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Communist Chinese Cyber Fundamentals : Strategic Thinking of Network Power //共產主義中國網絡基礎:網絡權力的戰略思考

Communist Chinese Fundamentals : Strategic Thinking of Network Power //


Author: 中國共產黨

Date: 2017

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping has attached great importance to and vigorously promoted cybersecurity and informationization, profoundly grasped the characteristics of the development of the information age of human society, and objectively analyzed the current national conditions of China’s Internet development and the development of global Internet. The situation has successively issued a series of important speeches, and put forward a series of new ideas, new ideas and new theories on the governance of the Internet, and scientifically answered the major question of “why build a network power, build a network power and how to build a network power”. Formed Xi Jinping’s strategic thinking of network power. Seriously studying these new ideas is of great significance to promoting the building of a network-building nation and realizing the “two hundred years” struggle goal and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

First, why build a network power

On February 27, 2014, General Secretary Xi Jinping initially proposed the vision of building a network power in the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, and systematically explained the background, situation, tasks and connotations of the network power. Requirements, thus making this idea a relatively complete, systematic theoretical system.

Xi Jinping put forward a rigorous logical relationship between the strategic thinking of the network power, starting from the foundation of the big power network, in view of the overall situation of the network business and the new situation changes, especially objectively analyzing the existing gap and strengthening the strategy of building a network power. aims. In his speech, Xi Jinping pointed out that in today’s world, the information technology revolution is changing with each passing day, which has had a profound impact on the development of international politics, economy, culture, society and military. Informatization and economic globalization have promoted each other, and the Internet has been integrated into all aspects of social life, profoundly changing people’s production and lifestyle. China is in the midst of this tide and is getting more and more affected. China’s Internet and informatization work has achieved remarkable development achievements. The network has entered thousands of households, and the number of Internet users is the highest in the world. China has become a big network country. This is our basic premise. He pointed out that the Internet is a big platform for social information. The hundreds of millions of Internet users have access to information and exchange information. This will have an important impact on their ways of seeking knowledge, ways of thinking, and values. In particular, they will be against the country, society, and Work and perceptions of life have an important impact. Xi Jinping emphasized that cybersecurity and informatization are all about the whole world of a country. We must recognize the situation and tasks we are facing, fully understand the importance and urgency of doing a good job, and seek for the situation. Take the trend and follow the trend. This is all about the whole. Xi Jinping pointed out that with the development of the Internet, especially the mobile Internet, the social governance model is shifting from one-way management to two-way interaction, from offline to online and offline integration, from simple government supervision to more emphasis on social coordinated governance. This is a change in the situation. In today’s world, information technology is developing very fast. If you don’t advance, you will retreat. Compared with the world’s advanced level, compared with the strategic goal of building a network power, we still have a lot of gaps in many aspects, especially in terms of Internet innovation capability, infrastructure construction, information resource sharing, and industrial strength. The biggest gap is in core technology.

Second, what kind of network power to build

Xi Jinping pointed out that without cyber security, there would be no national security, and without informationization, there would be no modernization. To build a network power, we must have our own technology and have strong technology; we must have rich and comprehensive information services, a prosperous and developing network culture; we must have a good information infrastructure to form a strong information economy; we must have a high-quality network. Security and information technology talent team; we must actively carry out bilateral and multilateral Internet international exchanges and cooperation. He also stressed that cyberspace is the spiritual home of hundreds of millions of people. The cyberspace is clear and ecological, and is in line with the interests of the people. The cyberspace is smouldering and deteriorating, and it is not in the interests of the people.

In a nutshell, there are at least six major signs of network power: First, the network information infrastructure must be at the world’s leading level. The second is to have a clear cyberspace strategy and a network voice in the international community. Third, the key technologies must be self-controllable, especially the operating system and CPU technology. Fourth, network security must have sufficient safeguards and capabilities. Fifth, network applications should be at the world’s leading level in terms of scale and quality. Sixth, in the cyberspace strategy, we must have the ability and strength to occupy the commanding heights.

The Outline of the National Informatization Strategy proposes that the construction of a network powerhouse is divided into three steps: the first step is to 2020, the total amount of information consumption will reach 6 trillion yuan, and the scale of e-commerce transactions will reach 38 trillion yuan. At the international advanced level, the international competitiveness of the information industry has been greatly enhanced, and information technology has become the leading force driving the modernization drive. The second step is to 20 billion yuan in information consumption by 2025, and the scale of e-commerce transactions has reached 67 trillion yuan. The leading mobile communication network fundamentally changes the core key technologies to be controlled by people, realizes the strategic goals of advanced technology, developed industry, advanced application, and insecure network security. A large number of large-scale multinational network enterprises with strong international competitiveness emerge; By the middle of this century, informationization has comprehensively supported the building of a socialist modernized country with rich, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious relations. The status of a network powerhouse has been increasingly consolidated, and it has made greater achievements in leading the development of global informationization.

Xi Jinping planned the timetable for building a network powerhouse. The strategic deployment of building a network powerhouse should be promoted in parallel with the goal of “two hundred years”, the basic popularization of network infrastructure, the enhancement of independent innovation capability, the comprehensive development of information economy, and network security. Ensuring strong goals continue to advance.

Third, how to build a network power

(1) Fundamental requirements: People-centered

Governing the country is always the same, and the people are oriented. Xi Jinping emphasized that in order to develop the network business, it is necessary to implement the people-centered development thinking. It is necessary to adapt to people’s expectations and needs, accelerate the popularization of information services, reduce application costs, and provide useful, affordable and well-used information services for the people, so that hundreds of millions of people can gain more sense of sharing Internet development results. . Compared with cities, rural Internet infrastructure construction is our shortcoming. It is necessary to increase investment, speed up the pace of rural Internet construction, and expand the effective coverage of fiber-optic networks and broadband networks in rural areas. We can do a good job in the in-depth integration of informatization and industrialization, develop smart manufacturing, and drive more people to innovate and start a business; we can aim at the main direction of agricultural modernization, improve the level of agricultural production intelligence and network management, and help farmers increase their income; Give full play to the advantages of the Internet, implement “Internet + education”, “Internet + medical”, “Internet + culture”, etc., to promote the equalization of basic public services; can play the role of the Internet in helping to overcome poverty and promote accurate poverty alleviation and precision poverty alleviation, Let more difficult people use the Internet, let agricultural products go out of the country through the Internet, and enable children in the ravine to receive quality education; accelerate the promotion of e-government, encourage government departments at all levels to break down information barriers, improve service efficiency, and let the people run less errands. More information, running, solving problems that are difficult to handle, slow, and complicated. There are many things to do in these areas. Some Internet companies have already tried and achieved good economic and social benefits.

On November 29, 2016, the National Network Poverty Alleviation Work Promotion Meeting was held in Ningdu, Jiangxi. “We must implement the network poverty alleviation action, promote accurate poverty alleviation, and accurately eliminate poverty, so that poverty alleviation work can be accessible anytime and anywhere, so that people in poverty-stricken areas have more sense of gaining in the Internet construction and sharing.” General Secretary Xi is an important indicator in the old Red Revolution. Once again, the network’s poverty alleviation has become a new lever to win the overall well-off.

(II) Concept requirements: Practicing the five development concepts

The Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee put forward a new development concept of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing. This is based on profoundly summarizing domestic and foreign development experience and lessons, and in-depth analysis of domestic and international development trends. Our party has a new understanding of China’s economic and social development laws. Promoting China’s economic and social development in accordance with the new development concept is the general requirement and general trend of China’s development in the current and future period. The ancients said: “At any time, to raise things, to make meritorious deeds due to capital, and to profit from the power of all things.” The development of China’s online letter business should adapt to this general trend. Generally speaking, the network letter business represents new productivity and new development direction, and should be able to take the lead in practicing the new development concept.

Innovation is the core strength of the development of the network business. Innovation is the genes of Internet development. The concept innovation and technological innovation of the Internet are the needs of its own development. If there is no progress in the Internet tide, there will be no living space without innovation. We must always place innovation at the forefront, promote institutional and institutional innovation, concept innovation, technological innovation, and application innovation, and support the encouragement of Internet entrepreneurs, leading talents, and engineers to create and create innovative technologies for the development of the Internet. Xi Jinping pointed out at the 2nd World Internet Conference: “China is implementing the ‘Internet +’ action plan, promoting the construction of ‘Digital China’, developing the sharing economy, supporting various Internet-based innovations, and improving the quality and efficiency of development.”

Coordination is the inherent requirement of the development of the network business. Whether it is domestic or foreign, there are problems of unbalanced and uncoordinated development of network security and informationization. To solve these problems, we must establish a concept of coordinated development, eliminate the digital divide, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, regional differences, and ensure information security. Balanced development, all-round development, and safe development. At the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, Xi Jinping pointed out: “From the international and domestic general trend, the overall layout, co-ordinate all parties, innovation and development, and strive to build China into a network power.”

Green development is an important guarantee for the healthy development of the network business. The information industry is a green industry. Informationization and networking are supporting the application and upgrading of industries, agriculture, and national defense, and promoting green development, low-carbon development, and circular development. It is necessary to carry forward the main theme, spread positive energy, and make the cyberspace clear. At the symposium on April 19, 2016, Xi Jinping pointed out: “The cyberspace is clear and ecological, and it is in line with the interests of the people. The cyberspace is smouldering and ecologically degraded, which is not in the interest of the people.” He also stressed: “We want this Responsible for the society and responsible for the people, strengthen the cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen the positive publicity on the Internet, foster a positive and healthy, up-to-good network culture, and nourish the social core values ​​and the outstanding achievements of human civilization. People’s hearts, nourish the society, and achieve positive energy and high melody, creating a clean and cyberspace for the majority of Internet users, especially young people.”

Openness is the essential feature of the development of the network business. The Internet has opened the door to openness in all countries of the world. Xi Jinping pointed out: “The Internet has turned the world into a global village where the sound of chickens and dogs is heard. People who are thousands of miles away are no longer ‘old and dead.’ It can be said that the world is more colorful because of the Internet, and life is more because of the Internet. Rich.” The development of China’s Internet industry is inseparable from the world, and the Internet industry in the world cannot be separated from China. Xi Jinping pointed out at the Second World Internet Conference: “The Internet in China is booming, providing a broad market space for enterprises and entrepreneurs in various countries. The door to China’s opening will never be closed, and the policy of using foreign capital will not change. Foreign-invested enterprises The protection of legitimate rights and interests will not change, and the direction for countries and enterprises to provide better services in China will not change. He also stressed: “All countries should promote open cooperation in the Internet field, enrich the open connotation, increase the level of openness, and build more Communicate and cooperate with the platform to create more points of interest, cooperation growth, and win-win new highlights, and promote mutual complementarity and common development in the cyberspace, so that more countries and people can take advantage of the information age of express trains and share Internet development results.” We must actively participate in international Internet exchanges and cooperation, learn from the advanced experience and technological achievements of countries around the world, grasp and lead the development trend of the Internet, and promote open cooperation and mutual benefit for cyberspace.

Sharing is the fundamental purpose of the development of the network business. Serving the people and benefiting the people’s livelihood is the fundamental starting point and the foothold of China’s Internet development. Xi Jinping stressed: “In order to develop the network, the company must implement the people-centered development thinking. It is necessary to adapt to the people’s expectations and needs, accelerate the popularization of information services, reduce the application cost, and provide the people with the necessary, affordable and useful. Good information services will enable hundreds of millions of people to gain more sense of sharing Internet development results. “We must push the network into thousands of households and guide the people to understand the world, master information, exchange ideas, innovate and improve, and improve through the Internet. Life, let the Internet development achievements not only benefit the 1.3 billion Chinese people, but also benefit the people of all countries in the world.

(3) Governance requirements: safety and development go hand in hand

In 2014, Xi Jinping emphasized at the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group that “maintenance of network space security and network data integrity, security, reliability, and maintenance of network space security capabilities.” He also called for the overall relationship between network security and informatization. “Network security and informatization are two wings and two wheels of integration. They must be unified planning, unified deployment, unified promotion, and unified implementation. Do a good job in network security and informationization. Work, we must handle the relationship between security and development, to achieve coherence, go hand in hand, to ensure development by safety, to promote safety through development, to strive to build a long-term security, growth and governance.” Two years later, at the symposium, he pointed out again “Network security and informatization are mutually reinforcing. Security is the premise of development, development is the guarantee of security, and security and development must advance simultaneously. From a global perspective, cybersecurity threats and risks are increasingly prominent, and increasingly toward politics, economy, Conductive penetration in the fields of culture, society, ecology, national defense, etc., especially the key information infrastructure of the country Face greater potential risks, prevention and control of network security capability is weak, it is difficult to effectively deal with national, organized high-strength network attacks. This is a problem for the world, we are certainly no exception. “

In addition, he pointed out that “in the face of complex and severe network security situation, we must remain clear-headed, and all parties must jointly manage and effectively maintain network security.” First, establish a correct view of network security. The idea determines the action. There are several main features of today’s network security. First, cybersecurity is holistic rather than fragmented. Second, network security is dynamic rather than static. Third, cybersecurity is open rather than closed. Fourth, cybersecurity is relative rather than absolute. Fifth, cybersecurity is common rather than isolated. Second, accelerate the construction of a key information infrastructure security system. Third, all-weather perception of the network security situation. Fourth, enhance network security defense capabilities and deterrence capabilities.

(4) Cadre requirements: Take the network mass line and build a concentric circle

The mass line is the fundamental line of our party. Xi Jinping pointed out: “The netizens come from the common people, the people are on the net, and the public opinion is on the net. Where are the people, where are our leading cadres going, or how to contact the masses? Party and government organs and leading cadres at all levels must learn Take the mass route through the Internet, often go online to see, dive, chat, and voice, understand what the masses think, collect good ideas and suggestions, and actively respond to netizens’ concerns and doubts. Be good at using the Internet to understand public opinion and work. It is the basic skill of leading cadres to do their work well under the new situation.”

How to take the network mass route? Xi Jinping gave the method. “The majority of netizens are ordinary people, come from all directions, and their experiences are different. The opinions and ideas must be varied. They cannot be asked to be so accurate and correct about all issues. To be more inclusive. And patience, timely absorption of constructive opinions, timely assistance for difficulties, timely referrals to those who do not understand the situation, timely clarification of vague understanding, timely resolution of complaints of resentment, timely guidance and correction of wrong opinions, Let the Internet become a new platform for us to communicate and communicate with the masses, and become a new way to understand the masses, be close to the masses, solve problems for the masses, and become a new channel for carrying forward people’s democracy and accepting people’s supervision.”

At the same time, Xi Jinping pointed out the efforts of cadres at all levels. “To correctly handle the relationship between security and development, openness and autonomy, management and service, and constantly improve the ability to grasp the laws of the Internet, the ability to guide the public opinion, and the development of informationization. Capabilities, the ability to guarantee network security, and the continuous advancement of network power construction.”

(5) Management requirements: unified leadership, management according to law

The Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee conducted the 36th collective study on the implementation of the strategy of strengthening the country by the Internet. Accelerate the improvement of network management.

Xi Jinping put forward requirements from the institutional mechanism. He emphasized that the central cybersecurity and informationization leading group should play a centralized and unified leadership role, coordinate and coordinate major issues of cybersecurity and informatization in various fields, and formulate and implement national cybersecurity and informationization development strategies. , macro-planning and major policies, continuously enhance security and security capabilities.

Instructed from the management ideas, in China, more than 700 million people on the Internet, certainly need to manage, and this management is very complicated and very heavy. Enterprises must assume the responsibility of enterprises, and the party and the government must assume the responsibility of the party and the government. No side can give up their responsibilities. It is necessary to deeply understand the role of the Internet in state management and social governance, and to promote e-government and build a new smart city, and to build a nationally integrated national big data center with data concentration and sharing as a way to promote technology integration. Business integration, data integration, and cross-level, cross-regional, cross-system, cross-department, and cross-business collaborative management and services. It is necessary to strengthen the Internet thinking, take advantage of the flat, interactive and rapid advantages of the Internet, promote the scientific decision-making of the government, the precision of social governance, the efficiency of public services, and better use the means of information to better understand the social situation, smooth communication channels, and assist decision-making governance. .

From the legislative norms to point out the direction, we must promptly formulate legislative plans, improve Internet information content management, key information infrastructure protection and other laws and regulations, manage cyberspace in accordance with the law, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of citizens. It is necessary to strictly guard against cybercrime, especially new cybercrime, and safeguard the interests of the people and the harmony and stability of society. It is necessary to speed up the process of network legislation, improve the regulatory measures according to law, and resolve network risks. It is necessary to strengthen the management of big data in accordance with the law. Some data concerning national interests and national security are in the hands of Internet companies, and enterprises must ensure the security of these data. Enterprises should pay attention to data security. If the company has problems with data protection and security, it will also have an adverse impact on its own reputation.

It also puts forward hopes for the whole society. Network security is for the people, network security depends on the people, and maintaining network security is the common responsibility of the whole society. It requires the government, enterprises, social organizations and the majority of netizens to participate in the construction of a network security defense line. These characteristics must be well grasped by all relevant parties.

(6) Guarantee requirements: technological breakthroughs, construction of infrastructure and sharing systems

Xi Jinping emphasized that in order to grasp the initiative of China’s Internet development and safeguard Internet security and national security, we must break through the core technology and strive to achieve “curve overtaking” in certain areas and in certain aspects. To achieve breakthroughs in core technologies, we must have determination, perseverance, and focus. He hopes that the vast number of entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel in the field of China’s online information should establish this ambition, strive for this tone, and strive to achieve new major breakthroughs in core technology as soon as possible. The so-called “days, not afraid of thousands of miles; often do, not afraid of thousands of things.”

Xi Jinping stressed that it is necessary to firmly hold the core technology of independent innovation, and to break through the cutting-edge technologies of network development and key core technologies with international competitiveness, accelerate the promotion of domestically controlled independent alternative plans, and build a safe and controllable information technology system. . First, correctly handle open and autonomous relationships. Second, concentrate on the scientific research investment to do big things. Third, actively promote the transformation of core technological achievements. Fourth, promote strong alliances and coordinated research. Fifth, we can explore the formation of an alliance of industry, academia and research, and open the list. To lay a solid foundation for the research and development of core technologies, it is necessary not only to blow up the charge, but also to blow up the collection number, that is, to accumulate the strongest forces together to form the commando and special forces.

Xi Jinping stressed that it is necessary to speed up the construction of a key information infrastructure security system. The key information infrastructure in the fields of finance, energy, electricity, communications, transportation, etc. is the nerve center of economic and social operation, the top priority of network security, and the target of possible key attacks. The “physical isolation” line of defense can be invaded across the network, the power allocation instructions can be maliciously tampered with, and the financial transaction information can be stolen. These are major risk hazards. If there is no problem, it will cause traffic disruption, financial disorder, power hupfer and other issues, which is very destructive and lethal. We must conduct in-depth research and take effective measures to effectively protect the country’s critical information infrastructure.

At the same time, he pointed out that it is necessary to promote the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity through informationization, coordinate the development of e-government, build an integrated online service platform, promote the construction of new smart cities by hierarchical classification, open up information barriers, and build a national information resource sharing system. It is easy to use information technology to sense social situation, smooth communication channels, and assist scientific decision-making.

(7) Propaganda requirements: the most important thing, to build consensus

Xi Jinping pointed out that we must adhere to the attitude of being responsible to the society and responsible to the people, strengthen the cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen the positive publicity on the Internet, foster a positive and healthy, up-to-good network culture, and use the socialist core values. outstanding achievements of human civilization and nourishing the heart, nourishing community, so that positive energy is abundant, the main theme of the high for the majority of Internet users, especially young people to create a Delicate gas is cyberspace.

