Category Archives: 中國軍事認知戰

Chinese Military Considers Metaverse the New Frontier for Future Cognitive Warfare



●The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but also reacts to the real world.

●Parallel with the real world, reaction to the real world, and integration of multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse.

●The metaverse provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex real systems, as well as a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society.

● Strengthening the follow-up research on the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare and highlighting the exploration of the mechanism of the role of the metaverse in cognitive warfare will help enrich and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

The essence of the metaverse is a highly developed virtual world that exists in parallel with the real world but reacts to the real world. When virtual technologies such as digital, Internet, augmented reality and modern communications, blockchain, artificial intelligence and other technologies develop to a certain stage, the metaverse will emerge. Being parallel to the real world, reacting to the real world, and integrating multiple high technologies are the three major characteristics of the future metaverse. The operation of the metaverse conforms to the natural law of human understanding and transformation of the world. It directly acts on human thinking and cognition but is not bound by the essential attributes of thinking and cognition, which determines that it carries the operating laws of the real world, provides a new way of thinking to understand and discover the operating behavior, state and laws of complex systems in reality, and a new means to explore objective laws and transform nature and society. At the same time, it is itself a complex cognitive body, so it has immeasurable cognitive warfare application value.

The basic mechanism of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

The difference between the metaverse and other technologies is that it builds a complete digital world. Its operation is not supported by a single or a few technologies, but by a complex high-tech complex. This complex is built by humans, is a product of cognition, and continues to develop and evolve with the development of human cognitive practice. Its cognitive application has a unique regular mechanism.

System enhancement mechanism. The digital world constructed by the metaverse is itself a highly developed cognitive world. In this special cognitive world, technology not only exists as an additional role such as support and guarantee, but also directly participates in the shaping of cognition itself as a basic element of cognition. In other words, the technology that constitutes the metaverse itself has a distinct cognitive background, which not only supports the operation of cognition but also realizes the self-construction, revolution and transcendence of cognition; it not only provides a series of necessary technical services, but also creates a holographic technical soil for human cognition to operate independently and fight independently. The effect of the metaverse on cognition is not one-dimensional, but full-dimensional; not single-line, but full-system; not independent, but immersive; not fragmentary, but continuous; not cyclical, but full-life process. How far the thinking cognition develops, how far the metaverse develops, and thus it can shape people’s thinking cognition more comprehensively, deeply and lastingly. Therefore, humans have used high technology to create “Avatar”, a complex system combining man and machine, and have also created a life form on “Pandora” that can think independently, recognize itself, and think and act on its own. This life form, which was created by humans and is independent of humans, has achieved self-improvement and development in the new universe.

The mechanism of mutual construction of technology and knowledge. Unlike the one-way effect of individual technologies such as artificial intelligence and information networks on thinking and cognition, the metaverse provides a space for mutual construction of technology and cognition, and influence and counter-influence. In this space, we can simulate, demonstrate, simulate, and verify the process and results of this two-way mutual construction and promotion, so as to understand cognition more accurately and efficiently, improve cognitive warfare methods, and directly engage in real cognitive confrontation. The metaverse provides a parallel cognitive space that digitally twins real combat scenes, where cognitive warfare can be promoted efficiently, enhanced at a fast pace, and presented in a panoramic manner. It is reported that the US military uses virtual technology to verify the performance of new weapons and equipment, test the effectiveness of the use of new tactics, and conduct combat simulation training, relying on the deployment of forces, combat terrain, human characteristics, and other scenes similar to actual combat constructed in virtual spaces such as the metaverse. At the same time, more and more countries and armies are conducting direct cognitive attacks and defenses with their opponents through virtual spaces, confusing their minds, misleading their directions, and eroding their will.

Active reflection mechanism. As a virtual existence parallel to the real world, the metaverse is not a simple digital copy of the three-dimensional space, but has its own operating rules and can actively act on the real world. This active action is the focus of the cognitive application of the metaverse. The metaverse space game reflects the characteristics of cognitive warfare. The war results deduced in the metaverse through virtual simulation may directly affect the real world, extending to the conscious cognitive competition game through sensory touch, thereby winning the dominant position in cognitive warfare. In the cognitive perspective, the metaverse is both a new cognitive space and the main battlefield of cognition, as well as an extended domain of cognition and a new cognitive component. At present, the military of many countries uses sandbox operations, war games and even computer simulations to formulate and test strategies and tactics, revise the application of tactics, improve training methods, and improve weapons and equipment. This is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to reality. With the continuous development and integration of the metaverse technology group, cognitive confrontation will inevitably shift more and faster from the real world to a hybrid world combining virtuality and reality.

The basic characteristics of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Existence determines consciousness, and technology drives creation. The metaverse has many characteristics, such as parallelism with the real world, initiative in the real world, and comprehensiveness that integrates multiple technologies. These prominent characteristics determine the different characteristics and laws of its effects on thinking and cognition.

Cross-domain construction. The formation, development and evolution of cognition are rarely determined by a single factor, but are often the result of the combined effect of multiple factors. The metaverse originates from the real world and is presented in the virtual space. It has the characteristics of multi-domain interconnection that runs through the real and virtual worlds. As the saying goes, “a lot of gossip can melt gold, and accumulated criticism can destroy bones.” This cross-domain characteristic that spans different fields and opens up related spaces can best influence and shape people’s thinking and cognition from different angles. The most typical case is that game developers are increasingly focusing on using virtual stories based on historical facts and real feelings to attract and infect people. The United States has used this cross-domain shaped surreal “real” experience to spread values. At present, the most representative “metaverse” themed science fiction work is “Ready Player One” directed by Spielberg. The play focuses on depicting the era background of the birth of the “metaverse” and the huge contrast between the real status and virtual status of the protagonist. Through the plot and special effects shots, it delicately portrays the real sense of human participation, thereby spreading the American ideology, especially the values ​​of gaining wealth, status, love and friendship through “bloodless” struggle in the virtual world.

Integrated influence. The important fulcrums of cognitive warfare are strategy and technology. With the development of science and technology and the progress of society, the proportion of technology in cognitive warfare is increasing and its role is becoming more and more prominent. It can be said that cognitive warfare without scientific and technological support is cognitive warfare without power, and cognitive warfare with advanced technology is more likely to win. As a complex system integrating multiple cutting-edge technologies, the metaverse has a natural advantage in the use of cognitive warfare. Many people, including adults, are deeply trapped in the virtual world and indulge in online games. It is very important that the virtual space gives game operators a super-time and space experience and a sense of achievement. If martial arts novels are fairy tales for adults, then the metaverse, which can “do whatever you want”, creates a super fairy tale world, which has an immeasurable impact on people’s thinking, cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotional will, and behavior patterns.

Compromising influence. A big difference between the metaverse and other technical means is that it constructs a virtual world that originates from the real world but reacts to the real world. In this complex domain space, people’s thinking and cognition go back and forth between the real world and the virtual space, verify each other, repeatedly confirm, and constantly correct, thereby generating new thinking and cognition, and exerting a dynamic influence on both worlds. This two-way interactive compromising influence, on the one hand, is conducive to the formation and development of correct thinking and cognition, making the cognition of the real world more imaginative with the wings of the virtual world’s thoughts, and at the same time, it also makes the cognition of the virtual space find the material support of the real world and become more scientific. On the other hand, if it is not operated properly, it is likely to cause great safety hazards and ethical problems. In recent years, the U.S. military has relied on artificial intelligence and virtual technology to remotely control drones to attack opponents, which is a typical example of the virtual world reacting to the real world. This attack is far away from the tragic scene of face-to-face fighting, which greatly dilutes the drone operator’s awe of life and lowers the threshold for remotely controlling the opponent. At the same time, due to the imperfect reconnaissance and identification technology, incidents of accidental shooting, injury, and killing of civilians, friendly forces, and even their own troops often occur.

The basic style of cognitive warfare in the metaverse

Metaverse cognitive warfare is based on reality and leads future development. It involves both the virtual and real worlds, penetrates multiple fields, covers multiple technologies, and has a variety of combat styles. There is great uncertainty, but it is not without rules. Comprehensive analysis shows that there are three basic styles.

Platform confrontation. In terms of its relationship with human thinking and cognition, the metaverse itself is a complex cognitive actor, a derivative of human thinking and cognition, and an important component and platform of cognitive warfare. When hostile countries and armies regard the metaverse as an important position for cognitive warfare, cognitive offensive and defensive operations between different camps within the metaverse exist in reality. On this platform, all technologies, resources and forces of the metaverse are integrated and operated with thinking and cognition as the center. Metaverse operations are prominently manifested as cognitive offensive and defensive operations aimed at disrupting, delaying, blocking, destroying and eliminating the existence and operation of the opponent’s metaverse. In this field, whoever has higher-end strategic planning, more flexible tactical application, more advanced technical force and more solid material support will be able to gain the initiative in metaverse cognitive warfare.

System attack. The metaverse is a cognitive system composed of a series of cutting-edge technologies, and systemicity is its inherent attribute and vitality guarantee. Advanced technologies such as digital foundation, efficient communication, blockchain identity authentication, holographic AR imaging, artificial intelligence, and high-performance Internet constitute a unified body with tight structure, functional coupling, and complete system. The components are indispensable for the formation and development of thinking cognition and offensive and defensive confrontation. It is difficult to imagine that the metaverse still has the possibility of existence without the support of advanced technology groups such as high-level digitization, high-quality communication, and high-speed computing. Using superior forces to force or use asymmetric tactics to attack and block the key nodes and technological operation chains of the opponent’s metaverse system, hinder its operation, suppress its functions, and destroy its existence is an important style and efficient path of metaverse cognitive warfare.

