Category Archives: 中國認知戰和領域作戰


Chinese Military Analysis of Developing Intelligent Command Information Systems

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建平 紀鳳珠 李琳 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-08-09 12:OO



The era of intelligent warfare has begun. Command information systems with intelligent characteristics will become the “central nerve” of future intelligent combat command and the supporting means for intelligent combat command and control. Accelerating the construction of intelligent command information systems is an inherent requirement for the development of military intelligence. Only by clarifying the essentials of the development of intelligent command information systems, grasping the key points of research and development of intelligent command information systems, and exploring the key points of the development of intelligent command information systems can we better develop Promote the construction and development process of intelligent command information systems and win the opportunity to win future intelligent operations.

Clarify the essentials of the development of intelligent command information systems

Intelligent command information systems are an inevitable choice for the development of information-based and intelligent warfare. They are the inevitable result of the development of the scientific and technological revolution, and are also the demands of the times for the development of military intelligence. Clarifying the essence of the development of intelligent command information systems will help to grasp the direction of the construction of intelligent command information systems and establish long-term goals for system development.

Promote the intelligent evolution of warfare. In future intelligent operations, the battlefield situation will change rapidly and the battlefield environment will be complex and harsh. If you want to take the initiative on the battlefield, “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights, and intelligent command information systems will undoubtedly be an important support for future combat command and operations. Its intelligent development can promote the evolution of warfare into intelligence, and is an important basis for intelligent warfare to gain the upper hand and seek victory.

Support intelligent innovation of combat concepts. Future intelligent operations require corresponding combat command concepts, and the intelligent command information system is an important basis for the practical application of combat command concepts and the soil for the innovation and development of intelligent combat command concepts. New concepts of intelligent combat command such as human-machine hybrid command grouping, data-driven command activities, open development command model, and intelligent concentrated command process are all inseparable from the support of intelligent command information system. Intelligent command information system will serve as a human The extension of the brain breaks through the physiological limits of the human body and realizes the organic integration of combat command art and intelligent technology.

Promote intelligent transformation of combat methods. The widespread application of artificial intelligence technology in the military field has caused major changes in the mechanism of combat victory. Intelligence surpasses firepower and information power and has become the primary factor in determining the outcome of a war. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems will promote the transformation of combat methods to intelligence, making the combat methods transform from the “combat network + precision guided weapons” in the information age to the “intelligent Internet of Things + manned/unmanned combat platforms” in the intelligent age. The combat style has accordingly evolved from “network-centric warfare” to “cognition-centric warfare”.

Seize the key points of research and development of intelligent command information system

The command information system is a product of the era of informationized warfare. With the rapid development of military intelligence and the research and practical application of intelligent combat winning mechanisms, the intelligent upgrade and construction of the command information system is urgent. The key points of functional research and development should be highlighted to create a new intelligent command information system.

“Super brain” assisted decision-making. In future intelligent operations, the amount of battlefield information data will be huge and complex. Commanders will easily fall into the “information ocean” during the command process, leading to information confusion and affecting command decisions. With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain” and “digital consultants”, a new decision-making model based on “human brain + artificial intelligence” collaboration is quietly taking shape. The intelligent command information system will break through the limits of human intelligence, serve as an extension of the human brain, assist commanders in their work, and develop war decision-making from pure human brain decision-making to super-brain command decision-making of “human brain + artificial intelligence”.

“Full-dimensional” situational awareness. In future intelligent operations, the space will be multi-dimensional, the forces will be diverse, the styles will be diverse, and the pace will accelerate. Comprehensive and flexible grasp of the battlefield situation will become the basis for commanders’ decision-making. Multi-domain integration, intelligent and dynamic presentation of the full-dimensional battlefield situation will become the construction and development of command information systems. Necessary requirement. The command information system’s perception, understanding, fusion and prediction of battlefield situations such as target identification, threat level estimation, combat action prediction and future battle situation prediction are expanding from land, sea, air, space, electromagnetic, network and other spaces. to the cognitive domain and social domain to achieve “full-dimensional” situational awareness.

“Intelligent” network communication. In the future, intelligent operations will use a large number of intelligent command and control platforms and intelligent weapon platforms, and the connection between command and control platforms and weapon platforms must be intelligent information communication systems. Like the nerves and blood vessels of the human body, intelligent information and communication systems play a linking and lubricating role in intelligent operations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a full-dimensional coverage, uninterrupted intelligent information network to support the connectivity and control of intelligent equipment, and form intelligent optimization of network structure, intelligent reorganization of network invulnerability, and intelligent anti-interference capabilities to ensure intelligent collaboration between platforms Combat and exert the best overall combat effectiveness.

“Unmanned” autonomous collaboration. In recent local conflicts around the world, drones have been widely used and played an important role in determining the direction of the war, which has attracted widespread attention from all parties. Unmanned weapons and equipment are the material basis for intelligent warfare, and have formed subversive combat styles, such as intrusive lone wolf operations, manned/unmanned coordinated system attack operations, unmanned system formation independent operations, and unmanned aerial vehicles. Swarm combat, etc. Although unmanned combat is led by humans, machines are given a certain degree of autonomous action authority in the background, thereby enabling machines to perform unmanned combat operations on the front line. However, the unmanned combat battlefield is changing rapidly, and the destruction of human-machine collaboration will become the norm. The command and control system of the unmanned intelligent equipment platform must be smarter and be able to conduct autonomous coordinated operations according to the combat purpose.

“Active” information defense. Intelligent operations will inevitably face all-dimensional and diverse information attacks from powerful enemies. The level of information security protection capabilities directly affects the outcome of the battle for “intelligence control” on the battlefield, and is a key link in the construction of intelligent command information systems. Therefore, we should take the initiative to actively formulate and improve network protection strategies, enrich intrusion detection capabilities and authentication identification methods, strengthen the application of high-tech information security, strengthen the anti-interference and anti-intervention capabilities of various wireless transmission methods, and build and strengthen intelligent traceability response. control capabilities to effectively contain information attacks.

Explore the key points for the development of intelligent command information systems

The development of intelligent command information systems is not only a technological innovation, but also requires further emancipation of minds and updating of concepts. To promote the development of intelligent command information systems, we must change the traditional thinking of adding hardware, building a large “network”, and collecting and storing various types of data. We must break through the inherent hierarchical settings and create an open and service-oriented system to target the needs of intelligent combat command and operations. , explore and study the key points for the development of intelligent command information systems.

Innovative ideas. Adhere to the guidance of innovative thinking concepts, learn from the development ideas of intelligent command information systems of military powers, and explore a development path with its own characteristics based on actual needs. It is necessary to break the traditional “chimney building” approach, adhere to the top-level design and overall planning of the command information system, unify interfaces, protocols and standards, and form an open and sustainable system architecture layout; adhere to the system research and development ideas that combine research, construction and application, and formulate Develop strategies for different stages in the near, medium and long term to standardize the development direction of system construction; adhere to iterative upgrades, optimization and improvement strategies, and continuously improve the intelligence level of command and control, intelligence reconnaissance, communications, information countermeasures and comprehensive support to ensure intelligence The command information system continues to develop healthily.

Concentration is the key. Focusing on the key capabilities of the intelligent command information system is an important basis for intelligent warfare to gather superior intelligence and win with intelligence, and is the key to obtaining “victory power” for intelligent warfare. Algorithms, computing power, and data are not only the intrinsic driving force and support for the development of artificial intelligence, but also the core capability requirements and advantages of intelligent command information systems. The development of intelligent command information systems must adhere to algorithm innovation research to improve the system’s cognitive advantages, speed advantages and decision-making advantages; accelerate the research and development of next-generation computers represented by quantum computers to provide stronger computing power support for intelligent command information systems; Deeply explore the value of deeper and wider dimensions of information in massive combat data resources to seek opportunities for victory.

Gather wisdom to tackle key problems. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems is one of the main projects of military intelligence. It is a multi-domain, multi-disciplinary, multi-department and multi-unit participation project of great integration and linkage. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems must adhere to the spirit of teamwork, collective wisdom, and pioneering innovation, and target strategic and forward-looking fields such as sensors, quantum information, network communications, integrated circuits, key software, big data, artificial intelligence, and blockchain. Adhere to the promotion of high and new technologies and the demand for intelligent combat, carry out in-depth research and exchanges in multiple fields, multiple levels, and multiple forms, and continue to make breakthroughs, innovations, and iterative upgrades to make the intelligent command information system more complete and smarter.

Collaborative development. To further promote the construction and development of intelligent command information systems, we must fully absorb local advanced technological achievements and integrate into the current trend of world artificial intelligence innovation and development. At present, the world’s artificial intelligence technology is developing vigorously, accumulating strong development momentum and technological advantages. The application of artificial intelligence technology is highly versatile and has broad prospects for the transformation and application of technological achievements. It is an important way to realize the construction and development of intelligent command information systems. It is necessary to study and formulate general technical standards, tear down barriers, break ice, smooth military-civilian cooperation, and achieve shared linkage of technological achievements. It is necessary to cultivate and shape new types of military talents through collaborative training, so that they can continuously adapt to the needs of various positions under intelligent conditions and give full play to the effectiveness of intelligent command information systems.



智慧戰爭時代已經開始。 具有智慧化特徵的指揮資訊系統將成為未來智慧化作戰指揮的「中樞神經」和智慧化作戰指揮控制的支撐手段。 加快智慧指揮資訊系統建置是軍事情報發展的內在需求。 只有明確智慧指揮資訊系統發展的要義,抓住智慧指揮資訊系統的研發重點,探索智慧指揮資訊系統的發展要點,才能更好地發展,推動智慧指揮資訊系統的建構與發展。指揮資訊系統智慧化進程,贏得未來智能化作戰的先機。


智慧指揮資訊系統是資訊化、智慧化戰爭發展的必然選擇。 它們是科技革命發展的必然結果,也是時代對軍事情報發展的要求。 明確智慧指揮資訊系統發展的本質,有助於掌握智慧指揮資訊系統的建構方向,確立系統發展的長遠目標。

推動戰爭智能化演進。 未來智慧化作戰中,戰場局勢瞬息萬變,戰場環境複雜惡劣。 想要在戰場上佔據主動,「智力」將成為新的製高點,而智慧指揮資訊系統無疑將成為未來作戰指揮與作戰的重要支撐。 其智慧化發展可以推動戰爭朝向智慧化演進,是智慧化戰爭佔上風、取得勝利的重要基礎。

支持作戰理念智能化創新。 未來智慧化作戰需要相應的作戰指揮理念,而智慧指揮資訊系統是作戰指揮理念實際應用的重要基礎,也是智慧化作戰指揮理念創新發展的土壤。 人機混合指揮編組、資料驅動指揮活動、開放式開發指揮模型、智慧化集中指揮流程等智慧化作戰指揮新理念,都離不開智慧指揮資訊系統的支撐。 智慧指揮資訊系統將作為人類大腦的延伸,突破人體的生理極限,實現作戰指揮藝術與智慧技術的有機融合。

推動作戰方式智能化變革。 人工智慧技術在軍事領域的廣泛應用,引發了戰鬥勝利機制的重大變化。 情報超越火力、資訊力,成為決定戰爭勝負的首要因素。 智慧指揮資訊系統的建構和發展將推動作戰方式向智慧化轉變,使作戰方式從資訊時代的「作戰網路+精確制導武器」轉變為「智慧物聯網+有人/無人作戰」。智慧時代的「平台」。 作戰方式也相應地從「網路中心戰」演變為「認知中心戰」。


指揮資訊系統是資訊化戰爭時代的產物。 隨著軍事智慧化的快速發展以及智慧化作戰制勝機制的研究和實際應用,指揮資訊系統的智慧化升級和建設刻不容緩。 突顯功能研發重點,打造新型智慧指揮資訊系統。

“超級大腦”輔助決策。 未來智慧化作戰中,戰場資訊資料量將龐大且複雜。 指揮官在指揮過程中很容易陷入“資訊海洋”,導致資訊混亂,影響指揮決策。 隨著智慧輔助決策技術以及「雲端大腦」、「數位顧問」的出現,基於「人腦+人工智慧」協同的新型決策模式正在悄悄形成。 智慧指揮資訊系統將突破人類智力的極限,作為人腦的延伸,輔助指揮的工作,發展戰爭決策


「全維度」態勢感知。 未來的智慧化作戰,空間將是多維的,力量將是多元化的,風格將是多樣化的,步伐將加快。 全面、靈活地掌握戰場情勢將成為指揮官決策的依據。 多域融合、全維度戰場態勢智慧化、動態呈現將成為指揮資訊系統的建構與發展。 必要的要求。 指揮資訊系統對目標識別、威脅等級估計、作戰行動預測、未來戰勢預測等戰場態勢的感知、理解、融合和預測正在從陸、海、空、太空、電磁、網路等空間拓展。 向認知域和社交域實現「全維度」的態勢感知。