Do online media work is a long-term task to improve the online promotion of innovation, the use of propagation network, promote the theme, stimulate positive energy, great efforts to cultivate and practice the socialist core values, when good grasp of the Internet to guide public opinion, and validity To make the cyberspace clear.

Forming a good online public opinion atmosphere is not to say that there can only be one voice, one tone, but that it cannot be used to confess right and wrong, reverse black and white, make a living, commit crimes, and cannot transcend the legal boundaries of the Constitution. An important means to put power into the cage of the system is to play the role of public opinion supervision, including Internet supervision. This article, party and government organs and leading cadres at all levels must pay special attention to, first of all, do a good job. We must not only welcome, but also carefully study and learn from the online criticism of goodwill and the supervision of the Internet, whether it is for the work of the party and the government or for the leading cadres, whether it is ruthless or loyal.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the new application of new technologies and new technologies in the Internet has made the social mobilization function of the Internet increasingly enhanced. To spread positive energy, enhance communication and guiding force. It is necessary to strictly guard against cybercrime, especially new cybercrime, and safeguard the interests of the people and the harmony and stability of society. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of network communication, experience, and sharing, listen to the will of the people, benefit the people’s livelihood, solve the people’s worries, and unite the social consensus. Online and offline networks should be united and coordinated, forming a good situation for jointly preventing social risks and building a concentric circle together. It is necessary to maintain the security of cyberspace and the integrity, security and reliability of network data, and improve the security of maintaining cyberspace.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the new application of new technologies and new technologies in the Internet has made the social mobilization function of the Internet increasingly enhanced. To spread positive energy, enhance communication and guiding force. It is necessary to give full play to the advantages of network communication, experience, and sharing, listen to the will of the people, benefit the people’s livelihood, solve the people’s worries, and unite the social consensus. Online and offline networks should be united and coordinated, forming a good situation for jointly preventing social risks and building a concentric circle together.

(8) Talent requirements: unrestricted talents

“The people are happy, the losers are falling.” Xi Jinping stressed that to build a network power, we must bring together talent resources and build a strong team with strong politics, good business and good work style. “A thousand troops are easy to get, and one will be hard to find.” It is necessary to train scientists, network technology leaders, engineers, and high-level innovation teams that have created world-class skills.

In terms of ideas, he pointed out that the competition in cyberspace is, in the final analysis, talent competition. Building a network power, there is no outstanding talent team, no talent creation, vitality, and it is difficult to succeed. After reading the talents, you can get twice the result with half the effort. Our brains have to turn around, not only paying attention to capital, but also paying attention to talents. The intensity of introducing talents should be further increased, and the steps of reforming the talent system should be further developed. The field of network information can be tested first, and research should be carried out to formulate ways to attract talents, train talents, and retain talents.

In terms of scope, he pointed out that the development of China’s online letter industry must fully mobilize the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel. Entrepreneurs, experts, scholars, and scientific and technological personnel must have the responsibility of the state and social responsibility, and contribute their wisdom and strength to the development of the national network. Party committees and governments at all levels must respect knowledge and respect talents from the bottom of their hearts, create good conditions for talents to develop their intelligence, create a relaxed environment, and provide a broad platform.

In terms of methods, he pointed out that the Internet is mainly the cause of young people, and it is necessary to reduce talents. It is necessary to emancipate the mind, to recognize the talents, and to love the talents. To train netizen talents, we must make great efforts and make big money. We invite excellent teachers, compile excellent teaching materials, recruit outstanding students, and build a first-class cyberspace security college. Many talents in the Internet field are geeks and geniuses. They often do not take the usual routines and have many whimsy. There must be special policies for treating special talents, not requiring full blame, not arguing for seniority, and not using a ruler.

In terms of policy, he pointed out that it is necessary to adopt special policies, establish a personnel system and a salary system that adapt to the characteristics of online letters, and condense outstanding talents into technical departments, research departments, and management departments. It is necessary to establish a talent evaluation mechanism that adapts to the characteristics of online letters. The actual ability is the standard of measurement. It is not only academic, not only a thesis, not only a qualification, but also highlights professionalism, innovation and practicality. It is necessary to establish a flexible talent incentive mechanism to enable those who contribute to have a sense of accomplishment and a sense of acquisition. It is necessary to explore scientific research results, intellectual property rights, and interest distribution mechanisms in the field of online information, and formulate specific policies on talent stock participation, technology shareholding, and taxation. In the flow of talents, we must break the institutional boundaries and enable talents to achieve an orderly and smooth flow between the government, enterprises, and think tanks. The advantages of the “revolving door” system in foreign countries can also be used for reference.

At the station, he pointed out that there must be a global perspective on talent selection and the introduction of high-end talents. As China’s comprehensive national strength continues to increase, many countries’ talents also hope to come to China for development. We must take advantage of the trend, reform talents to introduce various supporting systems, and build a globally competitive talent system. No matter which country or region, as long as it is a good talent, it can be used for me. This work has been done by some enterprises and research institutes. I went to some enterprises and research institutes, and also talked with these talents imported from abroad. In this regard, we must increase our efforts to continuously improve our ability to allocate talent resources globally.

(9) Industry requirements: focus on self-discipline and healthy development

The development of a company is directly proportional to its social responsibility. Xi Jinping pointed out that China’s Internet enterprises have played an important role in stabilizing growth, promoting employment, and benefiting people’s livelihood, from small to large, from weak to strong. Let the company continue to develop healthily is not only the goal of entrepreneurs but also the needs of national development. The fate of a company is closely related to the development of the country. It is difficult to become stronger and bigger than the support of the state, the disengagement of the masses, and the service to the country and the people.

How to be stronger and bigger? Xi Jinping pointed out the direction: internally, it is necessary to introduce policies to support the development of enterprises, so that they become the main body of technological innovation and become the main body of information industry development. Externally, we must encourage and support China’s network enterprises to go out, deepen Internet international exchanges and cooperation, and actively participate in the construction of the “Belt and Road” to achieve “where the national interests are and where informationization will be covered”. Foreign Internet companies, as long as they comply with our laws and regulations, we are welcome.

How to avoid the phenomenon of “disconnecting one after another, killing one tube” that has often appeared in the past, and embarking on a new road of joint management and benign interaction? Xi Jinping gave the idea: First, insist on encouraging support and standard development in parallel. Enterprises should be encouraged and supported to become the main body of R&D, the main body of innovation, and the main body of industry. Encourage and support the cutting-edge technology of enterprise layout, promote independent innovation of core technologies, create and seize more opportunities, participate in international competition, and expand overseas development space. It is necessary to regulate market order and encourage healthy competition. The Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed to improve the system of property rights protection with fairness as the core principle, strengthen the protection of property rights of various ownership economic organizations and natural persons, and clean up laws and regulations that violate fairness. These requirements should be put in place as soon as possible. Second, adhere to policy guidance and management according to law. The government should create a favorable environment for enterprise development, accelerate the reform of the examination and approval system, financing system, and patent system, reduce duplication of testing and certification, implement a high-quality and high-price government procurement system, reduce the burden on enterprises, and remove institutional and institutional obstacles. At the same time, it is necessary to speed up the process of network legislation, improve the regulatory measures according to law, and resolve network risks. It is necessary to strengthen the management of big data in accordance with the law. Third, adhere to both economic and social benefits. Only a wealth of love is a truly meaningful asset. Only a company that actively assumes social responsibility is the most competitive and vital enterprise. It is hoped that the vast number of Internet companies will adhere to the unity of economic and social benefits, and at the same time of their own development, drink water and source, return the society and benefit the people. We must encourage and support our networked enterprises to go out, deepen the international exchanges and cooperation in the Internet, and actively participate in the construction of the “Belt and Road” to achieve “where the national interests are and where informationization will be covered”. Foreign Internet companies, as long as they comply with our laws and regulations, we are welcome.

(10) International requirements: building a community of destiny

With the multi-polarization of the world, economic globalization, cultural diversity, and in-depth development of social information, the Internet will play a greater role in promoting the progress of human civilization. At the same time, problems such as unbalanced development in the Internet field, unsound rules, and unreasonable order have become increasingly prominent. The information gap between different countries and regions is constantly widening. Existing cyberspace governance rules are difficult to reflect the wishes and interests of most countries; violations of personal privacy, intellectual property rights, cybercrime, etc. occur worldwide, network monitoring, cyber attacks, networks Terrorism and other activities have become global public nuisances.

Faced with these problems and challenges, the international community should strengthen dialogue and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect and mutual trust, promote the reform of the global governance system of the Internet, and jointly build a cyberspace of peace, security, openness and cooperation, and establish multilateral, democratic and transparent. The global Internet governance system. It is proposed that “China is willing to work with the international community to adhere to the common prosperity of mankind, adhere to the concept of cyber sovereignty, promote global Internet governance in a more just and rational direction, and promote cyberspace to achieve equal respect, innovative development, open sharing, and security. The goal of the order.”

“The way of benefit is to go with time.” Cyberspace is the common space for human activities. The future of cyberspace should be mastered by all countries in the world. To promote the reform of the global Internet governance system, we should adhere to the four principles. Respect network sovereignty. Maintain peace and security. Promote open cooperation. Build a good order. Countries should strengthen communication, expand consensus, deepen cooperation, and jointly build a community of cyberspace destiny. In this regard, I would like to make five points. First, accelerate the construction of global network infrastructure and promote interconnection. Second, create an online cultural exchange and sharing platform to promote exchanges and mutual learning. Third, promote the innovation and development of the network economy and promote common prosperity. Fourth, safeguard network security and promote orderly development. Fifth, build an Internet governance system to promote fairness and justice. It has won the approval of most countries in the world.

Xi Jinping pointed out that the Internet is the common home of mankind and works together to build a community of cyberspace destiny. It is the common responsibility of the international community to make this home more beautiful, cleaner and safer. Let us join hands to jointly promote the interconnection and sharing of cyberspace, share common governance, and help create a better future for human development!

Original Mandarin Chinese:













2016年11月29日,全國網絡扶貧工作現場推進會在江西寧都召開。 “要實施網絡扶貧行動,推進精準扶貧、精準脫貧,讓扶貧工作隨時隨地、四通八達,讓貧困地區群眾在互聯網共建共享中有更多獲得感”,習總書記這一重要指示在紅色革命老區再次宣示,網絡扶貧成為決勝全面小康的新槓桿。





綠色發展是網信事業健康發展的重要保障。信息化產業就是綠色產業,信息化、網絡化正支撐著工業、農業、國防等各個領域的應用和升級,推動著綠色發展、低碳發展、循環發展。要弘揚主旋律,傳播正能量,使網絡空間清朗起來。在2016年4月19日的座談會上習近平指出:“網絡空間天朗氣清、生態良好,符合人民利益。網絡空間烏煙瘴氣、生態惡化,不符合人民利益。” 他還強調:“我們要本著對社會負責、對人民負責的態度,依法加強網絡空間治理,加強網絡內容建設,做強網上正面宣傳,培育積極健康、向上向善的網絡文化,用社會主義核心價值觀和人類優秀文明成果滋養人心、滋養社會,做到正能量充沛、主旋律高昂,為廣大網民特別是青少年營造一個風清氣正的網絡空間。”




2014年,習近平在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上就特別強調,“要維護網絡空間安全以及網絡數據的完整性、安全性、可靠性,提高維護網絡空間安全能力。”同時,他還要求統籌好網絡安全和信息化的關係,“網絡安全和信息化是一體之兩翼、驅動之雙輪,必須統一謀劃、統一部署、統一推進、統一實施。做好網絡安全和信息化工作,要處理好安全和發展的關係,做到協調一致、齊頭並進,以安全保發展、以發展促安全,努力建久安之勢、成長治之業。” 兩年之後的座談會上,他再次指出,“網絡安全和信息化是相輔相成的。安全是發展的前提,發展是安全的保障,安全和發展要同步推進。從世界範圍看,網絡安全威脅和風險日益突出,並日益向政治、經濟、文化、社會、生態、國防等領域傳導滲透。特別是國家關鍵信息基礎設面臨較大風險隱患,網絡安全防控能力薄弱,難以有效應對國家級、有組織的高強度網絡攻擊。這對世界各國都是一個難題,我們當然也不例外。”















習近平強調,要加快構建關鍵信息基礎設施安全保障體系。金融、能源、電力、通信、交通等領域的關鍵信息基礎設施是經濟社會運行的神經中樞,是網絡安全的重中之重,也是可能遭到重點攻擊的目標。 “物理隔離”防線可被跨網入侵,電力調配指令可被惡意篡改,金融交易信息可被竊取,這些都是重大風險隱患。不出問題則已,一出就可能導致交通中斷、金融紊亂、電力癱瘓等問題,具有很大的破壞性和殺傷力。我們必須深入研究,採取有效措施,切實做好國家關鍵信息基礎設施安全防護。









“得人者興,失人者崩。”習近平強調,建設網絡強國,要把人才資源匯聚起來,建設一支政治強、業務精、作風好的強大隊伍。 “千軍易得,一將難求”,要培養造就世界水平的科學家、網絡科技領軍人才、卓越工程師、高水平創新團隊。















Original Referring URL:

Chinese Military Strategic Support Force – Skynet Army: It Will Change the Face of Cyberwar // 中國軍事戰略支援力量 – 天網軍隊將改變網絡戰的面貌

Chinese Military Strategic Support Force – Skynet Army: It Will Change the Face of Cyberwar //

中國軍事戰略支援力量 – 天網軍隊將改變網絡戰的面貌

Author: Source: Netease military

DTG: 2016-01-04 08:XX:XX

Strategic support forces are not logistical support or more powerful than the Rockets. Three tears on, how effective has China’s SSF become in the realm of cyber warfare?

Abstract: On December 31, 2015, the PLA Army Leadership, Rocket Army, and Strategic Support Forces were established. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, President of the State Council, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, awarded the newly established three major units. The major steps marking the reform of the PLA’s army are beginning to be gradually implemented. Among the three new units, the strategic support force is definitely a brand new name, which naturally raises many questions. What kind of force is this?

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Strategic support is not logistical support

The newly established three units, the Army’s leading body is also the Army’s headquarters. The former PLA has always been the army’s boss. The mainland’s thinking is deeply rooted. Therefore, only the navy and air force headquarters, and no army command, the top leaders of the army are all from The army, the head of the navy and air force ranks among the members of the Central Military Commission, and it is more symbolic. The establishment of the Army Headquarters now means that the status of the Army will gradually be lowered and will be consistent with other services. This will lay the foundation for the model of the highest military leadership in the rotation of the heads of the Western military in the future, and further strengthen the synergy for the various services. The conditions.

The Rockets are no strangers to military fans. They are the former Second Artillery Corps, which is essentially a strategic missile force. The strategic missile unit of the former Soviet Union was called the Strategic Rocket Army. When the PLA established the strategic missile force, the international situation was surging. For the sake of low-key restraint, Zhou Enlai proposed the name of the Second Artillery. Now renamed the Rocket Army, the name is more prestige, more directly strengthen the significance of strategic deterrence.

Relative to the above two units, for those concerned about national defense construction, the strategic support force will be much more strange. When many people hear this name, the first reaction is the logistics support force, which is a big mistake! The strategic support force is actually a genuine combat force. It is nominally supportive. In many cases, it is the first open-minded pioneer to fight, even to enter the battlefield earlier than the land, sea, air force and rocket forces. According to the spokesman of the Ministry of National Defense, the strategic support force is a new type of combat force for safeguarding national security and an important growth point for our military’s new combat capability. It is mainly a strategic, basic, and supportive type. The support force is formed after the functional integration.

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Specifically, the strategic support force will include five parts: intelligence reconnaissance, satellite management, electronic countermeasures, cyber offense and defense, and psychological warfare. It is a combination of the most advanced corps, the net army, and other battlefields on the battlefield. More specifically, it is a combat force dedicated to the soft kill mission.

This is also the adjustment of the military reform at the military level. The PLA is divided into the traditional land, sea and air force, the strategic deterrent and the attacking rocket army and the most modern “sky-net” army. The three levels of division of labor are clear, and they can strengthen each other. The synergy between the two, to maximize the advantages of the overall war, is undoubtedly the highlight of this military reform.

Five major parts highlight high-tech content

Let’s take a closer look at the five major components of the Strategic Support Army. First, intelligence reconnaissance. This is not a spy war in the traditional sense. It is not like the old movie “The Crossing River Scout”, which disguise itself as a deep enemy. More is technical reconnaissance. With the increasing popularity of modern equipment, the leakage of various technical information is difficult to avoid, such as radio signals, electromagnetic signals, infrared signals, etc., through the collection and analysis of these signals, a large amount of valuable information can be obtained, strategic support forces The reconnaissance is mainly the technical reconnaissance in this respect, which can be carried out through modern equipment such as reconnaissance satellites, reconnaissance planes, drones, and sensors.

The strategic support force should be called Skynet Army: it will change the war.

Satellite management is the so-called “Heavenly Army”. This is a new type of force that has emerged with the rapid development of space technology, especially satellite information reconnaissance, tracking and surveillance, guided navigation and aerospace weapons. The United States established the National Space Command in 1985, marking the birth of the world’s first heavenly army. Russia subsequently separated the military space force and the space missile defense force from the strategic rocket army and established a space force with a total strength of about 90,000 people. Then with the military reform of the People’s Liberation Army, the “Heavenly Army” under the strategic support force was formally formed and became a force dedicated to space operations in the future. The significance is significant.

The history of electronic confrontation is much longer than that of the Tianjun. As early as in the First World War, both sides have had the information of the other party and the communication of the other party. To the Second World War, the means of electronic confrontation. Both the scale and the scale have been greatly developed. In July 1943, the British army used metal foil strips to interfere with the German radar in the bombing of Hamburg, Germany, which was considered the beginning of modern electronic confrontation. During the Middle East War in the 1960s, electronic confrontation played a decisive role. Under today’s technical conditions, there is no need to spend more on electronic countermeasures.

Network attack and defense is also called cyber warfare. It is the rise of the network, exploiting the loopholes and security flaws of the network to attack and destroy the data in the hardware, software and systems of the network system. In 2001, there was a large-scale civil hacking incident between China and the United States, which stimulated the United States to a certain extent. By 2009, the world’s first cyber command was established. Through the opportunity of military reform, China has set up a specialized cyber warfare force and began systematically investing and developing in the fields of information construction and network attack and defense. This is a milestone for the future war, which is bound to spread to the network. meaningful.


In the end, it is psychological warfare, that is, by applying the principle principle of psychology, taking human psychology as the battlefield, and systematically adopting various means, including the means of communication, such as the Internet, television, and broadcasting, which cannot be separated from modern life. Cognitive, emotional, and will exert influence, mentally disintegrating enemy military and civilian fighting spirits or eliminating the influence of enemy propaganda, thus combating the enemy’s mind, in exchange for the greatest victory and benefits at the least cost. Psychological warfare sounds very mysterious. In fact, as mentioned in “Sun Tzu’s Art of War·The Tactics”: “It is the victorious battle, the good ones who are not good, the soldiers who do not fight and the good, and the good ones.” The “war without a war” is the ultimate goal of today’s psychological war. In the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, the Allies used a large number of psychological warfare methods, which seriously affected the judgment of the German commander-in-chief and made great contributions to the victory of the battle. Since then, from the Korean War, the Vietnam War, to today’s Iraq War and the Afghan War, the US military has had professional psychological warfare troops to participate in the war. Therefore, this is the most easily overlooked military means, but it is a high level of military struggle, and even more efficient and effective than advanced aircraft cannons.

