必須是要能夠感知的。無論是真證據或假證據,這些證據不以還原事實真相為己任,也並非僅用來證明某行動或行為的合法性或非法性,其意在使目標受眾受到思想衝擊、產生情感波瀾,起到如動搖軍心、激勵士氣、得道多助、激發同情、引導輿論、破敵銳氣等認知效果,確保有理說得出、說了傳得開。否則再好的證明邏輯也會因傳播力、感染力的缺失,導致證明效果大打折扣,甚至在激烈的認知賽局中無法產生效能。

三、創新證據在認知域下輿論戰的三種用法,是證據有效運用的路徑

認知域下輿論戰,證據有時是進攻的武器、有時是嚇阻的手段、有時是博弈的工具……如何巧妙地在這片沙場上排兵布陣、贏取主動?必須審時度勢、深研技法、精準呈現,有目的、有計畫、有策略、成系統地實施。依照證據參與度由弱到強、對證據認識由淺入深、證據戰法由被動到主動的邏輯順序,有客觀性、導向性、謀略性三種運用證據的方式。

(一)重視認知域下輿論戰證據的客觀性運用

證據有著不可比擬的說服力,認知域下輿論戰必須重視用證據說話。最基礎的做法是紮實推進證據的客觀性採集與運用。首先,需要在海量素材中發現並提取證據,初步解決證據可採性的問題。其次,採到的證據要經得起認知域下輿論戰實踐檢驗和評判,解決證據可用性的問題。基礎的證據採、用的邏輯線是:客觀取得證據素材—基於取得的證據素材,梳理、配對、整合,分析現有證據素材能夠證明哪些是對認知產生影響的客觀事實—解決「能夠證明什麼」的問題。客觀取證做不好,就容易被敵方斷章取義,以偏概全,甚至混淆是非。一方面,透過原始證據的客觀呈現,揭露對方行為的非法性、挑釁性,闡釋我方行動的合法性、正義性,直觀有力地澄清事件真相,有效瓦解對方心理防線、動搖對方戰鬥意志,形成強大的心理攻勢與嚇阻效能;另一方面,有效提振我方軍心士氣、激發戰鬥精神,增強認知戰場的心理防護。總之,要力求在客觀上用好“能夠贏取主動的真證據”,揭露“證據販子手裡的假證據”。

(二)加強認知域下輿論戰證據的導向運用

要充分認識到,證據的證明價值需要透過解讀來實現,這給認知域下輿論戰的取證、用證留下了充分的引導空間。在證據的客觀性採集與運用基礎上,透過更主動的逆向思考,可以發現另外一條證據採、用的邏輯線路:先釐清在認知域下輿論戰中需要證明哪些事實—再根據需求指向,考慮如何對既有證據材料進行傾向性整編和解讀—解決「如何闡釋、利用證據素材」的問題。在需求導向作用下,透過主動預設想要證明的事實,有意識做好證據關聯和有效性解讀。可以說,客觀性原始證據整編的過程就是證據闡釋解讀的過程。零散的證據素材,經過注入主觀意圖的充分解讀和整編組合,就會形成帶有指向性的閉合證據鏈。這些導向證據產品引導受眾從「看見」證據到「看懂」證據,就是能夠影響認知域下輿論戰戰鬥力生成的武器。事實上,對證據利己性解讀能力較強的一方,往往更能主導戰局發展。

(三)設計認知域下輿論戰證據的謀略性運用

認知域下輿論戰最終打擊的目標是認知能力,作戰制勝的主導要素會自然地向認知轉移。因此,證據在認知域下輿論戰的高技巧運用,必須藉助戰略家的系統眼光和謀略思維來實現。這裡證據採、用的邏輯線是:把證據視為認知域下輿論戰不可或缺的關鍵要素納入整體策略規劃環節—依據不同場景預設關鍵證據清單—主動製造條件來取得關鍵證據—解決「如何從證據層面實現認知域輿論戰的戰略意圖和作戰決心」的問題。在特殊條件下,甚至可以透過精巧的安排,以積極主動的「創意設計」佈設證據迷霧,促使敵方自揭其短,暴露弱點,做出於我有利的動作反應,形成完整確鑿的證據鏈條,以達成特殊訊息釋放、對敵攻心宣傳、政治外交暗示等目的,消耗敵方認知能力,打亂其思維、幹擾其判斷、阻礙其行動。特別要形成認知域輿論戰背景下的證據博弈謀略戰法意識,在各類證據間選擇、取捨、組合、拼搭、切換……靈活投放、巧妙呈現,充分發揮證據運用的潛能,牽制、遏止、反制敵方行動,拓展己方行動空間,可謂運用之妙,存乎一心。

(作者單位:國防大學政治學院)

中國軍事資料來源: http://www.81.cn/rmjz_203219/jsjz/2022nd3q_239302/bktg_239303/1016888.html

Chinese Military Considers Metaverse the New Frontier for Future Cognitive Warfare

中國軍方認為元宇宙是未來認知戰的新領域

現代英語翻譯:

●The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but also reacts to the real world.

●Parallel with the real world, reaction to the real world, and integration of multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse.

●The metaverse provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society.

● Strengthening the follow-up research on the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare and highlighting the exploration of the mechanism of the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare will help enrich and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but reacts to the real world. When virtual technologies such as digital, Internet, augmented reality and modern communications, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other technologies develop to a certain stage, the metaverse will emerge. Being parallel to the real world, reacting to the real world, and integrating multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural law of human understanding and transformation of the world. It directly acts on human thinking and cognition but is not bound by the essential attributes of thinking and cognition, which determines that it carries the operating laws of the real world, provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behavior, state and laws of complex systems in reality, and a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. At the same time, it is itself a complex cognitive body, so it has immeasurable cognitive warfare application value.

The basic mechanism of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

The difference between the metaverse and other technologies is that it builds a complete digital world. Its operation is not supported by a single or a few technologies, but by a complex high-tech complex. This complex is built by humans, is a product of cognition, and continues to develop and evolve with the development of human cognitive practice. Its cognitive application has a unique regular mechanism.

