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Chinese Military Will Identify Key Targets for Cognitive Domain Operations



The target of cognitive domain operations refers to the specific direction of cognitive domain operations. In cognitive domain operations, compared with combat objects, the problem solved by combat targets is precise targeting, which allows commanders to understand the exact coordinates of what to hit, where to hit, and to what extent. Only by deeply understanding the connotative characteristics of cognitive domain combat targets can we accurately find key targets through appearances and seize the opportunity in future operations.

Cognitive focus that affects behavioral choices

The cognitive center of gravity is the “convergence point” of the diverse thinking and cognition of cognitive subjects in war activities. As an active factor, it affects the cognitive process and behavioral results. Generally speaking, the cognitive factors that influence individual behavioral choices in war activities mainly include cognition of political attributes, cognition of interest associations, cognition of group belonging, cognition of risk and loss, cognition of emotional orientation, cognition of war ethics, etc. For war activities and the groups or individuals concerned about war activities, the cognitive focus that affects their attitudes, tendencies, and behaviors is not the same. Judging from the local wars and regional conflicts in the world in recent years, there are obvious differences in the cognitive focus of different groups or individuals. Politicians pay more attention to the recognition of political attributes and the recognition of interest connections, while those who may be involved in the war pay more attention to the recognition of risk and loss. And interest-related cognition, ordinary people pay more attention to interest-related cognition and emotion-oriented cognition, while people in other countries outside the region generally pay more attention to war moral cognition and group belonging cognition because their own interests will not suffer direct losses. In combat practice, foreign military forces are good at targeting the cognitive focus of different objects, accurately planning themes, and pushing relevant information to induce specific behavioral choices. For example, before the Gulf War, Hill Norton Public Relations Company concocted the non-existent “Incubator Incident”, using the daughter of Kuwait’s ambassador to the United States, Naila, as a “testimony” to show the “inhumanity” of the Iraqi army and induce the United States to The public’s understanding of ethics and morality further supported the US government in sending troops to participate in the Gulf War.

Style preferences that constrain command decisions

Cognitive style directly affects decision-making behavioral preferences. Cognitive style refers to an individual’s typical way of cognition, memory, thinking, and problem solving. According to command decision-making style preferences, commanders can be divided into calm cognitive styles and impulsive cognitive styles. Commanders with a calm cognitive style value accuracy but not speed in the decision-making process. They make high-quality decisions, but they are prone to falling into comparative analysis of various intelligence information sources and overemphasize the accuracy and objectivity of information analysis. Commanders with a calm cognitive style are often easily disturbed by numerous and diverse information stimulations during cognitive offensive and defensive operations on the battlefield, and their mental energy is easily disrupted and dissipated, which may delay combat opportunities. Commanders with an impulsive cognitive style value speed but not accuracy. They make decisions quickly but with low quality. They are easily agitated and prone to conflicts with team members. Commanders with an impulsive cognitive style are also prone to over-interpretation of ambiguous external security environments, and constantly look for “evidence” to strengthen and verify individual erroneous thinking, narrowing individual attention and leading to biased command decisions. In combat practice, foreign militaries pay more attention to analyzing the decision-making style of the commanders of combat opponents, and then select specific information to psychologically influence them. For example, during the U.S. invasion of Panama, when they besieged Panamanian President Noriega’s hiding place, the U.S. military repeatedly played rock and heavy metal music and used language that stimulated and humiliated Noriega to carry out cognitive attacks and psychological attacks, which devastated Noriega physically and mentally. Gradually collapse.

Backdoor channel to control thinking and cognition

Once a computer is infected with a “Trojan horse” virus, it will send a connection request to the hacker’s control terminal at a specific time. Once the connection is successful, a backdoor channel will be formed, allowing the hacker to control the computer as he wishes. Similarly, the human brain also has cognitive “backdoors” that can also be controlled by others. Cognitive psychologists have found that by sending information to the target object’s audio-visual perception channel, carefully pushing the information content recognized and accepted by the target object, catering to the target object’s existing experience memory, complying with the target object’s thinking habits, and stimulating the target object’s emotions Pain points can be controlled to interfere with the target object’s cognition and promote its instinctive emotional and behavioral reactions. With the support of cutting-edge cognitive science and technology, using two modes of automatic start-up and controlled processing of brain information processing, the target object can easily fall into a “cognitive cocoon”. In cognitive domain operations, individuals are immersed in a massive amount of artificially constructed information and are continuously provided with “evidence” to prove that their judgment and cognition are “correct”. Over time, an individual’s cognitive vision becomes smaller and smaller, and his ability to perceive the external environment gradually decreases. Eventually, he will not be able to see the truth of things, and he will be addicted to the “cognitive cocoon” and cannot extricate himself. In operations in the cognitive domain, foreign military forces often respond to the opponent’s cognitive bias on a certain issue and continue to push situational information and intelligence information through multiple channels that support the opponent’s “correct perception”, allowing the opponent to make command decisions. Mistakes and deviations occur.

attention-inducing sensory stimulation

Effective sensory stimulation is the primary prerequisite to attract the attention of the target object. The human brain will detect stimuli within the range of perception and respond in various ways. Experimental research in cognitive psychology has found that dynamic, dangerous, interest-related, survival safety, contrast and other types of information are more likely to attract the attention of the human brain. In the era of intelligence, the target object’s psychological cognitive process often follows the rules of “attracting attention, cultivating interest, actively searching, strengthening memory, actively sharing, and influencing others”. In combat, foreign troops often use exclusive revelations, intelligence leaks, authoritative disclosures, on-site connections, etc., and skillfully use exaggeration, contrast, association, metaphor, suspense, foil and other techniques to push information that subverts common sense, cognitive conflict, and strong contrast. information to attract the attention of the target audience. For example, the “Rescue of Female Soldier Lynch Incident” portrayed by the US military in the Iraq War and the “Gaddafi Golden Toilet” in the Libyan War were mostly based on stories familiar to the audience. The purpose and point of view were integrated into the storyline, which attracted a large number of audiences. people’s attention. In addition, the human brain also processes stimuli outside the range of sensory perception. In recent years, the military of Western countries has attached great importance to the research of subliminal information stimulation technology, and has developed subliminal visual information implantation technology, subliminal auditory information implantation technology, subliminal information activation technology, nervous system subconscious sound control technology, etc. , and continue to expand the application scope of neurocognitive science and technology in the military field.

A meta-value concept that generates cognitive resonance

In cognitive theory, cognitive resonance refers to information that crosses the cognitive gap between the two parties and can arouse the ideological, psychological and cognitive resonance of both parties, thereby achieving the deconstruction and reconstruction of the other party’s cognitive system. In cognitive domain operations, this cognitive energy concentration effect is not a concentration of power in a simple sense, but an internal accumulation of the combined force of the system. Under the diffusion of modern information media, this cognitive resonance effect can quickly spread to all parts of the world in a short period of time, and produce secondary indirect psychological effects or more levels of derivative psychological effects, showing a cumulative and iterative effect. Once the state exceeds the psychological critical point, it will show a state of psychological energy explosion, thereby changing the direction or outcome of the event. The targets that can induce this kind of cognitive resonance include value beliefs, moral ethics, common interests, etc. In a war, if one party touches or violates human meta-values, common emotional orientation, etc., it can easily trigger collective denunciation, bear the accusation of violating human morality, and fall into a moral low. For example, a photo from the Vietnam War showed a group of Vietnamese children, especially a 9-year-old girl, running naked on the road after being attacked by napalm bombs from the US military. In 1972, this photo caused a huge sensation after being published, setting off an anti-war wave in the United States and even around the world, accelerating the end of the Vietnam War.

The cognitive gap that splits the cognitive system

In daily life, seemingly hard steel is easily broken due to the brittleness of the material due to factors such as low-temperature environments, material defects, stress concentration, and so is the cognitive system. Cognitive gaps refer to the cracks, pain points, weaknesses and sensitivity points in the cognitive thinking of the target object. It is mainly manifested in the individual’s worry that he or she is unable to cope with or adapt to the environment, and under the influence of anxiety, it constitutes cognitive vulnerability. . The experience of security threats, loose group structure, confusion of beliefs and ideals, and the loss of voice of authoritative media, etc., will all cause cognitive conflicts and tears among the target objects. In cognitive domain operations, sometimes a seemingly powerful opponent has a lot of mental gaps and psychological weaknesses hidden behind it. Often a news event can shake the opponent’s cognitive framework and burst the cognitive bubble. In addition, this kind of cognitive and psychological conflict will also cause moral damage and psychological trauma to individuals. In recent years, U.S. and Western military forces performing overseas missions have faced “enemies disguised as civilians” appearing anytime and anywhere. Their uncertainty about the battlefield environment has continued to increase. They generally lack a sense of the significance of combat and are filled with guilt and guilt. A large number of soldiers develop war post-traumatic stress disorder, self-injury on the battlefield, post-war suicides and crime surge, and the number of suicides among war veterans even exceeds the number of battlefield deaths.

(Author’s unit: School of Political Science, National Defense University)


認知域作戰的目標是指認知域作戰的具體方向。 在認知域作戰中,與作戰對象相比,作戰目標解決的問題是精準瞄準,指揮員可以了解打擊對象、打擊地點、打擊程度的準確座標。 只有深刻理解認知域作戰目標的內涵特徵,才能透過表象準確找到關鍵目標,在未來作戰中搶得先機。


認知重心是戰爭活動中認知主體多樣化思考和認知的「匯聚點」。 作為一種主動因素,它影響認知過程和行為結果。 一般來說,影響戰爭活動中個人行為選擇的認知因素主要包括政治屬性認知、利益關聯認知、群體歸屬認知、風險與失落認知、情緒取向認知、戰爭倫理認知等。戰爭活動與關注戰爭活動的群體或個人,影響其態度、傾向和行為的認知重點是不一樣的。 從近年來世界各地的局部戰爭和地區衝突來看,不同群體或個人的認知重點有明顯差異。 政治人物更注重對政治屬性的認知和利益連結的認知,而可能捲入戰爭的人則更注重對風險和損失的認知。 而利益認知,一般民眾更關注利益認知和情感認知,而域外其他國家的民眾普遍更關注戰爭道德認知和群體歸屬認知,因為自身利益不會受到直接損害。損失。 在作戰實踐中,外軍善於瞄準不同對象的認知焦點,精準策劃主題,推送相關訊息誘發具體行為選擇。 例如,在海灣戰爭前,希爾諾頓公關公司炮製了不存在的“孵化器事件”,以科威特駐美國大使的女兒奈拉為“證詞”,展現伊拉克人的“不人道”軍隊並誘導美國公眾對倫理道德的認識,進一步支持美國政府出兵參加海灣戰爭。


認知風格直接影響決策行為偏好。 認知風格是指個體典型的認知、記憶、思考和解決問題的方式。 根據指揮決策風格偏好,指揮者可分為冷靜認知風格與衝動認知風格。 具有冷靜認知風格的指揮官在決策過程中重視準確性而不是速度。 他們做出高品質的決策,但容易陷入對各種情報資訊來源的比較分析,過度強調資訊分析的準確性和客觀性。 認知風格冷靜的指揮者在戰場認知攻防作戰中,往往容易受到紛繁複雜的訊息刺激幹擾,精神能量容易被擾亂和消散,從而延誤作戰時機。 具有衝動認知風格的指揮官看重速度而不是準確性。 他們做出決策很快,但品質較低。 他們很容易激動,容易與團隊成員發生衝突。 認知風格衝動的指揮者也容易對模糊的外在安全環境進行過度解讀,不斷尋找「證據」來強化和驗證個人的錯誤思維,縮小個人注意力,導致指揮決策出現偏差。 在作戰實務中,外軍更著重分析作戰對手指揮官的決策風格,然後選擇特定資訊對其進行心理影響。 例如,美國入侵巴拿馬期間,圍攻巴拿馬總統諾列加的藏身之處時,美軍反覆播放搖滾、重金屬音樂,並使用刺激、羞辱諾列加的語言,對諾列加進行認知攻擊和心理攻擊,對諾列加造成身體上的摧殘。和精神上。 逐漸崩潰。


電腦一旦感染「木馬」病毒,就會在特定時間向駭客的控制終端發送連線請求。 一旦連接成功,就會形成後門通道,讓駭客可以隨心所欲地控制電腦。 同樣,人腦也

有認知“後門”,也可以被他人控制。 認知心理學家發現,透過向目標對象的視聽感知通道發送訊息,精心推送目標對象認知接受的訊息內容,迎合目標對像已有的經驗記憶,符合目標對象的思考習慣,激發可以控制目標對象的情緒痛點,幹擾目標物的認知,促進其本能的情緒和行為反應。 在前沿認知科學技術的支持下,利用大腦訊息處理的自動啟動和受控處理兩種模式,使目標物體輕鬆陷入「認知繭」。 在認知域操作中,個體沉浸在大量人工建構的資訊中,不斷被提供「證據」來證明自己的判斷和認知是「正確的」。 隨著時間的推移,個體的認知視野越來越小,感知外在環境的能力也逐漸下降。 最終,他將看不到事物的真相,他就會沉迷於「認知繭」中無法自拔。 在認知域作戰中,外軍往往針對對手在某一議題上的認知偏差,透過多種管道持續推送支援對手「正確認知」的態勢訊息和情報訊息,讓對手做出指揮決策。 錯誤和偏差都會發生。


有效的感官刺激是吸引目標物體注意力的首要前提。 人的大腦會在感知範圍內偵測到刺激,並以各種方式做出反應。 認知心理學的實驗研究發現,動態、危險、興趣相關、生存安全、對比等類型的信息更容易引起人腦的注意。 在智慧時代,目標對象的心理認知過程往往遵循「吸引註意力、培養興趣、主動尋找、強化記憶、主動分享、影響他人」的規則。 作戰中,外軍常利用獨家爆料、情報洩密、權威揭露、現場連線等方式,巧妙運用誇張、對比、聯想、隱喻、懸念、烘託等手法,推送顛覆常識、認知的訊息。衝突,對比強烈。 訊息以吸引目標受眾的注意。 例如美軍在伊拉克戰爭中描繪的“營救女兵林奇事件”、利比亞戰爭中的“卡扎菲金馬桶”,大多取材於觀眾熟悉的故事。 目的和觀點融入故事情節,吸引了大量觀眾。 人們的關注。 此外,人腦也處理感官知覺範圍以外的刺激。 近年來,西方國家軍方高度重視潛意識訊息刺激技術的研究,發展了潛意識視覺訊息植入技術、潛意識聽覺訊息植入技術、潛意識訊息活化技術、神經系統潛意識聲音控制技術等。 ……,不斷拓展神經認知科學技術在軍事領域的應用範圍。


在認知理論中,認知共振是指跨越雙方認知鴻溝的訊息,能夠引起雙方思想、心理和認知上的共鳴,從而實現對對方認知系統的解構和重建。 在認知域運作中,這種認知能量集中效應並不是簡單意義上的力量集中,而是系統合力的內在累積。 在現代資訊媒介的擴散下,這種認知共振效應可以在短時間內迅速傳播到世界各地,並產生二次間接心理效應或多層次的衍生心理效應,呈現出累積和迭代效應。 一旦狀態超過心理臨界點,就會呈現出心理能量爆炸的狀態,從而改變事件的方向或結果。 能引發這種認知共鳴的對象包括價值信念、道德倫理、共同利益等。在戰爭中,如果一方觸及或違反了人類的後設價值觀、共同的情感取向等,很容易引發集體聲討,承擔違反人類道德的指控

性,並陷入道德低谷。 例如,一張越戰時期的照片顯示,一群越南兒童,特別是一名9歲女孩,遭到美軍凝固汽油彈襲擊後,在路上赤裸裸地奔跑。 1972年,這張照片發表後引起巨大轟動,在美國乃至全世界掀起了反戰浪潮,加速了越戰的結束。


在日常生活中,看似堅硬的鋼鐵,由於低溫環境、材料缺陷、應力集中、認知系統等因素,導致材料脆性,容易斷裂。 認知差距是指目標對象認知思考中的裂痕、痛點、弱點和敏感點。 主要表現在個體擔心自己無法應付或適應環境,在焦慮的影響下,構成認知脆弱性。 。 安全威脅的經驗、團體結構的鬆散、信仰理想的混亂、權威媒體話語權的喪失等,都會造成目標對象之間的認知衝突與眼淚。 在認知域作戰中,有時看似強大的對手,背後卻隱藏著許多心理差距和心理弱點。 往往一個新聞事件就能動搖對手的認知框架,戳破認知泡沫。 此外,這種認知和心理衝突也會為個體帶來道德傷害和心理創傷。 近年來,執行海外任務的美國和西方軍隊面臨著隨時隨地出現的「偽裝成平民的敵人」。 他們對戰場環境的不確定性不斷增加。 他們普遍缺乏戰鬥意義感,充滿愧疚和愧疚。 大量士兵出現戰爭創傷後壓力症候群,戰場上自傷,戰後自殺和犯罪激增,退伍軍人自殺人數甚至超過了戰場死亡人數。



What & Where is the Focus of Chinese Military Cognitive Domain Operations?


2022年10月05日08:00 | 來源:解放軍報

音譯外語 – 英語:

●Cognitive domain operations focus on full-dimensional attacks, including both “peacetime” cognitive penetration and “wartime” cognitive coercion.

●Wartime cognitive domain operations revolve around the achievement of military objectives, and are implemented in conjunction with military operations to support each other.

●In cognitive domain operations, as the sound of gunfire dissipates, the horn of a new round of cognitive domain operations may sound again, and there must be no slacking off.

Cognitive domain warfare is a confrontation at the level of conscious thinking. Through selective processing and transmission of information, it affects judgment, changes concepts, and competes for people’s hearts, thereby guiding the real situation to develop in a direction that is beneficial to oneself. From the perspective of cognitive shaping, cognitive domain operations focus on full-dimensional attacks, including both “peacetime” cognitive penetration and “wartime” cognitive coercion. Therefore, cognitive domain operations have no clear boundaries between peace and war; at the same time, according to the needs of political or military purposes, its targets can be individuals, organizations or even countries. Therefore, cognitive domain operations should establish the concepts of peacetime and wartime integration, military-civilian integration, cross-domain integration, and joint victory, and sort out basic tasks accordingly.

Focus on ideological layout tasks

Ideology is “an ideological system that systematically and consciously reflects the socio-economic formation and political system.” Ideology determines the rational foundation of cognition and has distinct camp characteristics. Although ideology covers all aspects of social life, in confrontations between countries or political groups, the struggle around belief guidance, attitude struggle, and concept assimilation is particularly fierce, and has become a focus of cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide political cognition and seize control of belief and establishment. Confrontation between countries or political groups is not only a confrontation of national strength, but also a confrontation of national aspirations. The confrontation of political beliefs bears the brunt. Shaping and guiding political cognition aims to condense or destroy political consensus, strengthen or shake political beliefs, and expand or dissolve political camps. In cognitive domain operations, through cognitive guidance on the legitimacy of the ruling party, the rationality of political ideas and systems, and the health of the political ecology, we cultivate recognition, denial, and support of political positions, beliefs, practices, etc. Or hatred and other emotions, laying out a political cognitive layout that is beneficial to oneself and detrimental to the enemy. Political cognition is related to the survival foundation of a country or organization and is the primary focus of cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide war cognition and seize the right to lead war attitudes. A country can be without war, but it cannot be without a sense of war. War cognition is the basis for the formation and development of the will, concepts, psychology, and thinking of individuals, organizations, and countries in the war cycle. Through cognitive guidance on the essence, nature, legal concepts, etc. of war, we build a war cognitive thinking system, guide the evaluation direction of the rationality, justice, and legality of war, promote the formation of support or opposition attitudes towards possible wars, and regulate The rise and fall of willingness to assume war obligations is a key issue in cognitive guidance of war. War cognition affects war attitudes, and the struggle for its control is a task that must be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Shape and guide value cognition and seize control of emotions and will. Values ​​influence people’s judgment of beauty and ugliness, right and wrong, and social behavior orientation. In terms of identifying things and judging right and wrong, human emotions always tend to support claims with similar values. Value cognition permeates every corner of life. Through the dissemination of ethical concepts, standards of beauty, ugliness, good and evil, literary and artistic opinions, etc., competition for the right to guide values, the right to guide life patterns, and the right to judge traditional inheritance is frequent and fierce. . In real life, different values ​​often interpenetrate and entangle with each other. The essence of shaping and guiding value cognition is to strive for social and emotional recognition, which is a regular task in cognitive domain operations.

Pay close attention to social psychology and the task of building momentum

Social psychology provides a perceptual and experiential basis for cognition. It is formed on the basis of daily life, social activities, practical insights and other experiences. Social psychological guidance often promotes unpredictable changes in the actual situation. It is one of the usual modes of confrontation between the two sides, especially during non-military conflicts. It is also a task that must be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Guide national psychology and regulate national emotions. National psychology is one of the social psychology that is most likely to cause conflicts and confrontations. Attacking national self-esteem can breed national inferiority complex and easily lead to disintegration. Improving national self-esteem can enhance national cohesion, but the expansion of national self-esteem can easily lead to the emergence of extreme racism, national chauvinism, etc.; the status, interests, and culture of different ethnic groups within the country Differences in people, customs, and lifestyles provide opportunities for people with ulterior motives to stir up ethnic antagonisms, while the same living space and cooperation process lay the foundation for eliminating prejudice and even cohesion and tolerance among ethnic groups. The result depends on the perception. Know the guide. National psychological guidance is sensitive and easy to lose control, and has a direct impact on social stability. It is a task that needs to be focused on in cognitive domain operations.

Guide group psychology and increase and eliminate oppositional consciousness. Groups generally refer to people of the same type, such as ethnicity, region, class, professional groups, even civil society groups, non-governmental organizations, etc. If groups are subjectively defined based on “convergence”, then the “differences” between groups exist objectively. This difference may be political and economic status, cultural thought, regional concept or other factors. Inducing the perception of differences and promoting the antagonism between different groups such as party opposition, regional opposition, professional opposition, rich and poor opposition, etc. will not only damage the internal unity of the country, but also accumulate and increase the dissatisfaction of all sectors of society against the political authorities, and instigate social mobilization. The turbulence and division left behind a foreshadowing. In cognitive domain operations, this kind of social psychology needs to be paid attention to.

Guide individual psychology and influence social emotions. In cognitive domain operations, individual psychological guidance is divided into two situations. One is the psychological guidance of important figures, such as sensitive professionals, public intellectuals, academic elites, successful business people, etc. The struggle for their political positions, emotional attitudes, etc. is an issue that both sides of the confrontation need to focus on. One is the use of phenomena that easily trigger individual psychological resonance. Such as public crises, major accidents, natural disasters and even some crimes and emergencies in life, intentionally inducing certain emotions may cause group polarization due to the herd effect of individuals, thus triggering changes in public opinion and even social unrest. Both of these aspects need to be paid attention to in cognitive domain operations.