Divert the flow. An important value and significance of the existence and development of the metaverse lies in serving and supporting the related activities of the real world. Under normal circumstances, the metaverse can demonstrate, display, review and predict the related activities of the real world in a digital form. Once the communication between the virtual and real worlds is disturbed or the self-operation of the metaverse is disordered, it is easy to cause the situation reflected to be untrue, the information analyzed to be distorted, the conclusions derived to be invalid, and the suggestions provided to be wrong, causing the related activities of the real world to deviate. It is based on this that we can concentrate our efforts on inducing attacks on the internal operation of the opponent’s metaverse or the communication technology devices of the two worlds, and use extremely confusing and deceptive information and scenes to divert the flow, confuse their cognition, interfere with their judgment, and mislead their decision-making. Therefore, we should strengthen the tracking research on the cognitive warfare of the role of the metaverse, highlight the exploration of the cognitive warfare mechanism of the role of the metaverse, and strengthen and promote the construction of cognitive warfare theory.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute of the Academy of Military Sciences)
























Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations



Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.



















Chinese Military to Emphasize Technical Cognition as The Foundation for Victory



Never before has scientific and technological power had such a profound impact on the future of the military and the outcome of wars, and never before has it been such a powerful support for a strong military to win wars.

The so-called technological cognition is the ability to recognize and grasp the performance, value and development trend of technology with the goal of promoting scientific and technological innovation and application, which is prominently reflected in the sensitivity, understanding, discrimination and control of technology. In today’s era, science and technology are becoming the core combat power of modern warfare, and the technological content has become a key indicator for measuring the quality of military construction. Faced with unprecedented opportunities and challenges, if technological cognition cannot adapt to the new requirements of the development of the times, it will be difficult to inject momentum into the generation and improvement of combat power, and it will be difficult to win the important weight to win the future.

Improving technical cognition is not only a “question to be answered” for professional and technical personnel, but also a “must-choose question” for every officer and soldier. From the perspective of the realization process of technical value and effectiveness, if the invention and creation of technology is “primary value”, then the effective use of technology is “secondary value”. Accelerating the pace of scientific and technological innovation depends on the broadening of the knowledge horizons of professional and technical personnel, keeping a close eye on the forefront of science and technology, and constantly making new breakthroughs in the research and development of forward-looking, strategic, and disruptive technologies. With more new inventions and creations in the field of military science and technology, we can increase our contribution to the construction of the army and the growth of combat effectiveness, and actively seize the commanding heights of military technology competition. The transformation and application of scientific and technological achievements depends on the officers and soldiers, especially the leading cadres at all levels, to speed up the updating of knowledge and improve their scientific and technological literacy, so as to enhance and tap the application value of technology with scientific cognition and thorough understanding of science and technology, ensure that scientific and technological achievements are transformed into real combat effectiveness, and improve the ability to prepare for war at a higher starting point and level. Obviously, from scientific and technological innovation to scientific and technological application, it is a “value-added” process that is closely connected, mutually promoted, and focused. It is a process of seeking to win through science and technology and releasing the combat effectiveness of technology to a greater extent. Technical cognition is the internal support that runs through it and demonstrates people’s active role and creative talent. We must take improving the scientific and technological literacy of officers and soldiers as a basic task. We must have political and military minds as well as scientific and technological minds. Scientific and technological literacy and scientific and technological thinking are based on and built on technological cognition. The higher the technological cognition, the stronger the innovation and creativity in the use of science and technology, and the greater the effect of promoting the growth of combat effectiveness.

Improving technical cognition is not only the key to mastering modern weapons and equipment, but also the move to accelerate the innovation of military theory and combat theory. With the rapid development of military technology, especially emerging technologies such as information, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned, the high-tech content of weapons and equipment is getting higher and higher, the replacement cycle is getting shorter and shorter, and the correlation and coupling between various types of weapons and equipment are getting stronger and stronger, and the system application characteristics are becoming more and more prominent. From a realistic perspective, insufficient technical cognition is a prominent shortcoming that restricts the mastery and use of weapons and equipment, and there is even a phenomenon that troops cannot “play” without the accompanying support of manufacturer technical personnel in exercises. Facing the new development trend of weapons and equipment, from mastering skills to exploring potential, from enhancing the effectiveness of systematic application to improving the ability of actual combat application, it is inseparable from improving technical cognition, thereby realizing the organic combination of people and weapons and equipment and obtaining a new “growth pole” in combat capability. It should also be noted that modern technology is penetrating into the military field with unprecedented strength, depth and breadth. The new military technology form accelerates the reconstruction of military theory and military system form, bringing about the deep interaction and deep integration of military technology and military theory, making technical cognition the “catalyst” of new combat theory. Practice has shown that without a thorough understanding of aviation technology, there will be no air combat theories such as air superiority; without a thorough understanding of information technology, there will be no information combat theories such as information superiority; without a thorough understanding of space technology, there will be no space combat theories such as “high frontier”. Similarly, if there is a lack of thorough understanding of the new features of artificial intelligence such as data-driven, human-machine collaboration, cross-border integration, and autonomous control, it will be impossible to create new theories and tactics such as intelligent combat and unmanned combat. Only with a technological cognitive advantage can we truly transform the military technology advantage into a theoretical leadership advantage and even a battlefield victory advantage.

Improving technology awareness is not only a way to distinguish the authenticity of technology and guard against technology fraud, but also a need to keenly perceive the development trend of military science and technology. It is worth being highly vigilant that Western media often promote and hype some so-called new technologies and new concepts, playing specious tricks. If you lack the ability to discern, cannot distinguish the true from the false, and believe everything you hear, you will inevitably fall into the technology trap set by others and become passive. Back then, the Soviet Union was led by the nose by the “Star Wars Plan” of the United States, and was confused by the Americans’ hype and deliberate fraud, which ultimately affected the entire military combat capability construction and the lesson was extremely painful. In the face of new opportunities and challenges brought about by the new round of scientific and technological revolution, we must maintain a high degree of technical acumen and insight, recognize the dominant direction and characteristics of the times in the development of military science and technology, and accurately grasp the trend of weapons and equipment developing in the direction of long-range precision, intelligence, stealth, and unmanned. The continuous emergence of disruptive technologies is profoundly changing the mode of generating combat power. Trend: new breakthroughs in high-tech will accelerate the development of new combat forces. Those military technologies that “change the rules of the game” will accelerate the evolution of war forms and combat methods. The integration of military technology and civilian technology is becoming deeper and deeper. We will strive to plan according to the situation, act according to the situation, and follow the trend, and make greater efforts to promote the development of the military through science and technology. Only by deepening the research on war and combat issues from the perspective of technological change, recognizing and grasping the characteristics, laws and winning mechanisms of informationized warfare from the influence of scientific and technological factors, and seeking breakthroughs in the innovation of combat theories and tactics by tapping into the effectiveness of technology, can we promote the precise and effective implementation of the strategy of developing the military through science and technology, lay a solid foundation and increase confidence for our military to remain invincible in future wars.

國語 中文:







Chinese Military Strategy for Identifying Key Targets During Cognitive Confrontation Campaign Planning



Cognitive domain combat targets refer to the specific role of cognitive domain combat. In cognitive domain combat, compared with combat targets, combat targets solve the problem of precise aiming, that is, to let commanders understand and grasp the precise coordinates of what to hit, where to hit, and to what extent. Only by deeply understanding the connotation and characteristics of cognitive domain combat targets can we accurately find key targets through appearances and thus seize the initiative in future combat.

Cognitive focus that influences behavioral choices

The cognitive focus is the “convergence point” of the cognitive subject’s multi-dimensional thinking cognition in war activities. As a dynamic factor, it affects the cognitive process and behavioral results. Generally speaking, the cognitive factors that affect individual behavioral choices in war activities mainly include political attribute cognition, interest-related cognition, group belonging cognition, risk loss cognition, emotional orientation cognition, war morality cognition, etc. For war activities and groups or individuals who pay attention to war activities, the cognitive focus that affects their attitudes, tendencies and behaviors is not the same. Judging from the local wars and regional conflicts in the world in recent years, there are obvious differences in the cognitive focus of different groups or individuals. Politicians pay more attention to political attribute cognition and interest-related cognition, those who may intervene in the war pay more attention to risk loss cognition and interest-related cognition, ordinary people pay more attention to interest-related cognition and emotional orientation cognition, and people in other countries outside the region generally pay more attention to war morality cognition and group belonging cognition because their own interests will not be directly lost. In combat practice, foreign militaries are good at targeting the cognitive focus of different objects, accurately planning topics, and pushing related information to induce specific behavioral choices. For example, before the Gulf War, the Hill Norton public relations company fabricated the non-existent “incubator incident” by using Naira, the daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States, as a “witness” to show the “inhumanity” of the Iraqi army, induce the American people’s ethical and moral cognition, and then support the US government to send troops to participate in the Gulf War.