Therefore, it can be said that the strategic support force is the highest in the five major services after the reform of the PLA’s army. It can even be said to be completely different from the traditional war style of the past, and it is more characterized by ultra-modern flow.


Soft killing

According to the strategy disclosed on the network, the armbands are supported on the network. The above is the eight-and-five-pointed star. Below is the triangular arrow and the electronic cloud orbit. Surrounded by the surrounding wheat ears, it can be seen from this pattern that the strategic support force is not a traditional one. In the sense of steel contest, you can’t see the scene of the smoke, and there is no such thing as a nuclear weapon to destroy the horror of the sea, but the soft kill of the soldiers. In a sense, soft killing is no less inferior than hard killing, and even playing a role is more important than hard killing.

In contrast, until today, the US military has only independent scattered Tianjun, Net Army and psychological warfare units, but the PLA Strategic Support Forces have integrated these units directly in the preparation, and they are able to cooperate and play the greatest combat effectiveness. . It can be said that this major reform of the military, especially the establishment of the strategic support force, is definitely a major improvement in the system.

Imagine that without the strategic support force’s satellites accurately positioned and navigated, without the electronic escaping forces and cyber warfare forces escorting, the Rocket’s strategic missiles will be difficult to function; if there is no strategic support for the technical reconnaissance intelligence support, Satellite communication links, then the land, sea and air forces on the vast battlefield are blind and deaf, and the combat effectiveness is greatly reduced. Therefore, the strategic support forces will play a major role in the invisible four-dimensional and five-dimensional battlefield space.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


















最后则是心理战,也就是通过运用心理学的原理原则,以人类的心理为战场,有计划地采用各种手段,包括现代生活须臾不能脱离的网络、电视、广播等传播手段,对人的认知、情感和意志施加影响,从精神上瓦解敌方军民斗志或消除敌方宣传所造成的影响的对抗活动,从而打击敌方的心志,以最小的代价换取最大胜利和利益。心理战听起来很是玄乎,其实《孙子兵法·谋攻篇》中所提到的:“是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。” 这里的“不战而屈人之兵”就是今天心理战所要达到的终极目标。在第二次世界大战中的诺曼底登陆战役,盟军就曾运用了大量的心理战手段,严重影响干扰了德军统帅部的判断,为战役的胜利做出了巨大贡献。此后,从朝鲜战争、越南战争,直到今天的伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争,美军都曾有专业的心理战部队参战。因此,这是最容易被忽视的军事手段,但却是军事斗争的高级层次,甚至要比先进的飞机大炮更有效率和作用。







Original Referring URL:

China’s New Military Strategy : An Analysis from Asia Cyber Warfare is a Force Multiplier // 中國的新軍事戰略:亞洲網絡戰的分析是力量倍增器

China’s New Military Strategy : An Analysis from Asia Cyber Warfare is a Force Multiplier //


Author ; HongAn

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The theory of war can last for a long time because the book is based on the two pillars of “research and observation” and “philosophy and experience”. They complement each other and make war theory in philosophical dialectic, logic, and theoretical reality and effectiveness. More contemporary. The primitive violence, political nature, and the interaction between the government, the people, and the military in the observation of the nature of the Krupp War are mainly oriented to examine China’s national defense strategy and its political influence and planning in the modern war.

Since Tsai Ing-wen came to power, he requested the Ministry of National Defense to propose the adjustment of the military strategy in the emergence stage. The author believes that it must be formulated from the overall thinking of the national security strategy. The preparations for the establishment of the national army are based on the “10-year military conception” as the basis for the reconstruction of the military. The author has led the plan to report on the national defense strategy (imaginary) of the Republic of China from 1995 to 104. At present, in the face of the development of the CCP’s military aircraft carrier and the military aircraft flying over the central line of the strait, the balance of power between the two sides of the strait has been broken. How to adjust the new military strategic view, facing the threat of war in a new situation, the strategic concept should also be adjusted.

20161231 - China's "Liaoning" aircraft carrier broke through the first island chain in the Pacific Ocean and conducted cross-sea area training missions. The Chinese Navy released photos on the official Weibo.  The picture shows the Liaoning and five destroyers.  (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

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20161231 – China’s “Liaoning” aircraft carrier broke through the first island chain in the Pacific Ocean and conducted cross-sea area training missions. The Chinese Navy released photos on the official Weibo. The picture shows the Liaoning and five destroyers. (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

The author believes that the current development of the CCP’s military aircraft carrier and the military aircraft flying over the central line of the strait have broken the balance of power between the two sides of the strait, how to adjust the new military strategic view, face the threat of war in a new situation, and the strategic concept should also be adjusted. . The picture shows the Chinese “Liaoning” aircraft carrier. (taken from the Chinese Navy to publish Weibo)

Deterrence strategy for the purpose of war prevention

Defending and defending is a war act, and effective deterrence is the prevention of war behavior. In the case of the Taiwan defensive warfare, “deterring” the enemy’s military operations “war”, “prevention” means preventing the use of force by the enemy. If the defeat is defeated, the war will erupt. The use of military force in the deterrent strategy is to prevent the enemy from using military force. Therefore, the deterrent theory is skillful nonuse of military forces, so deterrence must go beyond military skills. It is “stunned”. The purpose of deterrence is not to destroy the enemy when the enemy invades, but to make the enemy realize that if he really takes action, he will be eliminated.

As far as China’s new military strategic changes are concerned, Taiwan’s defense operations are of a defensive nature. As far as the defense strategy is concerned, there are only two options: defense and active defense; as far as tactical level considerations are concerned, it is just like defensive operations, only position defense and mobile defense, or both.

The People’s Liberation Army’s force development and strategic deterrence

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s development of force has emphasized the “joint overall war.” It is familiar with the internal forces of the Communists and the people on the two sides of the strait. They are constantly launching strategic deterrence against the CCP. To some extent, the CCP has made military, economic, diplomatic, and political organizations. Comprehensive integration. The CCP’s overall national defense transformation has surpassed the scope of military strategy. It not only combines the strategic thinking of “winning local wars under the conditions of information” and “active defense”, but also enhances the “combined operations of the arms and services” and promotes the “harmonious world”. The diplomatic strategy of the “new security concept” continues to use the “three wars” and “anti-secession laws” to integrate into a new “joint overall warfare” strategy.

The People’s Liberation Army Navy’s South Navy, the missile destroyer “Hefei Ship” officers and men looking for targets (AP)

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The People’s Liberation Army Navy’s South Navy, the missile destroyer “Hefei Ship” officers and men looking for targets (AP)

The CCP’s overall national defense transformation has surpassed the scope of military strategy. It not only combines the strategic thinking of “winning partial wars under information conditions” and “active defense”, but also enhances the ability of “combined operations of arms and services.” The picture shows the naval naval performance of the PLA Navy. (Information, Associated Press)

On November 25th and December 11th, 2016, the Communists twice rounded Taiwan for half a month. On December 11th, the mainland warplanes moved more than 10 fighters across the Miyako Strait and also bypassed the eastern Taiwanese waters! The People’s Liberation Army Air Force fighters flew out of the “first island chain” while crossing the bus strait and the Miyako Strait. After the CCP’s military aircraft detoured to Taiwan, the CCP’s Liaoning aircraft carrier formation also appeared in the outer seas of my east. According to the recent development of the situation, the CCP has been moving frequently, and the political meaning is greater than the military meaning. Especially after the call of Chuan Cai on December 2, 2016, Trump challenged Beijing’s “one China” policy. Of course, Beijing will not show weakness on core interests. Sending military aircraft to bypass Taiwan and dispatching aircraft carriers through the eastern waters of Taiwan is aimed at announcing that the Taiwan issue is a matter of internal affairs to the United States. It also declares that its armed forces can extinguish the Taiwan independence forces themselves, and never It will repeat the events of 1996.

In addition, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s iron boxing force can be said to be the rapid response force established by the People’s Liberation Army in response to the 21st century. The iron boxing force basically includes the People’s Liberation Army’s air force airborne 15th Army, the Military Commission, or the rapid reaction force directly under the military region. The special military battalion directly under the military region and the Chinese Marine Corps have four major fists. According to sources, the General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army, which was established in early 2016 and completed a large division of theaters, held a cross-strait military affairs report, confirming that Chinese national leader Xi Jinping has formally signed important instructions. This is internally called “No. 41″. The military order has authorized the PLA General Staff to add and complete the 16th Airborne Airborne Forces by the end of 2018. It has two fast airborne divisions, the 69th Division Airborne and the 71st Airborne Division. The newly established Airborne Sixteenth Army will assemble elite field divisions from the Nanjing Military Region and the Jinan Military Region, and will be equipped and trained to become part of the Air Force. It will be equipped with special military and missile units to become a professional force”.

In 2017, China's "two sessions" (National People's Congress, Political Consultative Conference) debuted in Beijing, the 5th meeting of the 12th National People's Congress, the People's Liberation Army Representative (AP)

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In 2017, China’s “two sessions” (National People’s Congress, Political Consultative Conference) debuted in Beijing, the 5th meeting of the 12th National People’s Congress, the People’s Liberation Army Representative (AP)

The military commander inside the People’s Liberation Army called “Order No. 41” has authorized the PLA General Staff to add and complete the 16th Airborne Air Force before the end of 2018 and become a “professional force” against Taiwan. The picture shows the representatives of the People’s Congress and the People’s Liberation Army of the Political Consultative Conference. (Information, Associated Press)

If combined with the rapid reaction force that has been completed, that is, the Airborne 15th Army, it is based on the 3rd Airborne Infantry Divisions of the 43rd Division, 44th Division, and 45th Division, and is independent of the Air Force’s 13th Airlift and the 13th Airborne. The regiment has more than 90 large and small transport aircraft, as well as some independent helicopter regiments (Brigades) belonging to the Army Aviation. Together, they can maintain a 60% combat capability and are ready to go on-board to “can fly at any time, and can drop and drop at any time.” Hit the “iron bones” of the attack mission. The General Staff of the People’s Liberation Army has officially issued a formation order. This is also a major role played by the US military in the US-Iraq war, the powerful projection force of the US military and the visual field-distance force, which led to the reform of the traditional forces. It is also impossible for the CCP to surrender to the United States forever. At least, in the East Asian region, it is hoped that it will be equal to the United States and jointly handle the status of Asia-Pacific affairs.

How can a failing strategy and a hundred percent of combat power be played!

Definition of strategic concept: After the judgment of the strategic situation, the action plan adopted should generally consider five major factors: namely, purpose, strength, time, place and means. The so-called military strategy is built under the national (security) strategy and must follow and support the national defense policy. Military strategy is not only a rationale for thinking, but also a strategic concept. It also covers the overall consideration of force design and force building. In other words, military objectives and strategic ideas are the guidance of force planning (construction), and force building is a concrete practice, and the military design combines the above two parties into a complete strategic thinking.

The military strategic adjustment of China’s various stages is a transformation from the past offensive strategy, offensive and defensive integration, defense defense or offensive defensive strategy. The process is closely related to the US global strategy, the Asia-Pacific situation and cross-strait relations. Its purpose is to ensure Taiwan’s security and maintain national sovereignty and territorial integrity. At this stage, the author believes that “preventing war, maintaining the status quo, and safeguarding homeland security.” The Department also focused on the interception of the “defense and defense, deep suppression” to effectively curb the enemy.

Table I

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Table I

Table I

Multi-task goal is means, heavy layer interception force is joint operation deployment

Purpose and means can not cooperate (multiple deterrence is passive defense, heavy deterrence is active defense)?

According to the “multiple deterrence” that the Secretary of Defense, Mr. Feng Shikuan, has recently proposed, the difference between the “repeated resistance” and the “definitely deterrent” is that the “multiple deterrence” tends to be passive defense, that is, the defense operation limited to Taiwan’s main island; It is an active defense. It is based on the island and pushes the defense network layer by layer. The two have passive and active differences. As far as the author has been engaged in strategic teaching experience for many years, there is no passive or active distinction between the so-called “multiple deterrence” and “repeated resistance”.

20170302 Legislative Yuan. Minister of National Defense Feng Shikuan attended the report of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission and answered questions (photo by Chen Mingren)

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20170302 Legislative Yuan. Minister of National Defense Feng Shikuan attended the report of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Commission and answered questions (photo by Chen Mingren)

The difference between the “multiple deterrence” proposed by the Secretary of Defense Feng Shikuan and the “repeated resistance” of the final case is that “multiple deterrence” tends to passive defense. (Photo, photo by Chen Mingren)

The author believes that the reason why China has adjusted “defense and obstruction” to “effectively deterring, defending and defending” should be “effectively deterring, defending and defending”, that is, the spirit of offensive and defensive. The choice of multi-task targets is only a means, and the interception of multi-tasking is a joint strategy deployment. The strategic concept of failing to cooperate with the purpose and means is a strategy that fails. It is no longer a defensive, it is a layer. Eliminate, so there is no focus on the war of war, how much money we can play.

Has Taiwan been deterred and prepared? If the CCP attacks the national army will not be defensive again!

When the Defense Minister Feng Shikuan made a reply in the Legislative Yuan, he pointed out that the military strategy of the National Army will be adjusted to “repeated the obstacles” because the weapons developed now are more advanced than before. “Some missiles have developed well”, which can make Taiwan better. Defensive forces; if the CCP launches an attack against Taiwan, the national army will no longer be a defensive, and the “respective deterrence” will begin to turn into “active defense.” At the same time, the national army has multiple, multi-party, multi-capacity capabilities. Through the enemy’s half-crossing, beach battle, and position defense, the sea and air forces could not successfully reach the purpose of landing on the island of Taiwan (quoted from Wu Mingjie, March 13, 2017, Feng Media).

In reply to the question of the Democratic Progressive Party legislator Liu Shifang, he said that if the missile command headquarters moved to the Air Force, it would meet the requirements of the deterrent strategy. The four stages of the Flying Finger Division belonged to different units, and the combat strength continued to increase. Command unity and unity of affairs can be time-honored in the first place. The Air Force Operations Command has this power. And Feng Shikuan said that “some missiles have developed well” and “not a layer of defense, it is a layer of elimination, rejection”, which refers to the deployment and mass production of the male E E cruise missile, Wan Jian bomb, Xiong San missile and patriotic The missiles, such as missiles, intercepted and annihilated the missiles, warplanes, and warships that had come to the enemy, and then began to conduct defensive operations after the troops were projected onto Taiwan’s main island.

Table II

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Table II

Table II

Constructing a multi-layer interception joint warfare missile defense capability is the focus

The National Army’s self-developed warplanes, Tianjian-1 and II missiles, and Tiangong’s first, second and third missiles have all been deployed or mass-produced, and preparatory energy and position deployment work has been prepared. Secondly, the R&D plan of high-resolution radar, electronic warfare equipment, multi-barrel rockets and other weapon systems will be carried out to effectively improve the overall combat strength of the national army. How to improve the defense warfare early warning capability, radar performance and coverage, and strengthen the development and deployment of radar signal processing, electronic defense technology, and mobile radar. We will continue to establish an early warning control mechanism and information link construction, integrate the three-armed referral system, and accurately control the relationship between the military and the various stations.

20160811 - Hualien Air Force Base was opened to local residents and the media on the 11th. The picture shows the IDF through the national warplane.  (photo by Yan Linyu)

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20160811 – Hualien Air Force Base was opened to local residents and the media on the 11th. The picture shows the IDF through the national warplane. (photo by Yan Linyu)

The National Army’s self-developed warplanes have been deployed or entered into mass production, and preparatory energy and position deployment work has been prepared. (Photo, photo by Yan Linyu)

The author believes that the missile defense capability is the key to the joint strategic deployment of constructing heavy-layer interception, especially the ability to recover from war damage is the key to the battle; the CCP’s flight vehicles (missile, patrol missiles and unmanned vehicles, etc.) have a precise impact, and their After the first strike, the national army’s war damage and resilience were the key factors affecting my combat schedule and the CCP’s follow-up battle plan. The national army should consider the ability of independent control after the destruction of the management system and strengthen the ability of attracting, electric warfare and defensive counter-measures; only effective source anti-production warfare can reduce the enemy’s attack firepower.

The concept of “fighting how to fight” – “defense, deep defense”

What kind of war the National Army wants to fight, the National Defense Construction Army wants to build a plan based on “playing, loading, editing, and training,” and secondly, it is a comprehensive national strength to build a deterrent. The strategic concept of “defending and defending” is based on the policy guidance of “training for war, unity of war and training”, and planning the “national military annual major training flow path” for the concept of “how to fight”. The military exercises are divided into four categories: “combat, mobilization, nuclearization, and training.” In order to strengthen the ability of “outside islands and ship joints to attack targets at sea” and “three-armed joint air defense training”, the number of training should be increased to enhance The combined military training capability of the three armed forces.

As a national security indicator, comprehensive national strength has two meanings. Internally, national defense construction needs to be balanced with economic development. Externally, understanding what the enemy cares most is helpful for the formation of the “deep deterrence” program. The “deep deterrence method” can be interpreted as: “The emphasis is on an unbearable revenge for the enemy, rather than the ability to emphasize actual combat and win the war.” For example, in the “Exceeding the Limits”, the war mark is no longer limited to military It is a new trend of war type and military thinking.

According to Wu Mingjie, the wind media, from the perspective of the distance, the future defense circle of the National Army usually includes the island, the east line of the Taiwan Strait, and the ADIZ air defense identification zone. However, during the war, it will be extrapolated to the coastal air and sea bases on the mainland, and even more. Inland missile bases and combat command centers, and the eastern defense range will be extrapolated to areas outside ADIZ. In addition, after the establishment of the fourth service in the future, there is no distance limit for network information warfare. These are the future threats of the national army. The scope of defense. (Wu Mingjie, March 13, 2017, Wind Media). However, this study proposes that “depth suppression” is the distance between non-linear lines. The so-called deep combat, in short, includes the depth of the three-dimensional space warfare. As the PLA calls “land, sea, air, sky, electricity”, the “National Army Defense Operations Guide” edited by the author has divided the defense operations into five. Space, namely space, air, ground, water, underwater combat guidance. At present, what we lack most is the search for space and underwater power. It must rely on international cooperation and exchange of interests.

20170118-The second day of the National Army's Spring Festival to strengthen the war preparations tour, came to the naval left camp base.  The picture shows the Navy's classmate seal submarine on display.  (photo by Su Zhongying)

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20170118-The second day of the National Army’s Spring Festival to strengthen the war preparations tour, came to the naval left camp base. The picture shows the Navy’s classmate seal submarine on display. (photo by Su Zhongying)

The future defense circle of the National Army usually includes the island and the east line of the Taiwan Strait and the ADIZ air defense identification zone. However, during the war, it will be extrapolated to the coastal air and sea bases on the mainland, and even more inland missile bases and operational command centers. The eastern defense range will also be extrapolated to areas outside the ADIZ. The picture shows the Navy’s classmate seal submarine. (Photo, photo by Su Zhongzhen)

Integration of forces in a network-centric overall operation

The idea of ​​joint military operations of the three armed forces of the Chinese army has gradually entered the hearts of the people and adapted to the development of high-tech warfare with the main form of joint operations of the three armed forces. In the construction of military power, it will avoid Taiwan’s C4ISR capability to enter the arms race with the CCP and establish a parasitic and symbiotic relationship, and participate extensively in multinational military R&D and cooperation. Pursuing a reasonable defense space in national defense security, the force is integrated into a network-centric overall operation. In short: “To turn your own army into a company, and to pull the enemy from the mountains and waters into my vision.” Therefore, in light of the above viewpoints, the author suggests that the current military strategy should be better. The better strategic concept is to “defend and defend, deepen the deterrence”, and adhere to the policy of “preventing war”, “maintaining the status quo”, and “defending homeland security”. The combination of strategic and strategic deployment, combined with multi-layer defense guidance, combined with the national defense mobilization force, strive for “strategic lasting” time, create opportunities, destroy enemy and ensure national security.