Targeting the critical mission of wartime cognition

Cognitive domain operations begin before military operations and end after military operations. Wartime cognitive domain operations revolve around the achievement of military objectives, are implemented in conjunction with military operations and support each other, and are characterized by violent coercion. In this stage of cognitive domain operations, “offensive” and “defensive” actions are carried out simultaneously, the influence of weapons and propaganda effects are comprehensively effective, and methods such as “lure”, “attack”, “deception” and “control” are emerging one after another. This is the key to cognitive domain operations. critical stage.

Attack the mind and seize the will, force and induce cognition. Wartime cognitive attacks are mainly carried out to weaken the enemy’s will to resist and induce the enemy to make wrong decisions. Targeting the enemy’s decision-makers, front-line commanders, etc., use targeted attacks to shake the will to resist, and use information deception and interference to induce decision-making. Targeting armed forces, mainly the military, use force to shock and deter, and comprehensively use operations such as public opinion warfare and emerging technologies. Means are used to shake their belief in participating in the war, trigger their panic, undermine their military morale, and dominate their action patterns; targeting social support forces, conveying tough messages to undermine confidence through large-scale military exercises, equipment testing, propaganda of weapon lethality effectiveness, etc., and through selective Target strikes and dissemination of war situations can induce panic, and efforts can be made to gain understanding by publicizing one’s own humanitarian actions in the war and relevant international comments.

Build a strong line of defense and control the situation with concentration. The focus of cognitive defense in wartime is to build a strong defense line of “heart”, “will” and “intellect” to prevent the loss of fighting spirit under the stimulation of drastic changes in the situation or environment. Education and publicity are the basic approaches to cognitive defense in wartime. For the forces participating in the war, stimulate enthusiasm for participating in the war through mobilization and encouragement, clarify the truth by refuting rumors, establish the belief in victory by publicizing the results of the war, mobilize morale by setting examples, etc.; for the supporting forces, educate the justice, rationality, and legality of the war. Propaganda is used to establish a sense of mission, responsibility, and obligation among the people, to inspire a sense of hatred and hatred by exposing the enemy’s brutal behavior, to stimulate enthusiasm for supporting operations by publicizing the deeds of local governments participating in the war and supporting frontline operations, and so on.

Expand your camp and eliminate hidden dangers. Creating a favorable cognitive atmosphere and providing support for the expansion of one’s own camp is an important aspect that must be achieved in wartime cognitive domain operations. In particular, the fight for international support is mainly through political, diplomatic and other activities, but the widespread diffusion of one’s own positions, ideas, attitudes, etc. often leads to changes in international civil attitudes, which in turn affects decision-making at the political level. Provide support for your own camp expansion. In addition, wartime cognitive domain operations also have an important task throughout the war, which is to eliminate the adverse hidden dangers caused by various accidents in the war. Especially in the later stages of the war, as the destructive effects of war appear and spread, people’s cognitive system will be repeatedly impacted by different information. During this period, ideological guidance, social psychological shaping, and individual psychological counseling are required to work together to ensure the consolidation of the results. In cognitive domain operations, as the sound of guns dissipates, the horn of a new round of cognitive domain operations may sound again, and there must be no slacking off.





認知域戰是意識思維層面的對抗。 透過對訊息的選擇性加工和傳遞,影響判斷,改變觀念,爭奪人心,從而引導現實形勢向有利於自己的方向發展。 從認知塑造的角度來看,認知域作戰著重全維度攻擊,既包括「和平時期」的認知滲透,也包括「戰時」的認知強制。 因此,認知域作戰在和平與戰爭之間沒有明確的界線; 同時,根據政治或軍事目的的需要,其目標可以是個人、組織甚至國家。 因此,認知域作戰應樹立平戰融合、軍民融合、跨域融合、共同勝利的理念,並相應梳理基礎任務。


意識形態是「系統性地、自覺地反映社會經濟形態和政治制度的思想體系」。 意識形態決定認知的理性基礎,具有鮮明的陣營特質。 儘管意識形態涵蓋了社會生活的各個層面,但在國家或政治團體之間的對抗中,圍繞著信仰引導、態度鬥爭、觀念同化的鬥爭尤為激烈,成為認知域作戰的焦點。

塑造和引導政治認知並掌控信仰和體制。 國家或政治團體之間的對抗,不僅是國家實力的對抗,更是民族願望的對抗。 政治信仰的對抗首當其衝。 塑造和引導政治認知,旨在凝聚或破壞政治共識、強化或動搖政治信念、擴大或消解政治陣營。 在認知域操作中,透過對執政黨合法性、政治理念和製度合理性、政治生態健康狀況的認知引導,培養對政治立場、信念、實踐等的認可、否定和支持。或仇恨等情緒,佈置出有利己不利敵的政治認知佈局。 政治認知關係到一個國家或組織的生存基礎,是認知領域運作的首要關注。

塑造和引導戰爭認知,掌握戰爭態度引領權。 一個國家可以沒有戰爭,但不能沒有戰爭意識。 戰爭認知是個人、組織、國家在戰爭週期中意志、觀念、心理、思考形成和發展的基礎。 透過對戰爭的本質、性質、法律概念等的認知引導,建構戰爭認知思維體系,引導對戰爭合理性、正義性、合法性的評價方向,促進對可能發生的戰爭形成支持或反對態度。承擔戰爭義務意願的盛衰是戰爭認知引導的關鍵問題。 戰爭認知影響戰爭態度,對其控制權的競爭是認知域作戰必須重視的任務。

塑造和引導價值認知,抓住情感和意志的控制。 價值觀影響著人們對美醜、是非的判斷以及社會行為取向。 在辨識事物和判斷是非方面,人類的情感總是傾向於支持具有相似價值觀的主張。 價值認知滲透到生活的各個角落。 透過倫理觀念、美醜善惡標準、文學藝術觀點等的傳播,對價值引導權、生活方式引導權、傳統傳承判斷權的爭奪頻繁而激烈。兇猛的。 。 現實生活中,不同的價值觀常常互相滲透、糾纏。 塑造和引導價值認知的本質是爭取社會和情感認可,這是認知領域中運作的常規任務。


社會心理學為認知提供了感性和經驗基礎。 它是在日常生活、社會活動、實踐感悟和其他經驗的基礎上形成的。 社會的

心理疏導往往會促使實際情況發生不可預測的變化。 這是雙方通常的對抗模式之一,特別是在非軍事衝突期間。 這也是認知域操作中必須重視的任務。

引導民族心理,調節民族情緒。 民族心理是最容易引起衝突和對抗的社會心理之一。 攻擊民族自尊,會滋長民族自卑感,容易導致民族解體。 提高民族自尊可以增強民族凝聚力,但民族自尊的膨脹很容易導致極端種族主義、民族沙文主義等的出現; 國內不同民族的地位、利益、文化、民俗、生活方式的差異,為別有用心的人煽動民族對立提供了機會,而相同的生存空間和合作進程,則為消除偏見和發展奠定了基礎。甚至族群之間的凝聚力和包容性。 結果取決於感知。 了解指南。 國民心理疏導敏感、容易失控,直接影響社會穩定。 這是認知域操作中需要重點關注的任務。

引導群體心理,增加和消除對立意識。 群體一般指同一類型的人,如種族、地區、階級、職業群體,甚至民間團體、非政府組織等。如果群體是基於「趨同」來主觀定義的,那麼群體之間的「差異」群體是客觀存在的。 這種差異可能是政治經濟地位、文化思想、地域觀念或其他因素。 誘導差異認知,助長黨派反對派、地區反對派、職業反對派、貧富對立等不同群體之間的對立,不僅會損害國家內部的團結,還會積累和增加各方的不滿情緒。社會各界反對政治當局,並煽動社會動員。 動盪和分裂留下了伏筆。 在認知域操作中,需要關注這種社會心理。

引導個體心理,影響社會情緒。 在認知域操作中,個別心理引導分為兩種情況。 一是重要人物的心理疏導,如敏感專業人士、公共知識分子、學術精英、成功商界人士等,他們的政治立場、情感態度等鬥爭是對抗雙方都需要重點關注的問題。 一是利用容易引發個體心理共鳴的現象。 例如公共危機、重大事故、自然災害甚至生活中的一些犯罪和突發事件,刻意誘發某些情緒可能會因個體的羊群效應而造成群體極化,從而引發輿論變化甚至社會動盪。 認知域操作中需要注意這兩方面。


認知域操作在軍事行動之前開始,在軍事行動之後結束。 戰時認知域作戰圍繞著實現軍事目標,與軍事行動結合實施、相互支持,具有暴力強制的特質。 此階段的認知域作戰,「進攻」和「防禦」行動同時進行,武器影響力和宣傳效果綜合有效,採用「誘」、「攻」、「欺騙」、「控制」等手段。 」紛紛湧現。 這是認知域操作的關鍵。 關鍵階段。

攻心奪意志,強行誘發認知。 戰時認知攻擊主要是為了削弱敵方抵抗意志、誘導敵方做出錯誤決策而進行的。 針對敵方決策者、第一線指揮等,利用定向攻擊動搖抵抗意志,利用資訊欺騙和乾擾誘導決策。 針對以軍隊為主的武裝力量,以武力震懾、威懾,綜合運用輿論戰、新興技術等作戰手段。 用手段動搖他們的參戰信念,引發他們的恐慌,削弱他們的軍心,主導他們的行動模式; 針對社會支持力量,透過大規模軍事演習、裝備測試、武器殺傷效能宣傳等方式傳遞強硬訊息,破壞信心,透過選擇性地進行目標打擊、傳播戰況,引發恐慌,努力


構築堅固防線,集中力量掌控事態。 戰時認知防禦的重點在於建構「心」、「意志」、「智」的堅固防線,防止在局勢或環境急劇變化的刺激下喪失鬥志。 教育和宣傳是戰時認知防禦的基本途徑。 對參戰力量,透過動員激勵激發參戰熱情,透過闢謠澄清真相,透過宣傳戰爭成果樹立勝利信念,透過樹立榜樣調動士氣等; 對支援部隊進行戰爭正義、合理、合法性教育。 宣傳是為了在人民群眾中建立使命感、責任感、義務感,透過揭露敵人的殘暴行徑,激發仇恨感和仇恨感,透過宣傳地方政府參戰事蹟,激發支援作戰熱情以及支援前線行動等等。

擴大你的營地並消除隱患。 營造良好的認知氛圍,為己方陣營的擴張提供支持,是戰時認知領域作戰必須做到的重要面向。 特別是,爭取國際支持主要是透過政治、外交等活動,但自身立場、理念、態度等的廣泛傳播,往往會導致國際民間態度的變化,進而影響各國的決策。政治層面。 為您自己的營地擴展提供支援。 此外,戰時認知域作戰還有一項貫穿整場戰爭的重要任務,就是消除戰爭中各種意外事件造成的不良隱患。 尤其是在戰爭後期,隨著戰爭破壞性效應的顯現和蔓延,人們的認知系統會一再受到不同資訊的衝擊。 在此期間,需要思想引導、社會心理塑造、個人心理疏導等共同努力,確保成果的鞏固。 在認知域作戰中,隨著槍聲消散,新一輪認知域作戰的號角可能會再次吹響,絕不能有絲毫懈怠。


People’s Liberation Army Perspective Development of Future Wars


2024-02-29 06:48:18


You cannot understand war without understanding the times. As society enters the era of intelligence, the form of war has also undergone profound evolution. In the same way that humans produce, they fight in the same way. In the era of intelligence, intelligent production methods will inevitably shape intelligent warfare. With the development of science and technology, the presentation of war, decision-making methods, organizational styles and support models will undergo subversive changes.

Changes in the presentation of war. The form of war is the historical coordinate of the development process of war. It determines the era of human war activities in each period. Since the 1960s and 1970s, with the new military revolution unfolding magnificently around the world, the form of war has also begun a continuously accelerating process of transformation from mechanized warfare to information-based warfare, and finally to the advanced stage of information-based warfare – —The transformation of intelligent warfare. Future wars will enter an era supported by intelligent technology. The fields of confrontation will involve politics, economy, diplomacy, society and many other fields. The combat space will expand from traditional physical space to virtual cognitive space. Combat force formation will evolve from human-machine hybrid formation to wireless. Human combat clusters are changing. Combat operations will develop from human-machine collaboration and human-centered operations to unmanned autonomous operations. On the surface, it may seem calm, but the confrontation in the invisible space is turbulent. The strategic game of hybrid warfare will become increasingly clear, and the war will fully enter the stage of “wisdom and victory”. “era.

Changes in the way war is made. All along, war decision-making methods have been comprehensively restricted by various factors such as battlefield reconnaissance, command, communications, and support. With the development and progress of technologies such as intelligent unmanned aerial vehicles and network information, war decision-making methods will undergo an intelligent transformation, showing the characteristics of data support, algorithm leadership, human-machine collusion, and distributed autonomy. Before initiating actions in the physical battlefield space, all parties in wars and confrontations calculate first and then fight. They use cloud brain fusion to process massive intelligence data obtained from multiple sources, and use digital twins, virtual reality and holographic projection imaging technologies to launch intelligent confrontations in the network virtual space. Deduction, complete comparative analysis of the comprehensive strength of the enemy and ourselves, and use the deduction results to serve war decisions. When making decisions in war, the “human-in-the-loop” brain-computer cooperation decision-making method is adopted, using the perceptual divergent thinking of the human brain and the powerful computing and statistical capabilities of computers to quickly judge the situation, plan tasks, issue instructions, and autonomously control, to realize the art of decision-making and The perfect combination of decision science.

Changes in the organization of war. In recent years, whether it is concepts such as “autonomous warfare”, “shadow warfare” and “sixth generation warfare”, or the US military’s “Joint Concept”, or the Russian army’s “Armed Forces Construction Plan”, they are all future plans based on the development trend of science and technology. Combat style, war shape and force building concepts. Mechanized warfare is a platform-centered entity destruction strike, information warfare is a network-centered system confrontation operation, and intelligent warfare is a comprehensive strength contest centered on cognitive decision-making. The main support for the combat system is the insurgency. Disruptive technologies such as human control, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, quantum communications, and blockchain emphasize distributed real-time killing centered on cognitive decision-making. In the near future, the continued development of intelligent technologies such as deep neural networks, brain-computer interaction, automated processing, 3D printing, and the Internet of Things will inevitably continue to improve the scientific and technological content of the military field, making the war organization style more manned and unmanned. It has the characteristics of “integration, unmanned autonomy at the front, and human control at the rear”.

Changes in the war support model. Outstanding military strategists at home and abroad in ancient and modern times have all attached great importance to support work in war. As the saying goes, “before the troops and horses are moved, food and grass go first.” For example, in the ancient Battle of Guandu, Cao’s army attacked Wuchao at night, destroying the grain and grass of Yuan Shao’s army, and the entire army was defeated. In modern warfare, due to insufficient logistical supplies, there are numerous examples of aggressive troops on the battlefield having to stop and wait for supplies of military supplies, thus missing fighter planes. Therefore, war support determines the outcome of a war to a certain extent, and its status and role have always been very important. It is not only an important part of military management, but also a key support for winning the war. In the past, war support had too many unified support activities, a single source of support resources, and simple and extensive implementation. However, with the changes in the form of intelligent warfare, the war support model will also undergo subversive changes. Future war support will rely on Internet of Things technology and intelligent information systems to carry out physical distributed storage, virtual centralized management, and military-civilian collaborative supply of support resources, and implement full-area real-time monitoring, intelligent prediction matching, and advance planning and arrangements for the implementation of support organizations. Achieve joint logistics supply, full-area configuration, intelligent deployment, and accurate forwarding of war support resources to ensure that the implementation of war support is accurate, efficient, stable and reliable, and battlefield support capabilities continue to extend to the end.

Changes in the balance of war lines. War is the kingdom of uncertainty. People have known for a long time that it is difficult to achieve victory by relying solely on “straight-line thinking” and “grand formation”. Liddell Hart, a British strategic theorist, analyzed successful strategic cases in the world and found a pattern: 90% used “indirect routes.” However, the “indirect route” has long appeared as a supplementary role to the direct route. However, compared with the past, the modern warfare combat system is huge, with many nodes, and there are many “vital gates” that are vulnerable to attack, which provides a wider range of opportunities for choosing “indirect routes” and implementing “asymmetric” checks and balances. Judging from the several local wars that have occurred in the world in recent years, even the powerful US military attaches great importance to “circumstances” when facing weak opponents. “Those who are good at surprising things are as endless as heaven and earth, and as endless as rivers.” Whether it is now or in the future, the war strategy game between countries, especially the world’s military powers with strong strategic damage capabilities, can neither achieve their own operations according to conventional thinking. In order to achieve the goal, we cannot simply have the idea of ​​​​playing a “dignified formation”. If we want to win future wars, we must follow and develop the winning mechanism of future wars, insist on making good use of the “indirect route”, and do asymmetrical checks and balances, so as to always grasp the initiative in wars.


不理解時代就不能理解戰爭。 社會進入智能化時代,戰爭形態也隨之發生深刻演變。 人類以什麼方式生產,就以什麼方式打仗。 智能化時代有智慧化的生產方式,也必然會塑造出智慧化的戰爭形態。 隨著科技的發展,戰爭的呈現形式、決策方式、組織樣式和保障模式等都將發生顛覆性的改變。

戰爭呈現形式的改變。 戰爭形態是戰爭發展進程的歷史坐標,它確定了每個時期人類戰爭活動所處的時代方位。 自20世紀六、七十年代以來,伴隨著新軍事變革在全球範圍內波瀾壯闊地展開,戰爭形態也開啟了由機械化戰爭向信息化戰爭轉型的持續加速進程,並最終向信息化戰爭的高級階段— —智能化戰爭轉變。 未來戰爭將進入智慧技術支撐的時代,對抗領域將涉及政治、經濟、外交、社會等諸多領域,作戰空間將由傳統的物理空間向虛擬認知空間拓展延伸,作戰力量編組將由人機混合編組向無人作戰 集群轉變,作戰行動將由人機協同、以人為主行動向無人自主作戰發展,表面看似風平浪靜,無形空間的對抗卻是風起雲湧,混合戰爭戰略博弈日漸清晰,戰爭將全面進入“智勝”時代。

戰爭決策方式的改變。 一直以來,戰爭決策方式受戰場偵察、指揮、通信、保障等各項因素的綜合製約。 隨著智慧無人、網路資訊等技術的發展進步,戰爭決策方式將發生智慧化轉變,呈現出資料支撐、演算法主導、人機合謀、分佈自主的特點。 戰爭對抗各方在有形戰場空間發起行動之前,先算而後戰,通過雲大腦融合處理多源獲取的海量情報數據,借助數字孿生、虛擬現實和全息投影成像技術,在網絡虛擬空間先行展開智能對抗 推演,完成敵我綜合實力對比分析,以推演結果服務戰爭決策。 戰中決策時,採用「人在迴路」的腦機配合決策方式,以人腦的感性發散思維和電腦強大的計算統計能力,快速判斷情況、規劃任務、下達指令、自主調控,實現決策藝術和 決策科學的完美結合。

新华社照片,朱日和(内蒙古),2017年7月30日 庆祝中国人民解放军建军90周年阅兵举行 7月30日,庆祝中国人民解放军建军90周年阅兵在位于内蒙古的朱日和训练基地举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平检阅部队并发表重要讲话。这是受阅部队。 新华社记者 殷刚 摄

戰爭組織樣式的改變。 近年來,無論是「自主戰爭」「影子戰爭」「第六代戰爭」等概念,或是美軍的《聯合構想》,抑或俄軍的《武裝力量建設計劃》,都是基於科技發展態勢提出的未來 作戰樣式、戰爭形態及力量建設構想。 機械化戰爭是以平台為中心的實體毀滅打擊,資訊化戰爭則是以網絡為中心的體系對抗作戰,而智能化戰爭則是以認知決策為中心的綜合實力較量,支撐作戰體系的主要是無人控制 、人工智慧、大數據、雲端計算、量子通訊、區塊鍊等顛覆性技術,強調的是以認知決策為中心的分散式即時殺傷。 在不久的將來,深度神經網絡、腦機互動、自動化處理、3D列印、物聯網等智慧化技術的持續發展也必然會不斷提高軍事領域的科學技術含量,使戰爭組織樣式呈現出「有人無人結合 、前方無人自主、後方有人調控」的特點。

戰爭保障模式的改變。 古今中外,傑出的軍事家無不重視戰爭中的保障工作,正所謂「兵馬未動,糧草先行」。 例如,古代官渡之戰中,曹軍夜襲烏巢使袁紹軍中糧草被毀,全軍敗北。 在現代戰爭中,由於後勤補給不到位,導致戰場上攻勢凌厲的部隊不得不停下來等待軍需物資補給,從而錯失戰機的戰例,不一而足。 因此,戰爭保障從某個意義上決定了戰爭勝負,其地位作用一直以來都十分重要,它不僅是軍隊管理的重要內容,更是贏得戰爭的關鍵支撐。 過去的戰爭保障,保障活動統得過多,保障資源來源單一,保障實施簡單粗放,但隨著智慧化戰爭形態的變化,戰爭保障模式也會發生顛覆性的變化。 未來戰爭保障將依靠物聯網技術和智慧資訊系統,對保障資源進行實體分散式存放、虛擬集中式管理、軍地協作式供應,對保障組織實施進行全局即時監控、智慧預測匹配、超前計劃安排, 實現戰爭保障資源聯勤供應、全域配置、智慧調配、精確前送,確保戰爭保障實施精確有效率、穩定可靠,戰場保障能力不斷向末端延伸。

戰爭制衡路線的改變。 戰爭是不確定性的王國。 長久以來,人們就知道,要想取得勝利,僅憑「直線思維」「堂堂之陣」很難實現。 英國戰略理論家利德爾·哈特分析世界上成功的戰略案例,發現一個規律:90%用的都是「間接路線」。 但是,「間接路線」長期以來都是作為直接路線的補充角色出現。 然而,相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰體系龐大、節點眾多,存在許多易受攻擊的“命門”,為選擇“間接路線”、實施“非對稱”制衡提供了更加廣泛的契機。 從近幾年世界發生的幾場局部戰爭來看,即使是強大的美軍,面對弱小對手也極為重視「迂直之計」。 「善出奇者,無窮如天地,不竭如江河。」不管是現在還是將來,國家間特別是擁有強大戰略毀傷能力的世界軍事強國之間的戰爭戰略博弈,既不能按常規思維實現自己的作戰 目的,又不能簡單抱持著打「堂堂之陣」的想法。 要贏得未來戰爭,必須遵循和發展未來戰爭制勝機理,堅持用好“間接路線”,做好非對稱制衡,從而始終掌握戰爭主動權。

來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:李玉焱 劉河山 責任編輯:尚曉敏

Chinese Military Use of Cognitive Confrontation within the Combat Domain



Modern warfare, according to the characteristics of material form, usually divides the combat domain into the physical domain, the information domain, and the cognitive domain. The three domains interact with each other to form the field and soil for military confrontation. Although cognitive domain operations occur in the cognitive domain, their operational support often spans various fields. War practice shows that with the enhanced effectiveness of hard strikes in the physical domain, cognitive formation can often be accelerated, and cognitive realization can better meet combat needs.