System enhancement mechanism. The digital world constructed by the metaverse is itself a highly developed cognitive world. In this special cognitive world, technology not only exists as an additional role such as support and guarantee, but also directly participates in the shaping of cognition itself as a basic element of cognition. In other words, the technology that constitutes the metaverse itself has a distinct cognitive background, which not only supports the operation of cognition but also realizes the self-construction, revolution and transcendence of cognition; it not only provides a series of necessary technical services, but also creates a holographic technical soil for human cognition to operate independently and fight independently. The effect of the metaverse on cognition is not one-dimensional, but full-dimensional; not single-line, but full-system; not independent, but immersive; not fragmentary, but continuous; not cyclical, but full-life process. How far the thinking cognition develops, how far the metaverse develops, and thus it can shape people’s thinking cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly. Therefore, humans have used high technology to create “Avatar”, a complex system combining man and machine, and have also created a life form on “Pandora” that can think independently, recognize itself, and think and act on its own. This life form, which was created by humans and is independent of humans, has achieved self-improvement and development in the new universe.

The mechanism of mutual construction of technology and knowledge. Unlike the one-way effect of individual technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks on thinking and cognition, the metaverse provides a space for mutual construction of technology and cognition, and influence and counter-influence. In this space, we can simulate, demonstrate, simulate, and verify the process and results of this two-way mutual construction and promotion, so as to understand cognition more accurately and efficiently, improve cognitive warfare methods, and directly engage in real cognitive confrontation. The metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenes, where cognitive warfare can be promoted efficiently, enhanced at a fast pace, and presented in a panoramic manner. It is reported that the US military uses virtual technology to verify the performance of new weapons and equipment, test the effectiveness of the use of new tactics, and conduct combat simulation training, relying on the deployment of forces, combat terrain, human characteristics, and other scenes similar to actual combat constructed in virtual spaces such as the metaverse. At the same time, more and more countries and armies are conducting direct cognitive attacks and defenses with their opponents through virtual spaces, confusing their minds, misleading their directions, and eroding their will.

Active reflection mechanism. As a virtual existence parallel to the real world, the metaverse is not a simple digital copy of the three-dimensional space, but has its own operating rules and can actively act on the real world. This active action is the focus of the cognitive application of the metaverse. The metaverse space game reflects the characteristics of cognitive warfare. The war results deduced in the metaverse through virtual simulation may directly affect the real world, extending to the conscious cognitive competition game through sensory touch, thereby winning the dominant position in cognitive warfare. In the cognitive perspective, the metaverse is both a new cognitive space and the main battlefield of cognition, as well as an extended domain of cognition and a new cognitive component. At present, the military of many countries uses sandbox operations, war games and even computer simulations to formulate and test strategies and tactics, revise the application of tactics, improve training methods, and improve weapons and equipment. This is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to reality. With the continuous development and integration of the metaverse technology group, cognitive confrontation will inevitably shift more and faster from the real world to a hybrid world combining virtuality and reality.

The basic characteristics of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Existence determines consciousness, and technology drives creation. The metaverse has many characteristics, such as parallelism with the real world, initiative in the real world, and comprehensiveness that integrates multiple technologies. These prominent characteristics determine the different characteristics and laws of its effects on thinking and cognition.

Cross-domain construction. The formation, development and evolution of cognition are rarely determined by a single factor, but are often the result of the combined effect of multiple factors. The metaverse originates from the real world and is presented in the virtual space. It has the characteristics of multi-domain interconnection that runs through the real and virtual worlds. As the saying goes, “a lot of gossip can melt gold, and accumulated criticism can destroy bones.” This cross-domain characteristic that spans different fields and opens up related spaces can best influence and shape people’s thinking and cognition from different angles. The most typical case is that game developers are increasingly focusing on using virtual stories based on historical facts and real feelings to attract and infect people. The United States has used this cross-domain shaped surreal “real” experience to spread values. At present, the most representative “metaverse” themed science fiction work is “Ready Player One” directed by Spielberg. The play focuses on depicting the era background of the birth of the “metaverse” and the huge contrast between the real status and virtual status of the protagonist. Through the plot and special effects shots, it delicately portrays the real sense of human participation, thereby spreading the American ideology, especially the values ​​of gaining wealth, status, love and friendship through “bloodless” struggle in the virtual world.

Integrated influence. The important fulcrums of cognitive warfare are strategy and technology. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the proportion of technology in cognitive warfare is increasing and its role is becoming more and more prominent. It can be said that cognitive warfare without scientific and technological support is cognitive warfare without power, and cognitive warfare with advanced technology is more likely to win. As a complex system integrating multiple cutting-edge technologies, the metaverse has a natural advantage in the use of cognitive warfare. Many people, including adults, are deeply trapped in the virtual world and indulge in online games. It is very important that the virtual space gives game operators a super-time and space experience and a sense of achievement. If martial arts novels are fairy tales for adults, then the metaverse, which can “do whatever you want”, creates a super fairy tale world, which has an immeasurable impact on people’s thinking, cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotional will, and behavior patterns.

Compromising influence. A big difference between the metaverse and other technical means is that it constructs a virtual world that originates from the real world but reacts to the real world. In this complex domain space, people’s thinking and cognition go back and forth between the real world and the virtual space, verify each other, repeatedly confirm, and constantly correct, thereby generating new thinking and cognition, and exerting a dynamic influence on both worlds. This two-way interactive compromising influence, on the one hand, is conducive to the formation and development of correct thinking and cognition, making the cognition of the real world more imaginative with the wings of the virtual world’s thoughts, and at the same time, it also makes the cognition of the virtual space find the material support of the real world and become more scientific. On the other hand, if it is not operated properly, it is likely to cause great safety hazards and ethical problems. In recent years, the U.S. military has relied on artificial intelligence and virtual technology to remotely control drones to attack opponents, which is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to the real world. This attack is far away from the tragic scene of face-to-face fighting, which greatly dilutes the drone operator’s awe of life and lowers the threshold for remotely controlling the opponent. At the same time, due to the imperfect reconnaissance and identification technology, incidents of accidental shooting, injury, and killing of civilians, friendly forces, and even their own troops often occur.

The basic style of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Metaverse cognitive warfare is based on reality and leads future development. It involves both the virtual and real worlds, penetrates multiple fields, covers multiple technologies, and has a variety of combat styles. There is great uncertainty, but it is not without rules. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are three basic styles.