Style preferences that constrain command decisions

Cognitive style directly affects decision-making behavior preferences. Cognitive style refers to the typical way of individual cognition, memory, thinking, and problem solving. According to the preference of command decision-making style, commanders can be divided into calm cognitive style and impulsive cognitive style. Commanders with calm cognitive style pay attention to accuracy but not speed in the decision-making process. The quality of the decisions they make is high, but they are prone to fall into the comparison and analysis of various intelligence information sources and overemphasize the accuracy and objectivity of information analysis. Commanders with calm cognitive style are often easily disturbed by the diverse and diverse information stimulation in battlefield cognitive offensive and defensive operations, and their mental energy is easily disturbed and dissipated, which may lead to missed opportunities. Commanders with impulsive cognitive style pay attention to speed but not accuracy. The decision-making reaction speed is fast, but the quality is not high. They are easily emotional and prone to conflict with team members. Commanders with impulsive cognitive style are also prone to over-interpret the ambiguous external security environment, and constantly look for “evidence” to strengthen and verify individual erroneous thinking, narrowing individual attention and leading to command decision-making deviations. In combat practice, foreign armies pay more attention to analyzing the decision-making style of commanders of combat opponents, and then select specific information to influence them psychologically. For example, during the U.S. invasion of Panama, when besieging the hiding place of Panamanian President Noriega, the U.S. military repeatedly played rock and heavy metal music, and used language that stimulated and humiliated Noriega to carry out cognitive and psychological attacks on him, causing Noriega to gradually collapse physically and mentally.

Backdoor channel to control thinking and cognition

Once a computer is infected with a “Trojan” virus, it will send a connection request to the hacker control terminal at a specific time. Once the connection is successful, a backdoor channel will be formed, allowing the hacker to control the computer at will. Similarly, the human brain also has a cognitive “backdoor” and may be controlled by others. Cognitive psychologists have found that by sending information to the target object’s audio-visual perception channel, carefully pushing information content that the target object recognizes and accepts, catering to the target object’s existing experience memory, conforming to the target object’s thinking habits, and stimulating the target object’s emotional pain points, it is possible to control and interfere with the target object’s cognition and promote its instinctive emotional and behavioral reactions. With the support of cutting-edge cognitive science and technology, using the two modes of automatic start and control processing of brain information processing, the target object can easily fall into a “cognitive cocoon”. In cognitive domain operations, by immersing individuals in massive amounts of artificially constructed information, and continuously providing them with “evidence” to prove that their judgments and cognitions are “correct”. Over time, the individual’s cognitive vision becomes smaller and smaller, and the ability to perceive the external environment gradually decreases. Eventually, they will not be able to see the truth of the matter and will be immersed in the “cognitive cocoon” and unable to extricate themselves. When foreign militaries conduct operations in the cognitive domain, they often target their opponents’ cognitive biases on a certain issue and continuously push situational information and intelligence information through various channels to support their opponents’ so-called “correct cognition,” causing errors and deviations in their opponents’ command decisions.

Sensory stimuli that induce attention

Effective perceptual stimulation is the first prerequisite for attracting the attention of the target object. The human brain will perceive and react to stimuli within the perceptual range. Cognitive psychology experimental research has found that information such as dynamic, dangerous, relevant, survival safety, and contrast between the past and the present is more likely to attract the attention of the human brain. In the era of intelligence, the psychological cognitive process of the target object often follows the law of “attracting attention, cultivating interest, actively searching, strengthening memory, actively sharing, and influencing others”. In combat, foreign troops often use exclusive revelations, intelligence leaks, authoritative disclosures, on-site connections, and other methods, and cleverly use exaggeration, contrast, association, metaphor, suspense, and contrast to push information that subverts common sense, has cognitive conflicts, and has strong contrasts to attract the attention of the target object. For example, the “Lin Qi rescue incident” created by the US military in the Iraq War and the “Gaddafi Golden Toilet” in the Libyan War mostly choose stories familiar to the audience as the blueprint, hiding the purpose and embedding the viewpoint in the story plot, which attracted the attention of the general public. In addition, the human brain will also process stimuli outside the perceptual range. In recent years, the military of Western countries has attached great importance to the research of subthreshold information stimulation technology, and has developed subthreshold visual information implantation technology, subthreshold auditory information implantation technology, subthreshold information activation technology, subconscious sound manipulation technology of the nervous system, etc., continuously expanding the application scope of neurocognitive science and technology in the military field.

Meta-value concepts that give rise to cognitive resonance

In cognitive theory, cognitive resonance refers to information that can cross the cognitive gap between the two parties and trigger the ideological and psychological resonance and cognitive empathy of both parties, thereby achieving the deconstruction and reconstruction of the other party’s cognitive system. In cognitive domain warfare, this cognitive energy-gathering effect is not a simple concentration of power, but an internal accumulation of system synergy. Under the diffusion and dissemination of modern information media, this cognitive resonance effect can spread rapidly to all parts of the world in a short period of time, and produce secondary indirect psychological effects or more levels of derivative psychological effects, presenting a state of cumulative iteration. Once it exceeds the psychological critical point, it will present a state of psychological energy explosion, thereby changing the direction or outcome of the event. The targets that can induce this cognitive resonance are mainly value beliefs, moral ethics, common interests, etc. In war, if one party touches or violates human meta-values, common emotional orientation, etc., it is very easy to induce collective condemnation, bear the accusation of violating human morality, and fall into a moral trough. For example, a photo during the Vietnam War shows a group of Vietnamese children, especially a 9-year-old girl, running naked on the road because of burns after being attacked by US napalm bombs. In 1972, this photo caused a huge sensation after it was published, setting off an anti-war wave in the United States and even the world, and accelerating the end of the Vietnam War.

Cognitive gaps in a split cognitive system

In daily life, seemingly hard steel is very easy to break due to the brittleness of the material due to factors such as low temperature environment, material defects, and stress concentration. The same is true for the cognitive system. Cognitive gaps refer to the cracks, pain points, weaknesses, and sensitive points in the cognitive thinking of the target object, which are mainly manifested as the individual’s worry that he is unable to cope with or adapt to the environment, and under the influence of anxiety, cognitive vulnerability is formed. The experience of security threats, the looseness of group structure, the confusion of beliefs and ideals, and the loss of voice of authoritative media will all cause cognitive conflicts and tearing of the target object. In cognitive domain operations, sometimes seemingly powerful combat opponents hide a large number of thinking cracks and psychological weaknesses behind them. Often a news event can shake the cognitive framework of the combat opponent and puncture the cognitive bubble. In addition, this cognitive psychological conflict will also cause moral damage and psychological trauma to individuals. In recent years, the U.S. and Western countries’ troops carrying out overseas missions have faced “enemies disguised as civilians” that appear anytime and anywhere, and their uncertainty about the battlefield environment has continued to increase. They generally lack the perception of the significance of combat, and are filled with guilt and sin. A large number of soldiers developed post-traumatic stress disorder, and the number of self-harm, post-war suicides and crimes on the battlefield increased sharply. The number of veterans who committed suicide even exceeded the number of deaths on the battlefield. (Author’s unit: Political College of National Defense University)

Source: PLA Daily, National Defense University














日常生活中,看似堅硬的鋼鐵,受低溫環境、材質缺陷、應力集中等因素影響,非常容易因材料脆性而斷裂,認知體係也是如此。認知縫隙是指目標對象認知思考中的裂縫、痛點、弱點與敏感點,主要表現為個體擔心自己沒有能力應對或無法適應環境的想法,並在焦慮情緒的作用下,構成認知脆弱性。安全威脅的經驗、團體結構的鬆散、信念理想的迷惘、權威媒介的失聲等,都會使得目標物出現認知上的衝突與撕裂。認知域作戰中,有時看似強大的作戰對手,背後卻潛藏著大量的思維裂隙與心理弱點,往往一個新聞事件就能動搖作戰對手的認知框架,刺破認知泡沫。此外,這種認知心理衝突也會使個體產生道德損傷和心理創傷。近年來,執行海外任務的美西方國家軍隊面對隨時隨地出現的“偽裝成平民的敵人”,對戰場環境的不確定感不斷提升,普遍缺乏作戰意義感知,進而內心充滿內疚與罪惡。大量士兵產生戰爭創傷後壓力障礙,戰場自殘自傷、戰後自殺與犯罪人數激增,參戰老兵自殺人數甚至超過戰場死亡人數。 (作者單位:國防大學政治學院)



Chinese Government Mandate for Military Cognitive Confrontation : Focus on Cognitive Domain Penetration Emphasizing Multi-domain Operations




From the battlefield of “bows, horses, and swords” in the cold weapon era to the three-dimensional battlefield of land, sea, and air in the industrial era, and then to the integrated battlefield covering multiple domains such as physics, information, and cognition in the information and intelligent era, one of the core logics of the evolution of war forms is to continuously enter new domains and integrate multiple domains. Cross-domain aggregation of combat effectiveness has become a war-winning mechanism with certain basic and decisive characteristics. In this process, the cognitive domain has increasingly become a new battlefield that infiltrates and affects multi-domain operations, as well as a new commanding height that determines the success or failure of the war.

The cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control

In modern warfare, the cognitive domain has become the key to seizing comprehensive control. War practice shows that the cognitive domain has increasingly become the focus of planning modern warfare and achieving multi-domain integrated linkage victory.

The cognitive domain advantage supports the doubling of multi-domain combat effectiveness. In modern warfare, destroying the enemy and preserving oneself in the physical domain, fighting for the right to control land, sea, air, and space; blocking the enemy and connecting oneself in the information domain, fighting for the right to control the network and information, are all deeply related to the advantages and active position of the cognitive domain. In the game of system-to-system confrontation, once the opponent is suppressed and the initiative is taken in the cognitive domain, decision-making interference can be formed on the key nodes of the enemy’s command chain, kill chain, and support chain, so that the actions in the physical domain and information domain can obtain asymmetric benefits of “four ounces to move a thousand pounds”, thereby improving the input-output ratio of operations, enhancing the speed and efficiency of local victory leading to global victory, and reducing the subsequent constraints of military strikes in the economic and social life fields.