Cognitive offense and defense cannot be separated from physical support

Today’s world is a world where everything is interconnected. The collection of different objects connected to each other greatly enhances the function of independent individuals acting alone. Cognitive domain operations are never isolated operations between cognitive carriers. Only by integrating cognitive offense and defense into an integrated joint operations chain, closely integrating with physical domain military strike operations, and tightly integrating with the entire combat system can we fully exert combat effectiveness.

The starting point of cognition. Existence determines consciousness. Thinking and cognition is not a fairy from the sky, but a true or tortuous reflection of the real world. Without the foundation of the material world, thinking and cognition will lose the source of information, the basis for analysis and judgment, and the accuracy of decision-making and action, making it difficult for people to trust, recognize, and rely on. Even the most psychedelic science fiction wars still have references to real combat targets, specific combat objectives, and corresponding combat paths. Therefore, intelligence reconnaissance analysis has become an indispensable and important link for commanders to organize troops and plan. “Without investigation, there is no right to speak” is regarded as a golden rule that must be followed in decision-making. Battlefield simulation simulations have become an important step for the success of combat operations. In history, most of the combat commands of accomplished generals and classic combat cases that can withstand the test of history and practice are all based on full investigation and research and scientific intelligence analysis. Without the hard-core support of the real world, “human beings think about , and God laughs.”

The basis of cognitive effects. A golden rule of operations in the cognitive domain is that soft power at the cognitive level must be supported by hard strikes at the physical level in order to ensure and strengthen its effect. Strong military pressure is a necessary prerequisite for cognitive means to work, and continuous victory on the battlefield is the core support for winning cognitive wars. If the United States does not have the high-pressure pressure of its super comprehensive national strength and superior technology, its “Star Wars Plan” may not really work. If cognitive domain operations lack the support of specific military operations in the physical domain, they will never produce the good effects of doubting, confusing, deterring, and defeating the enemy. To grasp the initiative in thinking and cognition and to take the initiative in cognitive domain operations, we must not only strengthen the construction of cognitive ontology, improve the ability to directly use strategies and technical means to strengthen self-protection, intervene and influence the opponent’s thinking and cognition, but also actively strive to The physical domain leverages the conduction effect of military operations in the physical domain to enhance thinking and cognition.

The starting point for cognitive realization. Marxism believes that once theory grasps the masses, it will also become material force. From the perspective of combat in the cognitive domain, spiritual creation at the superstructure level of cognition will not automatically turn into material power. Only by being attached to a certain material carrier and practical grasp can it be possible to realize spiritual to material and consciousness. A critical leap into existence. Just as in World War II, if the German army had not bypassed the Maginot Line, broke through the Ardennes Forest, and launched a surprise attack into the French hinterland, it would have been impossible to demonstrate the foresight of the cognitive achievement of the “Manstein Plan”; similarly, if there had been no Allied Forces, The military’s successful landing in Normandy, which invaded the east and west, also failed to highlight the ingenuity of the “overlord plan” strategy of “building plank roads openly and concealing warehouses secretly”. Thinking and cognition are transmitted through people to specific military operations in the physical domain, and then the specific military operations in the physical domain realize the material transformation of cognitive results, forming the fundamentals of the two-way interaction between cognitive offense and defense and military strikes in the physical domain.

The basic method of physical attack to support cognitive offense and defense

The methods and methods used by military strikes in the physical domain to support cognitive offense and defense follow the general law that matter determines consciousness and existence determines thinking. The basic methods can be divided into enhanced support, confirmation support and realization support.

Enhanced support. Military strikes in the physical domain strengthen the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Although thinking and cognition depend on the quality of the cognitive carrier itself, it will be difficult to achieve without the support of military operations in the physical domain. The most basic role of military operations in the physical domain in the cognitive domain is to provide solid support for the formation and development of thinking and cognition. Thinking and cognition can only be stable and far-reaching if it is based on real physical actions. For example, in the early days of the Korean War, when the Korean People’s Army was overwhelming, our army’s combat staff Lei Yingfu and others accurately predicted the landing of the US military based on the war situation, geographical and weather characteristics of the Korean Peninsula, especially the various actions of the US and South Korean troops at that time, etc. time and location. Similarly, Li Qiwei of the “United Nations Army” also made a judgment on the “worship offensive” based on the logistics support, weapons and equipment, and tactical use of the volunteers, and used “magnetic tactics” to fight me. These are all enhancements to the formation and development of thinking and cognition caused by combat in the physical domain.

Confirmation type support. Military strikes in the physical domain confirm preset thinking, precognition, and prejudgment. Cognitive attack and defense does not only occur at the cognitive level, but is the interaction between cognition and practice. War is a “place of life and death, a way of survival”. If one’s cognitive decision-making cannot be verified in many directions at the practical level, then acting rashly is the greatest irresponsibility for war. During the revolutionary war years, our military’s decision-makers were always under the control of the overall strategy and gave front-line commanders the power to act as appropriate and in accordance with the overall strategic direction principle. This is a positive confirmation of strategic thinking. During the Second World War, the Allies used “false facts” to mislead, constantly shaping and strengthening the German army’s misunderstanding of the Allied landing sites on the European continent, and finally successfully landed in Normandy with minimal cost. This was a counter-attack. To confirm.

Implementation support. Provide direct physical support for the realization of thinking, cognition, judgment and decision-making. Thinking and cognition must be transformed into actual results that change the world. The thinking and cognition acting on the opponent is not the end but a new starting point. Next, it must be acted upon in the physical world through “skilled hands” and “brave heart”. In other words In short, it is to provide direct physical action support for the value realization of thinking and cognition. This is just like Zhuge Liang’s clever plan, no matter how brilliant it is, if there is no implementation by the “Five Tiger Generals” and other Shu Han soldiers, it can only remain at the cognitive level of talking on paper. No matter how efficiently the first three parts of the “OODA” loop operate, if the execution link “A” is missing, it will be a “dead loop”. Similarly, the results of our military’s command decisions also depend on the resolute, thorough, and creative execution of the officers and soldiers. The quality and efficiency of the execution directly determines the effectiveness of the implementation of the command decisions. In this regard, physical actions at the execution level are of extremely important practical significance.

Effectively strengthen the interaction between cognitive offense and defense and physical strikes

Thinking and cognition must rely on the support of physical actions, which is an objective law that is independent of human will. It is an extremely important task to strengthen the communication and interaction between thinking and cognition and physical strikes to make our thinking and decision-making more targeted, objective and operable, so as to better transform cognitive advantages into action advantages and winning advantages. .

Be more proactive and solidify your cognitive foundation. Whether the thinking and cognition is correct depends fundamentally on its compatibility with objective reality and its applicability to combat opponents. Only thinking and cognition based on full investigation and research, seeking truth from facts and comparative advantages can stand the test of practice and actual combat. The practice of absolute, sacred, and nihilistic thinking or generals’ genius, wisdom, and inspiration is idealistic, one-sided, and harmful. This requires that we must work hard to base our thinking and cognition on the basis of extensive investigation, research and intelligence analysis, and truly understand the enemy’s situation, our situation, and other people’s situations, truly know our enemies and ourselves, know everything we should know, and adapt to local conditions. The camera moves. At the same time, we must combine reading books without words with books with words, unify indirect theory with living practice that is constantly developing and changing, and dialectically recognize past experiences and lessons and other people’s experiences and lessons, so that they become our own knowledge. Help instead of shackles, assist instead of dominate.

Be more proactive and strengthen cognitive rationality. Correct understanding that can withstand the long-term test of practice and actual combat comes from practice and is strengthened through feedback from practice. Cognitive practical experience is only the basic material for obtaining correct cognition. To form scientific cognition, we need to further eliminate the false and preserve the true in the repeated collision and verification of consciousness and matter, thinking and existence, in order to improve cognitive rationality. It is wrong and even fatal to think that true knowledge can be obtained once and for all from only local situations, fragmented information and individual periods of time. In the Battle of Chibi in ancient China, Cao Cao’s side only came to the understanding of conjoining warships from the common sense that iron cables can balance the shaking of the ship’s hull, but did not confirm it from the actual combat effects or consequences of concatenating warships. If you don’t know how to recreate, you will easily tie up the ship with iron ropes and tie yourself up, and ultimately end up in the disastrous defeat of “burning Red Cliff”. Times have changed, and the enemy situation on the modern battlefield is ever-changing. There has never been an unchanging cognitive practice, nor a once-and-for-all cognitive achievement. It can only strip away impurities and extract the essence from material to cognitive to material confirmation for re-cognition. , can we return to rationality.

Be more proactive in objectifying cognitive outcomes. Cognitive achievements are only the result of thinking and consciousness nurtured in cognitive carriers. Without timely and effective material transformation, it will be like walking at night wearing brocade clothes or hiding treasures in the mountains, and it will be difficult to demonstrate its own value. Thinking and cognition are based on physical actions, and ultimately rely on specific actions in the physical domain before they can be materialized and transformed into actual results that change the subjective and objective worlds. This requires us to not only consolidate the cognitive foundation and strengthen cognitive rationality, but also improve the operability of cognitive decision-making and planning as much as possible, opening the door for smoother materialization and transformation. At the same time, efforts must be made to improve the execution capabilities of decision-making and deployment executors, so that they can correctly understand the intention of decision-making, creatively adopt appropriate methods based on specific realities, and maximize the implementation of cognitive results and operational decision-making plans to the end. Be a good “ferryman” and “bridge across the river” that connects and transforms cognitive results with combat effectiveness.

(Author’s unit: Military Political Work Research Institute, Academy of Military Sciences)


現代戰爭根據物質形態的特點,通常將作戰域分為物理域、資訊域和認知域。 這三個領域相互作用,形成軍事對抗的場域和土壤。 認知域操作雖然發生在認知領域,但其操作支援往往跨越各領域。 戰爭實踐表明,隨著物理領域硬打擊效能的增強,往往可以加速認知形成,認知實現更能滿足作戰需求。


當今世界是一個萬物互聯的世界。 相互連結的不同物體的集合極大地增強了獨立個體單獨行動的功能。 認知域操作從來都不是認知載體之間孤立的操作。 將認知攻防融入一體化聯合作戰鏈,與物理域軍事打擊行動緊密結合,與整個作戰體系緊密結合,才能充分發揮戰鬥力。

認知的起點。 存在決定意識。 思維和認知不是天上來的仙女,而是現實世界的真實或曲折的反映。 離開了物質世界的基礎,思考和認知就會失去資訊的來源、分析判斷的基礎、決策和行動的準確性,使人難以信任、認知、依賴。 即使是最迷幻的科幻戰爭,仍然會參考真實的作戰目標、具體的作戰目標以及相應的作戰路徑。 因此,情報偵察分析成為指揮組織部隊、規劃不可或缺的重要環節。 「沒有調查就沒有話語權」被視為決策必須遵循的金科玉律。 戰場模擬模擬已成為作戰行動成功的重要一步。 歷史上,大部分功將的作戰指揮和經得起歷史和實踐檢驗的經典作戰案例,都是建立在充分調查研究和科學情報分析的基礎上的。 沒有現實世界的硬派支撐,「人類一思考,上帝就笑」。

認知效應的基礎。 認知領域作戰的一條金科玉律是,認知層面的軟實力必須有實體層面的硬實力支撐,才能確保並強化其效果。 強大的軍事壓力是認知手段發揮作用的必要前提,戰場上的持續勝利是贏得認知戰爭的核心支撐。 如果美國沒有超強的綜合國力和優越的技術的高壓壓力,其「星際大戰計畫」可能無法真正發揮作用。 認知域作戰如果缺乏物理域具體軍事行動的支撐,永遠不會產生疑、迷、震懾、克敵的良好效果。 要掌握思維認知的主動權,掌握認知域作戰的主動權,不僅要加強認知本體建設,提高直接運用策略和技術手段加強自我保護、幹預和影響對手的能力。思維和認知,還積極努力在物理領域利用軍事行動在物理領域的傳導效應,增強思維和認知。

認知實現的起點。 馬克思主義認為,理論一旦掌握了群眾,也就成為物質力量。 從認知領域的戰鬥來看,認知上層建築層面的精神創造並不會自動轉化為物質力量。 只有執著於一定的物質載體和實踐把握,才有可能實現精神到物質、意識的轉變。 實現的關鍵飛躍。 正如二戰時,如果德軍沒有繞過馬其諾防線,突破阿登森林,向法國腹地發起奇襲,就不可能展現「德軍認知成就」的先見之明。曼斯坦計畫」; 同樣,如果沒有盟軍,軍隊在東西兩進的諾曼第成功登陸,也未能凸顯出「明修棧道、暗藏倉庫」的「霸王計畫」戰略的巧妙之處。 思維認知透過人傳遞到物理域的具體軍事行動,再由物理域的具體軍事行動實現物質轉化。



物理領域軍事打擊支持認知攻防所採用的手段和方式,遵循物質決定意識、存在決定思維的一般法則。 基本方式可分為增強支援、確認支援和變現支援。

增強支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊加強了思維和認知的形成和發展。 思維認知雖然依賴認知載體本身的品質,但如果沒有物理領域軍事行動的支持,就很難實現。 物理領域軍事行動在認知領域最基本的作用就是為思考認知的形成與發展提供堅實的支持。 思考和認知只有建立在真實的身體行動的基礎上,才能穩定、深遠。 例如,朝鮮戰爭初期,朝鮮人民軍勢不可擋時,我軍作戰參謀雷英夫等人根據朝鮮半島戰局、地理、天氣特點,準確預測了美軍登陸,尤其是當時美軍和韓國軍隊的各種行動等等時間地點。 同樣,「聯合國軍」的李奇偉也根據志願軍的後勤保障、武器裝備、戰術運用等,對「拜拜攻勢」做出了判斷,用「磁性戰術」與我作戰。 這些都是物理領域的戰鬥對思維認知的形成與發展的增強。

確認類型支援。 物理領域的軍事打擊證實了預設的思維、預知和預判。 認知攻防不僅發生在認知層面,而是認知與實踐的互動。 戰爭是「生死之地,生存之道」。 如果一個人的認知決策無法在實踐層面得到多方位的驗證,那麼輕舉妄動就是對戰爭最大的不負責任。 革命戰爭年代,我軍決策層始終處於整體戰略的掌控之中,賦予第一線指揮官依照整體戰略方向原則酌情行動的權力。 這是對戰略思維的正面肯定。 二戰期間,盟軍利用「虛假事實」進行誤導,不斷塑造並強化德軍對歐洲大陸盟軍登陸地點的誤解,最終以最小的成本成功登陸諾曼第。 這是一次反擊。 確認。

實施支援。 為思維、認知、判斷和決策的實現提供直接的物質支持。 思維和認知必須轉化為改變世界的實際結果。 作用於對手的思維和認知不是終點而是新的起點。 接下來,必須透過「巧手」和「勇敢的心」在物質世界中付諸行動。 換句話說,簡而言之,就是為思考認知的價值實現提供直接的身體行動支撐。 這就像是諸葛亮的巧妙計劃,無論多麼輝煌,如果沒有「五虎將」和其他蜀漢將士的實施,也只能停留在紙上談兵的認知層面。 無論“OODA”循環的前三部分運行得多麼高效,如果缺少執行環節“A”,那麼這將是一個“死循環”。 同樣,我軍指揮決策的結果也取決於官兵的堅決、徹底、創造性執行。 執行的品質和效率直接決定指揮決策的執行效果。 就此而言,執行層面的身體動作具有極為重要的現實意義。


思考和認知必須依靠身體動作的支持,這是不依賴人的意志的客觀規律。 加強思考認知與身體打擊的溝通互動,使我們的思維和決策更加具有針對性、客觀性和可操作性,從而更好地將認知優勢轉化為行動優勢和製勝優勢,是一項極其重要的任務。 。

更加積極主動並鞏固您的認知基礎。 思維認識是否正確,從根本上取決於它是否符合客觀現實,是否適用於打擊對手。 唯有思考

而充分調查研究、實事求是、比較優勢的認識是經得起實踐和實戰檢驗的。 實行絕對的、神聖的、虛無的思想或將軍的天才、智慧、靈感,是唯心主義的、片面的、有害的。 這就要求我們必須努力把思維認識建立在廣泛調查研究和情報分析的基礎上,真正了解敵情、我情、他人情,真正知己知彼、知己知彼。應該了解並因地制宜。 相機移動。 同時,要把閱讀無字書與有字書結合起來,把間接理論與不斷發展變化的生活實踐結合,辯證地認識過去的經驗教訓和別人的經驗教訓,使之成為我們自己的經驗教訓。知識。 幫助而不是束縛,協助而不是支配。

更積極主動,強化認知理性。 經得起實踐和實戰長期檢驗的正確認識來自於實踐,並透過實踐的回饋得到強化。 認知實務經驗只是獲得正確認知的基礎材料。 形成科學認知,需要在意識與物質、思考與存在的反覆碰撞與驗證中進一步去偽存真,以提高認知理性。 認為只有從局部情況、碎片資訊和個別時期才能一勞永逸地獲得真正的知識是錯誤的,甚至是致命的。 在中國古代的赤壁之戰中,曹操一方只是從常識中得出了連體戰船的認識,即鐵纜可以平衡船體的晃動,但並沒有從實戰效果或連體後果中證實這一點。軍艦。 如果不懂得再造,很容易就會用鐵繩把船綁起來,把自己綁起來,最後落得「火燒赤壁」的慘敗。 時代變遷,現代戰場敵情瞬息萬變。 從來沒有一成不變的認知實踐,也沒有一勞永逸的認知成就。 它只能從物質中剔除雜質,提取精華,去認知,去物質確認,重新認知。 ,我們能否回歸理性。

更主動地客觀化認知結果。 認知成就只是認知載體中孕育思考和意識的結果。 如果沒有及時有效的物質改造,就會像穿著錦衣走夜路或藏寶藏山一樣,很難展現出自身的價值。 思維和認知是以物理行為為基礎的,最終要依靠物理領域的具體行為才能具體化,轉化為改變主觀世界和客觀世界的實際結果。 這就要求我們不僅要夯實認知基礎、強化認知理性,還要盡可能提高認知決策和規劃的可操作性,為更順利的物化和轉化打開大門。 同時,要努力提高決策部署執行者的執行能力,使他們能夠正確理解決策意圖,根據具體實際創造性地採取適當的方法,最大限度地落實認知結果和經營決策計劃進行到底。 當好認知結果與戰鬥力銜接轉化的「擺渡人」、「過河橋樑」。



Chinese People’s Liberation Army Exploring Ways to Win in Cognitive Domain Operations



Judging from the latest local war practice, cognitive domain operations have become an important variable that profoundly affects the direction of war. In cognitive domain operations, all parties compete fiercely for control of public opinion, information guidance, and cognitive shaping. There are not only physical confrontations, but also competitions in virtual space, demonstrating the distinctive characteristics of “technology +” in the digital era. Exploring the way to win in cognitive domain operations is of great practical significance for controlling the initiative in cognitive domain operations and winning future wars.

Seizing control of the brain has become the ultimate goal of cognitive domain operations

The brain is the material basis of all thinking activities and the command center that influences and controls human behavior changes. Feeling, perception and consciousness constitute the three aspects of the world that the brain reflects. How to win the right to control the brain has increasingly become the focus of research and attention by all warring parties in the field of cognitive domain operations.

Actively fight for sensory control. Feeling is the reaction caused by the characteristics of objective things in the human brain, and is the basis for various complex psychological processes. With the rapid development of brain science, molecular biology, neurochemistry and other disciplines, humans have gradually gained the ability to intervene and control the brain at the physiological level. According to foreign experimental results, inhaling oxytocin will make people more trusting of others and more empathetic, thereby affecting a person’s prosociality and moral performance. In future operations, the warring parties will use physical stimulation such as sound, light and electricity, or chemical drugs to act on the target’s hearing, vision, smell and other sensory systems. They may even directly act on the human brain to stimulate the target’s brain. Specific emotional reactions can achieve cognitive influence and control on the physiological level.

Effective competition for perceptual suppression. Perception is a psychological process formed on the basis of sensation and reflects the overall image and surface connection of objective things. Among them, the individual’s attitude, motivation, interest, as well as past experience and future expectations are the key variables that affect the individual’s perception of the perceptual target. During wartime, warring parties aim at the target’s psychological doubts, weaknesses, and needs, seize favorable opportunities, and use specific information to emotionally influence, mentally induce, or disrupt the target’s perception in order to increase the target’s perception of the target. The expectation of war risks weakens their will to resist and their determination to fight, thereby achieving the purpose of subduing the enemy with a small war, less fighting or even no fighting.

Comprehensive competition for the right to shape consciousness. Consciousness is realized through psychological processes such as feeling, perception, and thinking, and is manifested as the unity of knowledge, emotion, and intention. The fundamental purpose of war is to force the enemy to surrender. Judging from the war practice at home and abroad in ancient and modern times, in order to win the right to shape consciousness, the warring parties will do their best to mobilize all available military power and comprehensively use political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other means to carry out political disintegration and diplomatic measures against the enemy. Isolation, guidance of public opinion, and declaration of legal principles can trigger rational thinking, ethical resonance, or value recognition of target individuals or groups, thereby changing their worldview, outlook on life, and values, forming a relatively stable and long-term cognitive influence or control, thereby achieving “complete victory.” “the goal of.

Controlling information becomes the key to cognitive domain operations

The weapon and ammunition of cognitive domain operations is information. Mastering the initiative in the generation, identification, acquisition, dissemination and feedback of information is the key to gaining battlefield advantage in the cognitive domain.

Actively implement strong psychological stimulation to promote information penetration. Modern warfare is fierce and complex, with various elements of confrontation unfolding in multi-dimensional and multi-domain contexts, and fighter jets fleeting. The forces and methods acting in the cognitive domain must keep up with the development and changes of the battlefield situation, and make extensive use of strong psychological stimulation methods such as subliminal information implantation, acousto-optical electromagnetic psychological nuisance damage, and non-contact emotional control to take the initiative to induce the target. The subject’s emotions, will, thoughts, beliefs, etc. appear chaotic, confused or radically changed, thereby achieving the purpose of controlling and influencing the cognitive system of the target subject.

Extensive use of intelligent algorithms to achieve accurate push. As the Internet penetrates into every aspect of human life, everyone will leave massive amounts of data and information online. During wartime, warring parties will use modern information technologies such as big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things, and blockchain to analyze the target’s social data, trajectory data, financial data, online shopping records, search records, personal communication records and other network data. The information is deeply mined and associated to achieve a “cognitive portrait” of the target object, and the target object’s interest preferences, behavioral trends, interpersonal relationships and value orientations are systematically analyzed, thereby three-dimensionally grasping the characteristics of relevant individuals or specific groups. Then, with the help of intelligent algorithm technology, personalized and customized cognitive information is accurately pushed to the target object, thereby affecting the target object’s attitude, emotion and value judgment towards the war, thereby promoting the realization of one’s own combat objectives and political intentions.