「智慧型」網路通訊。 未來智慧化作戰將大量使用智慧指揮控制平台和智慧武器平台,指揮控制平台和武器平台之間的連接必須是智慧資訊通訊系統。 智慧資訊與通訊系統就像人體的神經、血管一樣,在智慧運作中發揮連結與潤滑作用。 因此,需要建立全維度覆蓋、不間斷的智慧資訊網絡,支撐智慧設備的連接與控制,形成網絡結構智慧最佳化、網絡抗毀性智慧重組、智慧抗干擾能力,保障智慧設備的智慧化。平台之間協同作戰,發揮最佳的整體戰鬥力。

「無人」自主協作。 在近期世界各地的局部衝突中,無人機已廣泛應用,並在決定戰爭走向方面發揮了重要作用,引起各方廣泛關注。 無人武器裝備是智慧戰爭的物質基礎,已形成侵入性獨狼作戰、有人/無人協同系統攻擊作戰、無人系統編隊獨立作戰、無人機等顛覆性作戰方式。 群體作戰等。雖然無人作戰是由人類主導,但在後台賦予機器一定程度的自主行動權限,從而使機器能夠在前線進行無人作戰行動。 然而,無人作戰戰場瞬息萬變,人機協作的破壞將成為常態。 無人智能裝備平台的指揮控制系統必須更智能,能夠根據作戰目的進行自主協調作戰。

“主動”訊息防禦。 智慧作戰必然面臨強大敵人全方位、多樣化的資訊攻擊。 資安防護能力的高低,直接影響戰場「智控」爭奪戰的勝負,是智慧指揮資訊系統建構的關鍵環節。 因此,我們應主動出擊,積極制定和完善網路防護策略,豐富入侵偵測能力和認證識別手段,加強資訊安全高新技術的應用,加強各種無線傳輸方式的抗干擾和防介入能力。 ,建構和強化智慧追溯響應。 控制能力,有效遏止資訊攻擊。


智慧指揮資訊系統的發展不僅是技術創新,更需要進一步解放思想、更新觀念。 推動智慧指揮資訊系統發展,必須改變傳統的增加硬體、建構大「網路」、採集和儲存各類數據的思維。 我們要突破固有的層級設置,針對智慧化作戰指揮與作戰需求,打造開放式、服務化的體系。 ,探索研究智慧指揮資訊系統發展的關鍵點。

創新的想法。 堅持創新思維理念引領,借鏡軍事強國智慧指揮資訊系統發展思路,立足實際需求,探索出一條具有自身特色的發展道路。 要打破傳統的「煙囪式建築」做法,堅持

對指揮資訊系統進行頂層設計與總體規劃,統一介面、協定與標準,形成開放、永續的系統架構佈局; 堅持研究、建置、應用結合的系統研發思路,制定近、中、長期不同階段的發展策略,規範系統建設的發展方向; 堅持迭代升級、優化改進策略,不斷提高指揮控制、情報偵察、通訊、資訊對抗和綜合保障等智慧化水平,確保情報指揮資訊系統持續健康發展。

專注是關鍵。 聚焦智慧指揮資訊系統關鍵能力,是智慧戰爭匯集優勢情報、以智取勝的重要基礎,是獲得智慧戰爭「制勝動力」的關鍵。 演算法、算力、數據不僅是人工智慧發展的內在驅動力和支撐,也是智慧指揮資訊系統的核心能力需求和優勢。 智慧指揮資訊系統的發展必須堅持演算法創新研究,提高系統的認知優勢、速度優勢和決策優勢; 加速以量子電腦為代表的下一代電腦研發,為智慧指揮資訊系統提供更強算力支撐。 深入挖掘海量作戰資料資源中更深層、更廣維度的資訊價值,尋求制勝先機。

集思廣益,攻堅克難。 智慧指揮資訊系統的建置與發展是軍事情報的重大工程之一。 它是一個多領域、多學科、多部門、多單位共同參與、高度整合、連結的工程。 智慧指揮資訊系統建置發展必須堅持團隊協作、集體智慧、開拓創新的精神,瞄準感測器、量子資訊、網路通訊、積體電路、關鍵軟體、大數據等策略性、前瞻性領域、人工智慧和區塊鏈。 堅持高新技術推廣與智慧化作戰需求,多領域、多層次、多形式深入進行研究交流,不斷突破、創新、迭代升級,使智慧化指揮資訊系統更加完善、更有智慧。

協同開發。 進一步推動智慧指揮資訊系統建設發展,必須充分吸收本土先進技術成果,融入當前世界人工智慧創新發展趨勢。 目前,世界人工智慧技術蓬勃發展,累積了強勁的發展動力和技術優勢。 人工智慧技術應用通用性強,技術成果轉化應用前景廣闊。 是實現智慧指揮資訊系統建置與發展的重要途徑。 要研究制定通用技術標準,破除壁壘、破冰,暢通軍民合作,實現技術成果共享連動。 要透過協同訓練培養塑造新型軍事人才,使其不斷適應智慧化條件下各崗位需求,充分發揮智慧指揮資訊系統的效能。



Chinese Military Ordered to Emphasize “High Quality” and Achieve “Acceleration” – Military representatives discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建文 岳雨彤 責任編輯:葉夢圓 2024-03-05 08:12:20




■解放軍報記者 李建文 岳雨桐



高品質發展是全面建構社會主義現代化國家的首要任務。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,加速把人民軍隊建設成為世界一流軍隊,是全面建設社會主義現代化國家的戰略要求。

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”。 軍隊代表表示,國防和軍隊現代化建設,只有把高品質發展放在首位,加強創新突破,轉變發展理念,創新發展模式,增強發展動力,才能抓住窗口期,加快推進國防和軍隊現代化建設。 ,確保建軍百年奮鬥目標如期實現。


2023年,中國創新動力與發展活力將迸發。 C919大型飛機實現商業飛行、國產大型郵輪完成試航、「神舟」家族太空接力、「奮鬥號」極限深潛…

紮實推動高品質發展,創新驅動累積發展動能,美麗中國走向「新」。 軍隊代表一致認為,高品質發展是新時代硬道理。 國防和軍隊現代化作為國家現代化的重要組成部分,必須積極落實高品質發展要求,確保國防和軍隊現代化進程與國家現代化進程一致、軍事能力與國家戰略需求一致。

目前,實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標已進入攻堅克難期和壓力增大的衝刺期。 軍隊代表深刻體認到,發展速度太慢,品質低落。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,很大程度取決於轉變發展理念、創新發展模式、增強發展動力。 只有清醒認識“硬道理”,自覺推動高品質發展,真正把發展方式轉向系統化、內涵式發展,才能推動我軍建設發展品質變革、效率變革、動力變革,不斷提高軍隊建設發展水平。國防和軍隊現代化品質。 益處。

推動我軍高品質發展,必須牢固樹立「五個聚焦」戰略引領。 多位軍隊代表表示,「五個更加聚焦」為新時代我軍建設確立了戰略指導,明確了發展方向、發展動力、發展方式、發展模式、發展路徑。 我們必須糾正一切不符合實戰要求的思想行為,加大創新對戰鬥力增長的貢獻,提高我軍體係作戰能力,提高國防和軍隊建設的精準度,鞏固提高一體化的國家戰略體系和能力。

「一切為了打仗,一切為了勝利。我軍高品質發展必須圍繞著能打仗、打勝仗。」 高高強代表表示,軍隊的主要職責是備戰,發展理念要指向戰鬥力建設,最終要落到全面提高打贏能力方面,推動高水平打仗。 ——高質量發展,戰鬥力躍升。

先進的思想造就現代化的軍隊; 創新理念,成就輝煌發展。 “近年來,我們強化作戰需求牽引,上高原、下海洋、跨界飛行,系統訓練、系統訓練已成為新常態。” 談起身邊的變化,郝景文代表感慨萬千,“實戰化、創新化、系統化、集約化、融合化這樣的新理念正在融入國防和軍隊建設的方方面面、全過程。”


多年來,我們堅持打仗、備戰、建設並舉,戰建備一體化的良好局面取得了可喜成果。 徐安祥代表表示,黨的二十大報告提出“堅持打仗、備戰”,“邊防建設”不僅是有效履行人民軍隊使命任務的必然要求新時代,也是推動我軍高質量發展、實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標的科學決策。

軍隊各項工作必須以備戰為中心,把高品質發展實際落實到我軍建設全過程各領域。 多位陸軍代表表示,近年來,陸軍深化戰備政治工作體系建設,加強認知作戰、人才保障等實際問題研究,嵌入演練訓練,創新戰時政治工作模式,並改善服務和準備。 獲勝貢獻率。




這種情況是令人欣慰和鼓舞的。 “改革創新是我軍發展的強大動力,推動高品質發展,必須用改革創新的方法研究解決問題。” 張紅星代表表示,適應世界軍事發展趨勢和我軍戰略能力發展需要,必須堅持國防和軍事改革深入推進,堅持推動國防和軍隊高質量發展以改革創新精神,使我軍建設發展和戰鬥力生成模式盡快轉向創新驅動發展軌道。

“只有不斷改革創新,才能不斷獲得發展進步的活力。” 劉偉代表表示,我軍的發展史也是一部改革創新史。 面對世界新軍事革命的嚴峻挑戰和難得機遇,我們必須堅持把創新放在我軍總體建設發展的核心位置,依靠科技進步和創新提高軍隊素質和戰鬥力。軍隊。

“作為親歷者,我切身感受到近年來軍隊科技創新能力的快速提升。” 吳德偉特派員表示,近年來,他們加強關鍵核心技術研究,推動先進科技加速轉化為戰鬥力。

科技創新是高品質發展的核心動力。 有各軍兵種軍隊代表表示,近年來,全軍大力推動訓練轉型升級,探索「科技+」、「網路+」等訓練方法與手段,推動新裝備融合發展。把新力量、新領域納入系統培養,加速新素質戰鬥力生成提高。

高品質發展依賴創新,創新的基礎在於人才。 軍學院和科學研究單位代表表示,要深入貫徹新時代軍事教育方針,實施大學優先發展戰略,深化軍事教育改革創新,完善「三化」建設。— 建立新的軍事人才培育體系,提高備戰打仗人才供給能力和供給能力。 等級。




實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,有明確的政治方向、戰略方向、實踐方向,根本是提升捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。 多位軍隊代表表示,改革重塑後,軍隊力量更加多元化、要素更加多元、運作更加複雜。 加速建立健全適應資訊化戰爭和履行使命任務要求的新型管理模式,提高國防資源使用效率,提高軍隊建設和使用效率。

戰略管理作為國防和軍隊建設的最高層管理,是管全局、管長遠、管大事的宏觀管理活動。 它從頂層規劃和設計軍事資源的投入。 軍隊代表表示,加強戰略管理是軍隊管理的樞紐,是推動我軍高品質發展的關鍵。

國家因治而興,軍隊因治而興。 黨的二十大報告提出“全面加強治軍”,體現了我們黨對新時代軍隊建設和管理規律的深刻把握。 「這幾年,我們著力解決基層官兵的各種急、難、急問題,把官兵的煩惱變成暖心的事。」 軍隊代表表示,基層是軍隊一切工作和戰鬥力的基礎,全面加強軍隊治理必須始終堅持依靠基層、建設強基層的寶貴經驗,不斷釋放基層治理活力。

軍事治理根本上就是製度治理。 軍事制度越完善,制度執行得越有力,軍事治理就越有效。 袁偉代表表示,近年來,不斷推動軍事政策和體制改革,著力把戰爭、建設、準備等各項治理活動納入法治軌道,堅持依法管理和科學治理相統一,增強軍隊建設管理的科學性、有效性。 性別。

春天的陽光灑滿大地,戰爭的號角在耳邊迴響。 軍隊代表紛紛表示,要堅持把高品質發展放在第一位,強化如期交出歷史答案卷的使命,加快推進新時代強軍鬥爭,全力以赴打好攻堅戰為實現建軍百年奮鬥目標而奮鬥。



Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”

——Army representatives and members discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

■People’s Liberation Army Daily reporter Li Jianwen and Yue Yutong

The journey of thousands of miles is going strong, and we are pursuing our dreams for another year.

At the opening of the National Two Sessions, two words were repeatedly mentioned by military representatives: one is “high quality” and the other is “acceleration.”

High-quality development is the primary task of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army are strategic requirements for comprehensively building a modern socialist country.

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”. Representatives of the military have stated that in the modernization of national defense and the military, only by putting high-quality development first, strengthening innovative breakthroughs, changing development concepts, innovating development models, and enhancing development momentum can we seize the window period, accelerate, and ensure The centenary goal of the founding of the army was achieved as scheduled.