Conclusion: National security is the common responsibility of all people

In fact, the author observes the 12 national defense blueprints published before the Democratic Progressive Party elections, and the new government-driven national defense policies, such as research and development of military strategy, national shipbuilding, national machine building, improved military recruitment, weekend warriors, and military uniforms. Can not be too demanding, the new government’s national defense policy concept, in the blue book can find clues. In the face of the CCP’s asymmetric military development, and gradually locking into the “safety dilemma” dilemma, it is necessary to maintain a calm observation and thinking plan, the most favorable security strategy for survival and development, national defense policy, and military preparation. I can’t have the mind of being big and small, then I should play the depth of being small and wise.

The state-made T75-20 cannon was drilled on the "Ilan Ship" of the Sea Guard.  (photo by Yan Linyu)

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The state-made T75-20 cannon was drilled on the “Ilan Ship” of the Sea Guard. (photo by Yan Linyu)

The defense policy promoted by the new government, such as the national shipbuilding and other national propaganda, the new government’s national defense policy concept can be found in the blue book. The picture shows the state-built T75-20 cannon exercise on the “Ilan Ship” of the Sea Guard. (Photo, photo by Yan Linyu)

Defence is too negative, and lack of nuclear weapons is effective in deterring and incapable. There is no cheap national defense in the world, and national security is the common responsibility of the whole people. There is no distinction between political parties and blue and green. The key issue in the preparation of the army is the cultivation of talents. As for the new government’s annuity reform plan, there are no reasons for the military to be included in the reform, and the difficulties in the recruitment system are even more difficult. How can Taiwan implement the reforms under the quality of grassroots personnel and the lack of cadres? Deterring the fighting power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:








嚇阻戰略以預防戰爭( war prevention )為目的

防衛固守是戰爭行為,有效嚇阻是戰爭行為的預防。就台澎防衛作戰言,「嚇阻」敵國軍事行動「戰爭」,「預防」即在防止敵國使用武力的行為,若嚇阻失敗,戰爭便爆發。嚇阻戰略中軍事武力的運用,就是阻止敵人使用軍事武力。因此嚇阻理論,就是技巧性的不使用軍事武力(skillful nonuse of military forces),因此嚇阻必須超越了軍事上的技巧。就被「嚇阻」,嚇阻的目的並非是在敵人入侵時消滅敵人,而是使敵人確實認知到假如他真的採取行動,則一定會被消滅掉。































國防部長馮世寬日前在立院答詢時曾指出,國軍軍事戰略會調整為「重層嚇阻」,是因為現在研發的武器較之前進步,「有些飛彈發展得不錯」,可以讓台灣有更好防衛力量;假如中共對台攻擊發起,國軍就不會再是守勢,「重層嚇阻」將會開始轉為「積極防禦」;同時國軍已具備多重、多方、多能力戰力,將可經由擊敵半渡、灘岸決戰、陣地防禦,讓海空兵力無法順利達成登陸台灣本島目的(引自吳明杰, 2017年03月13日,風傳媒)。
















據風傳媒吳明杰報導,從距離來看,國軍未來的防衛圈,平時包括本島、台海中線以東、ADIZ防空識別區,但戰時則將外推到大陸當面沿岸海空基地,甚至更內陸的飛彈基地和作戰指揮中心,而東部防禦範圍也會外推到ADIZ以外區域,加上未來第四軍種成立後,網路資訊戰更沒有距離限制,這些都是國軍未來「重層嚇阻」的防禦範圍。(吳明杰, 2017年03月13日,風傳媒)。但本研究所提「縱深遏阻」非直線間之距離。所謂縱深作戰,簡言之包含立體空間作戰之縱深,正如解放軍所稱「陸、海、空、天、電」,就筆者所主編之《國軍防衛作戰教則》,已將防衛作戰區分為五度空間,即太空、空中、地面、水面、水下作戰指導。目前我們最缺乏的是太空與水下之戰力情蒐,必須有賴國際合作及情資交換。














Original URL:

Chinese Military: Cyber security is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space // 中國軍隊:網絡安全是戰爭問題。 在信息戰中,網絡空間已成為戰場空間的新維度

Chinese Military: Cyber security is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space //

中國軍隊:網絡安全是戰爭問題。 在信息戰中,網絡空間已成為戰場空間的新維度


Author:   來源: 解放軍報 作者: 周鴻禕 張春雨

DTG: 2018年05月22日 16:XX:XX

 ● Promote network security. The integration of military and civilian needs to integrate and optimize the allocation at the national level, and promote the two-way flow of technology, talents and resources.

  ● Whether it is network security analysis, situation research, emergency response, or network protection hardware and software development, a large number of information technology talents are needed.


        President Xi profoundly pointed out that there is no national security without cyber security. In the digital age, cyberspace has penetrated into various fields such as politics, economy, military, culture, etc. It has the natural attributes of military and civilian integration, and is an important aspect of the integration and development of military and civilians in the new era. At present, China is marching toward a network power and building a network great wall combining military and civilian integration. It is not only the basic system design for building a network power and information army, but also an important driving force for promoting the deep development of military and civilian integration. Under the new situation, we will actively promote the in-depth development of cyber security, military and civilian integration, and urgently need to break down institutional barriers, structural contradictions, and policy issues, and constantly improve the level of integration and enhance joint protection capabilities.

Cybersecurity is related to the overall security of the country, and it is necessary for the military to walk away from the road of comprehensive integration.

  In the information age, cyberspace security has become a new commanding height of the national strategy. Last year, the “Eternal Blue” ransomware that broke out in the world, the Ukrainian power grid attacked, and the US election “mail door” and other events showed that cyber security concerns national security, social stability and war victory or defeat. The cyber security contest has risen to the national level of confrontation, beyond the scope of the military’s respective management and control, and it is necessary to rely on the integration of the military and the local forces to manage and manage well.

  Cybersecurity is a national interest. As the network’s tentacles extend to economic, social, cultural and other fields, its security will affect economic security, social security, cultural security, and information security. In May 2017, the “Eternal Blue” ransom virus swept through more than 150 countries and regions, including government, banks, communications companies, energy companies and other important departments, and the infrastructure was paralyzed, causing an uproar in the world. Earlier, Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure was attacked by cyber attacks. In just a few minutes, the computer hard drive was destroyed, all data was emptied, and the attacker tried to cause an explosion. If it succeeded, it would undoubtedly have serious consequences.

  Cybersecurity is a matter of war. In the information war, cyberspace has become a new dimension of battlefield space. At present, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan have established cyber warfare forces and vigorously developed various cyber weapons. In the Iraq war, the US military first destroyed the five key command and radar facilities of the Iraqi army, and used electronic interference to firmly grasp the information superiority, making the Iraqi army blind and paralyzed, and the defense system quickly paralyzed. With the accelerated evolution of war forms, the competition for information superiority has increasingly become the core content of war wins and losses. As the “main battlefield” of information control, cyberspace has increasingly become the commanding height of war games.

  Cybersecurity is a common practice in the world. At present, many countries in the world regard military and civilian integration as an important way to improve the security of cyberspace. For example, the United States has made cybersecurity the focus of national security. The White House and the Pentagon have designated Boeing and Lockheed Martin as the national network security team, and designated information technology giants such as Microsoft, Intel, Cisco, Apple, and Google for network security. Professional team, designated Symantec, McAfee and other network security protection companies for the network security special team. In Israel, after the retiring of many Israeli cyber security forces, they became the elite of local high-tech enterprises and founded several network security companies. These companies have come back to cooperate with the Israeli army in the field of network security to enhance the security of the military network and promote the development of the entire network space security.

Network security resources are diversified and diverse, requiring military to strengthen top-level design coordination

  Promoting the integration of military and civilian development is a systematic project. It is necessary to use system science, system thinking, and systematic methods to solve problems. At present, China’s various information network systems are developing at a high speed, and network functions of different functions and types are being put into use one after another. The overall framework of the network security protection system is basically established. However, network security resources are widely distributed in the military and local areas. Promoting network security and military-civilian integration, improving synergy protection needs to strengthen top-level design coordination, break down institutional barriers and departmental interests, unify integration and optimize allocation at the national level, and promote technology, talents, resources, etc. Two-way flow conversion of features.

  Establish and improve the leadership system of the network security organization. It is necessary to speed up the establishment of a leading agency for cybersecurity work organizations with Chinese characteristics in order to ensure a clear hierarchy and division of labor. The national cybersecurity leadership agency’s work focuses on strengthening the top-level design and macro-management of cybersecurity military-civilian integration, formulating development strategies and planning plans, fulfilling the overall coordination function in military-civilian integration, and being responsible for domestic cybersecurity defense and emergency response, and combating cybercrime. And cyber terrorism; military cyber security authorities focus on the overall planning and construction of military cybersecurity, integrating the areas of military and civilian integration into the overall development of national cybersecurity, and doing a good job of connecting with national cybersecurity development plans, We will clarify the relevant processes and management methods for military-land coordination, improve the work system for regular military conferences, important situation notifications, and major operational coordination, and form joint prevention, joint management, and joint control of cyberspace security.

  Coordinate the planning standards for military network security construction. With the goal of effectively responding to the current and future cyber offensive and defensive measures, the overall framework of military and civilian cybersecurity construction will be scientifically formulated, the construction model will be classified, the short-term and long-term construction goals will be defined, and the supporting measures for completing the tasks will be determined. The first is to adhere to the standard. Actively promote the unification of technical standards for network security basic products such as autonomously controllable secure operating systems and secure database systems, and achieve full integration of systems at key moments to create a solid and reliable network security defense line. The second is to insist on a unified assessment. Strengthen the assessment of network security construction and technical risk assessment of network security products, clarify the evaluation procedures and links, and adopt scientific and effective evaluation methods to ensure that the network is secure and controllable after it is built.

  Establish a network security military resource sharing mechanism. To realize the sharing of military network security resources, the key is to establish a mechanism for military land demand. The information on military and civilian technical achievements should be released in a timely manner. The real-time table of “the battlefield needs to be lacking” and “market ownership” should be fully shared with the military and land needs, technologies, standards, products and other information resources; accelerate the construction of military information integration and sharing platform, Expand Unicom channels, standardize interoperability standards, and achieve full complementarity and sharing of military and territorial information resources; establish a network security access system, clearly define the scope of confidentiality levels, and the military business authorities and the “Ministry of the Army” enterprises regularly meet, information, and demand docking Collaborate with research and development to prevent civil network security forces from developing technology and losing targets, reducing targets, protecting tactics from losing rivals, and lacking direction; establishing a network threat information exchange mechanism, timely interoperating with domestic and international network security updates and major event notifications, encouraging private Enterprises and governments, the military share real-time network security threat information, improve the professional and real-time response capabilities of research and analysis.

The essence of cybersecurity is the contest of talents.

  The essence of cybersecurity is cyber confrontation, which is essentially the competition of talents. Whether it is network security analysis, planning, situation research, response and disposal, or network protection hardware and software development, a large number of information technology talents are needed. In order to meet the huge demand of military network security talents, it is necessary to firmly establish a joint thinking.

  Jointly train talents. In recent years, important progress has been made in the training of national cyber security personnel. Cyberspace security has been added to the first-level discipline by the Academic Degrees Committee and the Ministry of Education, and nearly 10,000 graduates in the field of cyberspace security each year. However, compared with the demand for building a network strong country and strengthening the army, there is still a big gap, such as a large gap in the talent team, a need to improve the training system, and insufficient reserve of practical talents. We should actively explore the military, local colleges, research institutes and network security enterprises to carry out joint training channels for talents, build a team of teachers, jointly set up experimental sites, and set up a practice base to realize the organic combination of classroom teaching and practical practice, through network security training. Camp, safety operation and maintenance personnel training, etc., to enhance the professional capabilities of network security practitioners, improve the rapid, large-scale, actual combat security operation and maintenance, analysis and response, attack and defense penetration and other network security personnel joint training mechanism.

  Joint use of strength. We should coordinate the use of various forces in the military, strengthen operational coordination, and establish a relatively comprehensive network security joint prevention and control mechanism. On the one hand, give full play to the role of local network security talents, open up the military network security top-level design, core technology research and development, and network security overall construction to meet the needs of military network security for talents; on the other hand, give full play to the military network security needs The role of the booster is to use the military’s advanced network technology to test the security of national critical infrastructure networks such as nuclear power, communications, transportation, and finance, and to verify the effectiveness of the emergency response system.

  Joint research and development technology. Military and civilian collaborative innovation is an important way to achieve breakthroughs in network protection technology innovation. We should focus on the use of military demand for cutting-edge innovation, and focus on breaking key network technologies, promoting the sharing of military and civilians on the basic platform, and vigorously promoting the mutual transformation of military and civilian technologies; encouraging universities, research institutes, military enterprises, and superior private enterprises to strengthen alliances. Focus on military, human, material and financial resources, and focus on key chips, core devices, operating systems, etc.; explore military and civilian integration network security equipment technology innovation model, develop a new generation of firewalls, intrusion detection, information encryption, information hiding, anti-eavesdropping And other protection technologies to jointly foster an ecological chain of autonomous network security industry.

  In addition, due to the comprehensive complexity of network security, military and regional forces are needed to strengthen regulatory and policy guarantees. Formulate a legal system for network security and military-civilian integration, relevant policies to support the integration of cyber security and civil-military, and relevant documents in the field of cybersecurity military-civilian integration key protection, ensure that the measures for network security and military-civilian integration take root, and form a joint support system for military and land.

Original Mandarin Chinese:







網絡安全事關國家利益。由於網絡觸角延伸到經濟、社會、文化等各個領域,其安全必將影響到經濟安全、社會安全、文化安全、信息安全等。 2017年5月,“永恆之藍”勒索病毒席捲150多個國家和地區,包括政府、銀行、通信公司、能源企業等重要部門機構基礎設施陷入癱瘓,在全球引起軒然大波。早前,沙特的基礎設施遭網絡攻擊,僅僅數分鐘內,計算機硬盤就被破壞,所有數據被清空,攻擊者還試圖引發爆炸,如果得逞無疑會造成十分嚴重的後果。














Chinese Military Review : US Army issued the “cyberspace and electronic warfare operations” doctrine // 中國軍事評論美國陸軍頒布《網絡空間與電子戰行動》條令

US Army issued the “cyberspace and electronic warfare operations” doctrine// 中國軍事評論美國陸軍頒布《網絡空間與電子戰行動》條令

The field command FM3-12 provides instructions and guidance for the Army to implement cyberspace and electronic warfare operations using cyberspace electromagnetic activity in joint ground operations. The Fields Act FM3-12 defines the Army’s cyberspace operations, electronic warfare, roles, relationships, responsibilities, and capabilities, and provides an understanding of this to support Army and joint operations. It details how Army forces protect Army networks and data, and explains when commanders must integrate custom cyberspace and electronic warfare capabilities within military operations.

On the basis of the 2006 National Cyberspace Operations Military Strategy (NMS-CO), the US Joint Chiefs of Staff announced the joint publication JP 3-12 in February 2013 as an internal document. October 21, 2014 The published document for public release is Joint Publication JP 3-12(R). The order states that “the global reliance on cyberspace is increasing, and careful control of offensive cyberspace operations is required, requiring national-level approval.” This requires commanders to recognize changes in national network policies that are mandated by operations. Potential impact. On April 11, 2017, the US Army issued the field command FM3-12 “Network Space and Electronic Warfare Action” on this basis. The field war said that in the past decade of conflict, the US Army has deployed the most powerful communication system in its history. In Afghanistan and Iraq, enemies lacking technological capabilities challenge the US military’s advantages in cyberspace, and the US military has taken the lead in cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) operations. However, regional rivals have demonstrated impressive capabilities in a mixed-operational environment that threatens the US Army’s dominance in cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum. Therefore, the Order states that the integration of cyberspace electromagnetic activity at all stages of combat operations is the key to acquiring and maintaining freedom of maneuver in the cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum, while preventing the enemy from doing so. Cyberspace electromagnetic activity can synchronize capabilities across a variety of domains and operational functions, and maximize synergies within and through the cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum. Intelligence, signal, information operations (IO), cyberspace, space and firepower operations are critical to planning, synchronizing, and implementing cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

The Fields Order FM3-12 supports the Joint Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Act and the Army Doctrine Reference Publication ADRP3-0, Combat, and provides a background to define the Army’s doctrine reference publication ADRP5-0 “Operational Process” and Cyberspace and The relationship between electronic warfare operations. In order to understand the basic principles of integration and synchronization of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations, you must first read the Army’s doctrine publication ADP2-0, the Army’s doctrine reference publication ADRP2-0, the Army doctrine publication ADP3-0, and the Army doctrine reference publication ADRP3. -0, Army doctrine publication ADP5-0, Army doctrine reference publication ADRP5-0, Army doctrine publication ADP6-0, Army doctrine reference publication ADRP6-0, Army technical publication ATP2-01.3, field bar FM3-13 And FM6-0. By planning, integrating, and synchronizing cyberspace and electronic warfare operations, cyberspace electromagnetic activities can integrate functions and capabilities across operational functions, defend networks, and provide critical capabilities to commanders at all levels during joint ground operations. Cyberspace and electronic warfare operations affect all combat functions and are also affected by them.

Network space visualization operating environment of electromagnetic spectrum

The field battles present detailed tactics and procedures for Army cyberspace and electronic warfare operations. The field command replaced the field title FM3-38 dated February 2014. The Fields Order FM3-12 is an Army cyberspace and electronic warfare campaign advocacy publication. The field battles contain the basic principles and guiding principles of cyberspace operations, electronic warfare, and cyberspace electromagnetic activities in a single publication. It provides a comprehensive account of how they support and achieve action, and how to support the missions and functions of the various levels of force. The field battles laid the foundation for subordinate Army technical publications.

Cyberspace and e-war operations incorporate established joint and Army processes into operations such as intelligence processes, targeting processes, and military decision-making processes (MDMPs). The field battles explain the basic ideas of the Army’s cyberspace and electronic warfare operations. Content includes staff responsibilities, contributions to military decision-making processes, cyberspace and target work in the electromagnetic spectrum, and reliance on intelligence and operational environment readiness (OPE) in cyberspace.

The field battles describe the relationship between cyberspace operations, missions, operations, electronic warfare, electromagnetic spectrum, and each other’s actions. This elaboration also includes cyberspace electromagnetic activity, providing compliance for military forces and the following combat forces planning, integration, and simultaneous electromagnetic activities.