Effectively aggregate social support systems to achieve overall linkage. The social support system is the material and spiritual help and support that a person can obtain from others in his or her social network. It is a key factor that affects and determines the emotional support and cognitive direction of an individual. It can be said that for the success of cognitive domain operations, it is crucial to obtain the support and assistance of the target’s social support system. With the help of modern information technology, we can effectively connect to the target’s relatives, friends, classmates, partners and other specific social relations. By exerting targeted influence on the above-mentioned relations, we can gain the understanding, support and trust of the other party, and mobilize the specific relations to When the target object exerts influence, it is easier to win the trust and acceptance of the target object, and it is easier for the target object to undergo cognitive changes, thereby achieving the purpose of cognitive influence and control on the target object.

Virtual space becomes the main battlefield for cognitive domain operations

With the continuous expansion of human virtual space, virtual space is becoming the main battlefield of modern warfare, especially cognitive domain warfare, which determines the outcome of future wars to a certain extent.

Emerging communication forms have become new means of warfare in the cognitive domain. With the continuous development of mobile Internet technology, emerging communication forms represented by social media have gradually become a new platform and mainstream position for cognitive confrontation. Judging from recent local wars, the status and role of social media has become more and more prominent. All warring parties use personal blogs, forums and other platforms to publish battlefield pictures, videos, and comments in real time, which has not only become a global mobile online media terminal. It has also become the main battleground for the value perception game among different countries and different factions around the world. Emerging communication forms such as social media, with their unique decentralization and interactivity characteristics, have broken the information monopoly and information control in traditional communication methods and spawned numerous product styles. While meeting people’s information needs, they are also Unknowingly changing people’s perceptions. It is foreseeable that social media will play an increasingly prominent role in cognitive domain operations in the future.

Cyberspace has become a new space for cognitive domain operations. Under the conditions of informatization and intelligence, the threshold of network technology has been greatly reduced, making it possible to watch the game in real time around the world. Modern warfare has developed from “living room warfare” in the television era to “handheld warfare” in today’s all-media era. Online live broadcast is more intuitive and richer than any form of battlefield reporting, and “global synchronicity” has become a prominent feature. Through live broadcasts on the Internet, videos and pictures of fierce battles between the two warring parties, as well as numerous burned tanks and armored vehicles, as well as homes destroyed by the war and refugees fleeing their homes, can be visually presented. People can see the micro-state of individual civilians and soldiers on both sides through the Internet. The “transparency” of the battlefield makes any attempt to conceal the truth and false statements more and more difficult. But on the other hand, the emergence of technologies such as intelligent voice cloning and video portrait simulation replacement means that what people see may not necessarily be “as seen” and what they hear may not be “as heard”. Cognition under online live broadcasts Domain operations add more room for possibility and imagination.

The intelligent network army has become a new force in cognitive domain warfare. The development of information networks has broken through the authenticity limitations of interpersonal communication, and it is difficult for us to determine whether the other end of the network is a real person. Based on the needs of large-scale interaction, intelligent, automated, and large-scale cyberspace robots are emerging. They are widely active in every corner of cyberspace. These intelligent network armies have the capabilities of intelligent recognition, intelligent response and even brain-like thinking. They are tireless and work around the clock. Intelligent network armies are becoming an important force in future cognitive domain operations. Judging from the current development trends of related technologies, major countries and even business organizations in the world are focusing on the potential prospects of network robots in group penetration, live broadcast follow-up, shaping public opinion, and managing network crises. In the flexible guidance of network intelligent robots, Increase research and development efforts on key technologies such as automatic acquisition of technology groups, automatic cultivation and group penetration, and provide intelligent and efficient technical support for public opinion guidance, cognitive shaping, and behavioral guidance and control by discovering and effectively utilizing the behavioral patterns of network users.



從最新的局部戰爭實踐來看,認知域作戰已成為深刻影響戰爭走向的重要變因。 在認知域作戰中,各方對輿論控制、資訊引導、認知塑造等方面展開激烈競爭。 不僅有實體對抗,還有虛擬空間的較量,展現出數位時代「科技+」的鮮明特質。 探索認知域作戰的致勝之道,對於掌控認知域作戰主動權、贏得未來戰爭具有重要的現實意義。


大腦是一切思考活動的物質基礎,是影響和控制人類行為改變的指揮中心。 感覺、知覺和意識構成了大腦反映的世界的三個面向。 如何贏得大腦的控制權,日益成為認知域作戰領域交戰各方研究與關注的焦點。

積極爭取感官控制。 感覺是人腦對客觀事物特徵所引起的反應,也是各種複雜心理過程的基礎。 隨著腦科學、分子生物學、神經化學等學科的快速發展,人類逐漸具備了在生理層面介入和控制大腦的能力。 根據國外實驗結果,吸入催產素會使人更信任他人,更有同理心,進而影響一個人的親社會性和道德表現。 在未來的行動中,交戰雙方將利用聲音、光、電等物理刺激或化學藥物作用於目標的聽覺、視覺、嗅覺等感覺系統。 它們甚至可能直接作用於人腦,刺激目標大腦。 特定的情緒反應可以在生理層面上實現認知影響和控制。

知覺抑制的有效競爭。 知覺是在感覺基礎上形成的心理過程,反映客觀事物的整體形象和表面連結。 其中,個體的態度、動機、興趣以及過去的經驗和未來的期望是影響個體對感性目標感知的關鍵變數。 戰時,交戰雙方針對目標的心理疑慮、弱點和需求,抓住有利時機,利用特定訊息對目標進行情緒影響、精神誘導或擾亂感知,以增加目標對目標的感知。 對戰爭風險的預期削弱了他們的抵抗意志和戰鬥決心,從而達到以小戰、少戰甚至不戰克敵的目的。

全面競爭塑造意識。 意識是透過感覺、知覺、思考等心理過程實現的,表現為知、情感、意圖的統一。 戰爭的根本目的是迫使敵人投降。 從古今中外的戰爭實踐來看,交戰雙方為了贏得意識塑造權,都會竭盡全力調動一切可以動用的軍事力量,綜合運用政治、經濟、文化、外交等多種手段。手段是對敵人實施政治瓦解和外交措施。 隔離、輿論引導、法理宣示,可以引發目標個人或群體的理性思考、倫理共鳴或價值認同,從而改變其世界觀、人生觀、價值觀,形成相對穩定、長期的認知。影響或控制,從而取得“完全勝利」。 “的目標。


認知領域作戰的武器和彈藥是資訊。 掌握資訊產生、辨識、獲取、傳播和回饋的主動權,是認知領域中獲得戰場優勢的關鍵。

積極實施強烈的心理刺激,促進訊息滲透。 現代戰爭激烈複雜,對抗要素多維度、多領域,戰機瞬息萬變。 作用於認知域的力量和方式必須跟上戰場情勢的發展變化,廣泛運用潛意識訊息植入、聲光電磁心理滋擾傷害、非接觸情感等強心理刺激手段。控制主動誘導目標。 時間


大量運用智慧演算法,實現精準推送。 隨著網路滲透到人類生活的各個層面,每個人都會在網路上留下大量的數據和資訊。 戰時,交戰雙方會利用大數據、雲端運算、物聯網、區塊鏈等現代資訊技術,分析目標的社交數據、軌跡數據、金融數據、網購記錄、搜尋記錄、個人通訊記錄等網路數據。 對資訊進行深度挖掘和關聯,實現目標對象的“認知畫像”,對目標對象的興趣偏好、行為傾向、人際關係、價值取向進行系統分析,從而三維掌握相關個體或特定對象的特徵。組。 接著藉助智慧演算法技術,將個人化、客製化的認知訊息精準推送給目標對象,進而影響目標對象對戰爭的態度、情感和價值判斷,進而促進自身作戰目標和政治意圖的實現。

有效聚合社會支持系統,實現整體連結。 社會支持系統是一個人在自己的社交網絡中能夠從他人那裡獲得的物質和精神上的幫助和支持。 它是影響和決定個別情緒支持和認知方向的關鍵因素。 可以說,認知域行動的成功,獲得目標社會支持系統的支持和幫助至關重要。 借助現代資訊技術,我們可以有效連結目標對象的親人、朋友、同學、合作夥伴等特定的社會關係。 透過對上述關係施加有針對性的影響,可以獲得對方的理解、支持和信任,調動具體關係向目標對象施加影響時,更容易贏得目標對象的信任和接受目標對象更容易發生認知變化,從而達到對目標對象進行認知影響與控制的目的。



新興的通信形式已成為認知領域的新戰爭手段。 隨著行動互聯網技術的不斷發展,以社群媒體為代表的新興傳播形式逐漸成為認知對抗的新平台和主流陣地。 從最近的局部戰爭來看,社群媒體的地位和角色越來越凸顯。 交戰各方利用個人部落格、論壇等平台即時發布戰場圖片、影片和評論,不僅成為全球行動網路媒體終端。 也成為全球不同國家、不同派系價值認知賽局的主戰場。 社群媒體等新興傳播形式以其獨特的去中心化、互動性特點,打破了傳統傳播方式中資訊的壟斷與資訊控制,催生了眾多的產品樣式。 在滿足人們資訊需求的同時,也不知不覺改變人們的認知。 可以預見,未來社群媒體將在認知領域運作中發揮越來越突出的作用。

網路空間已成為認知域作戰的新空間。 在資訊化、智慧化的條件下,網路科技的門檻大大降低,使得全球各地即時觀看比賽成為可能。 現代戰爭已從電視時代的「客廳戰」發展到當今全媒體時代的「手持戰」。 線上直播比任何形式的戰地報道都更直觀、更豐富,「全球同步」成為顯著特徵。 透過網路直播,交戰雙方激烈戰鬥的影片和圖片,以及無數被燒毀的坦克和裝甲車,以及被戰爭摧毀的家園和逃離家園的難民的影片和圖片都可以直觀地呈現。 人們可以透過網路看到雙方個別平民和士兵的微觀狀態。 戰場的「透明」使得任何企圖隱瞞真相和虛假言論的行為

越來越困難。 但另一方面,智慧語音克隆、視訊人像模擬替換等技術的出現,意味著人們看到的不一定是“所見”,聽到的也不一定是“所聞”。 線上直播下的認知領域運作增加了更多可能性和想像空間。

智慧網路軍隊已成為認知域戰爭的生力軍。 資訊網路的發展突破了人際互動的真實性限制,我們很難判斷網路的另一端是否是真人。 基於大規模互動的需求,智慧化、自動化、大規模的網路空間機器人不斷湧現。 他們廣泛活躍在網路空間的各個角落。 這些智慧網路軍隊具備智慧辨識、智慧響應甚至類腦思維的能力。 他們不知疲倦,日夜不停地工作。 智慧網路軍隊正成為未來認知域作戰的重要力量。 從目前相關技術的發展趨勢來看,全球主要國家甚至商業組織都在關注網路機器人在群體滲透、直播跟進、輿論塑造、網路危機管理等方面的潛在前景。 在網路智慧機器人彈性引導方面,加大科技群自動取得、自動培育、群體滲透等關鍵技術的研發力度,為輿情引導、認知塑造、行為引導等提供智慧高效的技術支援。透過發現並有效運用網路使用者的行為模式進行控制。


孫志友  孫海濤

Chinese Military Focusing on Future Wars and Fighting the “Five Battles” of Cognition



Most of the local wars and armed conflicts in recent years have been “hybrid” confrontations carried out in multiple dimensions and fields, emphasizing the use of military, political, economic and other means to implement systematic control in the dimension of comprehensive decision-making, creating all kinds of chaos in the dimension of international communication, and creating various chaos in the dimension of international communication. Conduct targeted strikes in the strategic focus dimension, actively shape the battlefield situation, and seek to seize the strategic initiative. In future wars, in order to successfully fight political and military battles and military and political battles, we should deeply grasp the characteristics and laws of offensive and defensive operations in the cognitive domain and improve our ability to fight the “five battles” well.

Be proactive in cognitive operations, shape the situation and control the situation, and fight proactively. Before the war begins, cognition comes first. With the continuous development and evolution of war forms, the status and role of cognitive domain operations continue to be highlighted. Aiming to win future wars, cognitive deployment should be carried out in advance. Through strategies, information, technology and other means and carriers, the physiological, psychological, values ​​and other cognitive factors of target objects should be affected, intervened and manipulated, and cognitive attack and defense should be used to cover military operations and accurately Efficiently dominate cognitive space. Fully understand the importance of being first, grasp the definition and interpretation power of “narrative” flexibly and autonomously, emphasize pre-emption to win the initiative in the cognitive narrative struggle dimension, create a favorable situation in which legal principles are in hand and morality is on our side, and occupy the moral commanding heights.

Cognitive operations focus on attacking the heart, and implement layered strategies to fight precise battles. “Those who are good at fighting will benefit others without killing them.” In future wars, the combat space will extend to the deep sea, deep space, deep network and other fields, and the battlefield space and time will present the characteristics of being extremely far, extremely small, extremely intelligent and uninhabited, invisible, and silent. We should keep a close eye on cognitive gaps to improve effectiveness, and use methods such as big data simulation, artificial intelligence matching, and psychological model evaluation to analyze and control the key information of cognitive subjects to achieve effective penetration and early deterrence of cognitive subject information. Closely focus on cognitive blind spots to enhance penetration, target the ideological consensus points, psychological connection points, and spiritual pillar points that maintain the unity of powerful enemy alliances to carry out effective strikes, and use their cognitive differences and interest conflicts to achieve differentiation and disintegration at all levels.

Based on cognitive combat strategies, we must penetrate the entire territory and fight for deterrence and control. In future wars, the strategic competition and tactical confrontation between the two warring parties will be extremely fierce. We should pay close attention to the decision-making process and make comprehensive efforts to increase the opponent’s decision-making dilemma and form our own decision-making advantages. On the one hand, we must pay more attention to key nodes such as the enemy’s decision-making center, command hub, reconnaissance and early warning system, and use advanced strike methods to physically destroy these nodes. On the other hand, we must pay more attention to the “soft kill” effects of cognitive shaping, cognitive induction, cognitive intervention and cognitive control, and embed cognitive domain operations into “hard destruction”, which not only creates a strong deterrent through precise strikes with high-tech weapons, but also integrates new qualities The combat power is expanded to the cognitive dimension, thus forming an asymmetric check and balance advantage.

Cognitive combat information is king, expand the field and fight for support. Future wars cannot be separated from strong information support, and system integration should be accelerated to gain data advantages. First of all, speed up the construction of cognitive offensive and defensive operations theory library, database, talent library, case library, and tactics library, dynamically collect and update the current status of the enemy’s cognitive offensive and defensive operations capabilities, and provide all-round support for cognitive offensive and defensive operations. Secondly, speed up the creation of the integrated media communication matrix, improve the self-owned platform system, speed up the deployment of network platforms, focus on system integration and collaboration, break down the “barriers” of information interconnection as soon as possible, and achieve cognitive integration and sharing, and comprehensive results. Thirdly, accelerate the coupling and linkage of information and cognitive domain operations, vigorously develop core technologies such as neural network systems, artificial intelligence applications, cognitive decision-making, psychological attack and defense, mine and analyze cross-domain and heterogeneous cognitive information, and improve the information fusion system of cognitive means to win the future. War provides “clairvoyance” and “early ears”.

Cognitive combat coordination is the key, and multi-dimensional efforts are used to fight the overall battle. Future wars are joint operations carried out in land, sea, air, space, network, electromagnetic and other fields. System thinking should be adhered to, the awareness of collaboration should be strengthened, and the compatibility and coordination of cognitive domain operations and other military operations should be improved. For example, it can integrate human intelligence, geographical intelligence, open source intelligence, etc., quickly collect and process massive data, remove falsehoods while retaining truth, seize cognitive space accurately and efficiently, achieve complementary advantages, and form cognitive advantages through full domain coverage. By networking dispersed multi-domain forces, we can establish an all-domain joint force with high connectivity, collective action, and overall attack to achieve the effect of “integrated deterrence.” By integrating national resources, strengthening strategic communication, using cognitive momentum to amplify the effects of political disruption, economic sanctions, and diplomatic offensives, and cooperating with military operations to put pressure on target targets in an all-round way, we strive to defeat the enemy without fighting.

(Author’s unit: University of Aerospace Engineering)


近年來的局部戰爭和武裝衝突大多是多維度、多領域開展的「混合型」對抗,強調運用軍事、政治、經濟等手段在綜合決策維度實施系統控制,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂,在國際交往的維度上製造各種混亂。 戰略重點維度精準打擊,主動塑造戰場態勢,尋求奪取戰略主動權。 在未來戰爭中,要打好政治軍事鬥爭、軍事政治鬥爭,就必須深刻掌​​握認知域攻防作戰的特徵和規律,提升打好「五個戰役」的能力。

認知作戰主動出擊,塑造局勢、掌控局面,主動出擊。 在戰爭開始之前,認​​知是第一位的。 隨著戰爭形式的不斷發展與演變,認知域作戰的地位與角色不斷凸顯。 為了贏得未來戰爭,必須事先進行認知部署。 透過策略、資訊、技術等手段和載​​體,對目標對象的生理、心理、價值觀等認知因素進行影響、介入和操控,以認知攻防覆蓋軍事行動,精準高效主導認知空間。 充分認識先行的重要性,靈活自主地掌握「敘事」的定義和解釋權,強調先發制人,贏得認知敘事鬥爭維度的主動權,營造法理在手、道德在手的良好局面就在我們這邊,佔據道德高點。

認知作戰重在攻心,實施分層策略打精準戰。 “善戰者,利人而不害人。” 未來戰爭,作戰空間將延伸至深海、深空、深網等領域,戰場時空將呈現極遠、極小、極智、無人、隱形、無聲的特徵。 資訊. 緊緊圍繞認知盲點增強穿透力,針對維護強敵聯盟團結的思想共識點、心理連接點、精神支柱點進行有效打擊,利用其認知差異和利益衝突實現差異化和戰略性打擊。各個層面的瓦解。

基於認知作戰策略,我們必須滲透全境,爭取威懾和控制。 未來戰爭中,交戰雙方的戰略競爭和戰術對抗將會異常激烈。 要密切注意決策過程,綜合發力,增加對手決策困境,形成自己的決策優勢。 一方面,要更重視敵方決策中心、指揮樞紐、偵察預警系統等關鍵節點,採用先進打擊手段對這些節點進行物理摧毀。 另一方面,要更重視認知塑造、認知誘導、認知介入、認知控制的「軟殺傷」作用,將認知域作戰嵌入「硬殺傷」中,不僅透過精準打擊形成強大威懾。以高科技武器打擊的同時,也將新素質的戰鬥力擴展到認知維度,進而形成非對稱制衡優勢。

認知作戰資訊為王,拓展領域,爭取支援。 未來戰爭離不開強大的資訊支撐,應加快系統整合以獲得數據優勢。 首先,加速認知攻防作戰理論庫、資料庫、人才庫、案例庫、戰術庫建設,動態收集和更新敵方認知攻防作戰能力現狀,提供全方位對認知進攻和防禦行動的全面支持。 二是加快打造綜合媒體傳播矩陣,完善自有平台體系,加速網路平台部署,聚焦系統

各方融合協作,盡快打破資訊互聯互通的“壁壘”,實現認知融合共享、綜合成果。 第三是加速資訊與認知域運算耦合連結,大力發展神經網路系統、人工智慧應用、認知決策、心理攻防等核心技術,挖掘分析跨領域、異質認知訊息,完善認知手段資訊融合體系,贏得未來。 戰爭提供了「千里眼」和「早耳」。

認知作戰協同是關鍵,多維度發力打好整體戰。 未來戰爭是在陸、海、空、太空、網路、電磁等領域進行聯合作戰。 要堅持系統思維,強化協同意識,提高認知域作戰與其他軍事行動的兼容性和協調性。 例如,可以融合人類智慧、地理智慧、開源智慧等,快速擷取處理大量數據,去偽存真,精準高效搶佔認知空間,實現優勢互補,透過全域形成認知優勢覆蓋範圍。 透過將分散的多域力量聯網,建立高度連結、集體行動、整體出擊的全局聯合部隊,達到「一體化威懾」的效果。 透過整合國家資源,加強戰略溝通,利用認知動能放大政治擾亂、經濟制裁、外交攻勢的效果,配合軍事行動,全方位對目標對象施壓,力爭戰勝敵人不戰而屈人之兵。


來源:解放軍報 作者:楊龍喜 編輯:王峰 2022-10-08

Chinese Military Multidimensional Command Post -An Interactive Military Planning Sandbox for Effective Cyber Warfare Operations


The military electronic sandbox is a modern information system platform that can grasp the three-dimensional battlefield space situation, implement efficient command, and support scientific command training. Its core is to use geographical information technology, military simulation technology, advanced display technology, etc. to replace traditional maps and sandbox tools to achieve The integrated display of geographical information and situational information allows commanders to deeply understand the combat environment. With the assistance of the command operation system, it greatly improves the command’s decision-making capabilities and response speed, and improves the quality effect of command training.

The software platform of the military interactive electronic sandbox system is the core of the electronic sandbox system. Its working principle is to access multi-source external data, integrate, process and store data, analyze data based on business needs, and dynamically display data in two or three dimensions. Therefore, the data processing platform is the foundation, and the data access platform and visual display platform are the support. The visual display terminal is the most intuitive cognitive image of the electronic sandbox, including mobile terminals, desktop terminals and large-screen display terminals. Among them, large-screen display terminals can support multi-point infrared touch and are the main form of human-computer interaction.

1. System introduction

In military applications, electronic sandbox systems are generally deployed in fixed command centers or mobile command posts. They are an important part of the command training system. Their basic functions are two- and three-dimensional geographic information display and battlefield simulation.

In order to achieve the effect of stable integration of the electronic sandbox and the real environment, for example, a multi-channel interactive system is constructed based on multi-AI methods to provide commanders with a more efficient and natural interaction method, thereby improving the commander’s command efficiency. Achieve full-element, multi-category, multi-level, and multi-granularity three-dimensional real-scene holographic display, provide commanders with intuitive and realistic battlefield situation elements, and provide the ability to observe the situation from multiple perspectives and directions, helping to grasp the overall situation and ensure the smooth operation of combat missions Complete it in time to improve combat effectiveness. The military plotting electronic sandbox is based on natural interaction (including voice, movement, gesture, line of sight, etc.), augmented reality, collaborative plotting and other technologies, and allows commanding combatants with different roles to conduct virtual and real interactions and collaborative discussions in real command posts. , jointly plotting, formulating plans, etc. to provide technical support, which will become a strong driving force for the leapfrog development of electronic sandboxes.