Grasp the hard truth of the new era

In 2023, China’s innovation power and development vitality will surge forward. The C919 large aircraft has achieved commercial flight, the domestic large-scale cruise ship has completed its trial voyage, the “Shenzhou” family space relay, the “Struggle” extreme deep dive…

High-quality development is solidly promoted, innovation drives the accumulation of development momentum, and Beautiful China moves towards “newness”. Military representatives unanimously believe that high-quality development is the last word in the new era. As an important part of national modernization, national defense and military modernization must actively implement high-quality development requirements to ensure that the national defense and military modernization process is consistent with the national modernization process, and military capabilities are consistent with national strategic needs.

At present, the realization of the 100-year goal of the founding of the army has entered a critical period of hard work and a sprint period of increasing pressure. The military representatives are deeply aware that development is too slow, let alone low quality. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled depends largely on changes in development concepts, innovation in development models, and enhancement of development momentum. Only by consciously promoting high-quality development with a clear understanding of “hard truth” and truly shifting the development model to systematic and connotative development can we promote quality changes, efficiency changes, and motivation changes in our military’s construction and development, and continuously improve the quality of national defense and military modernization. benefit.

To promote the high-quality development of our military, we must firmly establish the strategic guidance of “Five More Focuses”. Many military representatives said that the “Five More Focuses” have established strategic guidance for the construction of our military in the new era, clarifying the development direction, development motivation, development methods, development models, and development paths. We must correct all thoughts and behaviors that are inconsistent with actual combat requirements, increase the contribution of innovation to the growth of combat effectiveness, improve the combat capabilities of our military system, improve the accuracy of national defense and military development, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities.

“Everything is for fighting, everything is for victory. The high-quality development of our army must focus on being able to fight and win wars.” Representative Gao Gaoqiang said that the main responsibility of the army is to prepare for war, and the development concept should be directed towards the construction of combat effectiveness, which should ultimately fall to In terms of comprehensively improving the ability to win, we will promote high-quality development with a jump in combat effectiveness.

Advanced ideas lead to a modern military; innovative ideas lead to brilliant development. “In recent years, we have strengthened the traction of combat needs, going to plateaus, going to the ocean, and flying across borders. System training and system training have become the new normal.” Talking about the changes around him, Representative Hao Jingwen was filled with emotion, “Actual combat, innovation, system, intensiveness, and integration Such new concepts are being incorporated into all aspects and the entire process of national defense and military construction.”

“In the past few years, we have insisted on fighting, preparing for war, and building at the same time, and the good situation of integrating war, construction, and preparation has achieved gratifying results.” Representative Xu Anxiang said that the report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “persisting in fighting, preparing for war, and “Border construction” is not only an inevitable requirement for effectively fulfilling the missions and tasks of the People’s Army in the new era, but also a scientific decision to promote the high-quality development of our army and achieve the 100-year goal of the founding of the army.

All work in the military must focus on preparing for war and effectively implement high-quality development into all areas of the entire process of building our military. Several representatives from the Army said that in recent years, the Army has deepened the system construction of political work in preparation for war, strengthened research on practical issues such as cognitive operations and talent support, embedded in exercises and training to innovate wartime political work models, and improved service and preparation. Win contribution rate.

Need motivation to deepen reform and innovation

Only reformers advance, only innovators are strong, and only reformers and innovators win.

The command system is lean and efficient, the scale and structure are constantly optimized, joint combat training has opened up a new situation, and policies and systems have become more perfect… Members of the military representatives deeply feel that since the comprehensive implementation of the strategy of reform and strengthening the military, the people’s army has accelerated its breakthrough in the “new system era” Cocoon butterfly transformation.

The situation is gratifying and inspiring. “Reform and innovation are a powerful driving force for the development of our military. To promote high-quality development, we must use reform and innovation methods to study and solve problems.” Representative Zhang Hongxing said that to adapt to the world’s military development trends and the development needs of our military’s strategic capabilities, we must persist in The reform of national defense and the military is advancing in depth, and we insist on promoting high-quality development in the spirit of reform and innovation, so that our military’s construction and development and combat effectiveness generation model can be shifted to the track of innovation-driven development as soon as possible.

“Only through continuous reform and innovation can we continue to gain vitality for development and progress.” Representative Liu Wei said that the development history of our army is also a history of reform and innovation. Facing the severe challenges and rare opportunities of the world’s new military revolution, we must insist on placing innovation at the core of the overall construction and development of our military, and rely on scientific and technological progress and innovation to improve the quality and combat effectiveness of the military.

“As a witness, I personally feel the rapid improvement of the military’s scientific and technological innovation capabilities in recent years.” Commissioner Wu Dewei said that in recent years, they have strengthened research on key core technologies and promoted the accelerated transformation of advanced science and technology into combat effectiveness.

Technological innovation is the core driving force for high-quality development. Some military representatives from various services and arms said that in recent years, the entire military has vigorously promoted the transformation and upgrading of training, explored training methods and means such as “technology +” and “network +”, promoted the integration of new equipment, new forces and new fields into system training, and accelerated new Quality combat effectiveness generation is improved.

High-quality development relies on innovation, and the foundation of innovation lies in talents. Military representatives from military academies and scientific research units said that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the military education policy of the new era, implement the priority development strategy of colleges and universities, deepen the reform and innovation of military education, improve the three-in-one new military talent training system, and improve the supply capacity and supply of talent for war preparation and fighting. level.

Use high-level governance to promote overall improvement

“Currently, accelerating the formation of strategic capabilities of our military is a hard-core task. We must base ourselves on the overall situation to plan a domain, integrate into the system to prepare for war, focus on core priorities, decompose capability indicators, draw a mission map, formulate a timetable, and advance node by node, one by one Solve difficult problems to ensure that papers are handed in on time and returned to work as scheduled.” Representative Zhang Dongxu said.

“Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army contains clear political, strategic and practical directions. The fundamental thing is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security and development interests.” Many military representatives said that after the reform and reshaping , the military strength is more diverse, the elements are more diverse, and the operation is more complex. We should speed up the establishment and improvement of a new management model that adapts to information warfare and the requirements of fulfilling missions and tasks, improve the efficiency of the use of national defense resources, and improve the efficiency of military force construction and use.

As the highest-level management of national defense and military construction, strategic management is a macro-management activity that manages the overall situation, long-term management, and major events. It plans and designs the investment of military resources from the top level. Military representatives said that strengthening strategic management is the hub of military management and the key to promoting the high-quality development of our military.

A country thrives on governance, and an army thrives on governance. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “comprehensively strengthening military governance”, which reflects our party’s profound grasp of the laws of military building and management in the new era. “In the past few years, we have focused on solving various urgent, difficult and anxious problems of officers and soldiers at the grassroots level, and turning the troubles of officers and soldiers into heart-warming things.” The representative of the army said that the grassroots level is the foundation of all the work and combat effectiveness of the army, and comprehensively strengthening military governance must always be Persist in relying on the valuable experience of grassroots and building strong grassroots, and constantly release the vitality of grassroots governance.

Military governance is fundamentally the governance of systems. The more perfect the military system is and the more powerful the system is implemented, the more effective military governance will be. Representative Yuan Wei said that in recent years, the continuous advancement of military policy and system reforms has focused on integrating various governance activities of war, construction, and preparation into the rule of law, adhering to the unification of legal management and scientific governance, and enhancing the scientific and effective nature of military construction management. sex.

The spring sunshine fills the earth, and the horn of war echoes in the ears. Representatives of the armed forces have expressed that they must insist on putting high-quality development first, strengthen the mission of handing in historical answers as scheduled, accelerate the struggle to strengthen the army in the new era, and go all out to fight the tough battle to achieve the centenary goal of the founding of the army.

(People’s Liberation Army Daily, Beijing, March 4)



Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation


迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。


 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。

 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。


 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。



 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。


 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。



 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。


 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。



     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。


     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。


     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。


     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。



     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。


     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。


     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.

    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.

    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.


    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.



Chinese Military From “Cyber Warfare” to “Mosaic Warfare”


理論是行動的先導。 加強作戰理念創新、推動作戰指導創新一直是世界各國軍隊培養軍事優勢的重要途徑。 近年來,美軍先後提出「網路戰」、「馬賽克戰」等前線作戰理論,以實現作戰模式的「生產關係」能夠更適應「生產力」的發展的作戰能力。 透過這兩種作戰理論的比較分析,世人可以一窺美軍作戰能力建設思維的變化,特別是對「馬賽克戰」制勝機制的認識,從而有的放矢,找到有效的把關。和餘額。

● 從威脅反應到戰爭設計—


「基於威脅」或「基於能力」是軍事作戰能力建構的兩種基本方式。 「威脅為本」體現需求牽引,著力解決近中期實際問題,是軍隊作戰能力建構應遵循的基本法則; 「能力為本」體現目標牽引,瞄準未來戰略任務,以新作戰理論支撐戰略理念,是軍事行動的關鍵。 這樣,才能實現能力的創新與超越。 從「網路戰」到「馬賽克戰」的發展,體現了上述兩種方式內在規律的差異和演變,也體現了近年來美軍推進作戰能力建設的思路和理念的變化。

觀念開始改變。 網路空間最初是為了解決人類的交流需求而創建的。 後來逐漸演變為獨立於陸、海、空、天的新作戰域。 由此衍生出以爭奪網路空間主導權為核心的「網路空間」。 相較之下,「馬賽克戰」是美軍為維持戰略優勢、直接針對競爭對手而主動研發設計的新作戰理念。其形成過程體現了需求驅動與能力驅動相結合、戰略性、主動性、牽引力更加突出。

技術應用新思路。 「網路戰」強調發展新一代技術來支持作戰理念的轉變和實施。 《馬賽克戰》突破了這個模式,並不過度強調新一代裝備技術的研發。 更注重軍民共性技術的快速轉化和成熟技術的漸進式迭代。 其基本想法是,依照叫車、眾籌開發等服務平台的應用理念,在現有裝備的基礎上,透過模組升級和智慧化改造,將各種作戰系統單元「鑲嵌」成單功能、可靈活組裝的單元。 、易於更換的“積木”或“像素”,建構動態協調、高度自主、無縫整合的作戰系統,體現新技術驅動的概念。

路徑開發新設計。 「網路戰」是網路空間的一個伴隨概念。 網路空間發展到哪裡,「網路戰」就會隨之而來。 一般來說,我們在進行「主觀」概念設計之前,先考慮「客觀」物質條件。 ,對路徑發展有很強的依賴。 「馬賽克戰」首先從「主觀」演變為「客觀」。 透過開發能夠動態調整職能結構的部隊設計模型,能夠適應不同的作戰需求和戰場環境的變化。


● 從網路中心到決策中心—


人工智慧技術是資訊時代的關鍵變量,也是「馬賽克戰」體系發展的核心增量。 “網路戰”強調“網路中心”,而“馬賽克戰”緊緊圍繞著人工智慧技術核心,將制勝關鍵從“網路中心”調整為“決策中心”,將作戰系統架構從“從系統級到平台級的聯盟轉變為功能級、要素級的融合,尋求在網路能量充分匯聚的前提下,利用群體智慧技術實現系統能量的最佳化釋放,賦予網路新的內涵。智慧戰爭的致勝機制


用“快”控制“慢”,在認知上佔上風。 未來戰爭中,戰場情勢瞬息萬變,時間元素的權重將持續上升。 「快」與「慢」可以產生近乎尺寸縮小的戰鬥打擊效果。 「馬賽克戰」利用資料資訊技術與人工智慧技術,提升己方「OODA」循環的單循環決策速度,擴大並行決策的廣度,降低群循環決策的粒度,加快系統運作進度,整體打造領先一步的典範。 「先發制人」的姿態旨在牢牢掌控戰場認知決策的主導地位。

用“低”控“高”,累積成本優勢。 與追求高端武器平台的傳統作戰概念不同,「馬賽克戰」著重於利用人工智慧技術挖掘現有武器平台和作戰資源的潛力並提高效率。 透過在眾多中低階武器平台上載入並運行智慧演算法和特定功能模組,可以實現與高階武器平台相媲美的作戰性能。 這整體提高了武器平台投入產出的成本效益,進而累積成本優勢。

以“散”控“聚”,求可持續生存。 「馬賽克戰」強調運用去中心化思想和非對稱制衡,利用開放的系統架構,在各種有人/無人平台上去中心化配置偵察、定位、通信、打擊等各種功能,實現力量的分佈式部署。 同時利用智慧演算法,提升各平台的自組織、自協調、獨立攻擊能力,進而實現集中火力。 當部分作戰平台被消滅、打亂或剝離時,整個作戰體系仍能正常運行,進而增強部隊集群的戰場生存能力。