Schematic diagram of electromagnetic spectrum

The first chapter provides an understanding of cyberspace, cyberspace operations, missions, actions, and effects. It describes cyberspace and situational understanding, situational awareness, threats, risks, vulnerabilities, and their relationship to information and operational environments. The level and characteristics of cyberspace confirm the legal authorization applicable to cyberspace and cyberspace operations, and discuss the basic information and spectrum management functions of electronic warfare related to cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

Chapter 2 provides information on the use of cyberspace operations and tasks, rather than day-to-day operations, pointing out that information operations, intelligence, space operations, and targeted work can affect cyberspace, electromagnetic spectrum, cyberspace operations, and electronic warfare operations. Commanders and staff officers have integrated and synchronized all of these aspects of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

The third chapter expounds the Army’s cyberspace electromagnetic activity and mission-style command, the role of the commander, the cyberspace with combat functions and the electronic warfare action, and discusses how to incorporate the planning elements of cyberspace and electronic warfare operations into the operational process. This includes planning, preparation, implementation, evaluation, and targeting. The discussion of the operational environment is combined with the military decision-making process, followed by an overview of the preparation requirements, implementation tactics, and how to assess cyberspace and electronic warfare operations.

Figure cyberspace electromagnetic activity combat framework

Appendix A discusses cyberspace operations and various joint operations partners.

Appendix B highlights the location of cyberspace operational information in the Combat Command and Appendix 12 to Annex C. This appendix includes an example of Appendix 12 to Annex C, which describes the types of information contained in this appendix and sections.

Appendix C contains the procedures for handling cyberspace operations requests from military, military, and military units, as well as fields and information for the Cyber ​​Operations Application Form (CERF). Blank copies of the cyber operations application form and field explanations are all part of the process.

Appendix D includes fields and information for the Electronic Attack Request Form (EARF). A blank copy of the electronic attack application form and a five-line brief with field interpretation are part of the program.

Cyberspace and Electronic Warfare Actions Directory



Chapter 1 Network Space and the Basic Principles of Electronic Warfare Action

Section 1 Overview of Cyberspace and Electromagnetic Spectrum

First, the network space domain

Second, combat operations and cyberspace domain

Third, cyberspace tasks and actions

Section 2 Understanding Network Space and Environment

1. Network space and electromagnetic spectrum

Second, cyberspace and information environment

Third, the network space level

Fourth, the characteristics of cyberspace

5. Cyberspace as part of the operational environment

Sixth, risk in cyberspace

Seven, authorization

Section III Electronic Warfare Action

First, the electromagnetic spectrum action

Second, electronic warfare

Third, the application of matters needing attention

Fourth, spectrum management

Chapter 2 Relationship with Cyberspace and Electromagnetic Spectrum

I. Interdependence

Second, information operations

Third, intelligence

Fourth, space operations

V. Target determination

Chapter III Electromagnetic Activities in Cyberspace in Operation

First, the basic principle

Second, matters needing attention

Third, the role of the commander

Fourth, empower resources

V. Planning work and cyberspace electromagnetic activities

Sixth, network effect application form and target determination activities

Appendix A Integration with Unified Action Partners

Appendix B Cyberspace in Combat Commands

Appendix C Network Effect Application Form

Appendix D Electronic Attack Application Form

Thanks for compiling/reviewing: Shen Song

Article source: Zhiyuan Strategy and Defense Research Institute

Electric Defense Research

Original Mandarin Chinese:


在2006年《国家网络空间作战军事战略(NMS-CO)》基础上,美军参谋长联席会议在2013年2月只是以内部文件形式公布了联合出版物JP 3-12。2014年10月21日对外公开发布的条令文件为联合出版物JP 3-12(R)。该条令指出,“在全球范围内,对网络空间的依赖日益增加,需要仔细控制进攻性网络空间作战,需要国家层面的批准。”这就要求指挥官认识到国家网络政策的变化对作战授权的潜在影响。2017年4月11日,美国陆军在此基础上颁布了野战条令FM3-12《网络空间与电子战行动》。该野战条令认为,在过去十年的冲突中,美国陆军已经部署了其历史上最强大的通信系统。在阿富汗和伊拉克,缺少技术能力的敌人挑战美军在网络空间内的优势,美军在网络空间和电磁频谱(EMS)行动中取得了主导权。但是,地区同等对手已经在一种混合作战环境中展示了令人印象深刻的能力,这种混合作战环境威胁了美国陆军在网络空间和电磁频谱中的主导权。因此,该条令指出,在作战行动的所有阶段整合网络空间电磁活动是在网络空间和电磁频谱内获取和保持机动自由的关键,同时可以阻止敌人这么做。网络空间电磁活动可以同步贯穿各种域和作战职能中的能力,并在网络空间和电磁频谱内及通过它们最大程度地发挥互补效果。情报、信号、信息作战(IO)、网络空间、太空和火力作战对计划、同步和实施网络空间与电子战行动是至关重要的。










图 网络空间电磁活动作战框架

附录A 论述了网络空间作战与各种联合行动伙伴。

附录B 强调了网络空间作战信息在作战命令和附件C之附录12中的位置。本附录包括一个附件C之附录12的例子,描述了本附录和各部分所包含的信息类型。

附录C 包含了在军、军以下、军以上级别部队处理网络空间作战行动申请的程序,以及网络作战行动申请表(CERF)的字段和信息。网络作战行动申请表的空白副本和字段解释都是该程序的组成部分。





第一章 网络空间与电子战行动基本原理

第一节 网络空间和电磁频谱概述




第二节 了解网络空间与环境








第三节 电子战行动





第二章与 网络空间和电磁频谱的关系






第三章 作战中的网络空间电磁活动







附录A 与统一行动伙伴的整合

附录B 作战命令中的网络空间

附录C 网络效果申请表

附录D 电子攻击申请表





Original Source:

Chinese Military Informationization Trends – Cyber Integrated Battlefield // 中國軍事信息化趨勢 – 網絡綜合戰場

Chinese Military Informationization Trends – Cyber Integrated Battlefield // 中國軍事信息化趨勢 – 網絡綜合戰場

Source: PLA Daily

The army has given birth to the military and other military services. With the advent of the information age, the integration of battlefields and combat operations has made the integration of services a new trend and destination for the development of military construction.

Service integration: the general trend of informationized army construction

■Wang Xueping

The development of things often presents a spiral rising path, following the law of negation of negation. The development of human military activities, especially military construction, is also in line with this law. Before the information age, the army of the army was from one to many. The army had given birth to the sea and air. With the advent of the information age, the rapid development of technology has made the integration of military services a trend and a destination for the development of new military construction.

The future battlefield does not distinguish between land, sea and air

Under the condition of mechanization, the pattern of independent existence of land, sea, air and sky battlefields began to merge under the catalysis of the new military revolution. Multidimensional and multi-war occasions are the basic forms of the future battlefield.

The promotion of rapid development of science and technology. With the continuous development of science and technology and the improvement of mankind’s ability to control the battlefield, it is an inevitable trend that the battlefield will be dispersed from integration to integration. Science and technology are the driving force for the integration of battlefields and unlimited expansion into the air. The development of high-tech such as information technology, positioning and guidance technology has made the performance of weapons and equipment surpass the traditional land, sea and airspace boundaries. Global mobility, global arrival and global strike have become the targets of the development of the military of the world’s military power. The development of space situational awareness technology integrates surveillance, reconnaissance, intelligence, meteorology, command, control and communication, and integrates the battlefield information network to realize battlefield information sharing. Joint operations and precision strikes become the basic style of future warfare. The rapid development of space technology has made the surface information and the information of the global environment unobstructed. The expansion of the battlefield into space has condensed the traditional land, sea and air battlefields into one, becoming a stepping stone and pedal for the vast innocent space battlefield.

The inevitable evolution of the form of war. With the in-depth development of the new military revolution, the intensity of the war to informationization will further increase. Informatized warfare is not only a “speed war” but also a “precise war” and an “integrated war.” The acceleration of the war integration process is first manifested in the integration of land, sea and airspace, and the integration of the scope of the battlefield as the war develops. This is the basic condition for information warfare. The speed of war and the improvement of precision strike capability require that the military must have global maneuver, global combat and precision strike capability that transcends land, sea and air, cross-border, trans-ocean, and vacant, and battlefield integration is the basic guarantee. The war science and technology contest has intensified, and the requirements for battlefield resource sharing have become more obvious. Military personnel have broken through the geographical and military barriers and broke the boundary between land, sea and airspace. It is an important weight to win the war.

The requirements for quick fixes in combat objectives. Speed ​​and precision are the main thrust of future wars. Eliminating battlefield barriers, integrating land, sea, air, and battlefields is the way to reach a speedy battle. The quickness and determination of the purpose of informatized warfare has promoted the integration of force preparation, equipment and operations. The integration of force preparation, equipment and operations has also promoted the arrival of battlefield integration. The military system is integrated into the arms and services. The scope of action has surpassed the narrow space of a single service. The ability to operate in a wide area and in a large space makes it difficult to divide the battlefield into a land battlefield, a sea battlefield, and an air battlefield. Weapons and equipment combines the performance of land, sea and air weapons. Its combat function surpasses the land, sea and airspace range, providing material conditions and support for battlefield integration. The strategic battle tactical action is integrated into one, the joint operations are divided into groups, the small squad completes the large task, and the informatized war characteristics of the tactical action strategy purpose will inevitably catalyze the dispersed battlefield toward one.

Signs of military integration appear quietly

While the development of science and technology is promoting the rapid birth of new arms, the cohesiveness of war integration is also affecting the integration of military construction. Under the conditions of informationization, the trend of integration of arms and services is becoming more and more obvious, and there is a tendency to accelerate development.

The theory of integration theory is repeated. The fusion of theory is a prelude to the integration of the military, and it is the magic weapon and sword to win the information war. Under the impact of the new military revolution, theoretical innovations have surpassed the waves, especially the integration of theoretical innovations aimed at joint operations. In order to adapt to the new changes in the form of war and the international pattern, in the 2010 “four-year defense assessment report” of the United States, the theory of joint operations of “sea and air warfare” was clearly put forward. In order to adapt to the requirements of the network-centric warfare, the French military integration theory innovation is at the forefront. The Army proposed the air-to-ground combat bubble theory, and the Navy proposed the theory of joint action from sea to land. The Indian Army has referenced and learned from the US “air-ground integration” and “quick-decisive” operational theories, and put forward the “cold-start” operational theory. The core is to strengthen the cooperation between the army and the sea and air force in order to seek the initiative of the operation and strive for the shortest time. The purpose of the battle is achieved within.

Integrated equipment surfaced. The rapid development of science and technology has continuously enhanced the comprehensive functions of weapons and equipment, and integrated equipment integrating land, sea, air and sky has become a material support and an important driving force for the development of military services. In order to win the initiative of integrated joint operations, the world’s military powers have accelerated the research and development of integrated equipment. The US military “Independence” stealth warship, which was once popular, is a very typical new integrated equipment. The ship integrates anti-submarine, mine-clearing, surveillance, reconnaissance and force deployment functions. It can carry three helicopters, some special forces and armored vehicles, and integrates the “ground and air” equipment. The ship-borne gun can carry out three-dimensional attacks on missiles launched from air, land and underwater targets, which greatly enhances the integrated combat capability of the equipment.

The integrated forces first appeared. The future informationized warfare is an integrated joint warfare operation carried out in multi-dimensional space such as land, sea, air, sky, and information. It is required that the participating troops must be an integrated military system. To meet this requirement, the army of the world’s powerful countries has intensified the construction of integrated forces. Joint expeditionary forces such as the US military include the Army Division, the Naval Aircraft Carrier Combat Group, the Marine Corps Division (sub-) and the Air Force Fighter Wing. The Russian military formed a mobile unit that spanned three services and one independent unit, including the Army’s Mobility Division, tank division, special brigade, rocket brigade, air force fighter, attack aircraft, bomber regiment, naval marine battalion and airborne troops. Airborne division. The rapid reaction force formed by France consists of different types of divisions of five arms. In accordance with operational needs, Germany has directly organized the Defence Forces into three units: the Intervention Force, the Stabilization Force and the Support Force. It can be seen that the integrated forces of multiple arms and services have become the direction of army construction and development in the information age.

Looking into the future, planning the army of today

The integration of the services and the ultimate integration are the inherent requirements of the information war and the basic law of the army’s construction and development. This law does not shift from people’s will. In order to seek the initiative of army building, we should follow this trend and make forward-looking decisions in promoting the integration of the military.

In-depth exploration of the theory of military integration. Theory is the forerunner of action, and it is the reflection on the top of the mountain. Aiming at the trend of the times, accumulating strength and finding countermeasures through theoretical research is the experience and practice of world-class military construction and development. The first is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of integrated construction. We should study the issue of integrated military construction as soon as possible, explore the construction goals, standards, paths, methods, and methods of the integrated military, and build bridges and paved roads for the military integration. The second is to strengthen the exploration of integrated operational theory. The development trend of military integration will inevitably bring about new changes in combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the study of the characteristics of the integrated military operations, strengthen the study of integrated military operations and command methods, strengthen the study of the basic military tactics of the integrated military, and make forward-looking theories a traction in the development of military construction. The third is to strengthen the theoretical exploration of new talent training. To train new talents that meet the needs of the development of integrated military construction needs to be prepared in theory. The institutional structure, teaching content and teaching methods of colleges and universities need to focus on the law of integrated military construction and development, theoretically research, clear, and even through pilot exploration, so that the training of college personnel can adapt to the general trend of military integration development as soon as possible. For the development of integrated military construction, it is necessary to make a good talent reserve.

Accelerate the development of integrated equipment for the military. Integrated equipment is the material basis for the integration of services. In line with the general trend of the development of integrated military construction, our military should speed up the research and development of military integrated weapons and equipment. The first is the “collection” type of equipment. For example, the aircraft carrier-style “collection” type of equipment, with the hull as the basic platform, fuses fighters, artillery, anti-aircraft guns, missiles, and chariots into one, so that the equipment has the ability to multi-domain and multi-air combat. Our military should develop such “collection” type equipment based on land or sea or air, and promote the development of weapons and equipment to the integration of various arms and services. The second is the “all-round” type of equipment. In the future, the equipment must be able to run on the ground, fly in the air, swim in the water, and operate at high speed on the water, underwater, on land, and in the air, and the “human outfit” is integrated. The combatants follow the operational needs. Become a super equipment that “takes the sea and catches the moon, and picks up the moon.”

Explore the construction of a military united army. Comply with the general trend of the integration and development of the informatized military, actively promote the exploration of the construction of the military-integrated forces, and explore ways to accumulate experience for the development of military integration. Under the current circumstances, it is mainly necessary to build a large article on the integration of hybrid force preparation and create conditions for the integration of the military system. The establishment of a multi-service hybrid pilot unit will be rolled forward in actual combat training. Take the Army as an example, it is to build a hybrid force that integrates rifle, tan, gun, and land. For example, the integrated ground detachment consisting of armored forces, artillery, machine infantry, missile corps, attack and transport helicopter detachments, which was formed by the US Army, foreshadowed the development trend of integrated force formation that broke the arms and even the service line. With the accumulation of experience, the maturity of the conditions, and the improvement of the level of science and technology, the scope of the composition of the force has gradually expanded, and eventually an integrated experimental unit with complete strengths of the arms and services has been established.

Original Mandarin Chinese:




















Original referring url:

Chinese Military Analysis of Korean Army Network Centric Warfare Capabilities // 中國軍事韓軍“網絡中心戰”建設現狀及未來發展趨勢

Chinese Military Analysis of Korean Army Network Centric Warfare Capabilities //



“Network-centric warfare” is an important symbol in the evolution of mechanized warfare to informatized warfare. It is a high-level form of joint warfare in the information age, and a new type of warfare on the information-based battlefield of the “platform center warfare”. In recent years. Han Jun continues to deepen his understanding of network-centric warfare. Accelerated the pace of the army’s informatization construction. Han Jun’s network-centric warfare concept is embodied by the Korean military command and control system, the military information system, and the Korea-US Joint Operational Information System. This paper analyzes the status quo and future development trend of Han Jun’s “network center warfare” from the aspects of network center warfare, Korean military defense informationization, Hanjun C4I system construction, and Korea-US joint information system construction.

First, the composition of national defense information

  The field of national defense informationization in Korea consists of five areas: basic system, modeling and simulation (M&S: Modeling & Simulation), interoperability and standardization, information security, and application systems. The basic system field consists of communication networks, servers, computers, and basic software. The field of modeling and simulation refers to the training exercise simulation system and simulation analysis system for NC Cent (Network Centric Warfare), and the simulation based acquisition (SBA) for procurement management.

  Interoperability and standardization are prerequisites for the implementation of network-centric warfare theory. Through interoperability and standardization, information interconnection, interoperability, interoperability and real-time perception and sharing of battlefield information can be realized. Interoperability and standardization cover technical standardization, system construction standardization, and user interface standardization.

  Information network technology brings high benefits to military construction and operational command, and also brings high risks to military information security. At present, information network technology is widely used in various fields of the Korean Army, and information security is also facing various severe challenges. The main contents of information security include: in order to ensure the integrity, availability and confidentiality of information, establish a security system under the wireless local area network (LAN) and ALL-IP environment, establish a sound information security system, and establish the security of the Korean-American information system. Program and other aspects.

  The application system consists of a battlefield management system and a resource management system. The battlefield management system consists of a command and control system called the C4I system, a military information system that collects, processes, and transmits information, and a Korean-US joint operational information system. Han Jun’s command and control system consists of the Korean Joint Command and Control System (KJCCS: Korea Joint Command and Control System), the Ground Tactical Command Information System (ATCIS), and the Naval Tactical C4I System (KNCCS: Korea Naval Command Control System). ), Air Force Command and Control System (AFCCS), Joint Fire Operation System (JFOS-K: Joint Fire Operation System-Korea), Rear Area Tactical C4I System, Brigade Command System (B2CS: Battalion Battle Command System). The Korean military military information system consists of the Military Information Management System (MIMS). The Korea-US Joint Operations Information System consists of the Joint Operations C4I System – Joint Command and Control System (AKJCCS: Allied Korea Joint Command and Control System), Joint Military Information Distribution System (MIMS-C) and the US Army Global Joint Information Exchange System – Korea System (CENTRIXS-K), US Pacific Command Automated Data Processing System – PASS-K: Pacific Command Automated Data Processing Server Site-Korea.

  The resource management system is an automated information system for improving the utilization efficiency of national defense resources. It is divided into four major areas: planning finance, personnel mobilization, military needs facilities, and electronic administration. There are comprehensive financial information systems and results management systems in the planning and finance field; personnel information systems, integrated distance education systems, and mobilization information systems in the personnel mobilization field; military needs comprehensive information systems, facility information systems, transportation information systems, and ammunition information systems in the field of military needs. , defense terrain information system, medical information system; electronic administrative field has a comprehensive defense knowledge management system, business management system, record management system.

<Figure 1> Defense Information Application System.
<Figure 1> Defense Information Application System.

Second, the construction of the Korean Army C4I system

  Han Jun’s battlefield management system consists of five major systems: KJCCS, ATCIS, KNCCS, AFCCS, and MIMS. As of 2010, all these systems have been completed. Performance improvements were made to the ATCIS system and the AFCCS system in 2011, and performance improvements were made to the KJCCS system since 2012. In 2010, the system development of the ATCIS system in the rear area was completed, and the actual deployment was completed in June 2011. Since 2009, the research and development work of the B2CS system and the preliminary research work of the ATCIS system have been carried out. In 2011, B2CS system development and ATCIS system performance improvement research and development projects were comprehensively promoted. It is estimated that in 2015, system development and test evaluation will be completed, and in 2020, it will be deployed to military-level combat units.

  KJCCS’s performance improvement work is mainly to prepare for the establishment of the first group army and the third group army integrated/merged ground combat command. It is expected that after the performance improvement of KJCCS, the powerful new features will be greatly improved in terms of reliability, survivability and security.