Platform confrontation. In terms of its relationship with human thinking and cognition, the metaverse itself is a complex cognitive actor, a derivative of human thinking and cognition, and an important component and platform of cognitive warfare. When hostile countries and armies regard the metaverse as an important position for cognitive warfare, cognitive offensive and defensive operations between different camps within the metaverse exist in reality. On this platform, all technologies, resources and forces of the metaverse are integrated and operated with thinking and cognition as the center. Metaverse operations are prominently manifested as cognitive offensive and defensive operations aimed at disrupting, delaying, blocking, destroying and eliminating the existence and operation of the opponent’s metaverse. In this field, whoever has higher-end strategic planning, more flexible tactical application, more advanced technical force and more solid material support will be able to gain the initiative in metaverse cognitive warfare.

System attack. The metaverse is a cognitive system composed of a series of cutting-edge technologies, and systemicity is its inherent attribute and vitality guarantee. Advanced technologies such as digital foundation, efficient communication, blockchain identity authentication, holographic AR imaging, artificial intelligence, and high-performance Internet constitute a unified body with tight structure, functional coupling, and complete system. The components are indispensable for the formation and development of thinking cognition and offensive and defensive confrontation. It is difficult to imagine that the metaverse still has the possibility of existence without the support of advanced technology groups such as high-level digitization, high-quality communication, and high-speed computing. Using superior forces to force or use asymmetric tactics to attack and block the key nodes and technological operation chains of the opponent’s metaverse system, hinder its operation, suppress its functions, and destroy its existence is an important style and efficient path of metaverse cognitive warfare.

Divert the flow. An important value and significance of the existence and development of the metaverse lies in serving and supporting the related activities of the real world. Under normal circumstances, the metaverse can demonstrate, display, review and predict the related activities of the real world in a digital form. Once the communication between the virtual and real worlds is disturbed or the self-operation of the metaverse is disordered, it is easy to cause the situation reflected to be untrue, the information analyzed to be distorted, the conclusions derived to be invalid, and the suggestions provided to be wrong, causing the related activities of the real world to deviate. It is based on this that we can concentrate our efforts on inducing attacks on the internal operation of the opponent’s metaverse or the communication technology devices of the two worlds, and use extremely confusing and deceptive information and scenes to divert the flow, confuse their cognition, interfere with their judgment, and mislead their decision-making. Therefore, we should strengthen the tracking research on the cognitive warfare of the role of the metaverse, highlight the exploration of the cognitive warfare mechanism of the role of the metaverse, and strengthen and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute of the Academy of Military Sciences)

現代國語:

●元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。

●與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。

●元宇宙提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式,以及探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段。

●加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,將有助於豐富促進認知戰理論建構。

元宇宙本質是與現實世界平行存在但又反作用於現實世界的高度發展的虛擬世界。當數位、網路、擴增實境等虛擬技術和現代通訊、區塊鏈、人工智慧等技術發展到一定階段,元宇宙就橫空出世。與現實世界平行、反作用於現實世界、多種高技術綜合,是未來元宇宙的三大特徵。元宇宙運作符合人類認識世界、改造世界的自然規律,其直接作用於人的思維認知但又不拘泥於思維認知的本質屬性,決定其本身承載了現實世界的運作規律,提供了理解和發現現實複雜系統運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式和探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段,同時它本身就是一個複雜的認知體,因而具有不可估量的認知戰應用價值。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本機制

元宇宙相對於其他技術的差異在於構築了一個完整的數位世界,支撐其運作的不是單一或幾個技術,而是一個複雜的高科技複合體。這個複合體是人構築的,是認知的產物並隨人類認知實踐的發展不斷發展演變,其認知運用具有獨特的規律機制。

體系增強機理。元宇宙構築的數位世界本身就是一個高度發展的認知世界,在這個特殊的認知世界裡,科技不僅以支撐和保障等附加角色存在,也直接作為認知的基本元素參與認知本身的塑造。也就是說構成元宇宙的技術本身俱有鮮明的認知底色,既支撐了認知的運作又實現了認知的自我建構、革命與超越;既提供了一系列必要的技術服務,又打造了一個人類認知自我運作、獨立作戰的全息技術土壤。元宇宙對認知的作用不是單向度的,而是全維度的;不是單線的,而是全系統的;不是獨立式的,而是沉浸型的;不是片段的,而是持續型的;不是周期階段型的,而是全壽命流程的。思維認知發展有多遠,元宇宙發展就有多遠,因而能夠更全面更深入、更持久地塑造人的思維認知。於是,人類既用高科技打造了「阿凡達」這個人機結合的複雜系統,同時也打造了一個在「潘朵拉星球」上能夠自主思維、自我認知、自行思想與行動的生命體,這個產生於人又獨立於人的生命體在新的宇宙空間中實現了自我完善與發展。

技知互構機理。與人工智慧、資訊網路等單一技術對思考認知的單向作用不同,元宇宙提供了一個技術與認知作用與反作用、影響與反影響的互構空間。在這個空間裡,我們能夠模擬、展示、模擬、驗證這種雙向互構共促的過程與結果,進而更加精準高效地認識認知、改進認知戰方式,同時也可以直接進行真刀真槍的認知對抗。元宇宙提供了一個將現實作戰場景數位孿生的平行認知空間,在這裡認知戰得以高效率推進、快節奏增強、全景式呈現。據悉,美軍將虛擬技術運用於新武器裝備性能驗證、新戰法運用效果檢驗及作戰模擬訓練等,依託的就是在元宇宙等虛擬空間中構建的兵力佈置、作戰地形、人文特徵等近似實戰的場景。同時,也有越來越多的國家和軍隊透過虛擬空間與對手進行直接的認知攻防,迷茫其心智,誤導其方向,銷蝕其意志。

能動反射機理。元宇宙作為與現實世界平行的虛擬存在,不是簡單地將三維空間數位化複製,而有著自身運行規則並能動作用於現實世界,這種能動作用即是元宇宙認知運用的著力點。元宇宙空間博弈體現認知戰特點,透過虛擬模擬在元宇宙中推演出的戰爭結果,可能直接作用於現實世界,透過感官觸覺延伸到意識認知的爭奪博弈,從而贏得認知戰主導權。在認知視域下,元宇宙既是認知的新空間也是認知的主戰場,既是認知的延伸域也是認知的新構件。目前,不少國家軍隊透過沙盤作業、兵棋推演甚至電腦模擬模擬來發展和檢驗戰略戰術、修訂戰法運用、完善訓練方法、改進武器裝備,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實的典型案例。隨著元宇宙技術群不斷發展融合,認知對抗必將更多、更快由現實世界向虛實結合的混合世界發展轉進。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本特徵