用“動”控“靜”,提高系統靈活性。 「馬賽克戰」強調進一步突破各作戰領域的障礙。 透過將不同作戰域的固定“殺傷鏈”變成動態可重構的“殺傷網”,將“OODA”大環拆解為小環,將單環分化為多環。 根據作戰流程和作戰需求的變化,依靠智慧組網,實現作戰力量的動態分割、動態部署、動態組合。 這樣,一方面可以增強作戰系統的彈性和適應性; 另一方面,它也可以抵消複雜網路的節點聚合效應,使對手很難找到關鍵節點來擊敗自己的系統。

「馬賽克戰爭」為智慧戰爭提供了參考原型。 但同時,「馬賽克戰爭」作為一種理想化的力量設計與運用框架,也需要與其密切相關的技術、條令、政策等支撐支撐。 距離完全實現還有很長的路要走。 與傳統戰爭相比,系統共存的局面將長期存在。

● 從要素整合到系統重組—


結構和關係常常決定功能和屬性。 「網路戰」與「馬賽克戰」建立在資訊時代相同的物質基礎上,遵循相同的演化範式,但係統建構的原理和效果不同。 「網路戰」所形成的架構可以靜態解構,而「馬賽克戰」則依照一定的建構規則動態組合功能單元,形成具有自組織和自適應特性的彈性架構,類似「動態黑盒子」。 常規手段難以追蹤和預測。 這種靈活的結構經常「湧現」新的能力,以增強和提高作戰系統的效率。

網路與雲端融合發展,使作戰空間和時間更具動態性和可塑性。 網際網路和雲端是資訊作戰系統運作的基礎環境。 它們重塑了傳統作戰中的情報、指揮、攻擊、支援等流程要素,同時衍生出新的作戰時空。 「網路戰」主要針對網路空間,其作戰時間和空間相對靜態。 「馬賽克戰」並不限於單一的作戰空間。 在資訊基礎設施網路隨雲而動、雲端網融合的發展趨勢下

無形空間和無形空間可以進一步鉸接,作戰空間和時間的界限更加靈活,作戰資源的配置更加靈活。 戰鬥架構更加動態。

數據跨域流動,使戰鬥控制更加無縫協調。 在指揮控制環節,「網路戰」著重於聯合作戰指揮機構對作戰單位的指揮控制,資料的跨域交換與流動主要集中在戰區戰場。 「馬賽克戰」將聯合作戰的水平進一步降低到戰術端。 透過戰術層面資料的獨立跨域交換和無縫流動,可以將各種資料孤島按需聚集成資料集群,從而產生顯著的「溢出」效應,使得資料的動態、離散、敏捷、並行的特性作戰指揮控制迴路更加明顯,更有利於實現各作戰單元按需敏捷連動、高效協同行動。

演算法穿透各個維度,讓系統運作更自主、更有效率。 演算法是人類意識在網路空間的映射,形成兩種基本形式:意圖轉化的編譯碼和知識轉化的神經網路。 在《網路戰》中,大量使用編譯程式碼,而神經網路僅在本地使用。 在「馬賽克戰爭」中,演算法拓展到塑造規則和提供引擎兩大關鍵功能,應用的廣度和深度更為凸顯。 塑造規則以編譯碼為主,神經網路為輔,建構「馬賽克戰」系統的流程架構與運作邏輯,為其不確定性、適應性和「突現」能力奠定結構基礎; 提供引擎主要整合智慧演算法模型,分送到邊緣要素進行運算,形成知識擴散效應,從而全面提升「馬賽克戰」系統的智慧自主作戰能力。

邊緣能量的獨立釋放,讓戰鬥方式更靈活多元。 邊緣是各種有人/無人作戰功能單元的抽像模型,也是系統能力「湧現」的直接來源。 在「網路戰」體系中,邊緣要素與上級和下級指揮控制流程緊密耦合,處於精確控制狀態。 在「馬賽克戰爭」系統中,邊緣要素的感知、互動、推理、決策能力大幅提升。 其「OODA」循環無需回溯至上級指揮機構,有利於支撐形成高低、有人/無人的分散組合。 優化的作戰集群形態可以賦予邊緣分子更多的自組織權威,顯著增強戰場對抗優勢。

可見,如果說「網路戰」被稱為精密的戰爭機器,那麼「馬賽克戰」則可以被視為一個能夠激發作戰能力動態增長的複雜「生態」。 網路雲、資料、演算法和邊緣設備產生的新技術變化促進了動態且複雜的「架構」的形成。 這種結構反過來又對要素、平台和系統進行反向調節,不斷湧現新的能力,對作戰系統的賦能和演進發揮重要作用。

● 從制度突破到複合對抗——


「馬賽克戰」在某種程度上代表了未來聯合作戰的可能發展方向。 要充分研究掌握「馬賽克戰」制勝機制,將資訊通信領域塑造成為打破傳統戰爭時空界限的新領域,打造雲化作戰新理念,建構強大的資訊通訊領域新格局。國防資訊基礎設施保障能力。 突顯軍事資訊網路安全防禦能力,增強戰略戰役指揮機構運作的基礎支撐能力,不斷完善網路資訊體系。

另一方面,「馬賽克戰」理論的出現,使得傳統作戰手段難以透過搶先並控制有限的目標節點來達到毀點、斷環的系統破局效果。 但也應該看到,任何制度都有其固有的矛盾。 即便是看似“無懈可擊”的去中心化結構的“馬賽克戰爭”,依然能找到有效破解的方法。 例如,掌握系統的複雜性特徵,利用其相關性和依賴性,突顯通訊網路的功能抑制

建構網路和電力複合攻擊路徑,實現作戰系統各單元的拆解和隔離; 掌握其結構的耗散特性,利用其對外部資訊的依賴,凸顯資訊資料的偽裝性和誤導性,促使作戰系統轉變為資訊封閉、資訊過載等異常狀態; 掌握其群體自主特點,利用其對關鍵技術的依賴,凸顯與智慧演算法的對抗,降低效率,抑制各作戰單元的智慧驅動力; 抓住其功能非線性特點,利用其未知漏洞,突出戰場差異化打擊評估,以更高的效率、更快的速度探索和發現作戰系統中的不平衡點,尋找系統中的關鍵弱點進行突破。



Chinese Military From “Cyber Warfare” to “Mosaic Warfare”

Theory is the precursor to action. Strengthening innovation in combat concepts and promoting innovation in combat guidance have always been important ways for militaries around the world to cultivate military advantages. In recent years, the U.S. military has successively proposed cutting-edge combat theories such as “cyber warfare” and “mosaic warfare” in order to realize that the “production relationship” of combat mode can be more adaptable to the development of “productivity” of combat capabilities. By comparing and analyzing these two combat theories, the world can get a glimpse of the changes in the US military’s combat capability building thinking, especially the understanding of the winning mechanism of “mosaic warfare”, so that it can be targeted and find effective checks and balances.

● From threat response to war design——

Actively shape and promote the improvement of combat capabilities

“Threat-based” or “capability-based” are two basic ways to build military combat capabilities. “Threat-based” embodies demand traction and focuses on solving practical problems in the near and medium term, which is the basic law that should be followed in the construction of military combat capabilities; “capability-based” embodies goal traction, aims at future strategic missions, and supports strategic concepts with new combat theories, which is the key to military operations. The only way to achieve innovation and transcendence in capabilities. The development from “cyber warfare” to “mosaic warfare” reflects the differences and evolution of the inherent laws of the above two approaches, and also reflects the changes in the US military’s ideas and concepts for promoting combat capability building in recent years.

The concept begins to change. Cyberspace was originally created to solve human communication needs. Later, it gradually evolved into a new combat domain independent of land, sea, air and space. From this, the “cyberspace” with the core of fighting for cyberspace dominance was derived. war”. In contrast, “mosaic warfare” is a new operational concept actively developed and designed by the US military in order to maintain its strategic advantage and directly target competitors. Its formation process reflects the integration of demand-driven and capability-driven, strategic, proactive, and Traction is more prominent.

New ideas for technology application. “Cyber ​​warfare” emphasizes the development of new generation technologies to support the transformation and implementation of combat concepts. “Mosaic warfare” breaks out of this model and does not overemphasize the research and development of new generation equipment technology. It pays more attention to the rapid transformation of common military and civilian technologies and the incremental iteration of mature technologies. The basic idea is to “mosaic” various combat system units into single-function, flexibly assembled units based on existing equipment and through module upgrades and intelligent transformation in accordance with the application concepts of service platforms such as online ride-hailing and crowdfunding development. , easy-to-replace “building blocks” or “pixels” to build a dynamically coordinated, highly autonomous, and seamlessly integrated combat system, embodying new technology-driven ideas.

Path development new design. “Cyber ​​warfare” is an accompanying concept of the cyberspace. Wherever the cyberspace develops, “cyber warfare” will follow. Generally speaking, we first consider the “objective” material conditions before making the “subjective” conceptual design. , has strong dependence on path development. “Mosaic warfare” first evolved from “subjective” to “objective”. By developing a force design model that can dynamically adjust the functional structure, it can adapt to different operational needs and changes in the battlefield environment.

It can be seen that compared with previous combat concepts such as “cyber warfare”, “mosaic warfare” has clearer goals, more mature technology, and more reliable paths, reflecting the change in thinking actively shaped by the US military.

● From network center to decision-making center——

Group intelligence to achieve optimal energy release of the system

Artificial intelligence technology is a key variable in the information age and a core increment in the development of the “mosaic warfare” system. “Cyber ​​warfare” emphasizes “network center”, while “mosaic warfare” tightly focuses on the core of artificial intelligence technology, adjusts the key to victory from “network center” to “decision center”, and changes the combat system architecture from system level to Platform-level alliances are transformed into functional-level and element-level integration, seeking to use group intelligence technology to achieve the optimal release of system energy on the premise that the network is fully energy-gathered, giving new connotations to the winning mechanism of war in the intelligent era.

Use “fast” to control “slow” and gain the upper hand in cognition. In future wars, the battlefield situation will change rapidly, and the weight of the time element will continue to rise. “Fast” versus “slow” can create a nearly dimensionally reduced combat strike effect. “Mosaic Warfare” uses data information technology and artificial intelligence technology to improve the single-loop decision-making speed of one’s own “OODA” loop, expand the breadth of parallel decision-making, reduce the granularity of group-loop decision-making, speed up the progress of system operations, and overall create a model that is always one step ahead of others. The “first move” posture aims to firmly control the dominance of cognitive decision-making on the battlefield.

Use “low” to control “high” and accumulate cost advantages. Different from the traditional combat concept of pursuing high-end weapon platforms, “mosaic warfare” focuses on using artificial intelligence technology to tap the potential and increase efficiency of existing weapon platforms and combat resources. By loading and running intelligent algorithms and specific functional modules on many mid- to low-end weapon platforms, they can achieve combat performance comparable to that of high-end weapon platforms. This overall improves the cost-effectiveness of the input-output of the weapon platform, thereby accumulating cost advantages.

Use “dispersion” to control “gathering” and seek sustainable survival. “Mosaic warfare” emphasizes the use of decentralized ideas and asymmetric checks and balances, using an open system architecture to decentrally configure various functions such as reconnaissance, positioning, communication, and strike on various manned/unmanned platforms to achieve Distributed deployment of power. At the same time, intelligent algorithms are used to improve the self-organization, self-coordination, and independent attack capabilities of each platform, so as to achieve centralized firepower. When some combat platforms are eliminated, disrupted, or stripped away, the entire combat system can still operate normally, thus enhancing the battlefield survivability of the force cluster.

Use “dynamic” to control “quiet” and improve system flexibility. “Mosaic warfare” emphasizes further breaking through barriers in each combat domain. By turning fixed “kill chains” in different combat domains into dynamically reconfigurable “kill nets”, the “OODA” large ring is disassembled into small rings, and a single ring is differentiated into multiple rings. According to changes in the combat process and combat needs, rely on intelligent networking to realize on-the-go splitting, on-the-go deployment, and on-the-go combination of combat forces. In this way, on the one hand, it can enhance the flexibility and adaptability of the combat system; on the other hand, it can also offset the node aggregation effect of complex networks, making it difficult for opponents to find key nodes to defeat one’s own system.

“Mosaic warfare” provides a reference prototype for intelligent warfare. But at the same time, as an idealized force design and application framework, “mosaic warfare” also needs supporting support such as technology, doctrine, and policies that are closely related to it. There is still a long way to go before it can be fully realized. Compared with traditional warfare, The situation of system coexistence will exist for a long time.