The planning and implementation of multi-domain combat operations should pay attention to the role of the cognitive domain. Modern warfare is significantly complex, and the elements of multi-domain operations are interconnected, the impact is transmitted in multiple directions, and the risks are superimposed on each other. Every action or even a detail of a multi-domain combat operation will trigger a chain reaction in the cognitive domain at the decision-making issues, military morale, public opinion, social confidence, and international public opinion levels of both sides, thereby quickly, suddenly, and unexpectedly affecting the overall situation of the war, and even causing a “butterfly storm” that changes the internal and foreign affairs of the warring parties and even the long-term development trend of the country. In planning and implementing physical domain and information domain operations, we must not only focus on shaping the situation and creating conditions in the cognitive domain, but also accurately control the direction and size of the release of effectiveness in the cognitive domain in accordance with the need to seize control of the brain, heart, and intelligence. The dynamic changes in the number of enemy annihilation, the temporary gains and losses of a city or a place, etc., are increasingly losing their significance as indicators for evaluating the direction of the war. The overall impact of military operations on the war situation increasingly needs to be evaluated and considered from the perspectives of the changes in international and domestic public cognition and the psychological impact on specific objects.

The material and technical conditions for the cognitive domain to trigger multi-domain integration are becoming increasingly mature. The leapfrog development of information-based intelligent cognitive perception technology has made the cognitive domain game confrontation rapidly develop from absolute “uncalculated” and “uncontrollable” to a considerable degree of “calculated” and “controllable”. The decision-making support of technologies such as big data and intelligent algorithms supports the deep integration of different combat forces in the cognitive domain and the command and coordination of multi-dimensional forces, strengthens the consistency and coordination of forces, means and actions in politics, economy, diplomacy, culture and military, and brings the operability of designing multiple domains, commanding multiple domains and controlling multiple domains with a focus on the cognitive domain. The widespread use of weapons and equipment such as drones and precision-guided bombs also provides realistic and feasible tactical options for precise strikes through combat operations. The rapid popularization of intelligent communication technologies such as precise profiling, intelligent distribution, social media live broadcast, robot writing, and virtual reality, and the cross-integration and development of neuroscience, cognitive science and intelligent technology have made it convenient and efficient to plan and implement “X+ cognitive attack and defense” and realize integrated joint operations.

Cognitive domain penetration affects the winning path of multi-domain aggregation

Cognitive domain penetration affects the integrated linkage of multiple domains. It is not a simple “1+1”, but the energy of multi-domain actions is instantly optimized in the cognitive domain, so as to continuously inject the emergence effect that is beneficial to oneself into the overall situation of the war. To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the innovative design of combat planning and implementation paths to ensure that multi-domain convergence and victory are achieved under the influence of cognitive domain penetration.

Deepen the understanding of multi-domain tasks with cognitive domain combat needs. Focusing on the overall national strategy, clarify the cognitive domain combat needs, and calculate and determine the combat tasks of each domain based on this. Establish the must-hit targets and avoidance targets of firepower strikes, the first targets and the last targets, the open targets and the hidden targets, the heavy targets and the light targets, etc., and focus on the effectiveness of destroying the morale of the combat opponent. Establish the goals, timing, and intensity of channel control, and focus on the deprivation of the combat opponent’s social mobilization capabilities, international communication capabilities, etc., and the support effectiveness for our information release and external propaganda. Establish the focus of intelligence information collection, and focus on the ability to grasp the combat opponent’s cognitive domain combat power, describe the characteristics of cognitive attack and defense targets in fine granularity, and dynamically grasp the international and domestic public opinion and social trends.

Guide multi-domain action design with cognitive domain combat tasks. Focusing on the questions of “who, what kind of cognitive impact, and to what extent”, the cognitive domain combat tasks in different combat phases and different combat scenarios are subdivided, and based on this, the overall planning and detailed design of what actions to organize in each domain, what opportunities to seize, what forces to invest, what tactics to adopt, and how various actions are connected and crossed are carried out. The reason why the “Four-sided Chu Song” was able to disintegrate the powerful Chu army was first because the Han army completed the military encirclement of the Chu army, and secondly, it used the clever idea of ​​the captives singing Chu songs at night. In fact, different action timings, different task forces, different weapons and equipment, different tactics selections, and even different action names convey very different information, and the intensity of cognitive impact generated is also significantly different. It requires careful consideration and scientific research and judgment to strive to maximize efficiency and optimize the effect. When loading cognitive attack and defense actions for fire strikes, network attack and defense, electronic countermeasures, defensive operations, special operations and other actions, different imagination and creative thinking levels, different technical understanding, application and innovation, and the final effect achieved is even more different.

Organize multi-domain collaborative support with cognitive domain combat actions. Cognitive domain combat operations involve multiple participants and various action styles. Normal operations require coordinated support from forces and firepower, such as precision strikes, seizing key areas, and demonstrating momentum. In special cases, coordinated support from strategic forces, such as the display of cutting-edge weapons and equipment and the organization of major exercises and drills, is also required. Throughout the entire operation, specific personnel and specific combat units, such as commanders speaking publicly and media embedded reports, are also required to coordinate support. Intelligence data, channel bandwidth, forensic information, and technical equipment are also indispensable. To this end, it is necessary to mobilize multi-domain forces and resources throughout the entire process, in real time, systematically, and accurately, so that military warfare, psychological warfare, and intellectual warfare can leverage each other’s strengths and support each other, forming a chess game and playing a combination of punches.

Focus on deepening the understanding of the concept of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multiple domains

Establishing the status of cognitive domain penetration and influence on multi-domain operations and promoting integrated linkage victory is a deep-level conceptual revolution, which requires strengthening various supporting constructions to create conditions and lay the foundation.

Strengthen institutional guarantees. The cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations have put forward higher requirements for cross-departmental and cross-institutional collaboration and cooperation, and it is necessary to form a scientific and efficient command chain that supports the cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain and multi-domain integrated linkage. It is necessary to clarify the cognitive domain combat responsibilities of each element of the joint combat command organization, optimize and reorganize the command process, and ensure that the penetration and influence of the cognitive domain are reflected in combat determination, task planning, and action design. Focusing on cross-domain integrated linkage, we will establish and improve work systems and cooperation mechanisms at all levels such as strategy, campaign, and tactics, strengthen the mutual leverage and coordination of cognitive domain operations and physical domain and information domain operations, and give full consideration to the effective coordination of military forces and local relevant functional departments and professional forces, so that the comprehensive advantages can be transformed into the ability advantages of cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain empowerment.

Improve the ability and quality of commanders. Foreign militaries believe that qualified commanders in modern warfare need to be good at “rapidly transforming active kinetic operations into more subtle cultural warfare” and should have “unique intuition” and “comprehensive leadership capabilities” for this. In order to achieve cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage in war practice, it is necessary to first strengthen the awareness of cognitive domain operations in the minds of commanders at all levels, strengthen the consciousness and initiative of forming cognitive domain penetration to influence multi-domain task planning and action design, and strengthen the ability to implement high-efficiency cognitive offense and defense with force and firepower operations and information control and seizure as means and carriers. It is necessary to take multi-domain coordinated command under the influence of cognitive domain penetration as an important content of strategic and campaign exercises and training, highlight the training of commanders to command and control multiple domains with a focus on cognitive shaping, and promote the training field to keep close to the actual requirements of winning political and military battles.

Promote the updating and improvement of joint cultural concepts. Cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated linkage operations are the sublimation and optimization of joint combat concepts and mechanisms, and especially require the support and guarantee of joint cultural construction that is adapted to them. On the one hand, we must strive to break the influence of traditional war thinking patterns, break some traditional concept barriers, and focus on cognitive guidance, multi-domain integration, and linkage operations as the forefront of joint cultural construction to update concepts. On the other hand, we must strengthen the construction of a theoretical system for cognitive domain penetration and multi-domain integrated joint operations, conduct in-depth research on the winning mechanism of cognitive domain operations and innovation of tactics, and lay a solid ideological foundation with theoretical accumulation.

(Author’s unit: Political College of National Defense University)




















2023-01-19 14:35 解放軍報 濮端華 李習文 肖飛


Chinese Military Focusing on Future Wars and Fighting the “Five Battles” of Cognition



Most of the local wars and armed conflicts in recent years have been “hybrid” confrontations carried out in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, economic and other means to implement systematic control in the dimension of comprehensive decision-making, creating all kinds of chaos in the dimension of international communication, and creating various chaos in the dimension of international communication. Conduct targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shape the battlefield situation, and seek to seize the strategic initiative. In future wars, in order to successfully fight political and military battles and military and political battles, we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of offensive and defensive operations in the cognitive domain and improve our ability to fight the “five battles” well.

Be proactive in cognitive operations, shape the situation and control the situation, and fight proactively. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of war forms, the status and role of cognitive domain operations continue to be highlighted. Aiming to win future wars, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance. Through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive factors of target objects should be affected, intervened and manipulated, and cognitive attack and defense should be used to cover military operations and accurately Efficiently dominate cognitive space. Fully understand the importance of being first, grasp the definition and interpretation power of “narrative” flexibly and autonomously, emphasize pre-emption to win the initiative in the cognitive narrative struggle dimension, create a favorable situation in which legal principles are in hand and morality is on our side, and occupy the moral commanding heights.