  ATCIS in the rear area will establish an information sharing system between the Army’s 2nd Combat Command and each team. The ATCIS in the rear area will be able to effectively adapt to the operational tasks and types of operations undertaken by the 2nd Combat Command, and it is highly targeted and operable. In addition, ATCIS in the rear area will be able to interoperate with KJCCS, MIMS and other systems to provide an integrated information environment for the vast rear battlefield management, ensuring high information sharing.

  The B2CS system is the command and control system used by the Army Brigade to the squad combat units. The B2CS system will use situational awareness and information acquisition as the forerunner to realize a variety of data information sharing and visual interaction. It is a system integrating command, control, communication and intelligence, which can effectively guarantee the command and control (C2OTM) in action.

  At present, the Korean Army’s brigade-level units are only equipped with limited C4I terminals and Position Reporting Equipment (PRE), and the commanders below the squad level are not equipped with relevant equipment. After the actual deployment of the B2CS system, it will realize the visual sharing of the battlefield information from the military to the squad through interconnection with ATCIS, and provide the basis for the close cooperation and real-time coordinated action of various combat forces and the integration of command and control.

  The ATCIS system performance improvement project is to build a network platform for the existing system to achieve interaction between the ATCIS system and 50 weapon systems. In addition, as a supplement and extension of the wired network, a command center wireless local area network (LAN) will be constructed for the ATCIS system to enhance the flexibility of the operational network.

  In response to the transfer of wartime operational command, Han Jun is promoting the research and development of AKJCCS system, MIMS-C system and JFOS-K system. It is expected that the AKJCCS system will interact with the CENTRIXS-K system, the CENTRIXS-K system will interact with the CENTRIXS-K system, and the JFOS-K system will interact with the US military’s firepower system.

  In the course of using the battlefield information management system of Han Jun, many problems were discovered. At present, system improvement work for KJCCS, ATCIS, and AFCCS is underway, but KNCCS and MIMS have made little progress in this regard. The system performance upgrade work mainly focuses on interoperability with other systems, improving the authentication system, adding some application functions, and diversifying system expansion.

Judging from the current situation, the construction of the Korean Army C4I system mainly has the following problems:

  First, in the battlefield management information system construction needs assessment stage, the proposed conceptual operational performance (ROC, Required Operational Capability) is directly reflected in the concept research phase, and then through the entire process of system development. In this way, the ROC is only based on the judgment of the R&D personnel, and is out of line with the level, type, and actual situation of the troops. As a result, the battlefield management system is singular and cannot provide the required information to the combat units in a targeted manner, resulting in users usually using only some of the functions.

  In order to solve these problems, the ROC should first be completed with the participation of developers and users. This will fully reflect the user’s needs and make the system more practical for practical use. The user interface and usage functions should also be personalized. According to the different positions and responsibilities of the troops, the corresponding functions should be set up, and a number of nodes with different functions, which can be randomly combined, aggregated in efficiency, and can adapt and act in one body, Provide a strong foundation for the combat system.

  Second, in the specific promotion stage of battlefield management information system construction, from the communication network to the application system construction, the old road of “chimney development” has been taken, resulting in “chimneys” and mutual disjoint, which greatly restricted the army. The improvement of comprehensive combat capability. Although the Korean Ministry of Defense issued a number of regulations and guidelines, it is required to follow the relevant technical standards from system development to system construction, but the actual situation is that these regulations have not been specifically implemented. As a result, the information of the Korean military battlefield management system is not well connected. The three military C4I systems—ATCIS, KNCCS, AFCCS, and military information system MIMS can only be indirectly linked through KJCCS.

  In the 2009 and 2010 “Key Decisions/鹞鹰” joint exercises, there was a problem with the Common Operational Picture (COP), which failed to accurately and real-time update and improve the comprehensive sensory intelligence information of the battlefield. The results of the 2011 review by the Institute of the Ombudsman confirmed this. The specific errors are the position of the troops, the number of troops, the size of the troops, and the major equipment intelligence. The main reasons are serious problems in coding management, system interaction, database (DB) management, and information input.

  In order to solve these problems, it is necessary to introduce not only a system based on a command and control personal computer (C2PC) that the US military is using, but also to standardize COP data. The common use in the Common Commitment Map (COP) does not mean that all users in the information system are watching the same picture. Universal means that all users share the same data source. That is, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shared the true standardized common operational map data with the three armed forces. Each user saw different presentations provided by the same data source that he or she needed.

  Third, the core of the battlefield management information system–the application system has the necessary functions required for the troops to perform tasks, but at present it only realizes the automation of the business and functions, and can not achieve the organic integration of command and control at all levels. In addition, the functional development of the application system lacks top-level design and system planning, lacks communication and collaboration, and objectively causes low level of interconnection between systems, which cannot meet the actual needs of users. From the current point of view, it is difficult to provide resource optimization configuration plans and strong decision support to commanders and operational staff.

  The information system is only automated, meaning that there is no business process analysis (BPA) in the system development process, and no reasonable and scientific business processes are formed. It can be said that one of the most important aspects of system development is Business Process Analysis (BPA). In the specific development, the current business process status analysis (As-Is) should be performed first. Once problems are identified or areas that need improvement, they are redesigned to the type of process that the user expects (to-Be) or optimizes. In this way, business process reengineering (BPR) based on the analysis of existing business processes can generate new and more reasonable business processes.

  System function development does not only include software development. Research and development personnel of information systems generally believe that software development is the entire content of system function development, and data is only the content that the system transmits during the operation. In fact, the purpose of the software is to process the data, not independent. That is to say, in the process of business process, the system and data should be promoted in parallel; in the process of system development, the data should be processed into the form required by the user. This means that business process modeling (BPM: Business Process Modeling) and data modeling (DM: Data Modeling), business standardization and data standardization should be carried out simultaneously.

  Fourth, for the weapon system, if the improvement needs are found after the development is completed, the performance improvement work will be carried out after all the problems are integrated, and there will not be too many problems. However, for the information system, even if the function is very perfect, if a specific user proposes a new functional requirement, it cannot be updated in time and improved in time, which will directly affect the actual use of the system. Without the flexibility and reliability to meet business and performance needs, information systems can hardly play a role in improving operational effectiveness.

  It is very important to establish a sound information system optimization and maintenance system, and timely reflect business requirements/performance requirements in the operation of the system. This is simpler and more effective than directly advancing performance improvement projects. Therefore, it is necessary to designate the system R&D department to be responsible for the optimization and upgrading of the system throughout its life cycle. To this end, it is also necessary to invest the corresponding budget.

III. Construction of the joint information system between Korea and the United States

  The CENTRIXS-K system and the PASS-K system were designed and used by the US military to share information with the Korean Army C4I system and military information systems. It is particularly worth mentioning that the CENTRIXS-K system is the joint operational command and control system of Korea and the United States under the leadership of the Korea-US Joint Command.

  After the transfer of wartime operational command, the command of wartime operations will be dominated by the current joint command of South Korea and the United States, becoming a new model dominated by the Korean army and supported by the US military. This means that the command organization has changed from the current single system of the Korea-US Joint Command to the two command systems of the Korean Army and the US Army in Korea. At present, both Korea and the United States are considering the disintegration of the Korea-US Joint Command, the adaptation of the Korea-Jin United Association, and the establishment of the US Korean Command (US KORCOM). At that time, the chairman of the Korean Federation of Senate will be responsible for commanding the Korean army, and the US South Korean Command (Commander of the US Army in South Korea) will be responsible for commanding the troops under the jurisdiction of the US military. In addition, South Korea and the United States will also establish new cooperation institutions, in which the Alliance Military Cooperation Headquarters will assist the Military Commission (MC) to carry out strategic cooperation; the theater-level cooperation agencies will be responsible for specific cooperation matters between the Korean Federation of Senate and the US Korean Command; The Combatant Command-level cooperation agency will be responsible for specific cooperation matters between the Korean-American combat command-level forces.

  In the face of this change in organizational structure, it is necessary for the ROK to strengthen the system construction required by Korea’s leading command and control and the Korea-US cooperation mechanism. To this end, Hanshen is developing the AKJCCS system and the MIMS-C system. It is expected that the AKJCCS system and the MIMS-C system will be used as a theater-level information circulation, joint operational command and control, joint operational function support, and cooperation means of military cooperation agencies between the two countries. As a result, changes will be brought to the command and control systems and support systems in the Korea-US Joint Information System. That is, the Korean Army through the KJCCS system, the US military through the CENTRIXS-K system to command and control their respective combat forces; the Korean Army’s Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Korean Army’s various combat command through the KJCCS system using the main functions of the AKJCCS system, the United States and South Korea Command And the US military combat command uses the main functions of the AKJCCS system through the CENTRIXS-K system.

  In 2015, after the transfer of wartime operational command, the Korean Army’s battlefield management information system and the US military’s C4I system will achieve a fairly level of interconnection, interoperability, and interoperability. Han Jun’s battlefield management will be implemented through the KJCCS system and the three military C4I systems – ATCIS system, KNCCS system, AFCCS system, and the joint operation of Korea and the United States will be implemented through the CENTRIXS-K system and the AKJCCS system. The existing system interaction mechanism will be maintained between the Korean-American Air Force/Naval Combat Force, and the non-interoperability between the Korean-US Army/Marine Corps combat units will continue.

  The MIMS-C system is currently in the research and development stage, and the MIMS system is only used as the Korean military’s own military information system.

  From the perspective of joint operations, it is important that the AKJCCS system function as much as possible in the interoperability with CENTRIXS-K. The CENTRIXS-K system operation data is provided by various underlying systems, but the AKJCCS system does not have such a lower system application support system, so some functions of the CENTRIXS-K system are difficult to run on the AKJCCS system. These functions include the Crisis Action Standard Operating Procedures (CASOP), the Integrated Decision Support Framework (IDSF), and the Commander’s Critical Information Requirement (CCIR), 5X8 Card. SIGEVENT: Significant Event, etc. It is expected that after the transfer of wartime operational command, the AKJCCS system will be able to obtain the information provided by the above functions from the CENTRIXS-K system through a network link.

  Joint Warning and Reporting Network, Joint Weather Impacts System, Theater Battle Management Core System, Theater Ballistic Missile Warning (TBMW) Wait. The CENTRIXS-K system can effectively interconnect, interoperate and interoperate with so many systems. Therefore, the functions of command and control, information sharing, cooperation and coordination, and business support are excellent, and the operation is very smooth without any problems or obstacles. However, Han Jun’s AKJCCS system can only obtain limited data from the KJCCS system, so it has great limitations in function. Therefore, it is also necessary for Han Jun to build the lower system of the AKJCCS system to ensure safe, efficient and stable operation of the AKJCCS system.

Fourth, the trend of the construction of the joint information system between Han Jun and Korea-US

  From the point of view of the Korean military’s individual operations, to improve the combat effectiveness of the battlefield management system, it must have the necessary performance required for the mission.

  First of all, it is necessary to realize the interaction of the Korean and American tactical C4I systems to ensure information sharing and collaboration between Korean and American tactical forces. That is to realize the Korean-American ground forces–Hanjun ATCIS system and the US Army ABCS system, the Korean-American naval–Korean army KNTDS system and the US military CENTRIXS-M system, the Korea-US Air Force–Hanjun AFCCS system and the US Air Force tactics C4I System (ACC-COIN), Korea-US Marine Corps–Hanjun ATCIS system interacts with the US Marine Corps system in real-time or near-real-time systems, and information sharing is very important.

  Secondly, the interactive mode of the current three-armed tactical system-ATICS system, KNCCS system, and AFCCS system centered on the KJCCS system should be changed. This mode has limited the improvement of combat effectiveness. For example, direct interconnection between the three military tactical systems will effectively improve the rapid response capability, rapid maneuverability and coordinated combat capability of the troops. In addition, it is also very important to resolve the transmission delay, data loss and data inconsistency between the three military tactical C4I systems.

  In addition, we should proactively complete the construction of basic communication networks such as top-level design, system integration, continuous promotion of TACT (Tactical Information Communication Network), satellite communication network, etc., and accelerate the establishment of a unified and complete information platform and integrated information network.

In summary, the development direction of the Korean Army C4I system can be summarized as the following four points:

  First, the operational performance requirements (ROC) of the C4I system should be completed with the participation of R&D personnel and users. The system user interface and usage functions should be personalized, providing a strong foundation for situational awareness, command and control, and decision support. support.

  Second, the standardization of data between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the three armed forces, sharing a unified data source (data source) and data standardization common operational map.

  Third, the application system of the C4I system realizes interconnection, interworking, interoperation, data retrieval and troubleshooting can all be performed in the same screen. In addition, in order to form a reasonable and scientific business process, business process analysis (BPA), business process modeling (BPM) and data modeling (DM: Data Modeling) are required.

  Fourth, timely reflect the user’s business needs, performance requirements and improvement requirements, and establish and improve the information system’s optimal maintenance system.

 In addition, the development direction of the Korean-American C4I system can be summarized as the following two points:

  First, learn from the CENTRIXS-K system and build the lower system of the AKJCCS system to ensure efficient and stable operation of the system.

  Second, realize the interaction of the Korean and American tactical C4I systems to ensure information sharing and collaboration between Korean and American tactical forces. Zhiyuan / Everest

Original Mandarin Chinese:



韓國國防信息化領域由基礎體系,建模與仿真(M&S:Modeling&Simulation),互操作性與標準化,信息安全,應用系統等五大領域組成。基礎系統領域由通信網,服務器,計算機,基礎軟件等組成。建模與仿真領域指應對網絡中心戰(NCW:Network Centric Warfare)的訓練演習模擬系統和模擬分析系統,用於採辦管理工作的基於仿真的採辦(SBA:Simulation Based Acquisition)等。



應用系統由戰場管理系統和資源管理系統組成。戰場管理系統由被稱為C4I系統的指揮控制系統,收集,處理及傳遞信息的軍事信息系統,韓美聯合作戰信息系統構成。韓軍的指揮控制系統由韓軍聯合指揮控制系統(KJCCS:韓國聯合指揮控制系統),地面戰術C4I系統(ATCIS:陸軍戰術指揮信息系統),海軍戰術C4I系統(KNCCS:韓國海軍指揮控制系統),空軍戰術C4I系統(AFCCS:空軍指揮控制系統),戰區聯合火力運用系統(JFOS-K:聯合火力作戰系統 – 韓國),後方地區戰術C4I系統,大隊級以下戰鬥指揮系統(B2CS:營戰指揮系統)組成。韓軍軍事信息系統由軍事信息綜合處理系統(MIMS:Military Intelligence Management System)組成。韓美聯合作戰信息系統由聯合作戰C4I系統 – 聯合指揮控制系統(AKJCCS:盟軍韓國聯合指揮控制系統),聯合軍事信息流通系統(MIMS-C)和美軍全球聯合情報交換系統 – 韓國分系統(CENTRIXS-K),美國太平洋司令部自動數據處理系統 – 韓國分系統(PASS-K:Pacific Command Automated Data Processing Server Site – 韓國)組成。


韓軍的戰場管理系統由KJCCS,ATCIS,KNCCS,AFCCS,MIMS等五大系統組成。截止到2010年為止,這些系統已全部建設完畢。2011年對ATCIS系統和AFCCS系統進行了性能改進,2012年起對KJCCS系統進行性能2010改進。年完成後方地區ATCIS系統的體系研發工作,2011年6月完成了實戰部署。2009年年起,進行了B2CS系統的研發工作和ATCIS系統的先期研究工作。2011年, B2CS系統研發和ATCIS系統性能改進研發項目全面推進。預計2015年,將完成體系開發和測試評估工作2020年實戰部署至軍級作戰單位。




目前,韓陸軍大隊級部隊僅配備有限的C4I終端和位置報告設備(PRE:Position Reporting Equipment),小隊級以下的指揮官根本沒有配備相關裝備.B2CS系統的實戰部署後,將通過與ATCIS的互聯互通,實現從軍到小隊的戰場信息可視化共享,為實現各種作戰力量的密切配合和實時協調行動以及指揮控制一體化提供基礎。


為了應對戰時作戰指揮權移交,韓軍正在推進AKJCCS系統,MIMS-C系統,JFOS-K系統的研發工作。預計,AKJCCS系統將與CENTRIXS-K系統實現互動,CENTRIXS-K系統將於CENTRIXS- ķ系統實現互動,JFOS-K系統將與美軍的火力系統實現互動。



第一,在戰場管理信息系統建設需求評估階段,提出的概念性的作戰性能要求(ROC,Required Operational Capability)被直接反映到概念研究階段,進而貫穿系統研發的整個過程。這樣,ROC只是根據研發人員的判斷做出的,與部隊的水平,類型,實際情況脫節,結合的不夠緊密。其結果戰場管理系統是單一化的,不能向作戰單位有針對性地提供所需情報,導致用戶通常只使用其中的部分功能。



在2009年和2010年的“關鍵決心/鷂鷹”聯合演習中通用作戰圖(COP:Common Operational Picture)出現問題,未能準確,實時地更新和完善戰場綜合感知情報信息。2011年監察院的審查結果也證實了這一內容。具體的錯誤內容為部隊位置,部隊數量,兵力規模,主要裝備情報等,其原因主要是編碼管理,系統互動,數據庫(DB)管理,信息輸入等方面出現嚴重漏洞。


第三,戰場管理信息系統的核心 – 應用系統雖然具備部隊執行任務所需的必備功能,但是目前只是實現了業務及功能的自動化而已,並不能實現各級指揮與控制的有機融合另外。 ,應用系統的功能開發缺乏頂層設計和系統規劃,缺乏溝通與協作,客觀造成系統間互聯互通水平低,無法滿足用戶的實際需求。從目前來看,很難向指揮官及作戰參謀提供資源優化配置方案和強有力的決策支持。


系統功能開發並非只包括軟件開發這一項。信息系統的研發人員通常認為,軟件開發是系統功能開發的全部內容,數據只是系統在運行過程中傳遞的內容而已。而事實上,軟件的目的是為了處理數據,並不是獨立存在著也就是說,在業務流程過程中,系統與數據應並行推進;在系統開發過程中,數據應被處理成用戶所需的形態這意味著業務流程建模(BPM:Business Process Modeling)和數據建模(DM:Data Modeling),業務標準化和數據標準化應同時進行。





戰時作戰指揮權移交後,戰時作戰指揮權將由現在的韓美聯合司令部主導,變成韓軍主導,美軍支援的新模式。這意味著指揮機構由現在的韓美聯合司令部單一體制變成韓軍,駐韓美軍兩個指揮體制。目前,韓美雙方正考慮韓美聯合司令部解體,韓參聯會機構改編,設立美國韓國司令部(US KORCOM)的方案。屆時,韓參聯會主席將負責指揮韓國軍隊,美國韓國司令部(駐韓美軍司令)將負責指揮美軍所轄部隊。另外,韓美還將新設合作機構,其中同盟軍事合作本部將協助軍事委員會(MC)進行戰略層面的合作;戰區級合作機構將負責韓參聯會與美國韓國司令部間的具體合作事項;作戰司令部級合作機構將負責韓美作戰司令部級部隊間的具體合作事項。

面對這種組織結構變化,韓軍有必要加強韓國主導指揮控制及韓美合作機制所需的系統建設。為此,韓參聯正在開發AKJCCS系統和MIMS-C系統。預計,AKJCCS系統和MIMS -C系統將作為韓美兩國間戰區級信息流通,聯合作戰指揮控制,聯合作戰功能支援,軍事合作機構合作手段等來使用。其結果,就將會給韓美聯合信息系統中的指揮控制系統,支援系統帶來變化即,韓軍通過KJCCS系統,美軍通過CENTRIXS-K系統對各自的作戰力量進行指揮控制;韓軍的參聯會及韓軍各作戰司令部通過KJCCS系統使用AKJCCS系統的主要功能,美國韓國司令部及美軍各作戰司令部通過CENTRIXS-K系統使用AKJCCS系統主要功能。