存在決定意識,技術驅動創造。元宇宙具有與現實世界的平行性、對現實世界的能動性、融多種技術於一體的綜合性等諸多特徵。這些突出特徵,決定其作用於思考認知的不同特徵規律。

跨領域構塑。認知的形成發展演變很少由單一因素決定,往往是多種因素綜合作用的結果。元宇宙源自現實世界、呈現於虛擬空間,具有貫穿現實與虛擬的多域連結特徵。所謂“眾口鑠金,積毀銷骨”,這種跨越不同領域、打通關聯空間的跨域特質,最能從不同角度影響和塑造人的思維認知。最典型的案例就是遊戲開發商越來越注重用建立在歷史事實和現實感受基礎上的虛擬故事吸引人感染人。美國已將這種跨領域塑造的超現實「真實」體驗用於價值觀的傳播。目前最具代表性的「元宇宙」主題科幻作品是史匹柏導演的《頭號玩家》,該劇聚焦於描繪「元宇宙」誕生的時代背景及主角的現實地位與虛擬地位之間的巨大反差,透過故事情節和特效鏡頭細膩地刻畫人類的真實參與感,從而傳播在虛擬世界裡透過「不流血」的鬥爭也能獲得財富、地位、愛情和友誼的美式意識形態特別是價值觀。

融合式影響。認知戰運作依託的重要支點是謀略和技術,隨著科技的發展和社會的進步,技術之於認知戰構成所佔比重越來越大、作用越來越突出。可以說,缺乏科技支撐的認知戰是缺乏力量的認知戰,有先進科技加持的認知戰獲勝的可能性更大。元宇宙作為融多種前沿科技於一體的複雜系統,在認知戰運用上具有天然優勢。不少人包括成年人深陷虛擬世界、沉湎網路遊戲,很重要的是虛擬空間賦予遊戲操盤手的超時空體驗和成就快感。如果說武俠小說是成人的童話,那麼可以「隨心所欲」縱橫馳騁的元宇宙,則打造了一個超級童話世界,其對人的思維認知、價值追求、道德觀念、情感意志、行為模式等的影響不可限量。

折衝性浸染。元宇宙與其他技術手段的一個很大不同,在於其建構的是一個源自現實世界但又反作用於現實世界母體的虛擬世界。在這個複雜領域空間中,人的思維認知在現實世界與虛擬空間之間往來折衝、相互印證、反覆確認、不斷修正進而產生新的思考認知,並對兩個世界都產生施動性影響。這種雙向互動的折衝性浸染,一方面有利於正確思維認知的形成與發展,使現實世界的認知插上虛擬世界思想放飛的翅膀而更富想像力,同時也使虛擬空間的認知找到現實世界的物質支撐而更科學。另一方面如果操作不當,很可能產生極大的安全隱患和倫理問題。這些年美軍依賴人工智慧和虛擬技術遙控的無人機攻擊對手,就是虛擬世界反作用於現實世界的典型案例。這種攻擊因遠離面對面搏殺的慘烈現場,極大淡化了無人機操作員對生命的敬畏,降低了其遙控攻擊對手的門檻。同時,由於偵察辨識技術不完善,誤擊誤傷誤殺平民、友軍甚至自己軍隊的事時有發生。

元宇宙作用認知戰的基本樣式

元宇宙作用認知戰基於現實基礎、引領未來發展,涉及虛實兩界、貫通多個領域、涵蓋多種技術,作戰樣式多種多樣,有很大的不確定性,但並非無規律可循。綜合分析,基本樣式有以下三種。

平台對抗。元宇宙就其與人的思維認知的關係而言,本身就是一個複雜的認知行為體,是人類思維認知的衍生品,也是認知戰的重要構件和平台。當敵對國家和軍隊都將元宇宙視為認知戰的重要陣地時,元宇宙內部不同陣營間的認知攻防作戰就會現​​實存在。在這個平台上,元宇宙的一切技術、資源和力量都以思維認知為中心來整合運作。元宇宙作戰突顯為以擾亂、遲滯、阻擋、摧毀、消滅對手元宇宙存在和運作為目的的認知攻防作戰。在這個領域中,誰的戰略運籌更高端、戰術運用更靈活、技術力量更先進、物質支撐更堅實,誰就能取得元宇宙認知戰主動權。

體系破襲。元宇宙是由一系列前沿技術所構成的認知系統,而體系性則是其固有屬性和活力保證。數位基礎、高效通訊、區塊鏈身分認證、全像AR成像、人工智慧、高效能互聯網等先進科技,構成結構緊密、功能耦合、體系完整的統一體,其中構件對思維認知的形成發展與攻防對抗缺一不可。很難想像缺乏高階階數位化、高品質通聯、高速度計算等先進技術群的支撐,元宇宙還有存在的可能性。運用優勢力量高壓強製或以非對稱戰法攻擊和阻斷對手元宇宙體系的關鍵節點和科技運行鏈條,阻遏其運作、壓制其功能、摧毀其存在,是元宇宙認知戰的重要樣式和高效路徑。

曲嚮導流。元宇宙存在發展的一個重要價值和意義在於服務支持現實世界關聯活動。正常情況下,元宇宙能夠以數位形式全景展示、展示、複盤和預測現實世界的相關活動。一旦虛實兩個世界的通聯受擾受阻或元宇宙內部自運行失序,很容易導致其反映的情況失實、分析的信息失真、推導的結論失效、提供的建議失策,使現實世界的關聯活動跑偏走向。正是基於此,可集中力量對對手元宇宙內部運作或兩個世界的通聯技術裝置進行誘導攻擊,用極具迷惑性欺騙性的信息和場景曲嚮導流,迷茫其認知,幹擾其判斷,誤導其決策。因此,應加強元宇宙作用認知戰追蹤研究,突顯元宇宙作用認知戰機制探索,強化促進認知戰理論建構。

(作者單位:軍事科學院軍事政治工作研究院)

中國軍事資源:http://www.81.cn/jfjbmap/content/2022-03/03/content_310888.htm

Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations

中國軍隊把攻防當作認知域作戰作戰的重要著力點

現代英語翻譯:

Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.