Cognitive operations focus on attacking the heart, and implement layered strategies to fight precise battles. “Those who are good at fighting will benefit others without killing them.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will present the characteristics of being extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent and uninhabited, invisible, and silent. We should keep a close eye on cognitive gaps to improve effectiveness, and use methods such as big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, and psychological model evaluation to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects to achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. Closely focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, target the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual pillar points that maintain the unity of powerful enemy alliances to carry out effective strikes, and use their cognitive differences and interest conflicts to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategies, we must penetrate the entire territory and fight for deterrence and control. In future wars, the strategic competition and tactical confrontation between the two warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should pay close attention to the decision-making process and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we must pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike methods to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we must pay more attention to the “soft kill” effects of cognitive shaping, cognitive induction, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, which not only creates a strong deterrent through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, but also integrates new qualities The combat power is expanded to the cognitive dimension, thus forming an asymmetric check and balance advantage.

Cognitive combat information is king, expand the field and fight for support. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and system integration should be accelerated to gain data advantages. First of all, speed up the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive operations theory library, database, talent library, case library, and tactics library, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive operations capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, speed up the creation of the integrated media communication matrix, improve the self-owned platform system, speed up the deployment of network platforms, focus on system integration and collaboration, break down the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and achieve cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive results. Thirdly, accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making, psychological attack and defense, mine and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to win the future. War provides “clairvoyance” and “early ears”.

Cognitive combat coordination is the key, and multi-dimensional efforts are used to fight the overall battle. Future wars are joint operations carried out in land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic and other fields. System thinking should be adhered to, the awareness of collaboration should be strengthened, and the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations and other military operations should be improved. For example, it can integrate human intelligence, geographical intelligence, open source intelligence, etc., quickly collect and process massive data, remove falsehoods while retaining truth, seize cognitive space accurately and efficiently, achieve complementary advantages, and form cognitive advantages through full domain coverage. By networking dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish an all-domain joint force with high connectivity, collective action, and overall attack to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence.” By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, using cognitive momentum to amplify the effects of political disruption, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and cooperating with military operations to put pressure on target targets in an all-round way, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)


近年來的局部戰爭和武裝衝突大多是多維度、多領域開展的「混合型」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段在綜合決策維度實施系統控制,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂。 戰略重點維度精準打擊,主動塑造戰場態勢,尋求奪取戰略主動權。 在未來戰爭中,要打好政治軍事鬥爭、軍事政治鬥爭,就必須深刻掌​​握認知域攻防作戰的特徵和規律,提升打好「五個戰役」的能力。

認知作戰主動出擊,塑造局勢、掌控局面,主動出擊。 在戰爭開始之前,認​​知是第一位的。 隨著戰爭形式的不斷發展與演變,認知域作戰的地位與角色不斷凸顯。 為了贏得未來戰爭,必須事先進行認知部署。 透過策略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知因素進行影響、介入和操控,以認知攻防覆蓋軍事行動,精準高效主導認知空間。 充分認識先行的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義和解釋權,強調先發制人,贏得認知敘事鬥爭維度的主動權,營造法理在手、道德在手的良好局面就在我們這邊,佔據道德高點。

認知作戰重在攻心,實施分層策略打精準戰。 “善戰者,利人而不害人。” 未來戰爭,作戰空間將延伸至深海、深空、深網等領域,戰場時空將呈現極遠、極小、極智、無人、隱形、無聲的特徵。 資訊. 緊緊圍繞認知盲點增強穿透力,針對維護強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差異和利益衝突實現差異化和戰略性打擊。各個層面的瓦解。

基於認知作戰策略,我們必須滲透全境,爭取威懾和控制。 未來戰爭中,交戰雙方的戰略競爭和戰術對抗將會異常激烈。 要密切注意決策過程,綜合發力,增加對手決策困境,形成自己的決策優勢。 一方面,要更重視敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等關鍵節點,採用先進打擊手段對這些節點進行物理摧毀。 另一方面,要更重視認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入、認知控制的「軟殺傷」作用,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬殺傷」中,不僅透過精準打擊形成強大威懾。以高科技武器打擊的同時,也將新素質的戰鬥力擴展到認知維度,進而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓展領域,爭取支援。 未來戰爭離不開強大的資訊支撐,應加快系統整合以獲得數據優勢。 首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰術庫建設,動態收集和更新敵方認知攻防作戰能力現狀,提供全方位對認知進攻和防禦行動的全面支持。 二是加快打造綜合媒體傳播矩陣,完善自有平台體系,加速網路平台部署,聚焦系統

各方融合協作,盡快打破資訊互聯互通的“壁壘”,實現認知融合共享、綜合成果。 第三是加速資訊與認知域運算耦合連結,大力發展神經網路系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策、心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨領域、異質認知訊息,完善認知手段資訊融合體系,贏得未來。 戰爭提供了「千里眼」和「早耳」。

認知作戰協同是關鍵,多維度發力打好整體戰。 未來戰爭是在陸、海、空、太空、網路、電磁等領域進行聯合作戰。 要堅持系統思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性和協調性。 例如,可以融合人類智慧、地理智慧、開源智慧等,快速擷取處理大量數據,去偽存真,精準高效搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補,透過全域形成認知優勢覆蓋範圍。 透過將分散的多域力量聯網,建立高度連結、集體行動、整體出擊的全局聯合部隊,達到「一體化威懾」的效果。 透過整合國家資源,加強戰略溝通,利用認知動能放大政治擾亂、經濟制裁、外交攻勢的效果,配合軍事行動,全方位對目標對象施壓,力爭戰勝敵人不戰而屈人之兵。


來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍喜 編輯:王峰 2022-10-08


Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation


迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。


 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。

 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。


 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。



 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。


 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。



 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。


 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。



     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。


     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。


     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。


     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。



     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。


     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。


     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.

    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.

    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.


    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.



Chinese Military – Uncovering the Mysteries of Foreign Cyberspace Operations


隨著科學技術的不斷發展,戰爭形式已進入資訊化戰爭時代。 資訊已成為戰鬥力的主導要素。 雙方圍繞著資訊的收集、傳輸和處理展開了激烈的對抗。 網路空間是資料和資訊傳輸的通道。 現代作戰單位之間的橋樑。

美國軍方是第一個將網路空間軍事化的國家。 2008年,美國成立空軍網路司令部,將網路空間定義為整個電磁頻譜空間,將認知和實踐從狹隘的資訊域延伸到廣闊的網路域。 。 2018年1月,美國陸軍訓練與條令司令部(TRADOC)發布了《TP 525-8-6美國陸軍網路空間與電子戰作戰概念2025-2040》,描述了美國陸軍將如何在網路空間和電子戰中作戰。 在電磁頻譜中運行,以應對未來作戰環境的挑戰。 與其他傳統作戰領域相比,網路空間將對未來作戰產生哪些影響? 在未來一體化聯合作戰背景下,能為多域聯合作戰帶來哪些突破?


第五大領域資訊化戰爭。 賽博空間一詞最早出現在1982年的加拿大科幻小說《全像玫瑰碎片》中,描述了網路與人類意識融合的賽博空間。 根據美國國防部軍事詞彙詞典,網路空間是資訊環境中的全球性領域,由獨立的資訊技術基礎設施網路組成,包括互聯網、電信網路、各種區域網路和電腦系統以及嵌入式處理器和控制器。 隨著網路技術的不斷發展,網路空間已從電腦網路擴展到不可見的電磁頻譜,即電磁環境中的實體場。 它不僅包括我們通常認識的電腦網絡,還包括使用各種電磁能量的所有物理系統。

此外,在現代戰爭中,網路空間是資訊戰的新領域。 已被美軍列為與陸、海、空、天同等重要、必須保持決定性優勢的五個領域之一。 涉及網路戰、資訊戰、電子戰、太空戰、指揮控制戰、C4ISR等領域。 它是超越傳統的陸、海、空、天四維戰鬥空間的第五維度戰鬥空間。 它既相對獨立又嵌入其他領域。 與傳統領域相比,網路空間具有邊界邊界模糊、覆蓋範圍廣、情勢複雜多變的特性。

網路空間作戰超越了時間和空間的限制。 由於電磁頻譜缺乏地理邊界和自然邊界,網路空間超越了地理邊界、時間和距離的限制,使得網路空間作戰幾乎可以在任何地方發生,跨越陸地、海洋、太空和空中作戰,將傳統的四種作戰方式融為一體。立體作戰空間領域,可瞬間對遠程目標進行攻擊。 由於資訊在網路空間的傳播速度接近光速,高速資訊傳輸將大幅提升作戰效率與能力,提供快速決策、指導作戰、達到預期作戰效果的能力。 更重要的是,根據作戰需要,在網路空間或透過網路空間實現軍事目標或軍事效果可以分為進攻性網路作戰和防禦性網路作戰兩種類型。

進攻性網路行動是指在網路空間預防、削弱、中斷、摧毀或欺騙敵方網絡,以確保己方在網路空間的行動自由。 其主要行動包括實施電子系統攻擊、電磁系統封鎖和攻擊、網路攻擊和基礎設施攻擊等。防禦性網路行動包括防禦、偵測、表徵、反擊和減輕網路空間威脅事件的活動,旨在保護美國國防部防禦網絡或其他友方網絡,維持被動和主動利用友方網路空間的能力,保護資料、網路和其他指定的系統能力。