The multi-dimensional interactive military plotting electronic sandbox developed by a company is based on a practical perspective and is compatible with the terrain description function of the traditional physical sandbox and inherits the geographical information display function of the traditional electronic sandbox. It is oriented to the combat and training needs of senior commanders and focuses on achieving Through the interconnection of the electronic sand table and other operating seats in the command center, a set of intelligent interactive command and training operating platforms are designed and proposed for command operations during wartime and for drills and drills in peacetime.

During wartime, the electronic sand table serves as the display and control terminal for the commander to command operations. It integrates the support information of combat elements at each operating seat, receives battlefield information in real time, displays two- and three-dimensional battlefield situation maps, and provides basic auxiliary means such as plotting, measurement, and calculation. At the same time, it is based on data Mining and artificial intelligence technology provide the commander with a combat plan that can be intelligently learned and adjusted and conduct deduction simulations to assist the commander in making combat decisions. In normal times, the electronic sand table serves as the command and control terminal for the chief’s training exercises. It has the functions of scenario setting and training guidance, and supports data recording, auxiliary evaluation, review deduction and historical data query in the entire process of training scenarios from formulation, deployment to training. At the same time, it can also be used as a research platform for personnel exchange and training in the command center and a service platform for the release, display, and application of military intelligence information.

The multi-dimensional interactive military plotting electronic sand table developed by a company is based on a two-dimensional geographical information platform and a three-dimensional digital earth, combining multimedia display and control technology, simulation visualization technology, network communication technology, massive data management technology and multi-touch technology. A new two- and three-dimensional interactive military simulation and simulation integrated platform.

The software platform is the core of the electronic sandbox system. Its working principle is to access multi-source external data, integrate, process and store data, analyze data based on business needs, and dynamically display data in two or three dimensions. Therefore, the data processing platform is the foundation, and the data access platform and visual display platform are the support. The visual display terminal is the most intuitive cognitive image of the electronic sandbox, including mobile terminals, desktop terminals and large-screen display terminals. Among them, large-screen display terminals can support multi-point infrared touch and are the main form of human-computer interaction.

Working principle diagram of military interactive electronic sandbox system

(1) Infrastructure layer

The infrastructure layer is the basic environment that supports system operation, including graphics workstations, storage devices, computing devices, network devices, display devices, operating systems, etc. It provides a unified, high-speed, and secure basic network and host operating platform for the prototype system.

(2) Basic service layer

The basic service layer is the data resource carrying and basic service providing layer of the system. It supports the platform application layer and provides basic functions such as database management system, communication manager, and specific engines. On this basis, it develops and provides business-related basic services. Core services include geographical information services, data access services, situation display services, simulation deduction services, interconnection services, military marking services, etc. Service types can be customized and developed according to needs to meet the needs of different business applications.

(3) Platform application layer

Including business platform and user-oriented application plug-ins. The business platform includes a data access platform, a data processing platform, and a visual display platform.

(4) Data access platform

It is used to access, process, store and distribute various types of information and build a customized professional military intelligence database. Specifically, it is able to receive data from different sources, formats, and characteristics on combat processes, comprehensive support, geographical information, simulations, and other data, and integrate them logically or physically to provide information for situation display, combat discussions, command decisions, training evaluation, etc. Different applications provide data support. In peacetime, all kinds of basic military information, such as equipment information, personnel information, position information, target information, combat plans, etc., are collected, processed into a data format that can be called by the data processing platform, and saved in the form of local storage or cloud storage; During wartime, the meteorological and hydrological, electromagnetic environment, geographical environment, and humanistic environment data from each operating seat of the command center, the real-time location and attributes of personnel and equipment on the battlefield, Beidou information, video information, etc. are accessed in real time and processed into a data processing platform. The data format of the call.

(5) Data processing platform

With geographical information data as the background, various types of data from the data access platform are received or called, and a situation map is constructed to realize the visualization of the enemy’s situation, our situation, battlefield environment, target analysis, action progress, plotting and intervention process. On this basis, it provides standardized interfaces to achieve effective data connection with other systems, ensures function expansion and access to other systems, supports customized development of business application plug-ins, and provides support for the expansion of combat command business. In peacetime, based on the accumulated data, a simulated battlefield situation is constructed, combat plans and plans are formulated, exercises, training and simulations are conducted, and relevant results are stored in the data access platform for use in wartime.

(6) Visual display platform

Based on the independent 3D simulation engine, real-time rendering generates a 3D battlefield environment that is consistent with the combat and training areas. It uses structured data technology and flexible and editable logical data models to realize “layered” information data fusion display and output, and realizes multiple Click on infrared touch control and voice control, etc.

(7) Platform plug-ins

Relevant plug-ins are designed to meet the needs of operational planning, including functional plug-ins for data connection and management, process analysis and display, and program deduction and evaluation. They are customized to realize the connection and comprehensive management of operational planning business data. A “one picture” comprehensive display of the battlefield environment and battlefield situation during the combat process, as well as a comprehensive simulation deduction and display of various plans for reconnaissance, troop operations, battlefield defense and fire strikes involved in the combat process.

3. System composition

(1) Data engine

1. Diverse data

Supports massive, multi-source data processing, mainly including: images, vectors, DEM, 3D models, sea maps, land maps, aerial maps, etc.;

2.Data update

Supports rapid updating of multi-level mixed-precision geographical data;

3.Data distribution

Support data distribution based on C/S mode and quickly build electronic sandbox;

4.Data access

Supports distributed deployment and access of massive data from multiple sources, and can access cloud data.

(2) Comprehensive display and control

1.Full space expression

Supports full-space, multi-view, and multi-granularity simulation visual expression;

2. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional integration

Supports two- and three-dimensional integrated visual expression;


Support new human-computer interaction methods based on multi-touch technology;

4. Interactive annotation

Supports interactive annotation of 3D models, landmarks, paths, regions, 360 panoramas and mounting of multimedia information.

(3) Sand table situation

1. Situation visualization

Supports multi-target and multi-batch battlefield situation visualization, and has functions such as scene saving and playback;

2. Diverse data sources

Compatible with multi-source surveillance data such as GPS, Beidou, radar, and AIS, and has an expandable data interface;

3. Editing and deduction

Supports 2D and 3D integrated editing and deduction of situational scenarios;

4. Situation special effects library

It has a rich library of battlefield simulation effects such as flame, explosion, smoke, infrared, electromagnetic, and radar.

(4) Military standard drawing

1. Collaborative plotting

Supports multi-person and multi-client synchronous and asynchronous collaborative military plotting;

2. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional plotting

Supports 2D and 3D simultaneous plotting and editing of military standards;

3. Sketch drawing

Supports intelligent recognition and plotting of sketches;

4.Same screen plotting

Supports multi-person 3D model plotting and editing on the same screen;

5. Military standard deduction

It has the function of 2D and 3D military standard situation deduction.

(5) Simulation engine

1. Natural environment simulation

Professional game-level rendering, supporting natural environment simulations such as three-dimensional clouds, fog, rain, snow, seawater, etc.;

2. Meteorological numerical simulation

Supports efficient processing, analysis and numerical simulation of large-scale, multi-source battlefield meteorological environment data;

3. Simulation deduction

Use human-computer interaction to deploy and perform deductions on deduction targets, and can expand simulation algorithms and combat rules;

4.Effectiveness evaluation

Supports assessment of operational effectiveness.

(6) Collaborative discussion

1. Electronic whiteboard

Distributed collaborative discussion and plotting based on electronic whiteboard, supporting conventional graphics, military standards, multimedia files, etc.;

2. Video conferencing

It has conference room mode collaborative discussion functions based on text, voice, and video communication to improve communication efficiency;

3. File sharing

Supports file sharing such as txt, PPT, PDF, picture files, compressed files, videos, etc.

(7) Software and hardware integration

Supports perfect integration with desktop interactive hardware;

Supports perfect integration with multi-touch hardware;

Support integration with video conferencing system hardware;

Support cross-platform applications.

(8) Key functional indicators

It has the display effects, fault simulation, and data connection functions of the existing aviation police information reconnaissance system; it has the functions of world sea and air area division display and air defense identification zone;

Have the ability to quickly configure existing business data into learning resources, and quickly configure learning resources and learning duration based on professional knowledge learning templates;

It has a variety of preset scenarios for sand table deduction and a variety of countries, including the United States, India, Japan and other countries;

Supports multi-source massive data storage, processing and update functions.

(9) Advantages and Features

1. Complete industry solutions

The electronic sandbox solution involves sandbox data processing, import, update, sandbox information sharing, collaborative work, command decision-making, military plotting, simulation, sandbox deduction and other related contents. The functions remain relatively independent and can be customized according to user needs. Professional solutions to meet the diverse needs of users;

2. Massive data management capabilities

Geographic information data is the core of the electronic sandbox. The data engine can store, process and update multi-source and massive geographical information data, supports distributed deployment of data, can access cloud data, and provides low-cost and efficient methods for the construction of sandboxes. Data Sources;

3. Integrated application

It achieves the perfect combination of software and hardware integration, supporting multiple hardware platforms such as multi-touch screens, command and control stations, circular projection screens, dedicated display and control stations, production monitoring platforms, etc.; the software realizes two- and three-dimensional integrated applications. , and integrates video conferencing, network communication, military plotting and other functions, it is a multi-functional comprehensive electronic sandbox system;

4. Good openness and compatibility

The system architecture is reasonably designed, has a good organizational structure and an easy-to-use development interface; it has good compatibility with hardware, can carry out secondary development and function expansion, and can be quickly integrated with other software systems.

4. Conclusion

With the deepening of informatization construction, the sources and types of information are increasingly expanding, and decision-making support methods are constantly enriched. According to the needs of combat training and command decision-making of various services and arms, a complete set of command decision-making analysis, mission deduction and situation display has been established. A functional electronic sandbox system has become a top priority. In response to the needs of BD, this electronic sandbox system developed by a certain company has intuitive comprehensive situation display, rich and diverse interactive methods, flexible combat data access, complete functions and expansion, which can meet the commander’s operational command and command training needs.

Traditioanl Mandarin Chinese:

軍事電子沙盤是掌握立體戰場空間態勢、實施高效指揮、支撐科學化指揮訓練的現代化資訊系統平台,其核心是利用地理資訊科技、軍事模擬技術、先進顯示技術等,取代傳統地圖、沙盤工具,實現 地理資訊、態勢資訊整合顯示,讓指揮人員深刻理解作戰環境,在指揮作業系統的輔助下,大幅提升指揮輔助決策能力與反應速度,提升指揮訓練的品質效應.

軍用互動式電子沙盤系統的軟體平台是電子沙盤系統的核心,其工作原理是接入多來源外部數據,融合處理和儲存數據,基於業務需求分析數據,二維動態展示數據。 因此,資料處理平台是基礎,資料接取平台和視覺化顯示平台是支撐。 視覺化顯示終端機是電子沙盤最直覺的認知形象,包括行動端、桌面端和大螢幕顯示端。 其中大螢幕顯示終端可支援多點紅外線觸控,是實現人機互動的主要形式。

為達到電子沙盤與真實環境穩定融合的效果,例如基於多AI的方法建構多通道互動系統,為指揮人員提供更有效率、更自然的互動方式,進而提高指揮人員的指揮效率。 實現全要素、多種類、多層級、多粒度的三維實景全像展現,為指揮者提供直覺逼真的戰場態勢要素,提供多視角多方位觀察態勢的能力,有助於掌握全局,確保作戰任務的順利 及時完成,提升作戰效能。 軍事繪標電子沙盤是以自然互動(包括語音、動作、手勢、視線等)、擴增實境、協同標繪等技術為基礎,為不同角色的指揮作戰人員在真實指揮所中進行虛實互動、協同研討 、共同標繪、制定方案等提供技術支撐,將成為電子沙盤跨越式發展的強勁動力。
某司研發的多維互動式軍事繪標電子沙盤從實戰角度出發,在兼容傳統物理沙盤地形描述功能、繼承傳統電子沙盤地理資訊顯示功能的基礎上,面向高級指揮人員的作戰、訓練需求,重點實現 電子沙盤和指揮中心其他操作席位的互聯互通,設計提出了一套戰時用於指揮作戰、平時用於演訓演練的智能化互動式指揮訓練作業平台。
戰時,電子沙盤作為首長指揮作戰的顯控終端,融合各操作席位作戰要素保障信息,實時接收戰場信息,顯示戰場二三維態勢圖,提供標繪、測量、計算等基礎輔助手段,同時基於數據 挖掘、人工智慧技術,為首長提供可智慧學習調整的作戰預案並進行推演仿真,輔助首長定下作戰決心。 平時,電子沙盤作為首長演訓演練的指控終端,具備想定設定、訓練導調功能,支援訓練想定從制定、部署到訓練全過程的資料記錄、輔助評估、複盤推演及歷史資料查詢。 同時也可作為指揮中心機關部隊人員交流、訓練的研究平台及部隊軍情資訊發布、展示、應用的服務平台。
某司研發的多維互動式軍事繪標電子沙盤是基於二維地理資訊平台和三維數位地球,結合多媒體顯控技術、模擬視覺化技術、網路通訊技術、海量資料管理技術及多點觸控技術於一體 的新型的二三維互動式軍事模擬與模擬一體化平台。

軟體平台是電子沙盤系統的核心,其工作原理是接入多源外部數據,融合處理和存儲數據,基於業務需求分析數據,二三維動態展示數據。 因此,資料處理平台是基礎,資料存取平台和視覺化顯示平台是支撐。 視覺化顯示終端是電子沙盤最直覺的認知形象,包括行動端、桌面端和大螢幕顯示終端。 其中大螢幕顯示終端可支援多點紅外線觸控,是實現人機互動的主要形式。


























支援三維模型、地標、路徑、區域、360 全景圖的互動式標註和多媒體資訊的掛載。


相容於 GPS、北斗、雷達、AIS 等多源監視數據,並具備可擴展數據介面;









支持 txt、PPT、PDF、图片文件、压缩文件、视频等文件共享。

電子沙盤解決方案涉及沙盤資料的處理、導入、更新、沙盤資訊共享、協同工作、指揮決策、軍事標繪、模擬模擬、沙盤推演等相關內容,功能之間保持相對獨立,可根據用戶需求定制個性 化的解決方案,滿足使用者多樣化的需求;
地理資訊數據是電子沙盤的核心,資料引擎可對多源、海量的地理資訊數據進行儲存、處理和更新,支援資料的分散部署,能夠存取雲端數據, 為沙盤的建置提供低成本、高效的 數據來源;
實現了軟體與硬體一體化的完美結合,支援多點觸控螢幕、指揮控制台位、環形投影幕、專用顯控台位、生產監控平台等多種硬體平台;軟體實現了二維一體化應用 ,並且整合了視訊會議、網路通訊、軍事標繪等功能,是一款多功能綜合性電子沙盤系統;
隨著資訊化建設的深入,資訊來源與種類的日益擴展,決策支援手段的不斷豐富,針對各軍兵種作戰訓練、指揮決策的需要,建立一套具備完整的指揮決策分析、任務推演及態勢展示 功能的電子沙盤系統成為當務之急。 針對BD需求,某司研發了的這套電子沙盤系統具備綜合態勢展示直觀、交互手段豐富多樣、作戰數據引接靈活、功能齊全兼具擴展,可滿足首長的作戰指揮和指揮訓練的使用需求。

Citation: Wang Xue, Ju Xiaojie, Wang Duo, et al. Design of military interactive electronic sandbox system for actual combat



Chinese Military Analysis of Developing Intelligent Command Information Systems

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建平 紀鳳珠 李琳 責任編輯:王鳳 2022-08-09 12:OO



The era of intelligent warfare has begun. Command information systems with intelligent characteristics will become the “central nerve” of future intelligent combat command and the supporting means for intelligent combat command and control. Accelerating the construction of intelligent command information systems is an inherent requirement for the development of military intelligence. Only by clarifying the essentials of the development of intelligent command information systems, grasping the key points of research and development of intelligent command information systems, and exploring the key points of the development of intelligent command information systems can we better develop Promote the construction and development process of intelligent command information systems and win the opportunity to win future intelligent operations.

Clarify the essentials of the development of intelligent command information systems

Intelligent command information systems are an inevitable choice for the development of information-based and intelligent warfare. They are the inevitable result of the development of the scientific and technological revolution, and are also the demands of the times for the development of military intelligence. Clarifying the essence of the development of intelligent command information systems will help to grasp the direction of the construction of intelligent command information systems and establish long-term goals for system development.

Promote the intelligent evolution of warfare. In future intelligent operations, the battlefield situation will change rapidly and the battlefield environment will be complex and harsh. If you want to take the initiative on the battlefield, “intellectual power” will become the new commanding heights, and intelligent command information systems will undoubtedly be an important support for future combat command and operations. Its intelligent development can promote the evolution of warfare into intelligence, and is an important basis for intelligent warfare to gain the upper hand and seek victory.

Support intelligent innovation of combat concepts. Future intelligent operations require corresponding combat command concepts, and the intelligent command information system is an important basis for the practical application of combat command concepts and the soil for the innovation and development of intelligent combat command concepts. New concepts of intelligent combat command such as human-machine hybrid command grouping, data-driven command activities, open development command model, and intelligent concentrated command process are all inseparable from the support of intelligent command information system. Intelligent command information system will serve as a human The extension of the brain breaks through the physiological limits of the human body and realizes the organic integration of combat command art and intelligent technology.

Promote intelligent transformation of combat methods. The widespread application of artificial intelligence technology in the military field has caused major changes in the mechanism of combat victory. Intelligence surpasses firepower and information power and has become the primary factor in determining the outcome of a war. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems will promote the transformation of combat methods to intelligence, making the combat methods transform from the “combat network + precision guided weapons” in the information age to the “intelligent Internet of Things + manned/unmanned combat platforms” in the intelligent age. The combat style has accordingly evolved from “network-centric warfare” to “cognition-centric warfare”.

Seize the key points of research and development of intelligent command information system

The command information system is a product of the era of informationized warfare. With the rapid development of military intelligence and the research and practical application of intelligent combat winning mechanisms, the intelligent upgrade and construction of the command information system is urgent. The key points of functional research and development should be highlighted to create a new intelligent command information system.

“Super brain” assisted decision-making. In future intelligent operations, the amount of battlefield information data will be huge and complex. Commanders will easily fall into the “information ocean” during the command process, leading to information confusion and affecting command decisions. With the emergence of intelligent auxiliary decision-making technology and “cloud brain” and “digital consultants”, a new decision-making model based on “human brain + artificial intelligence” collaboration is quietly taking shape. The intelligent command information system will break through the limits of human intelligence, serve as an extension of the human brain, assist commanders in their work, and develop war decision-making from pure human brain decision-making to super-brain command decision-making of “human brain + artificial intelligence”.

“Full-dimensional” situational awareness. In future intelligent operations, the space will be multi-dimensional, the forces will be diverse, the styles will be diverse, and the pace will accelerate. Comprehensive and flexible grasp of the battlefield situation will become the basis for commanders’ decision-making. Multi-domain integration, intelligent and dynamic presentation of the full-dimensional battlefield situation will become the construction and development of command information systems. Necessary requirement. The command information system’s perception, understanding, fusion and prediction of battlefield situations such as target identification, threat level estimation, combat action prediction and future battle situation prediction are expanding from land, sea, air, space, electromagnetic, network and other spaces. to the cognitive domain and social domain to achieve “full-dimensional” situational awareness.

“Intelligent” network communication. In the future, intelligent operations will use a large number of intelligent command and control platforms and intelligent weapon platforms, and the connection between command and control platforms and weapon platforms must be intelligent information communication systems. Like the nerves and blood vessels of the human body, intelligent information and communication systems play a linking and lubricating role in intelligent operations. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a full-dimensional coverage, uninterrupted intelligent information network to support the connectivity and control of intelligent equipment, and form intelligent optimization of network structure, intelligent reorganization of network invulnerability, and intelligent anti-interference capabilities to ensure intelligent collaboration between platforms Combat and exert the best overall combat effectiveness.

“Unmanned” autonomous collaboration. In recent local conflicts around the world, drones have been widely used and played an important role in determining the direction of the war, which has attracted widespread attention from all parties. Unmanned weapons and equipment are the material basis for intelligent warfare, and have formed subversive combat styles, such as intrusive lone wolf operations, manned/unmanned coordinated system attack operations, unmanned system formation independent operations, and unmanned aerial vehicles. Swarm combat, etc. Although unmanned combat is led by humans, machines are given a certain degree of autonomous action authority in the background, thereby enabling machines to perform unmanned combat operations on the front line. However, the unmanned combat battlefield is changing rapidly, and the destruction of human-machine collaboration will become the norm. The command and control system of the unmanned intelligent equipment platform must be smarter and be able to conduct autonomous coordinated operations according to the combat purpose.

“Active” information defense. Intelligent operations will inevitably face all-dimensional and diverse information attacks from powerful enemies. The level of information security protection capabilities directly affects the outcome of the battle for “intelligence control” on the battlefield, and is a key link in the construction of intelligent command information systems. Therefore, we should take the initiative to actively formulate and improve network protection strategies, enrich intrusion detection capabilities and authentication identification methods, strengthen the application of high-tech information security, strengthen the anti-interference and anti-intervention capabilities of various wireless transmission methods, and build and strengthen intelligent traceability response. control capabilities to effectively contain information attacks.

Explore the key points for the development of intelligent command information systems

The development of intelligent command information systems is not only a technological innovation, but also requires further emancipation of minds and updating of concepts. To promote the development of intelligent command information systems, we must change the traditional thinking of adding hardware, building a large “network”, and collecting and storing various types of data. We must break through the inherent hierarchical settings and create an open and service-oriented system to target the needs of intelligent combat command and operations. , explore and study the key points for the development of intelligent command information systems.

Innovative ideas. Adhere to the guidance of innovative thinking concepts, learn from the development ideas of intelligent command information systems of military powers, and explore a development path with its own characteristics based on actual needs. It is necessary to break the traditional “chimney building” approach, adhere to the top-level design and overall planning of the command information system, unify interfaces, protocols and standards, and form an open and sustainable system architecture layout; adhere to the system research and development ideas that combine research, construction and application, and formulate Develop strategies for different stages in the near, medium and long term to standardize the development direction of system construction; adhere to iterative upgrades, optimization and improvement strategies, and continuously improve the intelligence level of command and control, intelligence reconnaissance, communications, information countermeasures and comprehensive support to ensure intelligence The command information system continues to develop healthily.

Concentration is the key. Focusing on the key capabilities of the intelligent command information system is an important basis for intelligent warfare to gather superior intelligence and win with intelligence, and is the key to obtaining “victory power” for intelligent warfare. Algorithms, computing power, and data are not only the intrinsic driving force and support for the development of artificial intelligence, but also the core capability requirements and advantages of intelligent command information systems. The development of intelligent command information systems must adhere to algorithm innovation research to improve the system’s cognitive advantages, speed advantages and decision-making advantages; accelerate the research and development of next-generation computers represented by quantum computers to provide stronger computing power support for intelligent command information systems; Deeply explore the value of deeper and wider dimensions of information in massive combat data resources to seek opportunities for victory.