● From element integration to system reorganization——

Dynamic structure to enhance the flexibility of the combat system

Structure and relationships often determine functions and properties. “Cyber ​​warfare” and “mosaic warfare” are built on the same material foundation in the information age and follow the same evolutionary paradigm, but the principles and effects of system construction are different. The architecture formed by “cyber warfare” can be statically deconstructed, while “mosaic warfare” dynamically combines functional units according to certain construction rules to form an elastic architecture with self-organizing and adaptive characteristics, similar to a “dynamic black box”. Conventional The means are difficult to track and predict. This flexible structure often “emerges” new capabilities to empower and increase the efficiency of the combat system.

The integrated development of network and cloud makes combat space and time more dynamic and malleable. The Internet and cloud are the basic environment for the operation of the information combat system. They have reshaped the process elements of intelligence, command, attack, and support in traditional operations, and at the same time derived new combat time and space. “Cyber ​​warfare” mainly focuses on the cyberspace, and its combat time and space are relatively static. “Mosaic warfare” is not limited to a single combat space. Under the development trend of information infrastructure network moving with the cloud and integrating cloud and network, the tangible and intangible space can be further hinged, the boundaries of combat space and time are more flexible, and the allocation of combat resources is more flexible. The combat architecture is more dynamic.

Data flows across domains, making combat control more seamlessly coordinated. In the command and control link, “cyber warfare” focuses on the command and control of combat units by joint combat command institutions, and the cross-domain exchange and flow of data is mainly concentrated on theater battlefields. “Mosaic warfare” further lowers the level of joint operations to the tactical end. Through the independent cross-domain exchange and seamless flow of data at the tactical level, various data islands can be gathered into data clusters on demand, thereby generating significant “overflow” “” effect makes the dynamic, discrete, agile, and parallel characteristics of the combat command and control loop more obvious, and is more conducive to realizing agile connection and efficient coordinated actions of various combat units on demand.

The algorithm penetrates all dimensions, making the system run more autonomously and efficiently. Algorithms are the mapping of human consciousness in cyberspace, forming two basic forms: compiled codes transformed by intentions and neural networks transformed by knowledge. In “Cyber ​​Warfare”, compiled code is used extensively and neural networks are only used locally. In the “mosaic war”, the algorithm has expanded to two key functions: shaping rules and providing engines, and the breadth and depth of its application are more prominent. The shaping rules mainly focus on compiled code, supplemented by neural networks, to construct the process framework and operating logic of the “mosaic warfare” system, laying a structural foundation for its uncertainty, adaptability and “emergent” capabilities; providing the engine mainly integrates intelligence The algorithm model is distributed to edge elements for operation, forming a knowledge diffusion effect, thereby comprehensively improving the intelligent autonomous combat capabilities of the “mosaic warfare” system.

The independent release of energy at the edge makes the combat style more flexible and diverse. The edge is an abstract model of various manned/unmanned combat functional units and is also the direct source of the “emergence” of system capabilities. In the “cyber warfare” system, edge elements are closely coupled with the superior and subordinate command and control processes and are in a state of precise control. In the “Mosaic Warfare” system, the perception, interaction, reasoning, and decision-making capabilities of edge elements are greatly improved. Its “OODA” loop does not need to be linked back to the higher-level command organization, which is conducive to supporting the formation of a decentralized combination of high-low and manned/unmanned. The optimized combat cluster form can give edge elements more self-organizing authority, which significantly enhances battlefield confrontation advantages.

It can be seen that if “cyber warfare” is called a sophisticated war machine, “mosaic warfare” can be regarded as a complex “ecology” that can stimulate the dynamic growth of combat capabilities. New technologies generated by network clouds, data, algorithms, and edge devices Changes promote the formation of a dynamic and complex “architecture”. This structure in turn regulates elements, platforms, and systems in reverse, constantly emerging new capabilities, and playing an important role in empowering and evolving the combat system.

● From system breach to compound confrontation——

Analyze the pros and cons and seek effective checks and balances

“Mosaic warfare” represents, to a certain extent, the possible direction for the development of future joint operations. We should fully study and grasp the winning mechanism of “mosaic warfare”, shape the information and communication field as a new domain that breaks the time and space boundaries of traditional wars, create a new concept of cloud-enabled operations, and build a strong defense information infrastructure support capability. Highlight the security and defense capabilities of military information networks, enhance the basic support capabilities for the operation of strategic and campaign command institutions, and continuously improve the network information system.

On the other hand, the emergence of the “mosaic warfare” theory makes it difficult for traditional combat methods to seize and control limited target nodes to achieve the system-breaking effect of destroying points and breaking links. However, it should be noted that any system has its inherent contradictions. Even the seemingly “impeccable” decentralized structure of “mosaic warfare” can still find ways to effectively crack it. For example, grasp the complexity characteristics of the system, use its correlation and dependence, highlight the functional suppression of the communication network, build a network and electricity composite attack path, and achieve the disassembly and isolation of each unit of the combat system; grasp the dissipative characteristics of its structure, Make use of its dependence on external information to highlight the camouflage and misleading of information data, prompting the combat system to transform into abnormal states such as information closure and information overload; grasp its group autonomy characteristics, use its dependence on key technologies to highlight the confrontation against intelligent algorithms Reduce efficiency and inhibit the intelligent driving force of each combat unit; grasp its functional non-linear characteristics, take advantage of its unknown vulnerabilities, highlight differentiated strike assessment on the battlefield, and explore and discover imbalance points in the combat system with higher efficiency and faster speed , looking for key weaknesses in the system to break.

(Author’s unit: Unit 61001)



Chinese Military – Uncovering the Mysteries of Foreign Cyberspace Operations


隨著科學技術的不斷發展,戰爭形式已進入資訊化戰爭時代。 資訊已成為戰鬥力的主導要素。 雙方圍繞著資訊的收集、傳輸和處理展開了激烈的對抗。 網路空間是資料和資訊傳輸的通道。 現代作戰單位之間的橋樑。

美國軍方是第一個將網路空間軍事化的國家。 2008年,美國成立空軍網路司令部,將網路空間定義為整個電磁頻譜空間,將認知和實踐從狹隘的資訊域延伸到廣闊的網路域。 。 2018年1月,美國陸軍訓練與條令司令部(TRADOC)發布了《TP 525-8-6美國陸軍網路空間與電子戰作戰概念2025-2040》,描述了美國陸軍將如何在網路空間和電子戰中作戰。 在電磁頻譜中運行,以應對未來作戰環境的挑戰。 與其他傳統作戰領域相比,網路空間將對未來作戰產生哪些影響? 在未來一體化聯合作戰背景下,能為多域聯合作戰帶來哪些突破?


第五大領域資訊化戰爭。 賽博空間一詞最早出現在1982年的加拿大科幻小說《全像玫瑰碎片》中,描述了網路與人類意識融合的賽博空間。 根據美國國防部軍事詞彙詞典,網路空間是資訊環境中的全球性領域,由獨立的資訊技術基礎設施網路組成,包括互聯網、電信網路、各種區域網路和電腦系統以及嵌入式處理器和控制器。 隨著網路技術的不斷發展,網路空間已從電腦網路擴展到不可見的電磁頻譜,即電磁環境中的實體場。 它不僅包括我們通常認識的電腦網絡,還包括使用各種電磁能量的所有物理系統。

此外,在現代戰爭中,網路空間是資訊戰的新領域。 已被美軍列為與陸、海、空、天同等重要、必須保持決定性優勢的五個領域之一。 涉及網路戰、資訊戰、電子戰、太空戰、指揮控制戰、C4ISR等領域。 它是超越傳統的陸、海、空、天四維戰鬥空間的第五維度戰鬥空間。 它既相對獨立又嵌入其他領域。 與傳統領域相比,網路空間具有邊界邊界模糊、覆蓋範圍廣、情勢複雜多變的特性。

網路空間作戰超越了時間和空間的限制。 由於電磁頻譜缺乏地理邊界和自然邊界,網路空間超越了地理邊界、時間和距離的限制,使得網路空間作戰幾乎可以在任何地方發生,跨越陸地、海洋、太空和空中作戰,將傳統的四種作戰方式融為一體。立體作戰空間領域,可瞬間對遠程目標進行攻擊。 由於資訊在網路空間的傳播速度接近光速,高速資訊傳輸將大幅提升作戰效率與能力,提供快速決策、指導作戰、達到預期作戰效果的能力。 更重要的是,根據作戰需要,在網路空間或透過網路空間實現軍事目標或軍事效果可以分為進攻性網路作戰和防禦性網路作戰兩種類型。

進攻性網路行動是指在網路空間預防、削弱、中斷、摧毀或欺騙敵方網絡,以確保己方在網路空間的行動自由。 其主要行動包括實施電子系統攻擊、電磁系統封鎖和攻擊、網路攻擊和基礎設施攻擊等。防禦性網路行動包括防禦、偵測、表徵、反擊和減輕網路空間威脅事件的活動,旨在保護美國國防部防禦網絡或其他友方網絡,維持被動和主動利用友方網路空間的能力,保護資料、網路和其他指定的系統能力。


戰略威懾,輿論制勝。 近年來,針對經濟、政治、軍事等目標的網路攻擊不斷增加。 由於具有規模大、隱蔽性好、攻擊基礎設施能力強等特點

網路攻擊已成為一些國家在政治衝突中的優勢。 優勢手段。 俄烏衝突期間,俄羅斯以網路空間為陣地,以無線電電子戰為輔助,切斷烏克蘭系統通訊,中斷烏克蘭指揮; 抵制輿論負面消息,發布正面消息; 它癱瘓了網路上的敵人。 利用敵方網站製造恐慌,然後配合部隊正面進攻,達到速勝的目的。

全球佈局,千里之外擒敵。 美國在建立以本國主導的網路空間安全框架的過程中,掌握了盟友的網路空間作戰能力,建立了全球軍事基地和網路空間互聯互通。 相關情報人員平時透過情報行動完成網路預設,例如利用網路等手段透過情報分析來監控和收集敵方網路資料。 透過網路預設,必要時可利用網路漏洞入侵敵方網路、控制系統、破壞資料等,實現「千里取敵性命」。 2010年7月,美國透過某種蠕蟲病毒入侵伊朗核電廠,並控制了其核心設備,大大拖延了伊朗的核計畫。

充分發揮非對稱作戰優勢,提高作戰效益。 「舒特」計畫是美國空軍為了壓制敵方防空能力而提出的。 它利用不對稱作戰理論來摧毀敵方的防空系統。 核心目標是入侵敵方通訊、雷達、電腦等網路電力系統。 戰爭中,「舒特」攻擊可以透過遠程無線電侵入敵方防空預警系統和通訊系統的電腦網絡,進而攻擊並癱瘓敵方防空系統,或攻擊敵方可用的電子系統和網路系統,突破敵人的網絡。 攔截,然後利用相應的專業算法(主要是“木馬”病毒)侵入敵方雷達或網絡系統,監聽或竊取相關信息,洩露敵方作戰計劃、部隊部署、武器裝備等重要信息,從而幫助調整己方的作戰計畫、作戰結構和武器配比,以最小的成本獲得最大的利益。


各國日益重視,大力發展。 隨著各國意識的加深,發展網路能力、贏得網路戰爭已成為各國謀求軍事優勢、贏得未來戰爭的重要內容。 2015年,美軍根據「伊斯蘭國」組織成員在網路上發布的評論和照片,利用大數據分析和偵察定位,最終在22小時內摧毀了一個「伊斯蘭國」指揮所。 目前,美國已成立網路空間司令部,組成網路空間作戰部隊,深化作戰理論研究,初步形成網路空間作戰能力。 其他國家也開展了網路競賽。 為了加強網路空間作戰能力,法國成立了新的資訊系統安全局。 英國政府發布國家通訊安全戰略,宣布成立網路安全辦公室和網路安全行動中心。 日本建立了以電腦專家為主的網路戰部隊,顯示網路空間戰引起了越來越多國家的興趣。

融合多種技術,增強網路空間作戰能力。 隨著新技術的突破,大數據技術、5G技術、人工智慧技術可以應用於網路空間作戰。 大數據技術可以儲存大量數據、收集複雜類型的數據,並且可以快速計算並獲取有用的信息。 它可以加快網路空間戰爭各方面的執行速度並使其更加精準。 5G技術具有低時延、高傳輸、大容量的特點,使得網路空間戰爭在全球環境、多域協同作戰中更具威脅性。 此外,還可以利用人工智慧深度學習、推理等能力來模擬網路空間戰爭。 在這個過程中,可以發現自身武器系統的弱點並加以改進。 透過這些技術的深度融合,可以將網路空間打造為智慧化、高傳輸、高精度的網路環境,為未來資訊化聯合作戰打造智慧大腦。


有效推進聯合作戰。 利用跨域資訊化聯合作戰本質上是基於地理空間部署,建立穩定且有效率的網路空間資訊活動態勢,共同實現作戰目標的新型作戰形態。 聯合部隊有不同的資訊能力。 實現高度共享和深度融合,增強即時態勢感知,提高指揮效率,提高一體化戰鬥力。 網路能力不僅可以服務單一軍種或單位,還可以優先保障戰略級目標,高水準組織網路戰爭和各兵種作戰,規劃陸、海、空等網路作戰。空氣和空間維度。 戰鬥目標。

未來的戰爭將是智慧化、系統化的戰爭。 「聯合資訊環境」是實現「跨域協作」、打造「全球一體化作戰」能力的策略性舉措。 隨著科技的不斷改善與發展,網路空間作戰將成為核心作戰領域之一,將大幅提升未來系統作戰效能,為謀取資訊優勢、贏得戰爭提供重要支撐。


With the continuous development of science and technology, the form of war has entered the era of information warfare. Information has become the dominant element of combat effectiveness. Both combatants are engaged in fierce confrontation around the collection, transmission and processing of information. Cyberspace is a channel for the transmission of data and information. The bridge between modern combat units.