現代國語:

價值攻防是從戰略層面進行認知域作戰的重要方式,通常價值攻防是透過幹預人的思維、信念、價值觀等,以達成瓦解敵方共識,摧毀敵方意志,進而掌控戰場綜合控制權的目的。精確掌握價值攻防的特性、機制、手段,對奪取未來認知域作戰優勢至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的特點

價值攻防是指透過引發個體或群體的深層邏輯思辨、價值判斷改變,完成其對相對穩定的認知結果的干預和影響,以期重構人的意志、思維、心理、情感等認知能力。價值攻防主要有以下幾個特點:

軟性對抗。傳統戰爭主要依賴暴力手段來削弱瓦解敵方的軍事能力,通常具有較強的戰爭強度。認知域作戰將不再侷限於攻城略地等硬性對抗,而更著重於圍繞價值陣地展開滲透與逆滲透、攻擊與反攻擊、控制與反控制,透過爭奪認知域對抗的主導權,進一步激發物理域和資訊域的作戰效能,從而奪取戰場主動,甚至達到不戰而屈人之兵的效果。在實踐中,價值攻防往往著眼於一個國家、民族的文化傳統、價值觀念和社會心理展開,最終達到對敵方意志摧毀、認知操縱、精神控制的目的。

全維度釋放。現代戰爭日益呈現總體性、多域性、全時性特徵。認知域作戰旨在透過幹預人的意識進而影響戰場效果,而意識的相對穩定決定了人的世界觀、信仰等價值觀念一般情況下往往較為穩固,因此價值攻防需要長期的、不間斷的、全息全維度地進行。從時間上看,價值攻防模糊了平戰邊界,常態在戰、隨時在戰,持續積累、逐步釋放作戰效能;從空間上看,價值攻防模糊了作戰前後方界限,在有形空間與無形空間全方位展開;從領域上看,價值攻防模糊了軍事與非軍事的界限,不僅發生在軍事領域,也存在於政治、經濟、外交、文化等領域,呈現出全局覆蓋的特徵。

科技賦能。認知域作戰是一項技術密集的複雜系統工程。人工智慧、腦科學、量子運算等新興技術手段全流程滲透,正在引發認知域作戰的迭代升級與深刻變革。智慧化工具從根本上增強了認知域作戰人員操縱對手思想和乾預對手思維的能力,人機混合作為作戰力量新手段新樣式將改變未來戰爭主體,自主對抗、雲腦制勝或成為主流攻防模式。近年來,北約推出的認知電子戰設備,旨在透過資訊攻防來改變對手價值認知及行為。科技發展也引發了認知革命,資訊的快速傳播進一步加速了大眾價值認知差異,認知孤島加劇了不同主體之間的價值鴻溝,智能化帶來的社會結構變遷則深刻改變著政治文化格局。從這點出發,在未來認知域作戰中,牽住科技創新的“牛鼻子”,掌握關鍵核心技術,對於奪取戰場主動至關重要。

價值攻防作用認知域的機理

價值攻防是認知域作戰的高階對抗,作用對象指向的是人的深層認知。意識是社會存在在大腦中的反映,對社會存在的調節、對大眾意識的引導和人腦作用的改變,都能強化或扭轉人的意識。要在攻防對抗中製勝對手,就要遵循思考認知規律,掌握價值攻防制勝機理。

衝擊價值「保護帶」。佔領價值制高點是開展價值攻防的邏輯起點。社會意識往往由相對穩定的核心價值觀念和外圍的輔助性理論所構成,經濟、政治、宗教、文化等各種理論都能被建構調適以用來保護核心價值觀念免受外來衝擊,因此也承受著其他價值觀的衝擊挑戰。在外軍看來,價值攻防就是要透過文化滲透、宗教衝突、戰略傳播等手段,配合物理域和資訊域的行動,不斷衝擊對手意識形態的「保護帶」領域。這往往需要抓住影響對手認知的價值觀念、政治態度、宗教信仰等,透過擾亂其社會群體心理,誘發價值困惑,動搖作戰意志,摧毀文化認同,甚至改變瓦解其原有的認知體系,從而灌輸或植入新的、於己有利的價值觀念,以實現作戰目的。

點燃衝突“引爆點”。認知域作戰涉及歷史文化、政治制度、民族情感、宗教信仰等多個範疇,戰爭主體也從單純軍事人員拓展到一般民眾。透過炒作話題爭端、公共事件,激發一般民眾的認知衝突,將成為認知領域作戰的重要手段。在近幾場局部衝突中,交戰各方透過有目的性的敘事點燃國家民族情緒,引發政治危機進而影響戰局已屢見不鮮。未來戰爭,一些國家利用熱點敏感事件引爆輿論,依托網路技術對一般民眾進行聚攏吸附、煽動動員、精準操控和誘導塑造,從而推動一般性衝突上升為信仰之爭、制度之爭、價值之爭將成為常態。

控制認知「斷裂面」。認知空間作為觀念層面的存在,由全部作戰個體的主觀認知空間疊加而成,是分化的、差異性的乃至衝突性的價值集合體。然而,意識形態具有「縫合」功能,透過認知塑造、話語建構,可以把斷裂的認知有效地「縫合」起來,把分散的價值凝聚起來,形成相對穩固的認知體系。二戰後法國對戰敗創傷曾進行過有效的認知“縫合”,其運用一整套獨立敘事邏輯,闡述戰爭如何為法國提供了“新的機會”,極大地凝聚了法國人民對政府的政治認同。在認知域作戰中開展價值陣地爭奪,應注重敵方內部的認知斷裂面,尋找敵我之間的認知連接點進行認知“縫合”,最大限度地團結各方力量,孤立瓦解敵人。

價值攻防作用認知域的主要手段

價值攻防使認知對抗從輿論、心理等層面拓展到思維空間,從軍事領域拓展到整體全局,從而實現了對敵方深層的政治認同的打擊。當前世界軍事強國都在加強戰略預置,瞄準目標主體、戰法手段的深刻變化,變革作戰思維,積極掌控認知域作戰的主動權。