戰略威懾,輿論制勝。 近年來,針對經濟、政治、軍事等目標的網路攻擊不斷增加。 由於具有規模大、隱蔽性好、攻擊基礎設施能力強等特點

網路攻擊已成為一些國家在政治衝突中的優勢。 優勢手段。 俄烏衝突期間,俄羅斯以網路空間為陣地,以無線電電子戰為輔助,切斷烏克蘭系統通訊,中斷烏克蘭指揮; 抵制輿論負面消息,發布正面消息; 它癱瘓了網路上的敵人。 利用敵方網站製造恐慌,然後配合部隊正面進攻,達到速勝的目的。

全球佈局,千里之外擒敵。 美國在建立以本國主導的網路空間安全框架的過程中,掌握了盟友的網路空間作戰能力,建立了全球軍事基地和網路空間互聯互通。 相關情報人員平時透過情報行動完成網路預設,例如利用網路等手段透過情報分析來監控和收集敵方網路資料。 透過網路預設,必要時可利用網路漏洞入侵敵方網路、控制系統、破壞資料等,實現「千里取敵性命」。 2010年7月,美國透過某種蠕蟲病毒入侵伊朗核電廠,並控制了其核心設備,大大拖延了伊朗的核計畫。

充分發揮非對稱作戰優勢,提高作戰效益。 「舒特」計畫是美國空軍為了壓制敵方防空能力而提出的。 它利用不對稱作戰理論來摧毀敵方的防空系統。 核心目標是入侵敵方通訊、雷達、電腦等網路電力系統。 戰爭中,「舒特」攻擊可以透過遠程無線電侵入敵方防空預警系統和通訊系統的電腦網絡,進而攻擊並癱瘓敵方防空系統,或攻擊敵方可用的電子系統和網路系統,突破敵人的網絡。 攔截,然後利用相應的專業算法(主要是“木馬”病毒)侵入敵方雷達或網絡系統,監聽或竊取相關信息,洩露敵方作戰計劃、部隊部署、武器裝備等重要信息,從而幫助調整己方的作戰計畫、作戰結構和武器配比,以最小的成本獲得最大的利益。


各國日益重視,大力發展。 隨著各國意識的加深,發展網路能力、贏得網路戰爭已成為各國謀求軍事優勢、贏得未來戰爭的重要內容。 2015年,美軍根據「伊斯蘭國」組織成員在網路上發布的評論和照片,利用大數據分析和偵察定位,最終在22小時內摧毀了一個「伊斯蘭國」指揮所。 目前,美國已成立網路空間司令部,組成網路空間作戰部隊,深化作戰理論研究,初步形成網路空間作戰能力。 其他國家也開展了網路競賽。 為了加強網路空間作戰能力,法國成立了新的資訊系統安全局。 英國政府發布國家通訊安全戰略,宣布成立網路安全辦公室和網路安全行動中心。 日本建立了以電腦專家為主的網路戰部隊,顯示網路空間戰引起了越來越多國家的興趣。

融合多種技術,增強網路空間作戰能力。 隨著新技術的突破,大數據技術、5G技術、人工智慧技術可以應用於網路空間作戰。 大數據技術可以儲存大量數據、收集複雜類型的數據,並且可以快速計算並獲取有用的信息。 它可以加快網路空間戰爭各方面的執行速度並使其更加精準。 5G技術具有低時延、高傳輸、大容量的特點,使得網路空間戰爭在全球環境、多域協同作戰中更具威脅性。 此外,還可以利用人工智慧深度學習、推理等能力來模擬網路空間戰爭。 在這個過程中,可以發現自身武器系統的弱點並加以改進。 透過這些技術的深度融合,可以將網路空間打造為智慧化、高傳輸、高精度的網路環境,為未來資訊化聯合作戰打造智慧大腦。


有效推進聯合作戰。 利用跨域資訊化聯合作戰本質上是基於地理空間部署,建立穩定且有效率的網路空間資訊活動態勢,共同實現作戰目標的新型作戰形態。 聯合部隊有不同的資訊能力。 實現高度共享和深度融合,增強即時態勢感知,提高指揮效率,提高一體化戰鬥力。 網路能力不僅可以服務單一軍種或單位,還可以優先保障戰略級目標,高水準組織網路戰爭和各兵種作戰,規劃陸、海、空等網路作戰。空氣和空間維度。 戰鬥目標。

未來的戰爭將是智慧化、系統化的戰爭。 「聯合資訊環境」是實現「跨域協作」、打造「全球一體化作戰」能力的策略性舉措。 隨著科技的不斷改善與發展,網路空間作戰將成為核心作戰領域之一,將大幅提升未來系統作戰效能,為謀取資訊優勢、贏得戰爭提供重要支撐。


With the continuous development of science and technology, the form of war has entered the era of information warfare. Information has become the dominant element of combat effectiveness. Both combatants are engaged in fierce confrontation around the collection, transmission and processing of information. Cyberspace is a channel for the transmission of data and information. The bridge between modern combat units.

The U.S. military was the first to militarize cyberspace. In 2008, the United States established the Air Force Cyber ​​Command and defined cyberspace as the entire electromagnetic spectrum space, extending cognition and practice from the narrow information domain to the broad cyber domain. . In January 2018, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) released “TP 525-8-6 U.S. Army Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Operational Concept 2025-2040”, which describes how the U.S. Army will operate in cyberspace and electronic warfare. operate in the electromagnetic spectrum to meet the challenges of future operational environments. Compared with other traditional combat domains, what impact will cyberspace have on future operations? In the context of future integrated joint operations, what breakthroughs can it bring to multi-domain joint operations?

Mysterious – Cyberspace Operations

The fifth major area of ​​information warfare. The term cyberspace first appeared in the 1982 Canadian science fiction novel “Fragments of the Holographic Rose”, which describes a cyberspace where the Internet and human consciousness are integrated. According to the U.S. Department of Defense Military Vocabulary Dictionary, cyberspace is a global domain within the information environment that consists of independent information technology infrastructure networks, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, various local area networks and computer systems, and embedded processors and controller. With the continuous development of network technology, cyberspace has expanded from computer networks to the invisible electromagnetic spectrum, which is a physical field in the electromagnetic environment. It includes not only computer networks as we usually recognize them, but also all physical systems that use various types of electromagnetic energy.

In addition, in modern warfare, cyberspace is a new field of information warfare. It has been listed by the US military as one of the five areas that are as important as land, sea, air and space and must maintain decisive advantages. It involves network warfare, information warfare, electronic warfare, space warfare, command and control warfare, C4ISR and other fields. It is a fifth-dimensional battle space that transcends the traditional four-dimensional battle space of land, sea, air and space. It is both relatively independent and embedded in other fields. Compared with traditional fields, cyberspace has the characteristics of blurred border boundaries, wide coverage, and complex and changeable situations.

Cyberspace operations transcend the limitations of time and space. Due to the lack of geographical boundaries and natural boundaries in the electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace transcends the limitations of geographical boundaries, time and distance, allowing cyberspace operations to occur almost anywhere, across land, sea, space and air operations, integrating traditional In the four-dimensional combat space field, attacks on remote targets can be carried out instantly. Since the propagation speed of information in cyberspace is close to the speed of light, high-speed information transmission will greatly improve combat efficiency and capabilities, and provide the ability to make quick decisions, guide operations, and achieve expected combat effects. More importantly, according to operational needs, achieving military goals or military effects in or through cyberspace can be divided into two types: offensive cyber operations and defensive cyber operations.

Offensive cyber operations refer to preventing, weakening, interrupting, destroying or deceiving the enemy’s network in cyber space to ensure one’s own freedom of action in cyber space. Its main actions include the implementation of electronic system attacks, electromagnetic system blockade and attack , network attacks and infrastructure attacks, etc. Defensive cyber operations include activities to defend, detect, characterize, counter and mitigate cyberspace threat events, aiming to protect the U.S. Department of Defense network or other friendly networks, maintain the ability to passively and proactively exploit friendly cyberspace, and protect data , network and other specified system capabilities.

Electromagnetic warfare in cyberspace

Strategic deterrence, public opinion wins. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of cyber attacks against economic, political, military and other targets. Due to the characteristics of large scale, good concealment, and ability to attack infrastructure networks, these attacks have become an advantage for some countries in political conflicts. means of advantage. During the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Russia used cyberspace as its position and radio-electronic warfare as assistance to cut off the Ukrainian system in communications and interrupt the Ukrainian command; it resisted negative news in public opinion and released positive news; it paralyzed the enemy on the Internet. Use the enemy’s website to create panic, and then cooperate with the frontal attack of the troops to achieve the goal of quick victory.

Global layout, capturing enemies from thousands of miles away. In the process of establishing a cyberspace security framework dominated by its own country, the United States has mastered the cyberspace operations of its allies and established global military bases and cyberspace interconnectivity. Relevant intelligence personnel complete network presets through intelligence operations in peacetime, such as using the Internet and other means to monitor and collect enemy network data through intelligence analysis. Through network presets, when necessary, network vulnerabilities can be exploited to invade the enemy’s network, control the system, destroy data, etc., to achieve “taking the enemy’s life thousands of miles away.” In July 2010, the United States invaded Iran’s nuclear power plant through a certain worm virus and took control of its core equipment, greatly delaying Iran’s nuclear program.