The U.S. military was the first to militarize cyberspace. In 2008, the United States established the Air Force Cyber ​​Command and defined cyberspace as the entire electromagnetic spectrum space, extending cognition and practice from the narrow information domain to the broad cyber domain. . In January 2018, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) released “TP 525-8-6 U.S. Army Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Operational Concept 2025-2040”, which describes how the U.S. Army will operate in cyberspace and electronic warfare. operate in the electromagnetic spectrum to meet the challenges of future operational environments. Compared with other traditional combat domains, what impact will cyberspace have on future operations? In the context of future integrated joint operations, what breakthroughs can it bring to multi-domain joint operations?

Mysterious – Cyberspace Operations

The fifth major area of ​​information warfare. The term cyberspace first appeared in the 1982 Canadian science fiction novel “Fragments of the Holographic Rose”, which describes a cyberspace where the Internet and human consciousness are integrated. According to the U.S. Department of Defense Military Vocabulary Dictionary, cyberspace is a global domain within the information environment that consists of independent information technology infrastructure networks, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, various local area networks and computer systems, and embedded processors and controller. With the continuous development of network technology, cyberspace has expanded from computer networks to the invisible electromagnetic spectrum, which is a physical field in the electromagnetic environment. It includes not only computer networks as we usually recognize them, but also all physical systems that use various types of electromagnetic energy.

In addition, in modern warfare, cyberspace is a new field of information warfare. It has been listed by the US military as one of the five areas that are as important as land, sea, air and space and must maintain decisive advantages. It involves network warfare, information warfare, electronic warfare, space warfare, command and control warfare, C4ISR and other fields. It is a fifth-dimensional battle space that transcends the traditional four-dimensional battle space of land, sea, air and space. It is both relatively independent and embedded in other fields. Compared with traditional fields, cyberspace has the characteristics of blurred border boundaries, wide coverage, and complex and changeable situations.

Cyberspace operations transcend the limitations of time and space. Due to the lack of geographical boundaries and natural boundaries in the electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace transcends the limitations of geographical boundaries, time and distance, allowing cyberspace operations to occur almost anywhere, across land, sea, space and air operations, integrating traditional In the four-dimensional combat space field, attacks on remote targets can be carried out instantly. Since the propagation speed of information in cyberspace is close to the speed of light, high-speed information transmission will greatly improve combat efficiency and capabilities, and provide the ability to make quick decisions, guide operations, and achieve expected combat effects. More importantly, according to operational needs, achieving military goals or military effects in or through cyberspace can be divided into two types: offensive cyber operations and defensive cyber operations.

Offensive cyber operations refer to preventing, weakening, interrupting, destroying or deceiving the enemy’s network in cyber space to ensure one’s own freedom of action in cyber space. Its main actions include the implementation of electronic system attacks, electromagnetic system blockade and attack , network attacks and infrastructure attacks, etc. Defensive cyber operations include activities to defend, detect, characterize, counter and mitigate cyberspace threat events, aiming to protect the U.S. Department of Defense network or other friendly networks, maintain the ability to passively and proactively exploit friendly cyberspace, and protect data , network and other specified system capabilities.

Electromagnetic warfare in cyberspace

Strategic deterrence, public opinion wins. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of cyber attacks against economic, political, military and other targets. Due to the characteristics of large scale, good concealment, and ability to attack infrastructure networks, these attacks have become an advantage for some countries in political conflicts. means of advantage. During the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, Russia used cyberspace as its position and radio-electronic warfare as assistance to cut off the Ukrainian system in communications and interrupt the Ukrainian command; it resisted negative news in public opinion and released positive news; it paralyzed the enemy on the Internet. Use the enemy’s website to create panic, and then cooperate with the frontal attack of the troops to achieve the goal of quick victory.

Global layout, capturing enemies from thousands of miles away. In the process of establishing a cyberspace security framework dominated by its own country, the United States has mastered the cyberspace operations of its allies and established global military bases and cyberspace interconnectivity. Relevant intelligence personnel complete network presets through intelligence operations in peacetime, such as using the Internet and other means to monitor and collect enemy network data through intelligence analysis. Through network presets, when necessary, network vulnerabilities can be exploited to invade the enemy’s network, control the system, destroy data, etc., to achieve “taking the enemy’s life thousands of miles away.” In July 2010, the United States invaded Iran’s nuclear power plant through a certain worm virus and took control of its core equipment, greatly delaying Iran’s nuclear program.

Give full play to the advantages of asymmetric combat and improve combat benefits. The “Shute” plan was proposed by the U.S. Air Force to suppress the enemy’s air defense capabilities. It uses asymmetric combat theory to destroy the enemy’s air defense system. The core goal is to invade the enemy’s communications, radar, computer and other network power systems. In war, the “Shute” attack can invade the computer network of the enemy’s air defense early warning system and communication system through remote radio, and then attack and paralyze the enemy’s air defense system, or attack the enemy’s available electronic systems and network systems to break through the enemy’s network. Block, and then use corresponding professional algorithms (mainly “Trojan horse” viruses) to invade the enemy’s radar or network system, monitor or steal relevant information, and leak important information about the enemy’s combat plan, troop deployment, and weapons and equipment, thereby helping Adjust the combat plan, combat structure and weapon ratio to your own side to obtain the maximum benefits at the minimum cost.

The future development of cyberspace operations

Paying increasing attention to it, countries are vigorously developing it. As countries’ understanding deepens, developing cyber capabilities and winning cyber wars have become an important part of countries seeking military advantages and winning future wars. In 2015, based on comments and photos posted online by members of an “Islamic State” organization, the U.S. military used big data analysis and reconnaissance positioning, and finally destroyed an “Islamic State” command post within 22 hours. At present, the United States has established a Cyberspace Command, organized a cyberspace combat force, deepened research on combat theory, and developed preliminary cyberspace combat capabilities. Other countries have also launched cyber competitions. In order to strengthen its cyberspace combat capabilities, France established a new Information Systems Security Agency. The British government released the National Communications Security Strategy and announced the establishment of a Cybersecurity Office and a Cybersecurity Action Center. Japan has established a cyber warfare force mainly composed of computer experts, which shows that cyber space warfare has aroused the interest of more and more countries.

Integration of multiple technologies to enhance cyberspace combat capabilities. With the breakthrough of new technologies, big data technology, 5G technology, and artificial intelligence technology can be applied to cyberspace operations. Big data technology can store large amounts of data, collect complex types of data, and can quickly calculate and obtain useful information. It can speed up the execution of all aspects of cyberspace warfare and make it more accurate. 5G technology has the characteristics of low latency, high transmission and large capacity, making cyberspace warfare more threatening in a global environment and multi-domain coordinated operations. In addition, artificial intelligence deep learning, reasoning and other capabilities can be used to simulate cyberspace warfare. In the process, the weaknesses of one’s own weapon systems can be found and improved. Through the deep integration of these technologies, cyberspace can be built into an intelligent A network environment with high transmission and precision can create an intelligent brain for future information-based joint operations and grasp the initiative in future operations.

Effectively promote joint operations. The use of cross-domain information-based joint operations is essentially a new combat form that jointly achieves operational goals by establishing a stable and efficient cyberspace information activity situation based on the deployment of geographical space. The joint forces have different information capabilities. Achieve a high degree of sharing and deep integration to enhance real-time situational awareness, improve command efficiency, and improve integrated combat effectiveness. Cyber ​​capabilities can not only serve a single service branch or unit, but can also prioritize the protection of strategic-level goals, organize cyber wars and operations of various arms with a high overall level, and plan cyber operations in land, sea, air, and space dimensions. battle target.

Future wars will be intelligent and systematic wars. The “joint information environment” is a strategic move to achieve “cross-domain collaboration” and build “global integrated operations” capabilities. With the continuous improvement and development of technology, cyberspace Operations will become one of the core operational domains, which will greatly improve the effectiveness of future systematic operations and provide important support for seeking information advantages and winning wars.

2020 年 8 月 31 日 | 來源:人民網-軍事頻道


Chinese Military: Cognitive domain operations are the new main battlefield for language confrontation


認知域作戰指的是以現代認知理論和科學為指導,調用輿論、心理、法律等多域手段,運用現代網絡、傳媒、文字、圖片、視頻、數位等多維技術,進行輿論宣傳、心理 攻防、人心爭取、信心顛覆、信仰影響、思維爭奪以及意識形態鬥爭的重要形式,意在爭奪人們在思維、信仰、價值觀、個人態度、情感、認同與評判傾向方面主動權。 認知域作戰是傳統輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰及貿易戰、外交戰、科技戰、思想戰等多域戰的複合集合體。



認知域作戰是當代認知科學研究發展的伴隨結果,是人們積極探索大腦認知活動獲得對大腦更為複雜更為抽象更為透徹的理解後產生的一種新興作戰領域,更是語言對抗 以受眾大腦的高階深層隱性活動為作用對象的高端影響形式。 不管是從資訊作用的對象、資訊的生產者、資訊內容本身或資訊的管道,認知域作戰都無不貫穿了認知的特點,自始至終都突顯從認知層面開展行動。

從訊息的接受對象來說,這個認知針對的是對手受眾大腦深層的認知面,包括其民眾、軍隊、軍事指揮員或者重要領導、政界商界的重要人物,甚至直接包括對方國家領導人或者 軍隊的特定重要將領等,也可以是特定的人群或民眾。 它可以涉及個人或群體的認知偏好、認知短板、認知習慣、認知偏誤、認知迷思;也可以是個人和群體的信念、價值觀念、政治認同、民族認同、社會和文化認同 與情感態度。

從資訊的投放者和內容來說,它應該是注入了資訊生產者的認知設計和安排,這個包括文本的獨特認知性,例如文本的話語模式、文本的敘事模式、事物的觀察視角、 敘事的認知焦點與深度、語句的組織形式、語句的價值觀念等傾向性、語句的概念的對方可接受性等。

從訊息傳達和傳播的管道來說,文字的形式更加貼近多媒體多模態形式,更加貼近網路空間的需要,更加貼近當代智慧型手機的優勢,更加貼近當下新興媒體時代的特點,也就是更加符合受眾 接受的認知特徵認知習慣和認知傾向。 文本的傳播形式充分考慮國際傳播中的認知效果,特別是跨文化、跨語言、跨媒體、跨群體的認知傳播。 如此,文本將會從認知層面,更好地對受眾施加影響力。


縱觀人類歷史,我們不難發現,軍事鬥爭的樣式一直在不斷變化。 從最初的使用冷兵器的體力纏鬥發展成為熱兵器機械力量的較量,又發展成為高科技戰爭條件下的信息化能力的製衡與反制衡,近年來又向著智能化無人化方向的智能決策 比拼發展,每一次改變都帶來深刻的戰法變化。 當下的機械化資訊化智能化的共處過渡階段,人們不僅重視戰場的物理域和資訊域主導權的爭奪,更重視影響戰爭主體-人的認知域的掌控,也就是作戰雙方人員的思維方式 、認知模式與風格、價值觀念、情緒態度、文化模型、溝通模式、心理強弱項、認知偏好、文化與知識圖譜、意識形態認同等領域的競爭。 後者涉及社會人員和社會存在的基本態勢,也就是認知域作戰施加影響的新興領域,其戰法有著強烈的特殊性。