以深層摧毀為目標。認知域作戰直接作用於人的大腦認知,相較於物理域作戰,更容易實現深層的戰略意圖。特別是人的語言層級、思維層級和文化層級的「高階認知」一旦被突破,有助於從戰略上扭轉戰場態勢,實現戰爭的政治目的。基於此,認知域作戰往往始於未戰,透過幹預對手內政外交,動搖其意識形態和價值觀基礎等;戰時則注重影響敵方戰爭決策、戰役指揮、戰鬥實施的價值判斷,打擊或削弱作戰人員的決策能力和抵抗意誌等。敵對各方都試圖做到“維繫自己的世界,同時增加對手的破壞性壓力”,以通過爭奪認知優勢實現決策優勢,進而取得行動優勢的目標。

以普通個體為中心。未來認知域作戰的主體將不再局限於軍事人員,廣義上講,可以進行資訊交流傳播的個體都可能成為參戰力量。相較於社會領域的精英,一般民眾更容易接受和傳播多元價值,其認知空間被操縱的機率更大。目前,網路媒體正成為社會領域資訊交流傳播的主要管道,透過有針對性的訊息引導、訊息傳遞,進而達到認知塑造的目的。外軍實踐證明,借助對一般個體的認知塑造,可以造成從下到上的遞進滲透和認知幹擾,使一般民眾與社會決策層之間的意識觀念產生背離,在關鍵行動中無法達成有效共識。

以持久作戰為形式。與物理域軍事鬥爭直接打擊摧毀「硬」目標不同,認知域作戰的潛在目標為人的認知,價值攻防指向的是改變作戰對象的觀念、信念、意志、情感等,往往需要潛移默化、步步為營。有效的認知進攻一般在作戰準備階段就發起,並貫穿戰爭始末,透過收集對手的認知態勢、決策習慣、思考模式等情況,有針對性地進行營造態勢、改變氛圍等行動。因此,認知域作戰更需要加強整體設計,尤其要注重協調多方力量,在輿論場營造、外交等多個陣地多點強化預置準備,進而形成整體作戰合力。

中國軍事資源:https://www.163.com/dy/article/HDOT8JIM0511DV4H888.html

Chinese Government Mandate for Military Cognitive Confrontation : Focus on Cognitive Domain Penetration Emphasizing Multi-domain Operations

中國政府對軍事認知對抗的要求:著重認知域滲透,強調多域作戰

現代英語翻譯:

Introduction

From the battlefield of “bows, horses, and swords” in the cold weapon era to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the industrial era, and then to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the information and intelligent era, one of the core logics of the evolution of war forms is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of combat effectiveness has become a war-winning mechanism with certain basic and decisive characteristics. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that infiltrates and affects multi-domain operations, as well as a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage victory.

The cognitive domain advantage supports the doubling of multi-domain combat effectiveness. In modern warfare, destroying the enemy and preserving oneself in the physical domain, fighting for the right to control land, sea, air, and space; blocking the enemy and connecting oneself in the information domain, fighting for the right to control the network and information, are all deeply related to the advantages and active position of the cognitive domain. In the game of system-to-system confrontation, once the opponent is suppressed and the initiative is taken in the cognitive domain, decision-making interference can be formed on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, so that the actions in the physical domain and information domain can obtain asymmetric benefits of “four ounces to move a thousand pounds”, thereby improving the input-output ratio of operations, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to global victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints of military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

The planning and implementation of multi-domain combat operations should pay attention to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex, and the elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, the impact is transmitted in multiple directions, and the risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain at the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion, social confidence, and international public opinion levels of both sides, thereby quickly, suddenly, and unexpectedly affecting the overall situation of the war, and even causing a “butterfly storm” that changes the internal and foreign affairs of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. In planning and implementing physical domain and information domain operations, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, heart, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemy annihilation, the temporary gains and losses of a city or a place, etc., are increasingly losing their significance as indicators for evaluating the direction of the war. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be evaluated and considered from the perspectives of the changes in international and domestic public cognition and the psychological impact on specific objects.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger multi-domain integration are becoming increasingly mature. The leapfrog development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has made the cognitive domain game confrontation rapidly develop from absolute “uncalculated” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculated” and “controllable”. The decision-making support of technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and the command and coordination of multi-dimensional forces, strengthens the consistency and coordination of forces, means and actions in politics, economy, diplomacy, culture and military, and brings the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains and controlling multiple domains with a focus on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs also provides realistic and feasible tactical options for precise strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as precise profiling, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, and the cross-integration and development of neuroscience, cognitive science and intelligent technology have made it convenient and efficient to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and realize integrated joint operations.

Cognitive domain penetration affects the winning path of multi-domain aggregation

Cognitive domain penetration affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly optimized in the cognitive domain, so as to continuously inject the emergence effect that is beneficial to oneself into the overall situation of the war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain convergence and victory are achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Deepen the understanding of multi-domain tasks with cognitive domain combat needs. Focusing on the overall national strategy, clarify the cognitive domain combat needs, and calculate and determine the combat tasks of each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidance targets of firepower strikes, the first targets and the last targets, the open targets and the hidden targets, the heavy targets and the light targets, etc., and focus on the effectiveness of destroying the morale of the combat opponent. Establish the goals, timing, and intensity of channel control, and focus on the deprivation of the combat opponent’s social mobilization capabilities, international communication capabilities, etc., and the support effectiveness for our information release and external propaganda. Establish the focus of intelligence information collection, and focus on the ability to grasp the combat opponent’s cognitive domain combat power, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense targets in fine granularity, and dynamically grasp the international and domestic public opinion and social trends.

Guide multi-domain action design with cognitive domain combat tasks. Focusing on the questions of “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat phases and different combat scenarios are subdivided, and based on this, the overall planning and detailed design of what actions to organize in each domain, what opportunities to seize, what forces to invest, what tactics to adopt, and how various actions are connected and crossed are carried out. The reason why the “Four-sided Chu Song” was able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the clever idea of ​​the captives singing Chu songs at night. In fact, different action timings, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different tactics selections, and even different action names convey very different information, and the intensity of cognitive impact generated is also significantly different. It requires careful consideration and scientific research and judgment to strive to maximize efficiency and optimize the effect. When loading cognitive attack and defense actions for fire strikes, network attack and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations and other actions, different imagination and creative thinking levels, different technical understanding, application and innovation, and the final effect achieved is even more different.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat actions. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normal operations require coordinated support from forces and firepower, such as precision strikes, seizing key areas, and demonstrating momentum. In special cases, coordinated support from strategic forces, such as the display of cutting-edge weapons and equipment and the organization of major exercises and drills, is also required. Throughout the entire operation, specific personnel and specific combat units, such as commanders speaking publicly and media embedded reports, are also required to coordinate support. Intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment are also indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources throughout the entire process, in real time, systematically, and accurately, so that military warfare, psychological warfare, and intellectual warfare can leverage each other’s strengths and support each other, forming a chess game and playing a combination of punches.