Gather wisdom to tackle key problems. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems is one of the main projects of military intelligence. It is a multi-domain, multi-disciplinary, multi-department and multi-unit participation project of great integration and linkage. The construction and development of intelligent command information systems must adhere to the spirit of teamwork, collective wisdom, and pioneering innovation, and target strategic and forward-looking fields such as sensors, quantum information, network communications, integrated circuits, key software, big data, artificial intelligence, and blockchain. Adhere to the promotion of high and new technologies and the demand for intelligent combat, carry out in-depth research and exchanges in multiple fields, multiple levels, and multiple forms, and continue to make breakthroughs, innovations, and iterative upgrades to make the intelligent command information system more complete and smarter.

Collaborative development. To further promote the construction and development of intelligent command information systems, we must fully absorb local advanced technological achievements and integrate into the current trend of world artificial intelligence innovation and development. At present, the world’s artificial intelligence technology is developing vigorously, accumulating strong development momentum and technological advantages. The application of artificial intelligence technology is highly versatile and has broad prospects for the transformation and application of technological achievements. It is an important way to realize the construction and development of intelligent command information systems. It is necessary to study and formulate general technical standards, tear down barriers, break ice, smooth military-civilian cooperation, and achieve shared linkage of technological achievements. It is necessary to cultivate and shape new types of military talents through collaborative training, so that they can continuously adapt to the needs of various positions under intelligent conditions and give full play to the effectiveness of intelligent command information systems.



智慧戰爭時代已經開始。 具有智慧化特徵的指揮資訊系統將成為未來智慧化作戰指揮的「中樞神經」和智慧化作戰指揮控制的支撐手段。 加快智慧指揮資訊系統建置是軍事情報發展的內在需求。 只有明確智慧指揮資訊系統發展的要義,抓住智慧指揮資訊系統的研發重點,探索智慧指揮資訊系統的發展要點,才能更好地發展,推動智慧指揮資訊系統的建構與發展。指揮資訊系統智慧化進程,贏得未來智能化作戰的先機。


智慧指揮資訊系統是資訊化、智慧化戰爭發展的必然選擇。 它們是科技革命發展的必然結果,也是時代對軍事情報發展的要求。 明確智慧指揮資訊系統發展的本質,有助於掌握智慧指揮資訊系統的建構方向,確立系統發展的長遠目標。

推動戰爭智能化演進。 未來智慧化作戰中,戰場局勢瞬息萬變,戰場環境複雜惡劣。 想要在戰場上佔據主動,「智力」將成為新的製高點,而智慧指揮資訊系統無疑將成為未來作戰指揮與作戰的重要支撐。 其智慧化發展可以推動戰爭朝向智慧化演進,是智慧化戰爭佔上風、取得勝利的重要基礎。

支持作戰理念智能化創新。 未來智慧化作戰需要相應的作戰指揮理念,而智慧指揮資訊系統是作戰指揮理念實際應用的重要基礎,也是智慧化作戰指揮理念創新發展的土壤。 人機混合指揮編組、資料驅動指揮活動、開放式開發指揮模型、智慧化集中指揮流程等智慧化作戰指揮新理念,都離不開智慧指揮資訊系統的支撐。 智慧指揮資訊系統將作為人類大腦的延伸,突破人體的生理極限,實現作戰指揮藝術與智慧技術的有機融合。

推動作戰方式智能化變革。 人工智慧技術在軍事領域的廣泛應用,引發了戰鬥勝利機制的重大變化。 情報超越火力、資訊力,成為決定戰爭勝負的首要因素。 智慧指揮資訊系統的建構和發展將推動作戰方式向智慧化轉變,使作戰方式從資訊時代的「作戰網路+精確制導武器」轉變為「智慧物聯網+有人/無人作戰」。智慧時代的「平台」。 作戰方式也相應地從「網路中心戰」演變為「認知中心戰」。


指揮資訊系統是資訊化戰爭時代的產物。 隨著軍事智慧化的快速發展以及智慧化作戰制勝機制的研究和實際應用,指揮資訊系統的智慧化升級和建設刻不容緩。 突顯功能研發重點,打造新型智慧指揮資訊系統。

“超級大腦”輔助決策。 未來智慧化作戰中,戰場資訊資料量將龐大且複雜。 指揮官在指揮過程中很容易陷入“資訊海洋”,導致資訊混亂,影響指揮決策。 隨著智慧輔助決策技術以及「雲端大腦」、「數位顧問」的出現,基於「人腦+人工智慧」協同的新型決策模式正在悄悄形成。 智慧指揮資訊系統將突破人類智力的極限,作為人腦的延伸,輔助指揮的工作,發展戰爭決策


「全維度」態勢感知。 未來的智慧化作戰,空間將是多維的,力量將是多元化的,風格將是多樣化的,步伐將加快。 全面、靈活地掌握戰場情勢將成為指揮官決策的依據。 多域融合、全維度戰場態勢智慧化、動態呈現將成為指揮資訊系統的建構與發展。 必要的要求。 指揮資訊系統對目標識別、威脅等級估計、作戰行動預測、未來戰勢預測等戰場態勢的感知、理解、融合和預測正在從陸、海、空、太空、電磁、網路等空間拓展。 向認知域和社交域實現「全維度」的態勢感知。

「智慧型」網路通訊。 未來智慧化作戰將大量使用智慧指揮控制平台和智慧武器平台,指揮控制平台和武器平台之間的連接必須是智慧資訊通訊系統。 智慧資訊與通訊系統就像人體的神經、血管一樣,在智慧運作中發揮連結與潤滑作用。 因此,需要建立全維度覆蓋、不間斷的智慧資訊網絡,支撐智慧設備的連接與控制,形成網絡結構智慧最佳化、網絡抗毀性智慧重組、智慧抗干擾能力,保障智慧設備的智慧化。平台之間協同作戰,發揮最佳的整體戰鬥力。

「無人」自主協作。 在近期世界各地的局部衝突中,無人機已廣泛應用,並在決定戰爭走向方面發揮了重要作用,引起各方廣泛關注。 無人武器裝備是智慧戰爭的物質基礎,已形成侵入性獨狼作戰、有人/無人協同系統攻擊作戰、無人系統編隊獨立作戰、無人機等顛覆性作戰方式。 群體作戰等。雖然無人作戰是由人類主導,但在後台賦予機器一定程度的自主行動權限,從而使機器能夠在前線進行無人作戰行動。 然而,無人作戰戰場瞬息萬變,人機協作的破壞將成為常態。 無人智能裝備平台的指揮控制系統必須更智能,能夠根據作戰目的進行自主協調作戰。

“主動”訊息防禦。 智慧作戰必然面臨強大敵人全方位、多樣化的資訊攻擊。 資安防護能力的高低,直接影響戰場「智控」爭奪戰的勝負,是智慧指揮資訊系統建構的關鍵環節。 因此,我們應主動出擊,積極制定和完善網路防護策略,豐富入侵偵測能力和認證識別手段,加強資訊安全高新技術的應用,加強各種無線傳輸方式的抗干擾和防介入能力。 ,建構和強化智慧追溯響應。 控制能力,有效遏止資訊攻擊。


智慧指揮資訊系統的發展不僅是技術創新,更需要進一步解放思想、更新觀念。 推動智慧指揮資訊系統發展,必須改變傳統的增加硬體、建構大「網路」、採集和儲存各類數據的思維。 我們要突破固有的層級設置,針對智慧化作戰指揮與作戰需求,打造開放式、服務化的體系。 ,探索研究智慧指揮資訊系統發展的關鍵點。

創新的想法。 堅持創新思維理念引領,借鏡軍事強國智慧指揮資訊系統發展思路,立足實際需求,探索出一條具有自身特色的發展道路。 要打破傳統的「煙囪式建築」做法,堅持

對指揮資訊系統進行頂層設計與總體規劃,統一介面、協定與標準,形成開放、永續的系統架構佈局; 堅持研究、建置、應用結合的系統研發思路,制定近、中、長期不同階段的發展策略,規範系統建設的發展方向; 堅持迭代升級、優化改進策略,不斷提高指揮控制、情報偵察、通訊、資訊對抗和綜合保障等智慧化水平,確保情報指揮資訊系統持續健康發展。

專注是關鍵。 聚焦智慧指揮資訊系統關鍵能力,是智慧戰爭匯集優勢情報、以智取勝的重要基礎,是獲得智慧戰爭「制勝動力」的關鍵。 演算法、算力、數據不僅是人工智慧發展的內在驅動力和支撐,也是智慧指揮資訊系統的核心能力需求和優勢。 智慧指揮資訊系統的發展必須堅持演算法創新研究,提高系統的認知優勢、速度優勢和決策優勢; 加速以量子電腦為代表的下一代電腦研發,為智慧指揮資訊系統提供更強算力支撐。 深入挖掘海量作戰資料資源中更深層、更廣維度的資訊價值,尋求制勝先機。

集思廣益,攻堅克難。 智慧指揮資訊系統的建置與發展是軍事情報的重大工程之一。 它是一個多領域、多學科、多部門、多單位共同參與、高度整合、連結的工程。 智慧指揮資訊系統建置發展必須堅持團隊協作、集體智慧、開拓創新的精神,瞄準感測器、量子資訊、網路通訊、積體電路、關鍵軟體、大數據等策略性、前瞻性領域、人工智慧和區塊鏈。 堅持高新技術推廣與智慧化作戰需求,多領域、多層次、多形式深入進行研究交流,不斷突破、創新、迭代升級,使智慧化指揮資訊系統更加完善、更有智慧。

協同開發。 進一步推動智慧指揮資訊系統建設發展,必須充分吸收本土先進技術成果,融入當前世界人工智慧創新發展趨勢。 目前,世界人工智慧技術蓬勃發展,累積了強勁的發展動力和技術優勢。 人工智慧技術應用通用性強,技術成果轉化應用前景廣闊。 是實現智慧指揮資訊系統建置與發展的重要途徑。 要研究制定通用技術標準,破除壁壘、破冰,暢通軍民合作,實現技術成果共享連動。 要透過協同訓練培養塑造新型軍事人才,使其不斷適應智慧化條件下各崗位需求,充分發揮智慧指揮資訊系統的效能。



Chinese Military Ordered to Emphasize “High Quality” and Achieve “Acceleration” – Military representatives discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

資料來源:解放軍報 作者:李建文 岳雨彤 責任編輯:葉夢圓 2024-03-05 08:12:20




■解放軍報記者 李建文 岳雨桐



高品質發展是全面建構社會主義現代化國家的首要任務。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,加速把人民軍隊建設成為世界一流軍隊,是全面建設社會主義現代化國家的戰略要求。

錨定“高品質”,跑動“加速度”。 軍隊代表表示,國防和軍隊現代化建設,只有把高品質發展放在首位,加強創新突破,轉變發展理念,創新發展模式,增強發展動力,才能抓住窗口期,加快推進國防和軍隊現代化建設。 ,確保建軍百年奮鬥目標如期實現。


2023年,中國創新動力與發展活力將迸發。 C919大型飛機實現商業飛行、國產大型郵輪完成試航、「神舟」家族太空接力、「奮鬥號」極限深潛…

紮實推動高品質發展,創新驅動累積發展動能,美麗中國走向「新」。 軍隊代表一致認為,高品質發展是新時代硬道理。 國防和軍隊現代化作為國家現代化的重要組成部分,必須積極落實高品質發展要求,確保國防和軍隊現代化進程與國家現代化進程一致、軍事能力與國家戰略需求一致。

目前,實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標已進入攻堅克難期和壓力增大的衝刺期。 軍隊代表深刻體認到,發展速度太慢,品質低落。 如期實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,很大程度取決於轉變發展理念、創新發展模式、增強發展動力。 只有清醒認識“硬道理”,自覺推動高品質發展,真正把發展方式轉向系統化、內涵式發展,才能推動我軍建設發展品質變革、效率變革、動力變革,不斷提高軍隊建設發展水平。國防和軍隊現代化品質。 益處。

推動我軍高品質發展,必須牢固樹立「五個聚焦」戰略引領。 多位軍隊代表表示,「五個更加聚焦」為新時代我軍建設確立了戰略指導,明確了發展方向、發展動力、發展方式、發展模式、發展路徑。 我們必須糾正一切不符合實戰要求的思想行為,加大創新對戰鬥力增長的貢獻,提高我軍體係作戰能力,提高國防和軍隊建設的精準度,鞏固提高一體化的國家戰略體系和能力。

「一切為了打仗,一切為了勝利。我軍高品質發展必須圍繞著能打仗、打勝仗。」 高高強代表表示,軍隊的主要職責是備戰,發展理念要指向戰鬥力建設,最終要落到全面提高打贏能力方面,推動高水平打仗。 ——高質量發展,戰鬥力躍升。

先進的思想造就現代化的軍隊; 創新理念,成就輝煌發展。 “近年來,我們強化作戰需求牽引,上高原、下海洋、跨界飛行,系統訓練、系統訓練已成為新常態。” 談起身邊的變化,郝景文代表感慨萬千,“實戰化、創新化、系統化、集約化、融合化這樣的新理念正在融入國防和軍隊建設的方方面面、全過程。”


多年來,我們堅持打仗、備戰、建設並舉,戰建備一體化的良好局面取得了可喜成果。 徐安祥代表表示,黨的二十大報告提出“堅持打仗、備戰”,“邊防建設”不僅是有效履行人民軍隊使命任務的必然要求新時代,也是推動我軍高質量發展、實現建軍一百年奮鬥目標的科學決策。

軍隊各項工作必須以備戰為中心,把高品質發展實際落實到我軍建設全過程各領域。 多位陸軍代表表示,近年來,陸軍深化戰備政治工作體系建設,加強認知作戰、人才保障等實際問題研究,嵌入演練訓練,創新戰時政治工作模式,並改善服務和準備。 獲勝貢獻率。




這種情況是令人欣慰和鼓舞的。 “改革創新是我軍發展的強大動力,推動高品質發展,必須用改革創新的方法研究解決問題。” 張紅星代表表示,適應世界軍事發展趨勢和我軍戰略能力發展需要,必須堅持國防和軍事改革深入推進,堅持推動國防和軍隊高質量發展以改革創新精神,使我軍建設發展和戰鬥力生成模式盡快轉向創新驅動發展軌道。

“只有不斷改革創新,才能不斷獲得發展進步的活力。” 劉偉代表表示,我軍的發展史也是一部改革創新史。 面對世界新軍事革命的嚴峻挑戰和難得機遇,我們必須堅持把創新放在我軍總體建設發展的核心位置,依靠科技進步和創新提高軍隊素質和戰鬥力。軍隊。

“作為親歷者,我切身感受到近年來軍隊科技創新能力的快速提升。” 吳德偉特派員表示,近年來,他們加強關鍵核心技術研究,推動先進科技加速轉化為戰鬥力。

科技創新是高品質發展的核心動力。 有各軍兵種軍隊代表表示,近年來,全軍大力推動訓練轉型升級,探索「科技+」、「網路+」等訓練方法與手段,推動新裝備融合發展。把新力量、新領域納入系統培養,加速新素質戰鬥力生成提高。

高品質發展依賴創新,創新的基礎在於人才。 軍學院和科學研究單位代表表示,要深入貫徹新時代軍事教育方針,實施大學優先發展戰略,深化軍事教育改革創新,完善「三化」建設。— 建立新的軍事人才培育體系,提高備戰打仗人才供給能力和供給能力。 等級。




實現建軍百年奮鬥目標,有明確的政治方向、戰略方向、實踐方向,根本是提升捍衛國家主權、安全、發展利益的戰略能力。 多位軍隊代表表示,改革重塑後,軍隊力量更加多元化、要素更加多元、運作更加複雜。 加速建立健全適應資訊化戰爭和履行使命任務要求的新型管理模式,提高國防資源使用效率,提高軍隊建設和使用效率。

戰略管理作為國防和軍隊建設的最高層管理,是管全局、管長遠、管大事的宏觀管理活動。 它從頂層規劃和設計軍事資源的投入。 軍隊代表表示,加強戰略管理是軍隊管理的樞紐,是推動我軍高品質發展的關鍵。

國家因治而興,軍隊因治而興。 黨的二十大報告提出“全面加強治軍”,體現了我們黨對新時代軍隊建設和管理規律的深刻把握。 「這幾年,我們著力解決基層官兵的各種急、難、急問題,把官兵的煩惱變成暖心的事。」 軍隊代表表示,基層是軍隊一切工作和戰鬥力的基礎,全面加強軍隊治理必須始終堅持依靠基層、建設強基層的寶貴經驗,不斷釋放基層治理活力。

軍事治理根本上就是製度治理。 軍事制度越完善,制度執行得越有力,軍事治理就越有效。 袁偉代表表示,近年來,不斷推動軍事政策和體制改革,著力把戰爭、建設、準備等各項治理活動納入法治軌道,堅持依法管理和科學治理相統一,增強軍隊建設管理的科學性、有效性。 性別。

春天的陽光灑滿大地,戰爭的號角在耳邊迴響。 軍隊代表紛紛表示,要堅持把高品質發展放在第一位,強化如期交出歷史答案卷的使命,加快推進新時代強軍鬥爭,全力以赴打好攻堅戰為實現建軍百年奮鬥目標而奮鬥。



Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”

——Army representatives and members discussed accelerating the high-quality development of national defense and military construction

■People’s Liberation Army Daily reporter Li Jianwen and Yue Yutong

The journey of thousands of miles is going strong, and we are pursuing our dreams for another year.

At the opening of the National Two Sessions, two words were repeatedly mentioned by military representatives: one is “high quality” and the other is “acceleration.”

High-quality development is the primary task of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled and accelerating the building of the people’s army into a world-class army are strategic requirements for comprehensively building a modern socialist country.

Anchor “high quality” and run “acceleration”. Representatives of the military have stated that in the modernization of national defense and the military, only by putting high-quality development first, strengthening innovative breakthroughs, changing development concepts, innovating development models, and enhancing development momentum can we seize the window period, accelerate, and ensure The centenary goal of the founding of the army was achieved as scheduled.

Grasp the hard truth of the new era

In 2023, China’s innovation power and development vitality will surge forward. The C919 large aircraft has achieved commercial flight, the domestic large-scale cruise ship has completed its trial voyage, the “Shenzhou” family space relay, the “Struggle” extreme deep dive…

High-quality development is solidly promoted, innovation drives the accumulation of development momentum, and Beautiful China moves towards “newness”. Military representatives unanimously believe that high-quality development is the last word in the new era. As an important part of national modernization, national defense and military modernization must actively implement high-quality development requirements to ensure that the national defense and military modernization process is consistent with the national modernization process, and military capabilities are consistent with national strategic needs.

At present, the realization of the 100-year goal of the founding of the army has entered a critical period of hard work and a sprint period of increasing pressure. The military representatives are deeply aware that development is too slow, let alone low quality. Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army as scheduled depends largely on changes in development concepts, innovation in development models, and enhancement of development momentum. Only by consciously promoting high-quality development with a clear understanding of “hard truth” and truly shifting the development model to systematic and connotative development can we promote quality changes, efficiency changes, and motivation changes in our military’s construction and development, and continuously improve the quality of national defense and military modernization. benefit.

To promote the high-quality development of our military, we must firmly establish the strategic guidance of “Five More Focuses”. Many military representatives said that the “Five More Focuses” have established strategic guidance for the construction of our military in the new era, clarifying the development direction, development motivation, development methods, development models, and development paths. We must correct all thoughts and behaviors that are inconsistent with actual combat requirements, increase the contribution of innovation to the growth of combat effectiveness, improve the combat capabilities of our military system, improve the accuracy of national defense and military development, and consolidate and improve the integrated national strategic system and capabilities.

“Everything is for fighting, everything is for victory. The high-quality development of our army must focus on being able to fight and win wars.” Representative Gao Gaoqiang said that the main responsibility of the army is to prepare for war, and the development concept should be directed towards the construction of combat effectiveness, which should ultimately fall to In terms of comprehensively improving the ability to win, we will promote high-quality development with a jump in combat effectiveness.

Advanced ideas lead to a modern military; innovative ideas lead to brilliant development. “In recent years, we have strengthened the traction of combat needs, going to plateaus, going to the ocean, and flying across borders. System training and system training have become the new normal.” Talking about the changes around him, Representative Hao Jingwen was filled with emotion, “Actual combat, innovation, system, intensiveness, and integration Such new concepts are being incorporated into all aspects and the entire process of national defense and military construction.”

“In the past few years, we have insisted on fighting, preparing for war, and building at the same time, and the good situation of integrating war, construction, and preparation has achieved gratifying results.” Representative Xu Anxiang said that the report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “persisting in fighting, preparing for war, and “Border construction” is not only an inevitable requirement for effectively fulfilling the missions and tasks of the People’s Army in the new era, but also a scientific decision to promote the high-quality development of our army and achieve the 100-year goal of the founding of the army.

All work in the military must focus on preparing for war and effectively implement high-quality development into all areas of the entire process of building our military. Several representatives from the Army said that in recent years, the Army has deepened the system construction of political work in preparation for war, strengthened research on practical issues such as cognitive operations and talent support, embedded in exercises and training to innovate wartime political work models, and improved service and preparation. Win contribution rate.

Need motivation to deepen reform and innovation

Only reformers advance, only innovators are strong, and only reformers and innovators win.

The command system is lean and efficient, the scale and structure are constantly optimized, joint combat training has opened up a new situation, and policies and systems have become more perfect… Members of the military representatives deeply feel that since the comprehensive implementation of the strategy of reform and strengthening the military, the people’s army has accelerated its breakthrough in the “new system era” Cocoon butterfly transformation.

The situation is gratifying and inspiring. “Reform and innovation are a powerful driving force for the development of our military. To promote high-quality development, we must use reform and innovation methods to study and solve problems.” Representative Zhang Hongxing said that to adapt to the world’s military development trends and the development needs of our military’s strategic capabilities, we must persist in The reform of national defense and the military is advancing in depth, and we insist on promoting high-quality development in the spirit of reform and innovation, so that our military’s construction and development and combat effectiveness generation model can be shifted to the track of innovation-driven development as soon as possible.

“Only through continuous reform and innovation can we continue to gain vitality for development and progress.” Representative Liu Wei said that the development history of our army is also a history of reform and innovation. Facing the severe challenges and rare opportunities of the world’s new military revolution, we must insist on placing innovation at the core of the overall construction and development of our military, and rely on scientific and technological progress and innovation to improve the quality and combat effectiveness of the military.

“As a witness, I personally feel the rapid improvement of the military’s scientific and technological innovation capabilities in recent years.” Commissioner Wu Dewei said that in recent years, they have strengthened research on key core technologies and promoted the accelerated transformation of advanced science and technology into combat effectiveness.