議題靈活機動性:認知域作戰可挑選認知域的諸多議題,進行靈活機動的作戰行動。 議題根據當下的情況與需要,既可以選擇涉及較為宏觀的戰略層面(如對方全社會的意識形態與制度等),也可以選擇中觀的戰役層面(如對方社會局部領域或方向的社會問題: 社會福利政策或環境保護政策等),也可以選擇涉及社會中非常微觀的戰術問題(如某個人、某個特定事件所折射出的社會的非公平、非正義、非美好的一面)。 宏觀、中觀、微觀的認知域問題相互連結、相互轉化,很有可能一個微觀的議題也會成為一個宏觀的重大策略性議題。 而問題的提出要視與整個軍事行動的關係,要使認知域作戰服從全局的作戰行動,服務於宏觀的政治、外交大局的需要。 更重要的是,議題要準備在平時,要把各種議題的資料收集在平時,特別是要關注現實社會中的各種重要資料。 一旦需要,這些數據就可以迅速轉變為射向敵方認知域的箭頭、子彈、砲彈,甚至成為影響全局的戰略性武器。

作戰層次可控性:認知作戰其重要的設計是,在作戰的層面上,是整體可以控制的,也是可以調控的,可以根據情勢的變化,做出相應的升級或降維。 如果需要戰略層面的,指揮人員可以開通戰略層面的設計和力量投入;如果需要戰役級別的,也可以控制在相應戰役層面;如果僅僅需要是在特定的小問題層面,也可以將其控制在相應 的小眾局域層面,使得整個行動服務於整體作戰行動的需要。 這裡的戰略戰役戰術,更多的指的是作戰設計和力量的投入。 由於戰場態勢可能瞬息萬變,有些議題也有可能在層級上發生變化,由戰略性的議題影響到戰役和戰術級的效果;有些議題,則由於戰術議題的特殊性,成為影響全局的戰役戰略級議題。

新興媒介主導性:認知域的主要影響管道,已經從傳統的紙質媒體和平面媒體轉向了新興媒體。 傳統媒介主要依賴單一媒介,如報紙、雜誌、書籍、傳單、海報等來傳遞訊息;後期電視的產生帶來了立體媒體。 到了網路時代,特別是網路2.0時代和智慧通訊設備的誕生,人們更加依賴多媒介、多模態以及短視頻、短文本的形式來傳遞訊息。 各種智慧型手機、智慧型平板、智慧型播放器等高階設備的推陳出新,各種新興社群軟體和工具的誕生,使得新興媒體成為當下人們進行溝通與交流的主要工具。 新興媒體、新興社群軟體和工具已成為當下各種力量在社會安全、輿論安全、意識形態安全、社會安全和政治安全展開博弈和鬥爭的重要空間。 網路安全,特別是能否掌握住新型的社群媒體、新興社群軟體和工具等的安全,某種程度上也說,是一國認知領域能否安全的關鍵。 新興媒體工具和新型媒體空間的訊息已成為各國認知作戰的主戰場、主陣地和主要爭奪空間。 值得指出的是,左右人們認知的思想和理論將成為認知域作戰各層面的最有影響力的武器。


在人工智慧時代,在大數據分析與運用、超級運算能力、智慧運算能力、自然語言處理能力、智慧型手機傳播能力以及新一代網路通訊能力大幅提升的基礎上,人類已經開始可以對全社會、全網 領域、局部群體、局部不同群體以及特定個體進行精準的語言文化、心理認知、群體情緒、社會行為建模和分析。 特別是人們對大腦認知、人腦思考、思考模式、習慣偏好、意象圖式、認知框架、甚至神經網路、人機協同、腦控技術等的深刻認識與掌握,只要有足夠多元的 動態數據,人們就可以把人們的心理活動、情感活動、認知活動、社會輿論以及行為方式等全部計算模擬出來,透過深算、精算、妙算,可以精準地把握人們的認知世界,形成 對人們認知域的精細和深刻的控制。 這方面又呈現以下特徵:

計算的全維度:認知域作為一個新興領域,其涉及的方方面面都可以被數據化並實現全方位全過程全個體可計算,可以通過廣泛的收集各類型信息,經過信息梳理進而可體現為 關於作戰對手主體因素多樣化的大數據,從而可以就此開展面向全體、群體、群體之間以及個體數據及其之間的各種計算,由此,以往無法實現的基於思維、心理、情感、言論 、行為等方面的各種活動都可以透過計算來完成、展示和精準把握。

計算的認知性:認知域的計算體現了強烈的認知性,它更多地可以揭示各種事物、事件、人物之間的難以用肉眼觀察到的關聯關係,可以揭示同一事件框架 中各種概念之間的聚集與層級關係,反映各概念之間或明或暗、或直接或間接的深層認知聯繫,揭示概念之間的複雜概念網絡體系,使人們看到完全超越一般肉眼 觀察的深層認知世界。

計算的智能性:認知域的計算又反映了強烈的智能性。 這種智能性表現為透過計算,會得出具有智慧性的結論。 譬如可以透過大量文本收集和資料挖掘,尋找人工力量受限而看不到的各種主題、各種觀點、各種傾向、各種人群、各種立場、各種訴求之間的關係,形成對 某一問題的更為全面、縱深、精確、系統的認識,做出科學優化的決策。 這類決策既可能是與人類智慧相符,也可能是超越甚至遠勝於人類的智慧。 運用好認知運算的力量,特別是綜合本國的數據和對手的數據,可以更好地做到提前預防、提前預警、提前開展佈局,並能夠實現最好最優最快最精準地打擊和反擊 ,也能夠更好地體現高效有力有針對性的防護。 這裡的認知運算,更多的是對某一可能的宏觀中觀或微觀的議題在不同人群、不同時間段、不同背景下,在全域或某一局域網域、某一特定群體內部可能 產生的迴響,特別是對與對手展開賽局時雙方可能呈現的主動、被動的態勢進行分析與檢視,對認知域的攻防等。


認知域作戰有一個非常重要的依托,就是它主要依托語言媒介來發揮作用,主要透過話語層面來施加影響,主要透過話語的敘事性來形成對認知域的隱性作用,主要透過文化模式 來施加潛在作用,透過跨文化的傳播來施加或明或暗的作用。 其主要體現為以下方面:

文本話語獨特性:認知域是需要用資訊來施加影響力的。 儘管訊息可能依托影片圖片的特殊視覺效果來展現,但從根本上說,文本所綜合表達話語的獨特性成為產生認知影響的主要依賴。 這其中,話語表達的模式、話語表達的技巧、話語表達說服力和感染力的主要設計,特別是話語敘事獨特性將是影響人們認知的關鍵。 這可能包括敘事的視角,敘事的主題、風格,敘事的故事框架,敘事的語言創新,敘事的關鍵語句,敘事蘊含的哲學、人文、宗教、社會、自然等情懷,敘事的不同參與者身份 ,敘事的多元評價,敘事的真實度、深度和情感溫度,敘事對於觀點的潛移默化影響作用,敘事釋放的個人情感、價值觀念、意識形態、立場評價等。 文本話語的獨特性,是認知域作戰以文本施加認知影響的重要依靠。 充分利用文本的複雜性,發揮多樣化文本各自優勢,發揮文本內涵的隱性和顯性認知影響的作用,已成為文本話語認知域作戰的關鍵。 其中最為重要的,就是要創新文本話語,用更嶄新的話語、更加新奇的表述,更加獨特的表達來贏得讀者,使讀者了解並在潛移默化中感受文本中的思想,並在無聲無息中接受 文本的思想。

文化模式潛在性:認知域作戰,一定要深刻掌握不同國家和民族文化的特徵和模式。 不同國家、不同民族,其文化的模型不一樣,哲學思維、傳統文化、宗教信仰、風俗習慣、思考方式皆有明顯不同;不同文化下的國民,也有著不同樣的民族心理、民族性的認可 知模式,也應該有典型的屬於本民族本文化的認知偏好,也有相應的短處與弱點,有的還明顯存在與本國其他民族有巨大差異的認識,甚至還有誤解和敵意。 因此,認知域作戰在文化層面,就是要掌握好不同國家的整體文化模型,建構不同國家不同群體的文化模型,建構不同國家在不同事物上的不同認知模型,充分掌握某一國家在一 在系列事物和議題上的整體態度和行事方式,特別是針對一些典型案例、文化禁忌、宗教要求、精神追求、整體觀念等。 要藉助現有理論和發現,綜合建構在認知領域不同人群對一些典型問題、敏感問題、重要問題的基本表現,為下一步進行認知作戰提供重要的參考和指導。 加強對敵方不同人員的文化模式研究,特別是軍隊人員,重點崗位的人員,包括對方將領、軍官、士兵等的基本文化特徵和模型的研究與構建,譬如人物心理認知行為與文化模型畫像 ,已經成為認知域作戰的核心做法。 對對方一般人員,特別是一般國民、市民的認知模式,以及特定族群,包括特殊的非政府組織力量等的認知分析,也同樣具有重要價值。

跨文化策略傳播性:認知域作戰,是面向國際的語言傳播與文化傳播,需要遵循國際傳播的規律。 要把握國際傳播的基本範式,要把本國故事與國際表達巧妙結合,要將對方語言與文化和本國的故事與思想巧妙結合;要善於結合不同的藝術形式,包括文字、圖片、繪畫、音樂 (聲音)、錄像等手段或多模態的手段來實現資訊的國際傳播。 同時,也要在戰略層面統籌多維宏觀的傳播:要利用各種手段,依靠軍民融合軍民協同軍民一體開展傳播;除了非政府組織之外,特別是要依靠民間力量,依靠專家、意見領袖、普通 民眾來幫助軍隊來進行認知域作戰;要統一設置議題,多點多位多維發聲,形成戰略傳播態勢,為重大行動、重大議題、重大危機管控等形成應急解決的良好態勢,形成良好輿論氛圍 ,營造正面效應,消除不利影響或撲滅不利影響。 特別是要建立一支能精通外語、懂得跨文化技巧、知曉國際傳播規律、能在國際多維平台巧妙發聲的精幹隊伍。 這些人員平時可以進行廣泛的議題知覺、收集和討論,借助普通議題或特殊議題建立


目前,隨著混合戰多域戰全局戰的大行其道,認知域作戰已成為雜糅其間、混合其間的常用手段,認知域作戰由陌生、新興、發展到壯大的歷程,更是傳統輿論戰、 心理戰、法律戰發展的高階階段複雜階段升級階段。 它的興起,更具欺騙性、模糊性、隱蔽性、嵌入性、植入性和不可觀察性,特別是考慮它與當代新興媒體進場深度接軌深度融合,而且還不斷學習借鑒融入多學科、 跨學科、跨領域的新想法、新技術、新手段。 由此,認知域作戰已然成為我們必須高度警覺高度提防的作戰形式。



Cognitive domain operations refer to using modern cognitive theory and science as a guide, using multi-domain means such as public opinion, psychology, and law, and using multi-dimensional technologies such as modern networks, media, text, pictures, videos, and numbers to carry out public opinion propaganda, psychological Attack and defense, fighting for people’s hearts, subverting confidence, influencing beliefs, fighting for thinking, and ideological struggle are important forms of fighting for people’s initiative in thinking, beliefs, values, personal attitudes, emotions, identification and judgment tendencies. Cognitive domain warfare is a complex collection of multi-domain warfare such as traditional public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare, trade war, diplomatic warfare, technological warfare, and ideological warfare.

At present, cognitive domain operations have become an important basis for countries to carry out military struggles and struggles in other fields. Language confrontation driven by cognitive domain goals has become an important form of cognitive domain operations and deserves great attention.

A new area where language confrontation exerts influence on combat targets

Cognitive domain operations are an accompanying result of the development of contemporary cognitive science research. It is an emerging combat field that emerged after people actively explored the cognitive activities of the brain to gain a more complex, abstract, and thorough understanding of the brain. It is also a language confrontation. A high-end form of influence that targets the advanced and deep hidden activities of the audience’s brain. Regardless of whether it is the object of information, the producer of information, the information content itself or the channel of information, cognitive domain operations all run through the characteristics of cognition, and highlight the cognitive level from beginning to end.

From the perspective of the recipients of the information, this cognition targets the deep cognitive aspects of the brains of the opponent’s audience, including its people, the military, military commanders or important leaders, important figures in the political and business circles, and even directly including the opponent’s country leaders or leaders. Specific important generals of the army, etc., can also be specific groups of people or the public. It can involve cognitive preferences, cognitive shortcomings, cognitive habits, cognitive biases, and cognitive misunderstandings of individuals or groups; it can also involve beliefs, values, political identities, national identities, and social and cultural identities of individuals and groups. and emotional attitudes.

From the perspective of the sender and content of information, it should be infused with the cognitive design and arrangement of the information producer. This includes the unique cognition of the text, such as the discourse mode of the text, the narrative mode of the text, the observation perspective of things, The cognitive focus and depth of the narrative, the organizational form of the sentence, the value and other tendencies of the sentence, the acceptability of the concept of the sentence, etc.