Focus on deepening the understanding of the concept of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multiple domains

Establishing the status of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multi-domain operations and promoting integrated linkage victory is a deep-level conceptual revolution, which requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. The cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations have put forward higher requirements for cross-departmental and cross-institutional collaboration and cooperation, and it is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command chain that supports the cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain combat responsibilities of each element of the joint combat command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in combat determination, task planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, we will establish and improve work systems and cooperation mechanisms at all levels such as strategy, campaign, and tactics, strengthen the mutual leverage and coordination of cognitive domain operations and physical domain and information domain operations, and give full consideration to the effective coordination of military forces and local relevant functional departments and professional forces, so that the comprehensive advantages can be transformed into the ability advantages of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain empowerment.

Improve the ability and quality of commanders. Foreign militaries believe that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “rapidly transforming active kinetic operations into more subtle cultural warfare” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” for this. In order to achieve cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage in war practice, it is necessary to first strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, strengthen the consciousness and initiative of forming cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain task planning and action design, and strengthen the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive offense and defense with force and firepower operations and information control and seizure as means and carriers. It is necessary to take multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration as an important content of strategic and campaign exercises and training, highlight the training of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to keep close to the actual requirements of winning political and military battles.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage operations are the sublimation and optimization of joint combat concepts and mechanisms, and especially require the support and guarantee of joint cultural construction that is adapted to them. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking patterns, break some traditional concept barriers, and focus on cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and linkage operations as the forefront of joint cultural construction to update concepts. On the other hand, we must strengthen the construction of a theoretical system for cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations, conduct in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

(Author’s unit: Political College of National Defense University)

現代國語大五:

引言

從冷兵器時代「弓馬騎射、刀兵相接」式戰場到工業化時代的陸、海、空三維戰場,再到資訊化智能化時代涵蓋物理、資訊、認知等多域的一體戰場,戰爭形態演進的核心邏輯之一即在於不斷邁入新域、整合多域。跨域聚合作戰效能,成為帶有某種基礎性和決定性的戰爭制勝機制。而在此過程中,認知域日益成為滲透影響多域作戰的新戰場,以及攸關戰爭成敗的新的製高點。

認知域成為奪控綜合製權的關鍵

在現代戰爭中,認知域成為奪控綜合製權的關鍵。戰爭實踐表明,認知域日益成為運籌現代戰爭、實現多域一體聯動制勝的重心所在。

認知域優勢支援實現多域作戰效能倍增。現代戰爭中,在物理域消滅敵人、保存自己,爭奪制陸、製海、制空、制天權;在資訊域阻斷敵人、連結自己,爭奪制網、制資訊權,都與認知域的優勢和主動地位有著極為深刻的關聯。在體系對體系的對壘博弈中,一旦在認知域壓制對手、掌握主動,就能對敵指揮鏈、殺傷鏈、保障鏈的關鍵節點形成決策幹擾,使得物理域信息域的行動獲得“四兩撥千斤”的非對稱收益,從而提高作戰的投入產出比,增強局部勝利導向全局勝利的速度和效率,減少軍事打擊在經濟社會生活領域所產生的後續掣肘。

規劃實施多域作戰行動應重視認知域作用發揮。現代戰爭具有顯著的複雜性,多域作戰之間的要素相互連結、影響多向傳遞、風險彼此疊加。多域作戰行動的每個動作甚至某個細節都會在敵我雙方的決策議題、軍心意志、民意關切、社會信心、國際輿論等層面引發認知域連鎖反應,由此迅速、突然、出乎預料地影響戰爭全局,甚至釀成改變交戰方內政外交時局乃至國家長期發展走勢的「蝴蝶風暴」。規劃實施物理域資訊域行動,既要著重在認知域塑造態勢、創造條件,又要按照奪控制腦、制心、制智權的需要,在認知域精準控制效能釋放的方向和大小。殲敵數字的動態變化、一城一地的一時得失等,本身越來越失去評價戰局走向的指標意義,軍事行動對於戰局的整體影響,越來越需要從其引發的國際國內公眾認知改變和對特定對象的心理影響等層次去評估考量。

認知域引發多域一體連動的物質和技術條件日漸成熟。資訊化智慧化認知感知技術的飛躍發展,使得認知域博弈對抗由絕對的「不可算」「不可控」快速地向相當程度上的「可算」「可控」發展。大數據、智慧演算法等技術的輔助決策,支撐了對不同作戰力量在認知域的深度融合、多維聚力的指揮協同,加強了政治、經濟、外交、文化、軍事等方面力量、手段和行動的一致性協調性,帶來了著眼於認知域設計多域、指揮多域、控制多域的可操作性。無人機、精確導引炸彈等武器裝備的廣泛使用,也為透過作戰行動點穴式精準打擊提供了現實可行的戰術方案選項。精準畫像、智慧分發、社群媒體直播、機器人寫作、虛擬實境等智慧化傳播技術的快速普及,神經科學、認知科學與智慧科技的交叉融合發展,使規劃實施「X+認知攻防」、實現一體聯動作戰變得便捷有效率。

認知域滲透影響多域的聚優制勝路徑

認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,不是簡單的“1+1”,而是將多域行動的能量在認知域即時聚優,從而將有利於己的湧現效應不斷注入戰爭全局。為此,需要加強對作戰規劃和實施路徑的創新設計,確保在認知域滲透影響下實現多域聚優制勝。