Technological innovation is the core driving force for high-quality development. Some military representatives from various services and arms said that in recent years, the entire military has vigorously promoted the transformation and upgrading of training, explored training methods and means such as “technology +” and “network +”, promoted the integration of new equipment, new forces and new fields into system training, and accelerated new Quality combat effectiveness generation is improved.

High-quality development relies on innovation, and the foundation of innovation lies in talents. Military representatives from military academies and scientific research units said that it is necessary to thoroughly implement the military education policy of the new era, implement the priority development strategy of colleges and universities, deepen the reform and innovation of military education, improve the three-in-one new military talent training system, and improve the supply capacity and supply of talent for war preparation and fighting. level.

Use high-level governance to promote overall improvement

“Currently, accelerating the formation of strategic capabilities of our military is a hard-core task. We must base ourselves on the overall situation to plan a domain, integrate into the system to prepare for war, focus on core priorities, decompose capability indicators, draw a mission map, formulate a timetable, and advance node by node, one by one Solve difficult problems to ensure that papers are handed in on time and returned to work as scheduled.” Representative Zhang Dongxu said.

“Achieving the centenary goal of the founding of the army contains clear political, strategic and practical directions. The fundamental thing is to improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security and development interests.” Many military representatives said that after the reform and reshaping , the military strength is more diverse, the elements are more diverse, and the operation is more complex. We should speed up the establishment and improvement of a new management model that adapts to information warfare and the requirements of fulfilling missions and tasks, improve the efficiency of the use of national defense resources, and improve the efficiency of military force construction and use.

As the highest-level management of national defense and military construction, strategic management is a macro-management activity that manages the overall situation, long-term management, and major events. It plans and designs the investment of military resources from the top level. Military representatives said that strengthening strategic management is the hub of military management and the key to promoting the high-quality development of our military.

A country thrives on governance, and an army thrives on governance. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed “comprehensively strengthening military governance”, which reflects our party’s profound grasp of the laws of military building and management in the new era. “In the past few years, we have focused on solving various urgent, difficult and anxious problems of officers and soldiers at the grassroots level, and turning the troubles of officers and soldiers into heart-warming things.” The representative of the army said that the grassroots level is the foundation of all the work and combat effectiveness of the army, and comprehensively strengthening military governance must always be Persist in relying on the valuable experience of grassroots and building strong grassroots, and constantly release the vitality of grassroots governance.

Military governance is fundamentally the governance of systems. The more perfect the military system is and the more powerful the system is implemented, the more effective military governance will be. Representative Yuan Wei said that in recent years, the continuous advancement of military policy and system reforms has focused on integrating various governance activities of war, construction, and preparation into the rule of law, adhering to the unification of legal management and scientific governance, and enhancing the scientific and effective nature of military construction management. sex.

The spring sunshine fills the earth, and the horn of war echoes in the ears. Representatives of the armed forces have expressed that they must insist on putting high-quality development first, strengthen the mission of handing in historical answers as scheduled, accelerate the struggle to strengthen the army in the new era, and go all out to fight the tough battle to achieve the centenary goal of the founding of the army.

(People’s Liberation Army Daily, Beijing, March 4)



Chinese Military History <2005> People’s Republic of China’s New Military Transformation


迎接世界新軍事變革的挑戰,積極推動中國特色軍事變革,中央軍委所做的重大戰略決策,總部推出了一系列重大舉措。 最大的措施是決定2005年前軍隊再裁減員額20萬人。

 2002年,中央軍委會正式頒布《實施軍隊人才戰略工程規劃》;四總部相繼下發了《關於加強作戰部隊裝備技術保障幹部隊伍建設若干問題的規定》、《關於進一步做好幹部交流工作的意見》 和《關於提升參謀隊伍素質若干問題的意見》,全軍部隊人才培育的步伐明顯加快。 2002年10月,大軍區職領導幹部高科技知識訓練班開學,重點研究資訊化戰爭與軍隊資訊化建設的問題。 各總部機關也相繼開辦高科技知識培訓班。 抓資訊化建設從高級幹部和領率機關抓起,展現出一年來軍事變革的重點和特色。

 軍委會總部的重大舉措直接提升了戰鬥力。 總參謀部部署年度訓練任務時突出強調創新前瞻性作戰理論,以新的需求牽引訓練內容和訓練方法的改革。 總政治部直接組織了修訂新的《政治工作條例》,強調政治工作要為推進中國特色軍事變革服務,全軍政工幹部大規模地展開學習新《政治工作條例》。 總後勤部大力推動三軍聯勤和後勤資訊化建設,邊遠部隊遠距醫療、軍隊住房管理等資訊系統都有了新的飛躍。 裝備系統官兵抓住戰略機會期,加速推進軍隊武器裝備跨越式發展,努力使現有裝備特別是新裝備成建制、成系統形成作戰能力和保障能力。

 提高官兵素質,是推動中國特色軍事變革的重要內容。 適應建設資訊化軍隊、打贏資訊化戰爭,必須具備與之相適應的高素質。 至2003年,不管是基層官兵或師團主官,不管是低學歷幹部或高學歷幹部,都有強烈的危機感。 許多領導幹部率先垂範,下決心提升指揮資訊化戰爭的能力。 全軍各部隊狠抓人才工作的措施力度越來越大,為推動中國特色軍事變革提供了強而有力的人才和智力支持。


 2003年9月1日,中央軍委主席江澤民在出席國防科學技術大學50週年慶典活動時鄭重宣告:黨中央、中央軍委決定,將在“九五”期間裁減軍隊員額50萬的基礎上,2005年 前軍再裁減員額20萬。 這是新中國成立以來軍隊進行的第10次重大精簡整編,引起國際社會的高度關注,有輿論稱,「以大規模裁減軍隊員額為標誌,中國新軍事變革的大幕正式拉開」。

 推動中國特色的軍事變革,必須依照實現資訊化的要求,科學確立軍隊建設的戰略目標、發展思路和具體步驟。 然而,軍費供給不足,是新軍事變革中包括中國在內的各國軍隊普遍遇到的難題。 從世界範圍來看,世界各國國防費用佔GDP的比例一般都在2%—4%,而中國只佔1.5%左右。 以2002年為例,中國國防開支為1,694.44億元,約200億美元,只相當於美國的6%左右。 軍費大部分用於250萬人員的生活費、活動維持費,用於裝備和訓練的相對較少。

 軍事專家指出,高技術和資訊化武器裝備的購置費和維修費成幾何級數上升。 解決軍費供需矛盾,讓有限的軍費帶來最大的效益,其最佳想法是減少人員數量,提高軍隊品質。 新軍事變革對軍隊規模的要求是合理、適度、夠用,中國軍隊員額從250萬減少到230萬以後,將更可能使有限的戰略資源得到更有效的使用,發揮出更大效益。 大規模裁減員額並非僅僅“減人”,其實質是對軍隊現有體制編制的結構性調整,軍隊體制編制調整改革必須貫徹精兵、合成、高效的原則,只有深入研究高技術戰爭對軍隊體制編制 的影響,著重解決領導指揮和管理體制以及部隊編成中存在的矛盾和問題,才能建立起具有中國特色的軍事體制。

 軍事專家認為,減少數量,提高質量,優化軍隊內部結構,增大高科技含量,加強綜合集成建設,逐步建立符合現代戰爭要求的體制、編制,是加速人民解放軍現代化建設和更好地做好軍事 抗爭準備的必然選擇。 堅定不移地走中國特色的精兵之路,是軍隊建設的既定方針。 壓縮軍隊員額,是不斷適應世界新軍事變革發展趨勢,服從服務國家經濟建設大局的需要。 這次裁軍之後,中國軍事力量的規模雖然出現一定程度的壓縮,但戰鬥力必將得以提高,維護國家主權和領土完整的能力定能進一步增強!

 根據中央軍委會的統一部署,部隊的精簡整編工作將於2003年年底全面展開,精簡整編單位的編餘士兵多數要安排退出現役,其中包括未服滿服役期的編餘義務兵和士官。 解放軍總部已對此工作作出了具體安排:根據部隊調整精簡的需要,允許部分未服滿規定年限的義務兵和士官提前退出現役;精簡任務較重的單位的退役義務兵和復員士官,可安排提前 離隊;撤銷並改編為預備役部隊的單位的轉業士官,提前移交地方安置部門安置。 對因軍隊調整精簡提前退役士兵的安置,要與服役期滿的退役士兵同等對待,按時接收,納入2004年安置計劃。 其中,對服現役滿1年的城鎮退役義務兵,要按照服役期滿退伍義務兵的有關規定安置;對服現役滿9年的退役士官,要按照服滿現役10年以上退役士官的有關規定安排工作 。 對撤銷和改編為預備役部隊的單位的提前離隊的轉業士官,由各大單位派專人將檔案送地方有關安置部門審核,對符合條件的,簽發《接收安置通知書》,部隊即可組織轉業士官 離隊;本人要求復員的,經批准也可作復員安置。 對符合退休條件的士官,應依照國務院、中央軍委會頒發的《中國人民解放軍士官退出現役安置辦法》的規定,及時下達退休命令,並逐級上報列入移交安置計劃。 提前退役的士兵依實際服役年限和相應的標準發放退役費和物資,對該發放的經費和物資要及時足額地發放到退役士兵手中。 提前離隊的轉業士官按本年度正常時間離隊的轉業士官一樣對待,工資、福利、醫療待遇和服裝發放按有關規定辦理。

 軍隊體制編制調整改革後,中國軍隊將有司務長、俱樂部主任等數10種幹部職務、數萬個幹部職位改為士官擔任。 改由士官擔任的專業職位的人員,從2004年起納入軍院中專以上學歷訓練。 為確保這項工作的順利進行,實現人才等職位及2003年年底能接替的要求,士官任職前培訓擬採取中專學歷培訓與短期培訓相結合的方式進行。 其中,從經過院校2年以上學歷培訓的現有士官中選拔接替對象的專業崗位,進行3至5個月的短期培訓。 對現有士官學歷培訓規劃中無相同相近專業、選不到接替對象的專業崗位,組織中專學歷培訓,學制2年,在校學習1年,在崗位實習1年;每年一季度招生並開學 ,在校學習期間不休暑假,2003年底前回部隊實習。


 第一次精簡整編:新中國成立初期,解放軍總兵力達550萬人。 1950年6月,中國軍隊參謀會議精簡整編方案中規定軍隊精簡為400萬,當年即復員23.9萬餘人。 不久,抗美援朝戰爭爆發,精簡整編工作終止。 截止到1951年底,軍隊人員達627萬人,是中國軍隊史上兵力最多的時期。

 第二次精簡整編:1951年11月中央軍委召開整編會議,規定到1954年把軍隊總人員額控制在300萬人左右。 1952年1月,毛澤東批准《軍事整編計畫》,軍隊總定額縮減至300萬人左右。

 第三次精簡整編:截至1953年9月底,軍隊人數減少到420萬人左右。 當年12月,中國軍事系統黨的高級幹部會議決定,把軍隊簡編為350萬人。 到1954年6月軍隊已精簡47.2萬餘人,年底基本完成計畫。

 第四次精簡整編:1957年1月,中央軍委擴大會議,通過了《關於裁減軍隊數量加強質量的決定》,確定軍隊總人數再裁減三分之一,要求3年裁減130萬人,壓縮至 250萬人左右。

 第五次精簡整編:1975年6月24日至7月5日,中央軍委擴大會議決定3年內將軍隊減少60萬人。 到1976年,軍隊總人數比1975年減少13.6%。 後來由於「四人幫」的干擾破壞,精簡整編任務沒有完成就停了下來。

 第六、七、八次精簡整編:1980年3月,中央軍委決定軍隊再次進行精簡整編,大力精簡機關,壓縮非戰鬥人員和保障部隊,部分部隊實行簡編,將一部分部隊移交地方。 同年8月15日,中共中央批轉了中央軍委會《關於軍隊精簡整編的方案》。 1982年9月,中共中央和中央軍委決定軍隊進一步進行精簡整編。 1985年5月底6月初,中央軍委會決定裁減軍隊員額100萬人,精簡整編工作到1987年初基本結束。

 第九次精簡整編:1997年9月,江澤民同志在黨的十五大報告中宣布,在80年代裁減軍隊員額100萬人的基礎上,中國將在今後3年內再裁減軍隊員額50萬人。 到1999年底,裁軍50萬人的任務已經完成,20餘萬軍隊幹部退出現役轉業地方工作。 這是新中國歷次裁減軍員額中幹部精簡比例較高的一次。



 一、用發展的軍事理論指導軍事訓練新實踐。 軍隊和武警部隊軍事訓練依照以資訊化帶動機械化、以機械化促進資訊化的要求,深入進行資訊作戰、非接觸作戰、聯合作戰等作戰樣式的理論研究,創新軍事理論和作戰思想,引導軍事訓練 改革的深化,推動科技練兵朝向資訊化方向發展。

 二、突出提升打贏能力,以軍事鬥爭準備為龍頭,部隊訓練貼近實戰。 南京、廣州軍區加大實兵實裝演練力度,圍繞戰術技術難點問題開展攻關,並取得了一批有價值的成果。 瀋陽、北京、濟南軍區在近似實戰的條件下練指揮、練戰法、練協同、練保障;海軍、空軍、第二砲兵注重強化諸軍兵種聯合作戰指揮演練;蘭州、成都軍區深化高寒山地作戰 演練,研究解決機動、生存、指揮、協同、保障等重點課題;武警部隊加強處突、反恐怖主義和防衛作戰演練。 全軍積極進行區域協作訓練創新實踐,對聯合戰術兵團作戰理論和區域協作訓練機制等關鍵性問題展開重點攻關。


 四、人才培育有新的措施。 軍院校著眼培養高素質新型軍事人才,深化院校體制編制調整改革,推動了院校教學改革的深入發展。 各部隊進一步加大訓練機構建設與教學改革力度,為基層培養了大批優秀指揮士官。



 2003年6月10日,解放軍總政治部發出通知,要求全軍和武警部隊官兵認真學習貫徹《中共中央關於印發(「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要)的通知》精神,加深對「三個 代表」重要思想的理解,在全軍興起學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想的新高潮。 總政治部組織出版部門迅速將《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》印發全軍,並特別發出通知,要求全軍團以上領導幹部和機關幹部要認真研讀江澤民同志一系列重要著作,以《綱要 》為線索,從整體深入系統地學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想。 基層要以《綱要》為主要輔導材料,選讀江澤民同志的若干重要著作,深入學習掌握「三個代表」重要思想的基本精神和基本觀點,把全軍官兵的思想和行動進一步統一到鄧小平理論和 「三個代表」重要思想上來,把智慧和力量進一步凝聚到實現黨的十六大確定的各項任務上來,堅決聽從黨中央、中央軍委和江主席的指揮,為實現全面建設小康社會的宏偉 目標,為軍隊的革命化、現代化、正規化建設努力奮鬥。

 6月18日,全軍學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想理論研討會在北京舉行。 會議強調,必須更加牢固地確立「三個代表」重要思想在軍隊建設中的指導地位,把廣大官兵的意志和力量凝聚在「三個代表」重要思想的旗幟下,進一步打牢堅持黨對軍隊 絕對領導的思想理論根基,使全軍部隊始終保持與時俱進的精神狀態,肩負起神聖使命,積極推進中國特色軍事變革,實現軍隊現代化跨越式發展。


 經中央軍委批准,總政治部委託國防大學分別於8月下旬和9月中旬舉辦兩期全軍軍職以上領導幹部學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想輪班班,來自全軍和武警部隊的近 百名軍以上領導幹部分別進行為期10天的學習。 輪班以胡錦濤同志「七一」重要講話精神為指導,按照中央《通知》和總政《意見》的要求,以《「三個代表」重要思想學習綱要》和《江澤民國防和軍事建設思想學習 綱要》為基本線索,組織學員學習了江澤民同志的著作和黨的十六大報告。 為了加深對所學內容的深刻理解和系統把握,了解掌握當前最新理論研究成果,輪班也分別邀請中央宣講團相關成員、中央文獻研究室、國家發展和改革委員會、北京大學以及軍隊思想理論戰線 的專家、學者,作了專題講座和輔導報告。 透過輪訓,學員們對「三個代表」重要思想的時代背景、實踐基礎、科學內涵、精神實質和歷史地位的認識有了新的提高,進一步加深了對江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想的理解,增強 了以「三個代表」重要思想指導部隊改革和建設,開創各項工作新局面的使命感和責任感。

     2003年,全軍和武警部隊廣泛深入學習學習實踐「三個代表」重要思想,為全面建構小康社會做貢獻教育活動。 透過教育,廣大官兵進一步堅定了對黨的創新理論的政治信仰,增強了自覺運用「三個代表」重要思想推進部隊改革建設、為全面建設小康社會做貢獻的責任感和使命感。

     根據解放軍總政治部相關部門負責人介紹,教育活動分成兩個階段實施,上半年重點學習了黨的十六大報告,集中進行專題教育;下半年貫徹胡錦濤總書記在省會級主要領導幹部 學習貫徹「三個代表」重要思想專題研討班上的重要演說和黨中央、中央軍委的部署,結合學習江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,進一步把教育活動引向深入。 教育中,各大單位的主要領導深入部隊具體指導,近千名軍以上領導、萬餘名團以上幹部給部隊講課。 許多部隊請地方黨政領導介紹發展經濟、改善人民生活的舉措;組織觀看鄭培民、範匡夫等先進事蹟報告錄像;組織參觀抗擊非典圖片展,請抗非典英模作報告;舉辦形勢報告會,與專家學者 座談交流等。 官兵們說,在中國特色社會主義事業的偉大旅程中,一刻也離不開「三個代表」重要思想的指引,必須始終堅持,毫不動搖。

     各部隊引導官兵運用「三個代表」重要思想的立場觀點方法,深刻理解黨對國家經濟、社會、文化全面進步作出的重大戰略決策,激勵大家以實現中華民族偉大復興為己任,自覺服從服務於 全面建構小康社會的大局。 參加小湯山醫院對抗非典的軍隊醫護人員,奮戰50多個晝夜,為戰勝非典病魔做出突出功績。 黃河、淮河、渭河等流域發生洪水,新疆、雲南等地發生地震,大興安嶺等地區發生火災後,10多萬名官兵舍生忘死衝鋒在搶險救災第一線,協助地方政府轉移安置群眾100多 萬人,運送物資200多萬噸,用熱血和生命捍衛了「小康」建設成果。

     專注於把學習成果轉化為推動部隊建設,實現新發展、開創新局面的強大精神動力,是這次教育活動最鮮明的特色。 許多部隊引導官兵查找陳舊思維在訓練教學、教育管理、後勤保障、裝備建設等方面的表現,一項一項加以糾正,樹立起與全面建設小康社會、建設信息化軍隊相適應的訓練、管理和 人才觀念。 各單位積極組織官兵從實戰需要出發大膽改革創新,開發出了野戰指揮控制系統、戰時工作決策系統、模擬模擬訓練器材等一批新成果。 擔負緊急機動作戰任務的部隊,叫響了「練科技精兵,當打贏先鋒」的口號,練技術、強素質,圓滿完成了海訓野訓和實彈發射等任務。 2003年全軍12萬多名官兵踴躍報名參加各類函授學習和自學考試,數千名幹部攻讀軍事專業的碩士、博士學位,中央軍委關於實施人才戰略工程的決策正在變為廣大官兵的實際行動 。

     2003年7月底,經中央軍委會批准,由總政治部組織編寫的《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》正式出版並印發全軍。 中央軍委發出通知,要求全軍官兵以江澤民《論國防和軍隊建設》和一系列重要講話為基本教材,以《綱要》為重要輔助材料,認真學習貫徹江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想,推動全軍學習 貫徹「三個代表」重要思想新高潮不斷深入發展。

     中央軍委會7月31日在北京召開《江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想學習綱要》出版座談會。 會議指出,江主席在領導國防和軍隊建設的偉大實踐中,形成了完整系統的國防和軍事建設思想。 江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想,同毛澤東軍事思想、鄧小平新時期軍隊建設思想是一脈相承而又與時俱進的軍事科學體系,是「三個代表」重要思想的重要組成部分,是馬克思主義軍事理論在 中國發展的最新成果,是新世紀新階段軍隊建設與發展的科學指南。 全軍部隊要毫不動搖地將江澤民國防和軍隊建設思想作為指導統領各項工作的根本指針和行動指南。 各級領導幹部要做學習貫徹江澤民國防與軍隊建設思想的模範,帶頭把這科學理論學習好、貫徹好、運用好。



     三軍聯勤體制運作良好,透過調整保障關係,多數部隊實現了就近就便保障;開展聯勤優質服務,保證了經費和物資及時足額供應;建立協調協作機制,為平時聯合訓練和戰時聯合 保障創造了條件。

     隨著新一輪後勤保障社會化全面啟動,2003年全軍有2179個食堂實施改革;1283個軍人服務社進行了撤、並、停、改;1851個非作戰部隊營區在營房維修、供水供電 、綠化清潔等項目上實施了社會化保障;採取整體移交、委託管理、自謀職業、解除勞動關係等多種方式,分流安置職工和臨時工31,000多人。

     2003年全軍招標採購突破70億元,比上年平均節省10%以上。 軍以下部隊採購制度改革普及推開,集中採購超過10億元,實現經濟、社會效益雙豐收。

     2003年首次推行總部事業部行政消耗性開支限額標準,戰備、訓練等重點項目得以有效保障。 2003年上半年,通過此制度壓縮總部事業經費中行政消耗性開支2000多萬元。

     全軍上下關注的住房制度改革穩步推進。 2003年總部推出了關於加強經濟適用住房管理、加速售房區現有住房出售和部分離休老幹部住房出售有關政策,現有住房政策基本完善配套。 2003年軍委投資9.5億元建設士官家屬臨時來隊住房,截至2003年,這項工作已取得階段性成果。

     擔負醫改試點任務的瀋陽、蘭州、濟南軍區實現了醫改試點的預期目標,在門診、住院經費的消耗上,比醫改前上升了10.5%,住院人均消耗比醫改前上升4.1%,用藥從數量品種 到檔次都有了較大提高;建立了大病醫療統籌補助標準,醫改工作初見成效。

     後勤資訊化建設穩步推進。 在已經建立20個全軍衛星遠距醫療系統站點的基礎上,2003年又為駐邊遠艱苦地區部隊新建60多個站點,在全軍基本形成了遠距醫療規模體系。 《軍隊住房建設與管理資訊系統》使全軍住房管理有了質的飛躍。 全軍規模最大的軍需自動化立體庫在總後軍需供應局正式投入使用,標誌著全軍軍需物資供應步入自動化。


     經過多年的探索和不斷深化,全軍住房制度改革取得了重大進展,住房制度日趨完善,住房保障新體系逐步形成。 全軍住房保障攤子大、出口不暢,軍人薪資中住房部分含量低、買不起房、買不到房等問題,逐漸解決。