2015年,戰時作戰指揮權移交後,韓軍的戰場管理信息系統和美軍的C4I系統將實現相當水平的互聯,互通,互操作韓軍的戰場管理將通過KJCCS系統及三軍C4I系統 – ATCIS系統,KNCCS系統,AFCCS系統來實施,韓美聯合作戰將通過CENTRIXS-K系統和AKJCCS系統來實施。韓美空軍/海軍作戰部隊間將保持現有系統互動機制,另外韓美陸軍/海軍陸戰隊作戰部隊間系統不互通的狀態將會繼續持續下去。


從聯合作戰的角度來看,AKJCCS系統在與CENTRIXS-K的互聯互通中,盡可能多地發揮作用非常重要.CENTRIXS-K系統運行數據都是由各種下層系統提供的,但是AKJCCS系統卻不具備這樣的下層系統應用支援體系,因此CENTRIXS-K系統的部分功能很難在AKJCCS系統上運行。這些功能主要有危機處置標準操作程序(CASOP:危機行動標準操作程序),綜合決策支持框架(IDSF) :綜合決策支持框架),指揮官重要信息需求(CCIR:指揮官的關鍵信息要求),5X8卡,主要狀況(SIGEVENT:重大事件)等。預計戰時作戰指揮權移交後,AKJCCS系統將能夠通過網絡鏈結的方式從CENTRIXS-K系統獲取上述功能所提供的信息。

CENTRIXS-K系統的下層系統由參聯的C4I-全球指揮控制系統(GCCS:全球指揮控制系統),美地面部隊戰術C4I系統 – 陸軍作戰指揮系統(ABCS:陸軍作戰指揮控制系統)的機動控制系統(MCS:機動控制系統),高級野戰砲兵戰術數據系統(AFATDS:AdvancedField Artillery Tactical Data System),防空和導彈防禦工作站(AMDWS:Air&Missile Defense Workstation),全信源分析系統(ASAS) ,美海軍戰術C4I系統(CENTRIXS-M),美空軍戰術C4I系統(ACC-COIN:空中部隊司令部 – 興趣網絡),防空系統(ADSI:防空系統集成商),全球廣播服務(GBS:Global廣播服務),聯合監視目標攻擊雷達系統(JSTARS:聯合監視和目標攻擊雷達系統),聯合報警與報告網絡(聯合警報和報告網絡),聯合氣象影響系統(聯合天氣影響系統),戰區作戰管理中心系統(Theatre Battle Management Core Sy ():戰區彈道導彈預警(TBMW:Theatre Ballistic Missile Warning)等.CENTRIXS-K系統能夠和如此多的系統實現有效互聯,互通,互操作,所以指揮控制,信息共享,合作協調,業務支援等功能十分優異,運行非常流暢,不存在任何問題和障礙。但是韓軍的AKJCCS系統只能從KJCCS系統獲取有限的資料,所以在功能上有很大的局限性。因此,韓軍也有必要建設AKJCCS系統的下層系統,以保證AKJCCS系統安全高效,穩定運行。



首先,需實現韓美戰術級C4I系統的互動,保證韓美戰術部隊間的信息共享與協作即實現韓美地面部隊間 – 韓軍ATCIS系統與美軍ABCS系統,韓美海軍間 – 韓軍KNTDS系統與美軍CENTRIXS-M系統,韓美空軍間 – 韓軍AFCCS系統與美空軍戰術C4I系統(ACC-COIN),韓美海軍陸戰隊間 – 韓軍ATCIS系統與美海軍陸戰隊系統實時或近實時系統互動,信息共享是非常重要的。






第三,C4I系統的應用系統實現互聯,互通,互操作,數據檢索和故障排除都可以在同一畫面中進行。另外,為了形成合理,科學的業務流程,要進行業務流程分析(BPA),業務流程建模(BPM:Business Process Modeling)和數據建模(DM:Data Modeling)。





Original Referring url:


Chinese Military Review: From Army Information Construction to Construction of Information Army // 中國軍事評論:從軍隊信息建設到建設信息化軍隊

Chinese Military Review: From Army Information Construction to Construction of Information Army //


2006年04月20日 22:00

From the Army Information Construction to the Construction of Informatized Army——Opening the Eyes to See the New Military Revolution in the World

  Li Bingyan

  A few years ago, there was a curtain factory abroad that was on the verge of bankruptcy and turned to the consulting company. The consulting company only asked them to change the curtain factory to a shading technology factory, and the factory would survive.

  A name change has broadened the horizon of development; a concept change has opened up the mind shackles. Updating the concept is inseparable from the concept of renewal. In the new military revolution, we need to adopt new concepts in a timely manner to show new development ideas.

  Although the ongoing new military revolution still does not see the other side, it is clear that the change has entered a new stage.

  This new military revolution was triggered by a new technological revolution centered on information technology. In the 1990s, the revolutionary impact of information technology on the military mainly remained at the stage of “construction”, that is, information technology embedding, networking, networking, and integration within the framework of the mechanized military organization. Technology strengthens mechanization and enhances mechanization. The theoretical community often refers to this stage of change as a revolution in the military field, which is to promote the army.

Information construction. At that time, the digital division and the digital army to be built by the US Army were carried out within the structure of the original mechanized army. Later, the US military learned from the experience of informatization of some large enterprises and multinational corporations in the society and changed the way of thinking.

  In the past, military changes were first to change military technology, weapons and equipment, and finally to complete the transformation of the military organizational system to adapt to the new methods of warfare. The new military revolution, characterized by informatization, especially the post-launch army, should be reversed. The experience of the business community is also “first rationalization of organizational structure, re-automation, informationization.”

  Before the 1990s, the US business community carried out informatization construction, focusing only on improving work efficiency. Although effective, it still cannot be changed. Ford Motor Company has spent a lot of money on automation, and its office efficiency has improved significantly. For example, the financial department of the North American branch has reduced the number of employees from 500 to 400 after office automation. The company leaders think it is good. Later, they learned about Japan.

Mazda Motor Company did the same job and used only five people. In contrast, Ford’s leadership was shocked. After in-depth investigation, they found that Mazda started to adjust the organizational structure, first change the workflow, and then engage in office automation. Ford’s financial system, organizational structure or traditional model has caused a lot of useless work. Later, Ford Company optimized its structure, re-engineered its business processes, and started office automation on this basis. The company’s financial staff was compressed to a quarter.

  In the development of human society, there is a phenomenon of “path dependence”. After a social system is formed, it will continue to strengthen itself in the actual operation, so that people will not be able to get rid of the influence of the original ideas afterwards.

  In addition, the organizational structure does not change, it is difficult to make the right decision in information. Usually, people are standing in their own units and planning work in this department, forming a “professional syndrome.” The research informatization is first of all the informationization of the unit, beyond the scope of construction of the unit, the leadership vision will not be achieved. This has led to the emergence of new “isomorphic diseases” – large and complete, small and complete, you have me, can not be interconnected, interoperable, interoperable. In this regard, some people call it the “potato effect”: a sack of potatoes, all sprouting, each self-contained system, self-enclosed, and not connected. Building these systems may be reasonable from a local perspective, but it may not be scientific or irrational from the overall perspective of informatization.

  In the practice, the foreign military realized that if informationization is not detoured, it should start with rationalizing the system and adjusting the command system. Otherwise, all levels and departments are busy with informationization. It is likely that the faster and the more the action is now, the greater the losses will be caused once reworked in the future.

  The rationalization of the organizational structure, the consideration of informationization, or the rationalization of organizational structure and informationization, and the simultaneous development have become a new consensus on the new military revolution. After entering the 21st century, the US military proposed a military transformation, marking a new stage in military transformation. At this stage, information technology has shifted from a “construction” role to a “deconstruction” role. That is: instead of strengthening mechanization, it is reorganizing mechanization. As a result, the army’s informatization construction has turned to the construction of an information-based army; the changes in the military field have turned to real military changes.

  In the theoretical preparation stage of the US military, the future army that was designed was: the sensor army, the precision strike army, the dominant mobile army, and the logistics army. In the transition, after a new argument, the future goals of the US military reorganization are proposed: the full-dimensional battlefield perception army, the precision firepower strike army, the efficient command and control army, and the intelligent logistics support army.

  In 2005, Germany proposed the idea of ​​building a “new three armed forces”, namely: rapid reaction forces, standing combat troops, and logistics support forces.

  At the end of last year, the Russian General Staff Department completed the reform of the armed forces. The Russian military’s new round of structural reforms eliminated the arms, military regions and fleets and re-established three functional headquarters and three regional headquarters. The three functional commands are: Strategic Nuclear Power Command, Transportation Command, and Aerospace Defense Command. The three regional commands are: Western European Command, Central Asian Command and Far East Command.

  Generally speaking, although the structural changes of the military have their own characteristics, the common point is that they tend to be integrated and tend to be integrated, and the boundaries between the traditional arms and services are increasingly blurred. The informationized army is not just a technology, but a new structure that is linked to new technologies – ultimately, a structural decision function.

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People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty // 人民解放軍必須勇敢地對中國的“網絡空間”主權負責

People’s Liberation Army must be brave enough to take responsibility for China’s “Cyberspace” Sovereignty //


Original: “National Defense Reference”, No. 3, 2017

作者:安卫平 北部战区副参谋长

  The cyberspace was born in the military field. For example, the first computer, the APA network and the GPS navigation system all originated from the military. Today, cyberspace security has been closely related to national security, and the military has once again become the protagonist of maintaining national cyberspace security. Whether it is facing normalized network penetration or large-scale cyberattacks, it is urgent for the military to move from defending the “network camp gate” to guarding the “network country gate”, breaking through the traditional military mission and mission, breaking through the traditional war preparation mode. With a new network of national defense thinking, the founding of the network era of the country’s strong shield.

  From the “network camp door” to the “network country door”, the new era brings a new trend of military mission

  Cyberspace is not only related to the maintenance of national strategic interests, but also directly affects political, economic, cultural security and social development. It has also become the blood and link of modern battlefield joint operations. The Chinese military cannot be limited to maintaining the internal network security of the military camp. It must also actively adapt to the trend of the times and take the responsibility of the country that guards the “network country.” The strong army of the Internet is an important part of the construction of a network power. From the “network camp door” to the “network country door” is the inevitable trend of the development of the domestic and international situation in the information age.

  Guarding the “network country door” is forced by the cyberspace security situation. As the first major Internet country, China’s security situation is not optimistic, and strategic opponents have never stopped preparing for our network operations. The United States, Britain, France and other countries are actively preparing for cyberspace, giving military functions through cyberspace security legislation, developing cyber warfare forces, developing cyber warfare weapons and equipment, and advancing war to the “fifth space” of mankind, especially in China. In the historical process of the rise, the Western countries used the means of network technology and communication to implement uninterrupted harassment, subversion and cyberattacks under the leadership of the Cold War mentality and the containment subversion strategy, which seriously affected the security and social development of our country. China gradually became National security is at great risk for the hardest hit by cybersecurity threats, the test sites for virus attacks, and the destination of conscious penetration.

  In the coming period, as a new emerging country, China’s conflicts of interest with other parties will intensify. Strengthening the network defense strategy and strengthening the operational readiness of cyberspace are the inevitable ways to actively strive for the dominance and discourse power of cyberspace, and also the rise of China. The only way to go. As the main force of national security and stability, the military must adapt to the characteristics of cyberspace and become the backbone and main force to resist network intrusion and network subversion, and safeguard national security and social stability.

  Winning cyber warfare is the trend of new military revolution in the information age. As one of the most advanced productivity in the information age, network technology has made cyberspace warfare a dominant factor guiding the evolution of modern warfare and affecting the overall situation of war. In recent years, from the “seismic net” attack in Iran, the cyber warfare in the Russian-Georgian conflict, the large-scale obstruction of the Ukrainian power grid , and the cyberattack of the US military against IS, the huge role played by cyberspace in actual combat has gradually emerged, indicating that cyber warfare Has become an important style of future joint operations.

  The US military attaches great importance to the construction of cyberspace armaments, the establishment of the Cyberspace Command, the launch of cyberspace joint warfare, the extensive expansion of cyber warfare forces, the maintenance of its cyberspace hegemony, and the formation of cyberspace control capabilities as a “third offset strategy”. “Absolute advantage is the most important competitive content.

  Many countries in the world have followed suit, and the trend of militarization of cyberspace is obvious. The rigorous cyberspace military struggle situation requires the Chinese military to focus on the changes in the network battlefield space, adapt to the requirements of the information war era, and achieve the strong military goal of smashing and winning in cyberspace.

  Effective network warfare is an inherent need to accelerate the construction of a network powerhouse. In the process of China’s development from a network power to a network power, it is inseparable from the strong cyberspace military power as a guarantee. The international competition in cyberspace is a comprehensive game of the country’s comprehensive strength. Among them, the quality of network military capacity building is directly related to national security and stability, and it is the core element of the entire national security field.

  At present, the interests of countries in the world in the cyberspace are mutually infiltrated, and there is a situation in which you have me, I have you, cooperate with each other, and develop together. However, this kind of common development is not equal. The US and Western powers have taken advantage of the cyberspace dominance, and have already achieved certain network warfare advantages, which has made my network development and interests subject to people. How the military can fulfill its mission of defending the earth in the construction of a network-strength country, the premise is to form a network environment capable of curbing the crisis, controlling the opponent’s network attack and defense capabilities, and ensuring peaceful development.

  Therefore, the military needs to establish a deterrent strategic goal of effective warfare, form a strategic check and balance ability that can “destroy each other” with the enemy, thereby enhancing strategic competitiveness, ending cyberspace aggression, and ensuring the smooth advancement of the network power strategy.

  From “keeping the soil and being responsible” to “protecting the net and defending the country”, the new situation requires the military to undertake new tasks.

  The military is the main force and pillar of national security, and cyberspace is no exception. The National Security Law, which was enacted on July 1, 2015, stipulates: ” Citizens of the People’s Republic of China , all state organs and armed forces, political parties and people’s organizations, enterprises and institutions, and other social organizations have the responsibility to safeguard national security. And obligations.” The Cybersecurity Law, promulgated in November 2016, emphasizes the need to maintain cyberspace sovereignty and national security.

  On the basis of the laws of these two countries, on December 27, 2016, the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “Strategy”) was officially launched, providing overall guidance for creating a new pattern of network powers at a new starting point. Basically follow, clearly put forward nine strategic tasks, further embodying the mission of the military in the process of building a network power.

  With the national mission of protecting the network, the military must be a strong pillar to defend the cyberspace sovereignty. The first of the nine strategic tasks listed in the “Strategy” is “firmly defending the cyberspace sovereignty” and clearly proposes to “take all measures including economic, administrative, scientific, technological, legal, diplomatic, military, etc., and unswervingly maintain our network.” Space sovereignty.” It can be seen that the military must assume the military mission of using physical space and defend the national mission of the sovereign security and interests of virtual cyberspace.

  Cyberspace sovereignty is the core interest of the state and an important component of national sovereignty. It indicates the independence, equal, self-defense and management rights of the state in cyberspace. A once hostile forces violated my cyberspace sovereignty is tantamount to a violation of national sovereignty physical space of my land, sea and so on, China will have the right to take all measures, including military means, including giving resolutely fight back.

  Internationally, the United States has long proposed a cyberspace deterrence strategy, declaring that attacks on US network information facilities are equivalent to war acts, and the United States will take military strikes to retaliate. Military means is a means of safeguarding national sovereignty and plays a vital role in safeguarding national cyberspace security. Therefore, the military, air, sea and air military forces have been given the historical mission of protecting the cyberspace sovereignty. They must rely on the powerful physical space to defend the national interests of cyberspace and effectively deter the hostile forces from cyber-damaging attempts.

  In accordance with the era of the Internet, the military must be the ballast stone to defend national security. The second item of the “Strategy” mission emphasizes the need to resolutely safeguard national security, prevent, deter and punish any use of the Internet for treason, secession, sedition, subversion or incitement to subvert the people’s democratic dictatorship.

  In the era of information network, the military of all countries in the world has become an important participant in cyberspace. The level of cyberspace capability has become the main indicator for assessing the modernization of a country’s military. It is one of the main duties of the informationized military to carry out cyberspace missions and maintain national security.

  Judging from the historical process of China’s development, it is necessary to be highly vigilant against the danger of the country being invaded, subverted, and divided in cyberspace in order to adapt to the national security strategy needs of building a well-off society in an all-round way. Highly alert to the reform caused by cyberspace. The danger of developing the overall situation is destroyed, and we are highly wary of the danger of interference and destruction in the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

  Preventing problems before they occur requires the state to have the means to cope with and deal with these dangers, and to have the powerful force to prevent, stop and legally punish cyberspace violations. Defending the country has always been an unshirkable historical responsibility of the military. The inherent mission and mission have determined that the Chinese military must assume the role of taking various measures in the cyberspace to safeguard the country’s political, economic, cultural security and social stability.

  The strategic mission of both offensive and defensive, the military must be a strong backing to enhance the ability of cyberspace protection. The third and eighth items of the Nine Major Tasks in the Strategy clearly state that all necessary measures must be taken to protect critical information infrastructure and its important data from attack and destruction, and that technology and management should be adhered to, protected and shocked; We will build a network space protection force that is commensurate with China’s international status and compatible with the network powers. We will vigorously develop network security defense methods, timely discover and resist network intrusion, and build a strong backing for national security. Among all the political, diplomatic, military, and scientific and technological capabilities of the country to maintain security, military power has always been the foundation and support for all capabilities, the fundamental guarantee for all capabilities, and the ultimate support for national security.

  Therefore, the military must undertake the strategic task of strengthening the national cyberspace protection capability. In the real society, the military is the reassurance of safeguarding national security. In the cyberspace, it should also become the security dependence and guarantee of the people. As an important part of the national cyberspace protection capability, the military must achieve both offensive and defensive capabilities, and the ability to resolutely safeguard the interests and security of the country and the people in cyberspace, and effectively eliminate the various crises caused by cybersecurity threats. The turbulence of thoughts enables the people to truly feel that production and life are effectively protected and become the confidence of the people of the whole country in their confidence in the national network protection capabilities.

  The global responsibility of UNPROFOR, the military must be an important support for maintaining global cybersecurity. The last item of the “Strategy” mission clearly proposes to strengthen international cooperation in cyberspace, support the United Nations in playing a leading role, promote the development of universally accepted international rules on cyberspace, international anti-terrorism conventions on cyberspace, and improve the judicial assistance mechanism for combating cybercrime, deepening International cooperation in the areas of policy law, technological innovation, standardization, emergency response, and protection of key information infrastructure.

  Cyber ​​terrorism and cybercrime are new forms of global threat catalyzed by information network fermentation. They pose a huge threat to the political, economic, military and cultural security of all countries in the world. It is not enough to rely solely on the power of the government and the people. Western countries have given the military the responsibility to protect cybersecurity and the power to fight cyber terrorism. Maintaining the security and stability of global cyberspace is in the fundamental interests of China and the rest of the world. The military should become an important defender of global cyberspace security and an important force in combating global cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The globalization and unbounded nature of the Internet determine the international demand for combating cyber terrorism and transnational cybercrime. The military should promote military cooperation between countries in the framework of the UN Security Council and use the strategies and technologies of the Internet era to establish joint defense and joint defense. Mechanism to effectively safeguard the security of the national and world cyberspace.