以認知域作戰需求加深多域任務理解。著眼國家戰略全局,明確認知域作戰需求,據此倒推測算和確定各域作戰任務。確立火力打擊的必打目標和避打目標、先打目標和後打目標、明打目標和暗打目標、重打目標和輕打目標等,要重點考慮對作戰對手軍心士氣的瓦解效能。確立頻道奪控的目標、時機、強度等,要重點考慮對作戰對手社會動員能力、國際傳播能力等的剝奪效能和對我訊息釋放、對外宣傳的支撐效能。確立情報資訊蒐集的重點,要重點考慮掌握作戰對手認知域作戰力量、細顆粒描述認知攻防目標對象特徵、動態掌握國際國內輿情和社會思潮動態等方面的能力。

以認知域作戰任務引導多域行動設計。圍繞著「對誰、產生何種認知影響、影響到何種程度」等問題,細分不同作戰階段、不同作戰場景下的認知域作戰任務,據此對各域組織哪些行動、抓住哪些戰機、投入哪些力量、採用何種戰法、各類行動如何銜接交叉等進行總體規劃與細節設計。四面楚歌之所以能瓦解強楚軍隊,首先是因為漢軍在軍事上完成了對楚軍的包圍,其次是運用了俘虜夜唱楚歌這一攻心巧思。事實上,不同的行動時機、不同的任務部隊、不同的武器裝備、不同的戰法選擇甚至不同的行動命名,傳遞的訊息都大相徑庭,生成的認知影響強度也有顯著區別,需要精心推敲、科學研判,力求效能最大化、效果最優化。在為火力打擊、網路攻防、電子對抗、防衛作戰、特種作戰等行動加載認知攻防動作時,不同的想像能力和創意思維水平,不同的技術理解力運用力創新力,最終實現的效果更是判若雲泥。

以認知域作戰行動組織多域協同保障。認知域作戰行動參與主體多元、行動樣式多樣,常態需要精確打擊、要地奪控、示形造勢等兵力火力協同保障,特殊時也需要亮相尖端武器裝備、組織重大演訓演練等戰略力量協同保障,在作戰全程還需要指揮官公開發聲、媒體嵌入報道等特定人員、特定作戰單元協同保障,情報資料、頻道頻寬、取證資訊、技術裝備方面的協同保障更是須臾不可或缺。為此,就要全程、即時、體系、精準調動多域力量和資源,使兵戰、心戰、智戰相互借勢、相互策應,形成一盤棋、打出組合拳。

注重深化認知域滲透影響多域的理念認識

確立認知域對多域行動的滲透影響地位、推動一體聯動制勝,是一場深層的理念革命,需要強化各項支撐性建設以創造條件、奠定基礎。

加強制度保障。以認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰,對跨部門、跨機構的協作聯合提出了更高要求,需要形成支撐支持認知域滲透影響多域、多域一體聯動的科學高效指揮鏈路。要明確聯合作戰指揮機構各要素的認知域作戰職責,優化重整指揮流程,確保將認知域的滲透影響作用體現在作戰決心、任務規劃、行動設計之中。圍繞跨域一體連動,在戰略、戰役、戰術等各個層面建立健全完善工作制度與協作機制,強化認知域作戰與物理域、資訊域作戰的相互借勢策應,充分考慮軍隊力量與地方相關職能部門以及專業力量的有效配合,使綜合優勢轉化為認知域滲透影響多域、賦能多域的能力優勢。

提升指揮官能力素養。外軍認為,現代戰爭中合格的指揮官需要善於“將主動的動能作戰快速轉變為更為微妙的文化戰爭”,對此應具有“獨一無二的直覺”和“全面領導能力”。在戰爭實踐中實現認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動,首先需要在各級指揮員頭腦中強化認知域作戰意識,強化形成以認知域滲透影響多域任務規劃和行動設計的自覺性主動性,強化提升以兵力火力行動和資訊制權奪控為手段載體實施高效能認知攻防的能力水準。要把認知域滲透影響下的多域統籌指揮作為戰略戰役演訓重要內容,突顯錘鍊指揮員著眼認知塑造來指揮多域、控制多域的能力,促進演訓場不斷貼近打贏政治軍事仗的現實要求。

推動聯合文化理念更新與完善。認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰是對聯合作戰理念和機制的昇華和優化,特別需要與之相適應的聯合文化建設支撐保障。一方面,要著力破除傳統戰爭思維定式影響,打破一些傳統觀念壁壘,把認知引導、多域一體、聯動作戰作為聯合文化建設的前沿重點抓好理念更新。另一方面,要加強認知域滲透影響多域一體聯動作戰的理論體系建設,深入展開認知域作戰制勝機理研究與戰法創新,以理論累積打牢思想根基。

(作者單位:國防大學政治學院)

2023-01-19 14:35 解放軍報 濮端華 李習文 肖飛

中國政府原文來源:

中國軍事史<2005>中華人民共和國的新軍事變革

Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation

繁體中文:

迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。

裁軍20萬

 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。


 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。

附:前九次裁軍資料

 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。

科技練兵

 2003年,中國軍隊和武警部隊圓滿完成了年度訓練任務,在理論創新、實戰演練、反恐訓練、人才培養、從嚴治訓等5個方面取得新成果。

 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。

 三、依據國家賦予軍隊反恐怖鬥爭新的軍事任務,擔負反恐怖任務的部隊紮實進行反恐怖軍事鬥爭研究和訓練實踐。

 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。

 五、軍隊堅持依法治訓,嚴格依綱施訓,大力進行崗位練兵活動,契約戰術演練品質提高,部隊正規化訓練水準不斷提高。

部隊改革

 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。

 6月中旬,經中央軍委批准,解放軍總政治部就認真貫徹中共中央通知精神,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮提出意見。

 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。

後勤支援

     軍隊後勤工作堅持以「三個代表」重要想法統攬各項建設,按照積極推進中國特色軍事變革的要求,加大改革創新力度,加快發展步伐,後勤建設取得顯著成績。

     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。

住房制度日趨完善

     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。

基層幹部住宅建設明顯加快

     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。

軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼

     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。

全軍99%以上的醫院實現資訊化管理

     根據解放軍總後勤部相關部門介紹,至2003年底,除駐西藏等偏遠地區的4所軍隊醫院外,全軍99%以上的醫院已實現資訊化管理,取得了顯著的效益。

     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。

首次派遣高級專家團赴駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊

     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。

武器裝備

     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.


    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.


    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.

Weaponry

    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.

中國政府資料來源:https://www.gov.cn/test/2005-06/28/content_10531.htm