Give full play to the advantages of asymmetric combat and improve combat benefits. The “Shute” plan was proposed by the U.S. Air Force to suppress the enemy’s air defense capabilities. It uses asymmetric combat theory to destroy the enemy’s air defense system. The core goal is to invade the enemy’s communications, radar, computer and other network power systems. In war, the “Shute” attack can invade the computer network of the enemy’s air defense early warning system and communication system through remote radio, and then attack and paralyze the enemy’s air defense system, or attack the enemy’s available electronic systems and network systems to break through the enemy’s network. Block, and then use corresponding professional algorithms (mainly “Trojan horse” viruses) to invade the enemy’s radar or network system, monitor or steal relevant information, and leak important information about the enemy’s combat plan, troop deployment, and weapons and equipment, thereby helping Adjust the combat plan, combat structure and weapon ratio to your own side to obtain the maximum benefits at the minimum cost.

The future development of cyberspace operations

Paying increasing attention to it, countries are vigorously developing it. As countries’ understanding deepens, developing cyber capabilities and winning cyber wars have become an important part of countries seeking military advantages and winning future wars. In 2015, based on comments and photos posted online by members of an “Islamic State” organization, the U.S. military used big data analysis and reconnaissance positioning, and finally destroyed an “Islamic State” command post within 22 hours. At present, the United States has established a Cyberspace Command, organized a cyberspace combat force, deepened research on combat theory, and developed preliminary cyberspace combat capabilities. Other countries have also launched cyber competitions. In order to strengthen its cyberspace combat capabilities, France established a new Information Systems Security Agency. The British government released the National Communications Security Strategy and announced the establishment of a Cybersecurity Office and a Cybersecurity Action Center. Japan has established a cyber warfare force mainly composed of computer experts, which shows that cyber space warfare has aroused the interest of more and more countries.

Integration of multiple technologies to enhance cyberspace combat capabilities. With the breakthrough of new technologies, big data technology, 5G technology, and artificial intelligence technology can be applied to cyberspace operations. Big data technology can store large amounts of data, collect complex types of data, and can quickly calculate and obtain useful information. It can speed up the execution of all aspects of cyberspace warfare and make it more accurate. 5G technology has the characteristics of low latency, high transmission and large capacity, making cyberspace warfare more threatening in a global environment and multi-domain coordinated operations. In addition, artificial intelligence deep learning, reasoning and other capabilities can be used to simulate cyberspace warfare. In the process, the weaknesses of one’s own weapon systems can be found and improved. Through the deep integration of these technologies, cyberspace can be built into an intelligent A network environment with high transmission and precision can create an intelligent brain for future information-based joint operations and grasp the initiative in future operations.

Effectively promote joint operations. The use of cross-domain information-based joint operations is essentially a new combat form that jointly achieves operational goals by establishing a stable and efficient cyberspace information activity situation based on the deployment of geographical space. The joint forces have different information capabilities. Achieve a high degree of sharing and deep integration to enhance real-time situational awareness, improve command efficiency, and improve integrated combat effectiveness. Cyber ​​capabilities can not only serve a single service branch or unit, but can also prioritize the protection of strategic-level goals, organize cyber wars and operations of various arms with a high overall level, and plan cyber operations in land, sea, air, and space dimensions. battle target.

Future wars will be intelligent and systematic wars. The “joint information environment” is a strategic move to achieve “cross-domain collaboration” and build “global integrated operations” capabilities. With the continuous improvement and development of technology, cyberspace Operations will become one of the core operational domains, which will greatly improve the effectiveness of future systematic operations and provide important support for seeking information advantages and winning wars.

2020 年 8 月 31 日 | 來源:人民網-軍事頻道


Chinese Military Designs for Exploring Winning Cognitive Operations



從最新的局部戰爭實踐來看,認知域作戰已成為深刻影響戰爭走向的重要變因。 認知域作戰中,各方圍繞輿論掌控、資訊引導、認知塑造等展開激烈爭奪,不僅有實體對抗,更有來自虛擬空間的較量,展現出數位時代「技術+」的顯著特徵。 探尋認知域作戰制勝之道,對於掌控認知域作戰主動權、打贏未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。


大腦是一切思考活動的物質基礎,是影響和控制人類作出行為改變的指揮中樞,而感覺、知覺和意識則構成了大腦反映世界的三個面向。 如何贏得控腦權,日益成為交戰各方在認知域作戰領域研究與關注的重點。

積極爭奪感覺控制權。 感覺是客觀事物的特性在人腦中引起的反應,是形成各種複雜心理過程的基礎。 隨著腦科學、分子生物學、神經化學等學科的快速發展,人類開始逐步獲得在生理層面對大腦進行幹預和控制的能力。 根據國外實驗結果顯示,吸入催產素會讓人更信任他人,更能產生共感,進而影響一個人的親社會性和道德表現。 未來作戰,交戰各方透過利用聲光電等物理刺激,或化學藥物作用於目標對象的聽覺、視覺、嗅覺等感覺系統,甚至將上述影響直接作用於人的腦部,在目標對像大腦中激發出 特定的情緒反應,可實現對其在生理層面的認知影響和控制。

有效爭奪知覺抑制權。 知覺是在感覺基礎上形成的,反映客觀事物的整體形象和表面連結的心理過程。 其中,個體的態度、動機、興趣,以及過去的經驗和未來的預期,是影響個體對知覺目標知覺的關鍵變項。 戰時,交戰各方透過瞄準目標對象心理上的疑點、弱點、需求點,抓住有利時機,借助特定的訊息,對目標對象的知覺進行情感影響、心智誘導或攻心瓦解,以增加目標對象對 戰爭風險的預期,削弱其抵抗意志和作戰決心,從而實現小戰、少戰甚至不戰而屈人之兵的目的。

全面爭奪意識塑造權。 意識是透過感覺、知覺、思考等心理過程實現的,表現為知、情、意的統一。 戰爭的根本目的是迫使敵人屈服。 從古今中外的戰爭實踐看,為了贏得意識塑造權,交戰各方會盡其所能,調用一切可以調用的軍事力量,綜合運用政治、經濟、文化、外交等手段,對敵人實施政治瓦解、外交 孤立、輿論引導、法理宣示,引發目標對象個體或群體的理性思辨、倫理共鳴或價值認同,進而改變其世界觀、人生觀、價值觀,形成較為穩定長遠的認知影響或控制,從而實現「全勝 」的目的。



主動實施強烈心理刺激,助推訊息滲透。 現代戰爭對抗激烈複雜,各種對抗要素在多維多域立體展開,戰機稍縱即逝。 作用於認知域的力量與手段必須緊跟戰場態勢發展變化,廣泛藉助閾下訊息植入、聲光電磁心理滋擾損傷、非接觸式情緒控制等強烈心理刺激手段,主動出擊,以誘導目標 對象的情感、意志、思想、信念等出現混亂、迷惘或激變,進而達成對目標對象認知系統控制與影響的目的。

廣泛運用智慧演算法,實現精準推送。 隨著網路滲入人類生活各個層面,所有人都會在網路上留下大量資料資訊。 戰時,交戰各方會藉助大數據、雲端運算、物聯網、區塊鏈等現代資訊技術,對目標對象的社交數據、軌跡數據、金融數據、網購記錄、搜尋記錄、個人通訊記錄等網路數據 資訊進行深度挖掘關聯,實現對目標對象的“認知畫像”,系統分析出目標對象的興趣偏好、行為趨勢、人際關係以及價值取向,從而立體掌握相關個體或特定群體的特徵。 而後藉助智慧演算法技術,將個人化客製化認知訊息向目標對象實施精準推送,進而影響目標對象對戰爭的態度、情感以及價值判斷,進而助推己方作戰目的與政治意圖的實現。

有效聚合社會支持系統,實現整體連結。 社會支持系統,是一個人在自己的社會關係網絡中所能獲得的、來自他人的物質和精神上的幫助和支援,是影響和決定個體獲得情感依賴和認知走向的關鍵因素。 可以說,認知域作戰能否成功,獲得目標對象社會支持系統的支持和協助至關重要。 借助現代資訊技術,可以有效關聯到目標對象的親人、朋友、同學、合作夥伴等特定社會關係人,透過對上述關係人施加針對性影響,取得對方的理解、支持和信任,動員特定關係人對 目標對象施加影響,更能贏得目標對象的信任與接納,更容易使目標對象產生認知改變,進而達成對目標對象的認知影響與控制的目的。



新興傳播形態成為認知域作戰新手段。 隨著行動互聯技術的不斷發展,以社群媒體等為代表的新興傳播形態逐步成為認知對抗的全新平台和主流陣地。 從近幾場局部戰爭來看,社群媒體的地位作用越來越突出,交戰各方透過借助個人部落格、論壇等平台即時發布戰場圖文、錄影和評論跟帖,不僅成為全球行動網媒終端 的共議話題,也成為全球不同國家、不同勢力派別價值認知賽局的主陣。 社群媒體等新興傳播形態以其獨特的去中心化及互動性特點,打破了傳統傳播方式中的資訊壟斷與資訊控制,催生了眾多的產品樣態,在滿足人們資訊需求的同時,也在 不知不覺中改變人們的認知。 可以預見,未來認知域作戰中,社群媒體的地位角色將會越來越突出。