In terms of the channels through which information is sent and disseminated, the form of text is closer to multimedia and multimodal forms, closer to the needs of cyberspace, closer to the advantages of contemporary smartphones, and closer to the characteristics of the current emerging media era, which means it is more in line with the audience. Cognitive characteristics of acceptance: cognitive habits and cognitive tendencies. The communication form of the text fully considers the cognitive effects in international communication, especially cross-cultural, cross-language, cross-media, and cross-group cognitive communication. In this way, the text will better influence the audience from a cognitive level.

Language confrontation generates new tactics in response to changes in combat styles

Throughout human history, it is not difficult to find that the patterns of military struggle have been constantly changing. From the initial physical struggle with the help of cold weapons, it has developed into a contest of mechanical power with hot weapons, and then into the checks and balances of information capabilities under high-tech war conditions. In recent years, it has also moved towards intelligent decision-making in the direction of intelligence and unmanned operations. Competition develops, and every change brings profound changes in tactics. In the current transitional stage of mechanized, informatized and intelligent coexistence, people not only pay attention to the struggle for dominance in the physical domain and information domain of the battlefield, but also pay more attention to the control of the cognitive domain that affects the main body of the war, that is, the way of thinking of the personnel on both sides of the war. , cognitive models and styles, values, emotional attitudes, cultural models, communication models, psychological strengths and weaknesses, cognitive preferences, cultural and knowledge maps, ideological identity and other fields of competition. The latter involves social personnel and the basic situation of social existence, which is the emerging field where cognitive domain operations have an impact, and its tactics have strong particularities.

Flexibility of issues: Cognitive domain operations can select many issues in the cognitive domain and carry out flexible combat operations. Depending on the current situation and needs, the topic can be selected to involve either a relatively macro strategic level (such as the ideology and system of the other party’s entire society, etc.), or a meso-level operational level (such as social issues in local areas or directions of the other party’s society: Social welfare policy or environmental protection policy, etc.), you can also choose to involve very micro tactical issues in society (such as the unfair, unjust, and unbeautiful side of society reflected by a certain person or a specific event). Issues in the macro, meso, and micro cognitive domains are interconnected and transform into each other. It is very likely that a micro issue will also become a major macro strategic issue. The question raised must be considered in relation to the entire military operation, and cognitive domain operations must be subordinated to the overall combat operations and serve the needs of the macro-political and diplomatic overall situation. What’s more important is that topics should be prepared in normal times and data on various topics should be collected in normal times, especially paying attention to various important data in real society. Once needed, these data can be quickly transformed into arrows, bullets, and artillery shells fired into the enemy’s cognitive domain, and even become strategic weapons that affect the overall situation.

Combat-level controllability: The important design of cognitive operations is that at the operational level, the overall system can be controlled and regulated, and corresponding upgrades or dimensionality reductions can be made according to changes in the situation. If the strategic level is needed, commanders can activate the design and force investment at the strategic level; if the operational level is needed, it can also be controlled at the corresponding campaign level; if it is only needed at the level of specific small issues, it can also be controlled at the corresponding level. The niche local level enables the entire operation to serve the needs of overall combat operations. The strategies, battles and tactics here refer more to combat design and force investment. Since the battlefield situation may change rapidly, some issues may also change at the level, from strategic issues to affect campaign and tactical-level effects; some issues, due to the particularity of tactical issues, become campaign-strategic issues that affect the overall situation.

Dominance of emerging media: The main channel of influence in the cognitive domain has shifted from traditional paper media and print media to emerging media. Traditional media mainly rely on a single medium, such as newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, posters, etc. to convey information; the later emergence of television brought about three-dimensional media. In the Internet era, especially the Internet 2.0 era and the birth of smart communication devices, people rely more on multi-media, multi-modal, short videos and short texts to convey information. The introduction of various advanced devices such as smart phones, smart tablets, and smart players, as well as the birth of various emerging social software and tools, have made emerging media the main tool for people to communicate and communicate. Emerging media, emerging social software and tools have become an important space for various forces to compete and fight in social security, public opinion security, ideological security, social security and political security. Internet security, especially the ability to grasp the security of new social media, emerging social software and tools, etc., is to some extent the key to the security of a country’s cognitive domain. Information from emerging media tools and new media spaces has become the main battlefield, main position and main contested space for cognitive operations in various countries. It is worth pointing out that the ideas and theories that influence people’s cognition will become the most influential weapons at all levels of cognitive domain warfare.

Language confrontation adapts to the intelligent era, cognitive computing enhances new computing power

In the era of artificial intelligence, based on the significant improvements in big data analysis and application, super computing power, intelligent computing power, natural language processing power, smartphone communication capabilities, and new generation network communication capabilities, humans have begun to be able to control the entire society and the entire network. Conduct accurate modeling and analysis of language, culture, psychological cognition, group emotions, and social behavior across domains, local groups, different local groups, and specific individuals. In particular, people’s profound understanding and grasp of brain cognition, human brain thinking, thinking patterns, habits and preferences, image schemas, cognitive frameworks, and even neural networks, human-computer collaboration, brain control technology, etc., as long as there are sufficiently diverse With dynamic data, people can calculate and simulate all people’s psychological activities, emotional activities, cognitive activities, social opinions, and behavioral patterns. Through deep calculation, actuarial calculation, and clever calculation, we can accurately grasp people’s cognitive world and form Delicate and profound control over people’s cognitive domains. This aspect also presents the following characteristics:

Comprehensive dimensionality of computing: As an emerging field, all aspects involved in the cognitive domain can be digitized and made fully computable across all processes and individuals. It can collect various types of information extensively and sort out the information, which can then be reflected as Big data about the diversified main factors of combat opponents can be used to carry out various calculations for the whole, groups, between groups, and individual data and between them. Therefore, based on thinking, psychology, emotion, and speech, which has not been possible in the past, Various activities in terms of activities, behaviors, etc. can be completed, displayed and accurately grasped through calculation.

Cognitiveness of computing: Computing in the cognitive domain embodies strong cognition. It can reveal more connections between various things, events, and people that are difficult to observe with the naked eye, and can reveal the same event framework. The clustering and hierarchical relationships between various concepts in the text reflect the explicit or implicit, direct or indirect deep cognitive connections between concepts, reveal the complex conceptual network system between concepts, and enable people to see completely beyond the ordinary naked eye. The deep cognitive world of observation.

Computing intelligence: Computing in the cognitive domain also reflects strong intelligence. This kind of intelligence is manifested in drawing intelligent conclusions through calculation. For example, through large-scale text collection and data mining, we can find the relationships between various topics, various opinions, various tendencies, various groups of people, various positions, and various demands that cannot be seen due to limited human power, and form a comparison. A more comprehensive, in-depth, accurate and systematic understanding of a certain problem to make scientifically optimized decisions. This kind of decision-making may be consistent with human intelligence, or it may exceed or even far exceed human intelligence. By making good use of the power of cognitive computing, especially by integrating the data of one’s own country and that of opponents, one can better prevent, warn, and deploy in advance, and achieve the best, fastest, and most accurate strikes and counterattacks. , and can also better reflect efficient, powerful and targeted protection. Cognitive computing here is more about a possible macro, meso or micro issue in different groups of people, different time periods, and different backgrounds, in the entire network domain or a certain local network domain, or within a specific group. The repercussions generated, especially the analysis and examination of the active and passive situations that both parties may present when playing games with opponents, and the attack and defense of the cognitive domain, etc.

Give full play to the subject position of discourse and release the new application of discourse power

Cognitive domain operations have a very important support, that is, they mainly rely on language media to exert their effects, mainly exerting influence through the discourse level, mainly through the narrative nature of discourse to form a hidden effect on the cognitive domain, and mainly through cultural models. To exert a potential effect, exert an explicit or implicit effect through cross-cultural communication. It is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

Uniqueness of textual discourse: The cognitive domain requires the use of information to exert influence. Although information may rely on the special visual effects of video images to be presented, fundamentally speaking, the uniqueness of the discourse synthesized by the text becomes the main basis for cognitive impact. Among them, the mode of discourse expression, the skills of discourse expression, the main design of the persuasiveness and appeal of discourse expression, especially the uniqueness of discourse narrative will be the key to affecting people’s cognition. This may include the perspective of the narrative, the theme and style of the narrative, the story frame of the narrative, the language innovation of the narrative, the key sentences of the narrative, the philosophy, humanities, religion, society, nature and other feelings contained in the narrative, and the identities of the different participants in the narrative. , the diversified evaluation of narratives, the authenticity, depth and emotional temperature of narratives, the subtle influence of narratives on opinions, the personal emotions, values, ideologies, and standpoint evaluations released by narratives, etc. The uniqueness of textual discourse is an important reliance on the cognitive influence of texts in cognitive domain operations. Making full use of the complexity of text, giving full play to the respective advantages of diverse texts, and giving full play to the implicit and explicit cognitive effects of text connotations have become the key to combating the cognitive domain of textual discourse. The most important thing is to innovate textual discourse, use newer words, more novel expressions, and more unique expressions to win over readers, so that readers can understand and subtly feel the ideas in the text, and accept them silently. Text ideas.

Potential of cultural models: To operate in the cognitive domain, we must have a deep understanding of the characteristics and models of different countries and national cultures. Different countries and different ethnic groups have different cultural models, and their philosophical thinking, traditional culture, religious beliefs, customs, and ways of thinking are all significantly different; citizens of different cultures also have different national psychology and national identity. The cognitive model should also have typical cognitive preferences belonging to the nation and culture, as well as corresponding shortcomings and weaknesses. Some people have obviously huge differences in understanding from other ethnic groups in the country, and even misunderstandings and hostility. Therefore, at the cultural level, cognitive domain operations are to grasp the overall cultural models of different countries, build cultural models of different groups in different countries, build different cognitive models of different countries on different things, and fully grasp the differences between a certain country and the The overall attitude and behavior on a series of things and issues, especially some typical cases, cultural taboos, religious requirements, spiritual pursuits, overall concepts, etc. It is necessary to make use of existing theories and findings to comprehensively construct the basic performance of different groups of people in the cognitive field on some typical, sensitive, and important issues, so as to provide important reference and guidance for the next step in cognitive operations. Strengthen the research and construction of the basic cultural characteristics and models of different enemy personnel, especially military personnel and personnel in key positions, including the opponent’s generals, officers, soldiers, etc., such as character psychological cognitive behavior and cultural model portraits , has become the core practice of cognitive domain operations. The cognitive analysis of ordinary people on the other side, especially ordinary citizens and citizens, as well as cognitive analysis of specific groups of people, including special non-governmental organization forces, is also of great value.

Cross-cultural strategic communication: Cognitive domain operations are international language communication and cultural communication, and need to follow the laws of international communication. It is necessary to grasp the basic paradigm of international communication, to skillfully combine domestic stories with international expressions, to skillfully combine the other country’s language and culture with the country’s stories and ideas; to be good at combining different art forms, including text, pictures, paintings, and music. (sound), video and other means or multi-modal means to realize the international dissemination of information. At the same time, we must coordinate multi-dimensional macro communication at the strategic level: we must use various means and rely on military-civilian integration to coordinate military-civilian communication; in addition to non-governmental organizations, we must especially rely on civilian forces, experts, opinion leaders, and ordinary people. The people come to help the military carry out cognitive domain operations; it is necessary to set topics in a unified manner, speak out from multiple points and multiple dimensions, form a strategic communication situation, form a good situation for emergency resolution of major operations, major issues, major crisis management and control, etc., and form a good atmosphere of public opinion , create positive effects, eliminate adverse effects or extinguish adverse effects. In particular, it is necessary to establish a capable team that is proficient in foreign languages, understands cross-cultural skills, understands the laws of international communication, and can speak skillfully on international multi-dimensional platforms. These personnel can usually conduct awareness, collection and discussion of a wide range of issues, establish personal relationships and fan groups with the help of ordinary or special issues; more importantly, at critical moments, through their fan groups, they can exert influence and complete strategic communication tasks. .

Currently, with the popularity of hybrid warfare, multi-domain warfare, and global warfare, cognitive domain warfare has become a common means of hybridization and hybridization. The process of cognitive domain warfare from unfamiliarity, emerging, development to strength, is also a reflection of traditional public opinion warfare, The advanced stage, complex stage and escalation stage of the development of psychological warfare and legal warfare. Its rise is more deceptive, vague, concealed, embedded, implantable and unobservable, especially considering its deep integration with contemporary emerging media, and its continuous learning and reference to integrate into multi-disciplinary, New ideas, new technologies, and new methods across disciplines and disciplines. As a result, cognitive domain operations have become a form of warfare that we must be highly vigilant and vigilant about. 

(Liang Xiaobo, professor and doctoral supervisor at the College of Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology)

[This article is a phased result of the National Social Science Fund’s major project “National Defense Language Capacity Building from the Perspective of National Defense and Military Reform”]