  From “field training” to “network preparation”, new areas require new preparations for the military

  Under the new historical situation, cyberspace puts forward new requirements for the military training and preparation mode. It should adapt to the new characteristics of cyberspace and the new mission of the military to carry out innovative reforms on the traditional model, strengthen the country’s military objectives, and strengthen macro-coordination. Focusing on the legal needs of cyberspace military operations, it closely follows the natural attributes of cyberspace “military and civilian integration”, builds a network security attack and defense system that combines peacetime and warfare, and builds a network defense force of “military and land use”.

  Legislation empowerment provides a legal basis for the military to carry out its functional mission. The countries of the world, especially the western developed countries, attach great importance to the issue of network defense in cyber security legislation. The United States has successively issued a series of policies and regulations such as “National Security No. 16 Presidential Decree”, “Network Space Action Strategy”, and has continuously deepened and standardized on how to protect national network security in the field of network defense.

  At present, it is necessary to clarify the duties and responsibilities of the cyberspace military from the legal level. It should be based on the National Security Law and the Cyber ​​Security Law, and introduce the network defense law and related cyberspace military operational regulations, for the construction of the network defense field and military. The action provides regulatory support and a program of action to make the military’s responsibilities and mission in cyberspace more specific and specific.

  First, further define the network sovereignty and network frontier through the network defense legislation, and clearly define the scope of the military.

  The second is to establish the operational authority of the military to defend the national cyberspace security through the construction of cyber warfare laws and regulations, and to distinguish military means against network intrusion and network destruction. Third, through the cyberspace international cooperation policy, the military will coordinate with other countries and civilian forces to combat international cyber terrorism and cybercrime.

  The integration of military and civilian provides an innovative driving force for the construction of a network powerhouse. The integration of military and civilian is the main method for the world power to enhance the competitiveness of cyberspace. For the construction of China’s network powerhouse, building a military-civilian network security attack and defense system and developing a military-land dual-use defense information infrastructure is to inspire the innovation of military cyberspace combat capability. Source.

  The first is to coordinate the military, civilian, and functional departments of the state, the military, and various levels of government, set up special command and coordination agencies, mobilize all national network forces, and build a network security attack and defense system that combines “military and civilian integration” and “peace and war.”

  The second is to issue guidance on the in-depth development of cyber security military-civilian integration as soon as possible, and gradually carry out basic legal research and demonstration of military-civilian integration to guide the development of medium- and long-term military-civil integration.

  Third, relying on the country’s existing public mobile communication network, optical fiber communication network and satellite system, the military and civilians will build an information infrastructure covering the entire army of the whole country, and realize the unified construction and sharing of military and civilian.

  The fourth is to establish an emergency response mechanism for military-civilian joints, increase the ability to train military authorities to control events, strengthen experts and emergency professional strength, and enhance the ability to quickly recover damaged networks or information systems.

  Military-civilian joint training provides a practical environment for the generation of cyberspace military capabilities. The military-civilian sharing characteristics of cyberspace make military-civilian joint training an important means of military training in cyberspace around the world. The cyberspace joint military and civilian exercises in the United States and NATO countries have formed a series of series. The “Network Storm” and “Network Guardian” drills have attracted the participation of governments, enterprises, research institutions and even civilian hackers. Our military cyberspace military strength training also needs to attract a wide range of civil forces to participate.

  First, do a good job in military-government cooperation, establish a military-civilian joint offensive and defensive drill mechanism, learn from the red-blue confrontation training methods in the cyber war drills of developed countries such as the United States, actively build a “national network shooting range”, plan a series of joint exercises of the government and non-government organizations, and enhance the integration of the military and the people. The level of attack and defense of the network of the government and the people.

  The second is to do a good job in military-enterprise cooperation, relying on net-based enterprises to set up a training field on the Internet, to promote the ability of attack and defense between the military and civilians, and jointly improve the ability to prevent unknown risks.

  The third is to organize private network security companies and hacker talents, carry out network security competitions and other activities, and mutually verify each other to jointly improve the level of network security protection technology and tactics.

  The network reserve service provides a source of strength for building a powerful network army. As a backup supplement to the national defense force, the reserve has both military and civilian characteristics and is a powerful measure to realize the organic unification of the development of cyberspace economy and national defense.

  First, it is led by the national security department, and overall planning is carried out according to national interests. A series of laws and regulations conducive to the construction of the network national defense reserve are introduced, and the main division of labor, promotion strategy, interest coordination, etc. of the military and civilian construction in the network defense reserve construction are solved from the top level. problem.

  The second is to innovate the reserve organization and comprehensive coordination mechanism, and plan to integrate the reserve construction into all levels and fields of national network information development.

  The third is to focus on the reform of the military and local management models. Based on the management mechanisms of the provincial and municipal governments, the military, and local enterprises and institutions, the network will establish a network of national defense reserve personnel to jointly cultivate and use the mechanism, improve the national emergency mobilization mechanism, and establish a national network defense special talent. The database will include the construction of network militia and reserve forces into the scope of mobilization of the people’s armed forces. In normal times, they will be incorporated into the militia emergency detachment for training. In an emergency, they will select the elite personnel to participate in the non-war military operations missions, and will be recruited and used as needed during wartime. To transform the national defense potential into national defense strength. 

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Chinese Military Analysis of American Information Warfare Strategy Theory and Its Practical Conception // 中國對美國信息戰戰略理論的軍事分析及其實踐觀

Chinese Military Analysis of American Information Warfare Strategy Theory and Its Practical Conception //


By 胡 堅

 From various news media, we can often read reports of hacking attacks on US information systems and computer networks, especially when the United States is arrogant and provocative in the world. . As a country with the most reliance on computers and information technology and the most popular application in the world, the vulnerability of the US information system and the vulnerability caused by its huge number are obvious. However, we must not forget that the United States is not only the only superpower in the world today, but also the number one information technology power. The importance of the United States to information warfare and the depth of research are unmatched by any country in the world. In addition to theoretical research, the United States has conducted several information warfare simulations and practical exercises of varying sizes. The US information war strategy is consistent with the starting point of its global military strategic thinking and is based on aggressiveness and expansion. While arguing and even exaggerating hackers pose a serious threat to its information infrastructure, on the other hand, the United States is quietly taking an active position in its information warfare in the future, and even launching large-scale information to other countries. Attack and make positive preparations. Therefore, people should not take it lightly and relax their vigilance. This article intends to briefly explain some important viewpoints of the United States on the strategic theory of information warfare for reference. 
    I. The United States’ definition of information warfare The 
    United States has been studying information warfare theory for a long time, and has published a large number of research literatures in this area, but the definition of information warfare has been constantly revised and improved. At the beginning of 1996, the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States gave an earlier definition of 
    information warfare : information warfare refers to the impact of capturing information superiority, the enemy information systems and computer networks, and the existing information systems and Facilities such as computer networks are protected and information is taken.
    The above includes two aspects of attack and protection of the information infrastructure (NII). In October 1998, the Joint Chiefs of Staff made a perfection and supplement to the definition of information warfare in the newly promulgated “Information Warfare Common Dogma”. The most striking thing is that it is the first time in the form of government documents. The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is included in the scope of the information warfare. There are two main points: First, civilian facilities such as telephone, electric power and air traffic control systems will become the targets of information warfare attacks; second, the act of using any means to interfere with and destroy the enemy’s information decision-making process has been put into practice. . 
    The above definition shows that in order to achieve its strategic goals, the United States will not hesitate to destroy the vital infrastructure of a country as a means to force the other party to submit, in the process, it does not care about any loss that may be caused to civilians. With casualties. This was fully taught in the conflict that erupted in Kosovo from April to June 1999. 
    Second, the enemy 
    of information warfare The definition of the enemy of the information warfare in the United States is very complicated and ambiguous. The definition in the “Information Warfare Common Dogma” is as follows: 
    “The enemy of information warfare refers to the influence of my decision makers. Information threats and terrorist acts that are organized, premeditated and politically motivated or politically motivated. Hackers, individuals or organized criminals, internal apostates, industrial and economic agents who attack attacks on protected information systems and Terrorists are among the following. 
    From this definition, we can find that under certain circumstances, the United States can include foreign individuals or organizations, even a sovereign country, among its opponents of information warfare. Let us take an analogy: an energy company in a third world country negotiates with a US company and intends to purchase the electric equipment produced by the latter. Since the energy company’s information management system was purchased from the Netherlands and managed by Dutch engineering and technical personnel, these managers inadvertently learned about the transaction and reported the home country company, which led to the involvement of Dutch power equipment manufacturing companies. Competing with US companies ultimately led to major changes in the outcome of the deal. So the Dutch contender has in fact become a hostile party to the US information warfare. 
    Third, the strategic considerations of information warfare
    The US information war strategy is one of the means of dismantling the enemy and forcing the opponent to obey the will of the United States and act according to the will of the United States. The explanation in the “Information Warfare Common Dogma” is as follows: 
    “In the peace year and the initial stage of the crisis, information warfare may be the best deterrent means to exert influence on the other party. Information warfare is to resolve the crisis and shorten the confrontation cycle. Enhancing the effectiveness of intelligence, diplomacy, economic and military means, and avoiding the use of mercenaries in conflict zones will play a major role.” 
    Please pay close attention to the “best deterrent measures in peace years…” In a word, this is a very threatening phrase because it shows that the United States can initiate an information attack from any country that it considers to be an opponent without declaring war. That is to say, in the form of a formal program document, the United States has unambiguously stated to the world that information warfare will be an effective tool for intervening in other countries’ internal affairs and interfering in other countries’ internal affairs during the years of peace. 
    US information warfare expert William Church From the above theory, several different types of conflicts or crises in the world that may occur in the future, information warfare is proposed to solve several hypothetical means: 
    one hypothetical: war territorial dispute triggered by 
the first Second British, Ama Island War. The traditional war process is considered to be that Argentina once again sent troops and reclaimed the Malvinas Islands (Falkland Islands). The United Kingdom is convinced that Argentina is difficult to find international carriers because it does not have aircraft carriers and intercontinental ballistic missiles. Holding the island, the end of the war will still be the same as last time, with the British sending a powerful fleet to attack the island, Argentina defeated and summed, Britain won the return to the island. 
    But after considering the factors of information warfare, another situation may arise. Since information warfare will become an important weapon in future wars, Argentina can make full use of it to change its obvious weakness and counterattack Britain. And the final peace talks opportunity may also be created by the clever use of information warfare. In the war, the information warfare that Argentina can implement has the following aspects:
    1. Obstructing each other’s war preparations: Through the means of information attacks, the British military’s communication systems and equipment are ineffective, destroying the British military’s personnel and equipment database, delaying the preparations for war in the UK, and increasing the huge expenditure for this. In the end, it may even force the British government to reconsider its ability and feasibility to take military action. 
    2. Psychological warfare changes the public opinion of the British public: psychological warfare can be varied, from spreading rumors to creating false news and stories that can dominate the entire paradox. The effect of using psychological warfare alone may not be ideal, but if combined with other means of information warfare, it can produce excellent results. 
    3. Creating a national information infrastructure crisis: If Argentina can launch an effective attack on the UK’s telecommunications, telephone, rail and air traffic control information infrastructure, it will be paralyzed or awkward. In this case, the British government wants to The determination to send troops to a war thousands of miles away will be difficult. In the half-month voyage of the aircraft carrier battle group to the destination, the voices and plans for seeking a peaceful solution that accompanied the domestic panic are likely to be brewing or negotiating. 
    4. Destroy the economic and financial means of maintaining war in the UK: weaknesses and shortcomings in the financial system can be exploited to create financial crises and panic. In 1998, there was an incident in the US stock market that caused the stock index to fall 200 points in just a few minutes due to computer program errors. The cause of the incident was that when a computer program reported the proceeds of several investment funds, the data was wrong due to incorrect programming. As a result, the stock price fluctuations of these funds caused a French businessman to be shocked and first hit. The order of immediately throwing the disk, the result triggered a panic that should not have occurred, causing the stock market to plummet, and many companies and shareholders suffered heavy losses. Information warfare experts believe that such defects can be replicated by means of information. It can attract the attention of the government and create a serious illusion of economic problems, thus affecting the government’s decision-making and financial support for war. 
    Hypothesis 2: Disagreements caused by economic dependence
    Singapore is a city with a combination of international trading port, Far East financial center and Southeast Asian sea transportation center. It is economically developed and the people are rich, but it is a small country. The neighboring Malaysia is vast, but it is very poor and backward. Due to the small size of the country, Singapore’s air routes will pass through the southern part of Malaysia. This route is called the “air corridor” and it is a lifeline of Singapore. Although the two countries are both ASEAN countries, the relationship is still good, but there have been differences in how to use the “air corridor.” If one day Malaysia refuses to continue to use Singapore’s route through its airspace, the differences between the two countries may develop into a confrontation. 
    Information warfare can have many different ways of expression in this dispute. The most noticeable thing is that Singapore refused to provide advanced air traffic control services to Malaysia to pressure Malaysia to surrender and was forced to sit down and negotiate to solve the problem. And disputes. Because there is no binding clause in international law for such retaliation, once such incidents occur, it will surely attract strong attention from the international community. 
    The illusion of three: 
    a typical example of military confrontation and nuclear competition is the nuclear race and long-term military confrontation between India and Pakistan. Information weapons are likely to play a key role in resolving and eliminating this growing competition. The use of advanced electromagnetic pulse weapons, or the use of hacker infiltration methods to smash the nuclear weapons control information system and destroy the database of research data, can shake the nuclear weapons research programs of these two countries. This approach can also be extended to attack and destroy all important manufacturing, production and test equipment. 
    The illusion of the fourth: to change the attitude of a country from the eradication of the economy 
    In the information war, do not underestimate the impact of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) attack, it can give attackers an ideal opportunity to manipulate the economic situation of the other side. The direct result is that it can force hostile countries to greatly reduce their military spending, turn their financial resources to restore the economy, or force hostile countries to move from confrontation to easing.
    Let us use an imaginary information attack example to illustrate its great destructiveness: A country confronts with B. During this period, State A found that B has an important water conservancy project (such as the river dam) and the national economy and people’s livelihood. It is closely related, so the country took the means of information attack, invaded and took over the monitoring and management system of the dam, and by changing the water storage capacity of the dam reservoir, it achieved the purpose of significantly changing the climate dry humidity in a certain area of ​​B; Further, if State A puts a virus or destructive code in the dam’s control system, the reservoir’s control and regulation system suddenly fails at critical moments (such as the flood season), and as a result, the reservoir is lost due to flooding. The role of flooding, causing serious natural disasters and economic losses, in the end, the original economic advantages of the country B completely lost, under the pressure of internal and external, the country B had to succumb to the country. 
    The illusion of the fifth: the use of information weapons to obtain the same effect of using weapons of mass destruction in information warfare research, a problem that US information warfare experts are very interested in is: using information attacks, can create similar pearls of the year The massive damage effect of the Hong Kong incident? The conclusion is that, in theory, this possibility is completely present and necessary in hostile action, because it can greatly weaken the other’s ability to respond, resulting in the same possible military cost. effect. However, to achieve this, it is impossible to achieve without careful planning and sufficient resources to support and support. The US research program in this area is highly classified and unknown to outsiders. 
    The US military strategy theory believes that a country’s infrastructure can be greatly weakened by exerting a long-lasting military strike against it. But the ultimate goal of this is to clear the obstacles for the peace talks and force the other party to accept harsh conditions for peace talks. To this end, not only detailed and thorough target strike plans and multiple simulation rehearsals for attack plans, but also contingency measures in case of retaliatory counterattacks, as well as a complete command and logistics support system, etc., are required. Wait. NATO’s humanitarian signage and the brutal invasion of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are an actual rehearsal of this theory. 
    four. The traditional strategic defense priority theory faces severe challenges
    In the spring of 1998, American military experts Stephen Van Evra and Charles L. Glazer published the “Attack, Defence, and War Causes” in the American Journal of International Security, Vol. 22, No. 4. “The concept of “attack and defense balance point and its measurement” and many other articles, that during the Cold War after World War II, it belongs to the era of strategic defense theory. At that time, the confrontational East and West sides were evenly matched and indifferent to each other in terms of the quantity and quality of their own conventional weapons and nuclear weapons. They always tried to avoid direct conflicts and confrontation. The main concern of both sides at the time was the balance and constraints of each other. 
    But nowadays, due to the emergence of a new war mode—-the emergence of information warfare, it is possible to use information attacks to directly attack the infrastructure of a country. Especially in information warfare, the cost of the attacker is far less than that of the defender. Therefore, some military experts in the United States believe that the old strategic theory must be revised to meet the needs of the new situation. In addition, they also stressed that implementation of the new strategic theory, depends on three factors simultaneously: 
    · On the basis of a strong military machine as a backup and security, and gradually reduce the investment in traditional military equipment; 
    · globalization The neoliberal trend of thought and the appreciation and acceptance of global market mechanisms; 
    • The dependence of developed and developing countries on information infrastructure is growing. The heart of speculation can be seen here. 
    American military critic Lawrence Friedman made a profound understanding and elaboration of the above-mentioned theory among American military personnel: “Western countries (the United States and NATO) have never considered the ultimate in developing military capabilities. The way of thinking has developed to such a dangerous point: if the military strength cannot reach the full overwhelming tendency of the enemy and the enemy has no power to fight, it cannot be regarded as qualified; the purpose of military action is to follow the set. The plan creates a very favorable negotiating position for one’s own side. Therefore, this time (the introduction of the new strategic theory), it is also necessary to take the lead in the comprehensive consideration of various factors.”

Original Mandarin Chinese:

美國對信息戰理論的研究由來已久,並發布過大量這方面的研究文獻,但對信息戰的定義卻一直在不斷地修改​​和完善之中。 1996年初,美國參謀長聯席會議曾給信息戰下過一個較早的定義:
上述的內容包括對信息基礎設施(NII)的攻擊與防護兩個方面。 1998年10月,參謀長聯席會議在最新頒布的《信息戰共同教條》中,又對信息戰的定義做了完善和補充,其中最引人注目的,就是它首次以政府文件的形式,把國家信息基礎設施(NII)列入了信息戰打擊的對象範圍之內。其要點有二:一是民用設施如電話、電力與空中交通管制系統等,將會成為信息戰攻擊的目標;二是把用任何手段干擾和破壞敵方信息決策過程的行為,付諸了條文。
上述定義說明,為了實現自己的戰略目標,美國將不惜以摧毀一個國家生死攸關的基礎設施為手段,來達到迫使對方就範的目的,而在此過程中,它並不在乎可能給平民帶來的任何損失與傷亡。 1999年4-6月在科索沃爆發的衝突中,人們就充分領教了這一點。
4.破壞英國維持戰爭的經濟和財源手段:金融體制上的弱點和缺陷,可以被利用來製造金融危機和恐慌。 1998年,美國股市曾發生一起因電腦程序錯誤導致在短短幾分鐘內股指狂跌200點的事件。事件的起因是,一個電腦程序在報告幾個投資基金的收益時,由於程序設計有誤使數據出錯,結果引起這幾個基金股價的波動,一位法國商人見狀大驚失色,首先打出“立即拋盤”的指令,結果引發了一場本來不該發生的恐慌,造成股市大跌,不少企業和股東損失慘重。信息戰專家認為,這種缺陷是可以利用信息手段進行複制的,它可以吸引政府的注意力,造成一種經濟問題嚴重的假象,從而影響政府對戰爭的決策與財力支持。

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