網路空間成為認知域作戰新空間。 在資訊化智慧化條件下,網路技術的門檻大大降低,全球即時觀戰成為可能。 現代戰爭已從電視時代的“起居室戰爭”,發展成今天全媒體時代的“掌上戰爭”。 網路直播比任何形式的戰地報道都更直觀更豐富,「全球共時性」成為突出的特點。 透過網路直播,交戰雙方激戰的影片、畫面和眾多燒毀的坦克、裝甲車,以及被戰火毀壞的家園、逃離家園的難民都可以直觀地呈現出來。 人們可以透過網路看到一個個具體的平民、雙方戰士的微觀狀態,戰場的「透明化」讓任何試圖掩蓋真相的努力和不實的虛假陳述變得愈來愈困難。 但另一方面,智慧語音克隆、視頻人像模擬替換等技術的出現,讓人們看到的不一定“誠如所見”,聽到的也不一定“真如所聽”,網絡直播下的認知 域作戰增添了更多可能和想像的空間。

智慧化網路軍團成為認知域作戰新生力量。 資訊網路的發展突破了人際溝通的真實性限制,我們難以確定網路另一端是不是真實存在的人。 基於大規模互動的需要,智慧化、自動化、規模化的網路空間機器人正異軍突起,它們廣泛活躍於網路空間的各個角落。 這些智慧化網路軍團具備智慧辨識、智慧應答甚至類腦思考的能力,並且不知疲憊、全時無休,智慧化網路軍團正成為未來認知域作戰的重要力量。 從當前相關技術發展趨勢來看,世界各主要國家甚至商業組織,正在把目光投向網路機器人在群組滲透、直播跟評、塑造輿論態勢、管控網路危機等方面的潛力前景,在網路智慧機器人柔性引導 技術群自動取得、自動培育和群組滲透等關鍵技術上加強研發力度,透過發現並有效利用網路使用者行為規律,為輿論引導、認知塑造、行為導控提供智慧、高效的技術支援。


Judging from the latest local war practice, cognitive domain operations have become an important variable that profoundly affects the direction of war. In cognitive domain operations, all parties compete fiercely for control of public opinion, information guidance, and cognitive shaping. There are not only physical confrontations, but also competitions in virtual space, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of “technology +” in the digital era. Exploring the way to win in cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for controlling the initiative in cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Seizing control of the brain has become the ultimate goal of cognitive domain operations

The brain is the material basis of all thinking activities and the command center that influences and controls human behavior changes. Feeling, perception and consciousness constitute the three aspects of the world that the brain reflects. How to win the right to control the brain has increasingly become the focus of research and attention by all warring parties in the field of cognitive domain operations.

Actively fight for sensory control. Feeling is the reaction caused by the characteristics of objective things in the human brain, and is the basis for various complex psychological processes. With the rapid development of brain science, molecular biology, neurochemistry and other disciplines, humans have gradually gained the ability to intervene and control the brain at the physiological level. According to foreign experimental results, inhaling oxytocin will make people more trusting of others and more empathetic, thereby affecting a person’s prosociality and moral performance. In future operations, the warring parties will use physical stimulation such as sound, light and electricity, or chemical drugs to act on the target’s hearing, vision, smell and other sensory systems. They may even directly act on the human brain to stimulate the target’s brain. Specific emotional reactions can achieve cognitive influence and control on the physiological level.

Effective competition for perceptual suppression. Perception is a psychological process formed on the basis of sensation and reflects the overall image and surface connection of objective things. Among them, the individual’s attitude, motivation, interest, as well as past experience and future expectations are the key variables that affect the individual’s perception of the perceptual target. During wartime, warring parties aim at the target’s psychological doubts, weaknesses, and needs, seize favorable opportunities, and use specific information to emotionally influence, mentally induce, or disrupt the target’s perception in order to increase the target’s perception of the target. The expectation of war risks weakens their will to resist and their determination to fight, thereby achieving the purpose of subduing the enemy with a small war, less fighting or even no fighting.

Comprehensive competition for the right to shape consciousness. Consciousness is realized through psychological processes such as feeling, perception, and thinking, and is manifested as the unity of knowledge, emotion, and intention. The fundamental purpose of war is to force the enemy to surrender. Judging from the war practice at home and abroad in ancient and modern times, in order to win the right to shape consciousness, the warring parties will do their best to mobilize all available military power and comprehensively use political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other means to carry out political disintegration and diplomatic measures against the enemy. Isolation, guidance of public opinion, and declaration of legal principles can trigger rational thinking, ethical resonance, or value recognition of target individuals or groups, thereby changing their worldview, outlook on life, and values, forming a relatively stable and long-term cognitive influence or control, thereby achieving “complete victory.” “the goal of.

Controlling information becomes the key to cognitive domain operations

The weapon and ammunition of cognitive domain operations is information. Mastering the initiative in the generation, identification, acquisition, dissemination and feedback of information is the key to gaining battlefield advantage in the cognitive domain.

Actively implement strong psychological stimulation to promote information penetration. Confrontations in modern warfare are fierce and complex, with various elements of confrontation unfolding in multi-dimensional and multi-domain contexts, and fighter jets fleeting. The forces and methods acting in the cognitive domain must keep up with the development and changes of the battlefield situation, and make extensive use of strong psychological stimulation methods such as subliminal information implantation, acousto-optical electromagnetic psychological nuisance damage, and non-contact emotional control to take the initiative to induce the target. The subject’s emotions, will, thoughts, beliefs, etc. appear chaotic, confused or radically changed, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling and influencing the cognitive system of the target subject.

Extensive use of intelligent algorithms to achieve accurate push. As the Internet penetrates into every aspect of human life, everyone will leave massive amounts of data and information online. During wartime, warring parties will use modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to analyze the target’s social data, trajectory data, financial data, online shopping records, search records, personal communication records and other network data. The information is deeply mined and associated to achieve a “cognitive portrait” of the target object, and the target object’s interest preferences, behavioral trends, interpersonal relationships and value orientations are systematically analyzed, thereby three-dimensionally grasping the characteristics of relevant individuals or specific groups. Then, with the help of intelligent algorithm technology, personalized and customized cognitive information is accurately pushed to the target object, thereby affecting the target object’s attitude, emotion and value judgment towards the war, thereby promoting the realization of one’s own combat objectives and political intentions.

Effectively aggregate social support systems to achieve overall linkage. The social support system is the material and spiritual help and support that a person can obtain from others in his or her social network. It is a key factor that affects and determines the emotional support and cognitive direction of an individual. It can be said that for the success of cognitive domain operations, it is crucial to obtain the support and assistance of the target’s social support system. With the help of modern information technology, we can effectively connect to the target’s relatives, friends, classmates, partners and other specific social relations. By exerting targeted influence on the above-mentioned relations, we can gain the understanding, support and trust of the other party, and mobilize the specific relations to When the target object exerts influence, it is easier to win the trust and acceptance of the target object, and it is easier for the target object to undergo cognitive changes, thereby achieving the purpose of cognitive influence and control on the target object.

Virtual space becomes the main battlefield for cognitive domain operations

With the continuous expansion of human virtual space, virtual space is becoming the main battlefield of modern warfare, especially cognitive domain warfare, which determines the outcome of future wars to a certain extent.

Emerging communication forms have become new means of warfare in the cognitive domain. With the continuous development of mobile Internet technology, emerging communication forms represented by social media have gradually become a new platform and mainstream position for cognitive confrontation. Judging from recent local wars, the status and role of social media has become more and more prominent. All warring parties use personal blogs, forums and other platforms to publish battlefield graphics, video recordings and comments in real time, which has not only become a global mobile network media terminal It has also become the main battleground for the value perception game among different countries and different factions around the world. Emerging communication forms such as social media, with their unique decentralization and interactivity characteristics, have broken the information monopoly and information control in traditional communication methods and spawned numerous product styles. While meeting people’s information needs, they are also Unknowingly changing people’s perceptions. It is foreseeable that social media will play an increasingly prominent role in future cognitive domain operations.

Cyberspace has become a new space for cognitive domain operations. Under the conditions of informatization and intelligence, the threshold of network technology has been greatly reduced, making it possible to watch the game in real time around the world. Modern warfare has developed from “living room warfare” in the television era to “handheld warfare” in today’s all-media era. Online live broadcast is more intuitive and richer than any form of battlefield reporting, and “global synchronicity” has become a prominent feature. Through live broadcasts on the Internet, videos and pictures of fierce battles between the two warring parties, as well as numerous burned tanks and armored vehicles, as well as homes destroyed by the war and refugees fleeing their homes, can be visually displayed. People can see the micro-state of individual civilians and soldiers on both sides through the Internet. The “transparency” of the battlefield makes any attempt to conceal the truth and false statements more and more difficult. But on the other hand, the emergence of technologies such as intelligent voice cloning and video portrait simulation replacement means that what people see may not necessarily be “as seen” and what they hear may not be “as heard”. Cognition under online live broadcasts Domain operations add more room for possibility and imagination.

The intelligent network army has become a new force in cognitive domain warfare. The development of information networks has broken through the authenticity limitations of interpersonal communication, and it is difficult for us to determine whether the other end of the network is a real person. Based on the needs of large-scale interaction, intelligent, automated, and large-scale cyberspace robots are emerging. They are widely active in every corner of cyberspace. These intelligent network armies have the capabilities of intelligent recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. They are tireless and work around the clock. Intelligent network armies are becoming an important force in future cognitive domain operations. Judging from the current development trends of related technologies, major countries and even business organizations in the world are focusing on the potential prospects of network robots in group penetration, live broadcast follow-up, shaping public opinion, and managing network crises. In the flexible guidance of network intelligent robots, Increase research and development efforts on key technologies such as automatic acquisition of technology groups, automatic cultivation and group penetration, and provide intelligent and efficient technical support for public opinion guidance, cognitive shaping, and behavioral guidance and control by discovering and effectively utilizing the behavioral patterns of network users.