     一、明確了各類人員的住房保障方式。 對在職幹部、離休幹部、退休幹部、轉業幹部及士官、職工等6類人員,分別實施不同的住房保障。 在職幹部主要住公寓房,有條件的可以購買自有住房;離休幹部主要購買乾休所現有住房,退休幹部主要購買專門為其建設的經濟適用住房,也可以自理住房;轉業、復員幹部和 士官由軍隊發給相應的住房補貼後購買社會提供的住房;職工按屬地原則實施房改。

     二、建立了住房補貼和公積金制度。 各類人員按月計算住房補貼,計入個人的帳戶,經批准購買住房或退休、轉業離開部隊時發給個人。 在工資總額中提取部分經費用於建立住房公積金,個人所有、統一存儲、專項使用。

     三、實施劃區售屋及發展經濟適用住宅。 部隊家屬生活區劃分為公寓區及售房區。 公寓區住房保障在職人員住用,離職遷出。 售房區住房向個人出售,產權歸己,維修自理。 軍事單位利用國家經濟適用住宅政策,在售屋區或徵用地方的土地建設經濟適用住宅向軍隊人員出售。

     四、住房管理實行社會化。 壓縮住房保障規模,減輕軍隊管房負擔,售房區出售的住房、新建的經濟適用住房全部實行物業管理,公寓區住房的管理逐步向社會化管理過渡。


     為了改善旅團作戰部隊、特別是駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區的旅團作戰部隊幹部的住房條件,軍委、總部多次撥出專項經費,著手安排住房建設和改造。 各級各部門依據總部製定的建設規劃,優先解決駐鄉鎮和邊遠艱苦地區旅團作戰部隊幹部住房問題,並針對幹部流動性大,能進能出,人走家搬等特點,因地制宜,通過缺 房屋新建、危險房屋完工、舊房整修和補缺配套等多種方式,加速進度,擴大受益面。 同時,加強以限額設計為主要內容的勘察設計管理,嚴格施工管理,確保新建、翻建和整修的房屋經濟實用,工程品質優良。 截至2003年底,全軍已累計投資17億多元,新建改造房屋300多萬平方米,使5萬多名旅團部隊的幹部住上了新房。 全軍士官家屬臨時來隊住房建設已完成投資3.5億元,建成士官家屬臨時來隊住房1.4萬套、56萬平方米,使10萬名士官家屬臨時來隊有房可住。


     新推出的《軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間社會保險暫行辦法》明確規定,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間可享有基本生活補貼。 《辦法》規定,根據軍人駐地艱苦程度,軍人配偶隨軍未就業期間每月享有相應的基本生活補貼。 同時,為促進就業、再就業,實施領取基本生活補貼遞減制度。 駐國家確定的一、二類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的三類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為60個月;駐一般地區部隊的軍人 ,其配偶隨軍未就業期間領取基本生活補貼標準全額的期限最長為36個月。 未就業隨軍配偶領取基本生活補貼標準全額期滿後,以本人基本生活補貼標準8%的比例逐年遞減。 遞減後的最低基本生活補貼標準,由總後勤部參考省會城市失業保險金標準決定。 駐國家確定的三四類艱苦邊遠地區和軍隊確定的特、一、二類島嶼部隊的軍人,其配偶隨軍未就業期間基本生活補貼標準不實行遞減。



     全軍醫院資訊系統擁有上網微電腦2.6萬台,已經建立了11個資訊化基地。 2003年部分大軍區已實現軍區機關到醫院的聯網,全軍將逐步實現醫院資訊系統的聯網,總部機關可透過廣域網路直接了解全軍醫院的醫療、教學、科研等情況,為宏觀決策提供科學依據 。 醫院資訊系統增強了醫院管理環節的調控力度,實現了全程管理;簡化了工作流程,方便了病患就醫;提高了醫療質量,減少了醫護差錯。 依托醫院資訊系統軍隊在瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、蘭州軍區進行了醫療改革試點,130多萬官兵和家屬實現持「醫療卡」就醫,減少了就診、轉診程序。 明年4月1日,全軍將實施持卡就醫。 醫院資訊系統在合理用藥、電子醫療檔案和醫學影像應用方面也取得了顯著成效。 門診處方和住院病人用藥醫囑不合理,醫院資訊系統會自動顯示出來,並為病人提供最佳用藥選擇,避免了亂開大處方現象;電子醫療檔案規範了病程記錄的書寫;醫學影像資料的計算機 採集、存貯和調閱,為提高工作效率和醫療品質提供了方便。


     解放軍總後勤部高級專家團於8月11日抵達青海省西寧市,開始為駐邊遠艱苦地區的青藏兵站部基層部隊進行技術服務。 這是全軍首次組織面向駐邊遠艱苦地區基層部隊的智力服務活動。 參與這次智力服務活動的專家團成員由總後勤部所屬醫療單位、軍事院校、科研單位的中青年專家、教授組成,其中有1名院士、8名博士、2名碩士。 他們中既有在海外學成歸來的專家,又有全國、全軍先進典型和總後勤部「三星」人才。 專家團將根據部隊實際需要,深入青藏線沿線兵站、醫院、倉庫、輸油管部隊、汽車運輸部隊,透過舉辦學術講座、設備檢修、醫療服務、心理諮詢等方式對官兵們實行面對面服務,幫助解決部隊遇到的技術難題,指導開展新技術、新業務,傳授 基層所需的有關業務知識等。 專家團向部隊贈送了價值140多萬元的醫療設備。


     解放軍總裝備部領導同志在談到2003年部隊武器裝備現代化建設時強調,要切實把「三個代表」重要思想作為各項工作的科學指南,作為推動部隊裝備建設跨越式發展的根本動力。 深入研究面臨的新情況、新問題,積極推動適應武器裝備發展的理論創新;大力推進科技創新,在「生產一代、研發世代、預研一代」的基礎上,著力進行「探索一代」的研究; 穩步推進體制、機制創新。 要適應世界新軍事變革的大趨勢,努力尋求武器裝備建設的新突破新跨越。 要適應高新技術武器裝備發展的要求,確保重大科學研究試驗任務圓滿完成。 要服從並服務國家發展大局,為全面建立小康社會積極作貢獻。

     解放軍總裝備部把選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部作為實施人才戰略工程的一項重要內容來抓,截至2003年底有400多名博士、碩士走上團以上領導崗位,其中150多人擔任軍師級領導 職務。 高學歷年輕幹部在總裝備部師團兩級已成為主體,團以上領導班子中具有大學本科以上學歷的約佔90%,基本形成了更替有序、人才輩出的良好局面,從而為部隊武器裝備 現代化建設的長遠發展提供了組織保證。

     總裝備部擔負部隊武器裝備建設和國防科研試驗重大任務。 為適應武器裝備建設長遠發展需要和進一步提高國防科研試驗能力,在總裝備部黨委的統一部署下,各級把選拔培養學歷高、素質好、發展潛力大的優秀年輕幹部作為一項長期而緊迫 的任務來抓,採取使用一批、培養一批、儲備一批的辦法,把高學歷優秀年輕幹部有序地充實到團以上領導崗位,逐步實現軍師級指揮軍官隊伍年輕化、知識化、專業 化。 至2003年,已培養了一批「博士司令」「博士老總」「博士校長」。 在選拔培養高學歷優秀年輕幹部過程中,總裝備部各級不搞論資排輩,而是強調“優先意識”和“超前意識”,把一批高學歷優秀年輕幹部提前安排到重要領導崗位上任職, 成為重點裝備研發、重大科學研究試驗任務和國防關鍵技術攻關的組織指揮者。 對特別優秀的高學歷年輕幹部,採取小步快走等超常措施破格提拔,近年來提拔的一批年輕軍職領導幹部中,博士和碩士佔一半以上。

     解放軍總裝備部認真依照國務院、中央軍委所授予的職能,加強對軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費的審計監督和管理,努力提高國防科研經費的使用效益,有效保證了新型裝備和重大國防科研試驗 任務的完成。

     根據總裝備部審計局負責人介紹,國防科研財務和審計部門採取多種措施,嚴格國防科研經費的管理和審計,使得國防科研經費的使用效益進一步提高;國防科研經費保障力度明顯加強,管理程序 更規範,經費流向更合理;國防科研合約制度進一步推廣和深化,大大促進和保障了重大科研試驗任務的順利完成;加大了國防科研經費的審計監督力度,嚴肅查處了一批違反國防科研經費 使用管理規定的單位和個人,有效確保了國防科研經費的專款專用。 經對26項國防重點工程和各軍工集團公司部分科研單位國防科研經費使用情況的審計表明,軍隊和國防科技工業部門國防科研經費使用情況良好,管理規範,財務核算體系完整,有效地保證了國防 科學研究的需要和新型裝備的研發。 一批新型武器裝備的研發工作取得重大進展,一批關鍵國防科技攻關計畫取得重要突破,國防研究與試驗產品的品質明顯提高,部分重點國防研究計畫的進度提前。

     2003年8月,解放軍總裝備部採用競爭性談判方式,分別與3家車輛製造廠簽訂了航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛的採購合約。 這標誌著軍隊裝備採購制度改革正逐步深入。

     航太發射推進劑鐵路車輛分罐車、機車、客車等不同類型,過去都是到指定廠商訂購,車輛造價不斷上漲,產品技術性能、可靠性和售後服務卻沒有明顯改善。 為貫徹落實《裝備採購條例》,深化裝備採購制度改革,總裝備部在車輛訂購中引入競爭機制,根據推進劑運輸車輛的技術特點和鐵路車輛製造業實際,首次採用競爭性談判方式選擇承製 廠商。 談判過程中,裝備部遵循「公平、公正、科學、擇優」的原則,從報價、品質、服務、資信等方面對參與競爭性談判的廠商進行了綜合評定。 最終,3個報價最低、方案最優的車輛廠成為預成交廠商。 這次採購比預算少支出了132萬元。

To meet the challenges of the world's new military transformation and actively promote military transformation with Chinese characteristics, the Central Military Commission has made major strategic decisions and the headquarters has launched a series of major measures. The biggest move is the decision to reduce the number of military personnel by another 200,000 before 2005.

    In 2002, the Central Military Commission officially promulgated the "Implementation of Military Talent Strategic Project Plan"; the four headquarters successively issued "Regulations on Several Issues on Strengthening the Construction of Cadre Teams for Equipment and Technical Support of Combat Forces" and "Opinions on Further Improving Cadre Exchanges" and the "Opinions on Several Issues Concerning Improving the Quality of Staff Teams", the pace of personnel training across the military has been significantly accelerated. In October 2002, a high-tech knowledge training class for senior military region leaders started, focusing on the study of information warfare and military information construction. Each headquarters agency has also successively launched high-tech knowledge training courses. The focus on informatization construction starts from senior cadres and leading agencies, demonstrating the focus and characteristics of military reforms over the past year.

    The major measures taken by the Central Military Commission Headquarters directly enhance combat effectiveness. When deploying annual training tasks, the General Staff Headquarters emphasizes innovative forward-looking combat theories and drives the reform of training content and training methods with new needs. The General Political Department directly organized the revision of the new "Political Work Regulations", emphasizing that political work should serve the promotion of military reform with Chinese characteristics, and all military political cadres began to study the new "Political Work Regulations" on a large scale. The General Logistics Department has vigorously promoted the construction of tri-service joint logistics and logistics informatization, and information systems such as telemedicine for remote troops and military housing management have made new leaps. Equipment system officers and soldiers seize the period of strategic opportunities, accelerate the leap-forward development of military weapons and equipment, and strive to make existing equipment, especially new equipment, into an organic system and into a system to form combat capabilities and support capabilities.

    Improving the quality of officers and soldiers is an important part of promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics. To adapt to building an information-based army and win information-based wars, we must have high qualities that are suitable for it. By 2003, both grassroots officers and soldiers, division chiefs, and low-educated cadres had a strong sense of crisis. Many leading cadres have taken the lead in setting an example and are determined to improve their ability to command information warfare. All units across the military have taken increasingly strong measures to focus on talent work, providing strong talent and intellectual support for promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics.

Disarmament by 200,000

    On September 1, 2003, when attending the 50th anniversary celebration of the University of Defense Technology, Jiang Zemin, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, solemnly announced that the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 500,000 during the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period. The former army will cut another 200,000 positions. This is the 10th major reorganization of the military since the founding of the People's Republic of China, which has attracted great attention from the international community. Some public opinion said, "With the large-scale reduction of military personnel as a symbol, the curtain of China's new military reform has officially begun."

    To promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, we must scientifically establish strategic goals, development ideas and specific steps for military construction in accordance with the requirements for realizing informatization. However, insufficient supply of military expenditures is a common problem encountered by the militaries of various countries, including China, in the new military transformation. From a global perspective, the proportion of national defense expenditures in GDP in various countries is generally between 2% and 4%, while China only accounts for about 1.5%. Taking 2002 as an example, China's defense expenditure was 169.444 billion yuan, equivalent to approximately 20 billion U.S. dollars, which was only equivalent to about 6% of that of the United States. Most of the military expenditure is used for the living expenses and activity maintenance expenses of the 2.5 million personnel, and relatively little is used for equipment and training.

    Military experts pointed out that the purchase and maintenance costs of high-tech and information-based weapons and equipment have increased exponentially. To solve the contradiction between supply and demand of military expenditure and maximize benefits from limited military expenditure, the best idea is to reduce the number of personnel and improve the quality of the army. The new military reform requires that the size of the army be reasonable, moderate and sufficient. After the number of Chinese military personnel is reduced from 2.5 million to 2.3 million, it will be more likely that limited strategic resources can be used more effectively and achieve greater benefits. Large-scale reduction of posts is not just about "reducing personnel". Its essence is a structural adjustment of the existing military system and establishment. The adjustment and reform of the military system and establishment must implement the principles of elite troops, integration and efficiency. Only by in-depth study of the impact of high-tech warfare on the military system and establishment Only by focusing on solving the contradictions and problems existing in the leadership, command and management system and troop formation can we establish a military system with Chinese characteristics.

    Military experts believe that reducing quantity, improving quality, optimizing the internal structure of the army, increasing high-tech content, strengthening comprehensive integration construction, and gradually establishing systems and establishments that meet the requirements of modern warfare are the key to accelerating the modernization of the People's Liberation Army and better doing military work. The inevitable choice for struggle preparation. Unswervingly following the path of elite soldiers with Chinese characteristics is the established policy of military construction. The reduction of military personnel is to continuously adapt to the world's new military reform and development trends and to serve the needs of the overall national economic construction. After this disarmament, although the scale of China's military power has been reduced to a certain extent, its combat effectiveness will definitely be improved, and its ability to safeguard national sovereignty and territorial integrity will definitely be further enhanced!

    According to the unified deployment of the Central Military Commission, the work of streamlining and reorganizing the army will be fully launched by the end of 2003. Most of the remaining soldiers in the streamlined and reorganized units will be arranged to retire from active service, including remaining conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not completed their service period. The People's Liberation Army Headquarters has made specific arrangements for this work: in accordance with the needs of troop adjustment and downsizing, some conscripts and non-commissioned officers who have not served for the required period of time are allowed to retire from active service early; retired conscripts and demobilized non-commissioned officers in units with heavier missions can be arranged to retire early. Demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave the unit; demobilized non-commissioned officers from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve units shall be transferred to local resettlement departments for placement in advance. The resettlement of soldiers who retire early due to the adjustment and streamlining of the army must be treated equally with retired soldiers who have completed their service, be received on time, and included in the 2004 resettlement plan. Among them, retired urban conscripts who have served in active service for more than one year must be placed in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired conscripts after completing their service; retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 9 years must be arranged in accordance with the relevant regulations for retired non-commissioned officers who have served in active service for more than 10 years. . For demobilized non-commissioned officers who leave early from units that have been abolished or reorganized into reserve forces, each major unit will send dedicated personnel to submit the files to the relevant local resettlement departments for review. For those who meet the conditions, a "Notice of Acceptance and Placement" will be issued, and the army can organize demobilized non-commissioned officers. Leave the team; if you personally request demobilization, you can also undergo demobilization and resettlement with approval. For noncommissioned officers who meet the retirement conditions, retirement orders should be issued in a timely manner in accordance with the "Measures for the Resettlement of Noncommissioned Officers of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Retiring from Active Service" issued by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and reported to each level for inclusion in the transfer and resettlement plan. Soldiers who retire early will be issued retirement fees and materials based on their actual service years and corresponding standards. The funds and materials issued must be distributed to retired soldiers in full and in a timely manner. Decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team early will be treated the same as decommissioned non-commissioned officers who leave the team during the normal time of the year. Salaries, benefits, medical treatment and clothing will be paid in accordance with relevant regulations.

    After the adjustment and reform of the military's organizational structure, the Chinese military will have dozens of cadre positions, including chiefs of departments and club directors, and tens of thousands of cadre positions filled by non-commissioned officers. Personnel in professional positions changed to non-commissioned officers will be included in the training of technical secondary school or above in military academies starting from 2004. In order to ensure the smooth progress of this work and meet the requirements for talents and other positions to be replaced by the end of 2003, pre-service training for non-commissioned officers is planned to be conducted by combining technical secondary school education training with short-term training. Among them, short-term training of 3 to 5 months will be conducted for professional positions in which replacement candidates are selected from existing non-commissioned officers who have received more than 2 years of training in colleges and universities. For professional positions that do not have the same or similar majors in the existing non-commissioned officer education training plan and for which there are no candidates for replacement, we will organize technical secondary school education training, with a 2-year academic system, 1 year of study at school, and 1 year of on-the-job internship; enrollment will begin in the first quarter of each year , he continued his summer vacation while studying at school, and returned to the army for internship before the end of 2003.

Attached: Information on the first nine disarmaments

    The first streamlining and reorganization: In the early days of the founding of New China, the total strength of the People's Liberation Army reached 5.5 million. In June 1950, the Chinese Army Staff Conference's streamlining and reorganization plan stipulated that the army should be reduced to 4 million, and more than 239,000 people were demobilized that year. Soon, the War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea broke out, and the streamlining and reorganization work was terminated. By the end of 1951, the number of military personnel reached 6.27 million, the largest number in the history of the Chinese military.

    The second streamlining and reorganization: In November 1951, the Central Military Commission held a reorganization meeting and stipulated that the total number of military personnel should be controlled at about 3 million by 1954. In January 1952, Mao Zedong approved the "Military Reorganization Plan" and the total quota of the army was reduced to about 3 million.

    The third streamlining and reorganization: As of the end of September 1953, the number of troops was reduced to about 4.2 million. In December of that year, a meeting of senior party cadres in the Chinese military system decided to reduce the number of troops to 3.5 million. By June 1954, the army had been streamlined by more than 472,000 people, and the plan was basically completed by the end of the year.

    The fourth streamlining and reorganization: In January 1957, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission passed the "Decision on Reducing the Quantity and Strengthening the Quality of the Army", which determined that the total number of the army would be reduced by another third, requiring a reduction of 1.3 million personnel in three years, reducing it to Around 2.5 million people.

    The fifth streamlining and reorganization: From June 24 to July 5, 1975, the enlarged meeting of the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the army by 600,000 people within three years. By 1976, the total number of troops was 13.6% lower than in 1975. Later, due to the interference and sabotage of the "Gang of Four", the streamlining and reorganization task was stopped before it was completed.

    The sixth, seventh, and eighth streamlining and reorganization: In March 1980, the Central Military Commission decided to streamline the army again, vigorously streamline agencies, reduce non-combatants and support troops, implement streamlined reorganization of some units, and transfer some units to local governments. On August 15 of the same year, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Central Military Commission's "Plan on the Streamlining and Reorganization of the Army." In September 1982, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission decided to further streamline and reorganize the army. At the end of May and beginning of June 1985, the Central Military Commission decided to reduce the number of military personnel by 1 million, and the streamlining and reorganization work was basically completed by the beginning of 1987.

    The ninth streamlining and reorganization: In September 1997, Comrade Jiang Zemin announced in his report to the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China that, based on the reduction of 1 million military personnel in the 1980s, China will reduce the military personnel by another 500,000 personnel in the next three years. By the end of 1999, the task of disarmament of 500,000 troops had been completed, and more than 200,000 military cadres had retired from active service and transferred to local jobs. This is the highest proportion of cadre reduction among the previous reductions in military personnel in New China.

Technological training

    In 2003, the Chinese military and armed police forces successfully completed their annual training tasks and achieved new results in five aspects: theoretical innovation, actual combat drills, anti-terrorism training, talent training, and strict management training.

    1. Use developed military theories to guide new military training practices. In accordance with the requirements of using informatization to drive mechanization and mechanization to promote informatization, the military training of the army and armed police forces conducts in-depth theoretical research on information operations, non-contact operations, joint operations and other combat styles, innovates military theories and combat ideas, and guides military training. The deepening of reform has promoted the development of scientific and technological training in the direction of informatization.

    2. Focus on improving the ability to win, taking preparations for military struggles as the leader, and making troop training close to actual combat. The Nanjing and Guangzhou Military Regions have intensified their efforts in practical training with actual troops, carried out research on difficult tactical and technical issues, and achieved a number of valuable results. The Shenyang, Beijing, and Jinan Military Regions practice command, tactics, coordination, and support under conditions similar to actual combat; the Navy, Air Force, and Second Artillery Force focus on strengthening joint combat command drills of all services and arms; Lanzhou and Chengdu Military Regions deepen operations in alpine mountains Conduct drills to study and solve key issues such as mobility, survival, command, coordination, and support; the Armed Police Force strengthens emergency response, anti-terrorism, and defense operations drills. The entire military actively carries out innovative practices in regional collaborative training, and launches key research on key issues such as joint tactical corps operational theory and regional collaborative training mechanisms.

    3. In accordance with the new military tasks assigned to the army by the state in the fight against terrorism, the troops responsible for the task of counter-terrorism shall carry out solid research and training practices in the military fight against terrorism.

    4. There are new measures for talent cultivation. Military academies focus on cultivating high-quality new military talents, deepening the adjustment and reform of the institutional structure of institutions, and promoting the in-depth development of teaching reforms in institutions. All units have further intensified the construction of training institutions and teaching reform, and trained a large number of outstanding command non-commissioned officers at the grassroots level.

    5. The military insists on conducting training in accordance with the law, conducts training strictly according to the program, vigorously carries out on-the-job training activities, improves the quality of contract tactical drills, and continuously improves the level of formalized training of the troops.

Force reform

    On June 10, 2003, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army issued a notice requiring officers and soldiers of the entire army and the Armed Police Force to conscientiously study and implement the spirit of the "Notice of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Issuing the (Study Outline of the Important Thought of the "Three Represents")" and deepen the understanding of the "Three Represents" The understanding of the important thought of "Three Represents" has led to a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" in the entire army. The General Political Department organized the publishing department to quickly print and distribute the "Outline for Studying the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" to the entire army, and issued a special notice requiring all leading cadres at the army corps level and above and cadres in government agencies to carefully study a series of important works by Comrade Jiang Zemin and learn from the "Outline" "As a clue, we can deeply and systematically study and master the important thinking of the "Three Represents" as a whole. The grassroots level should use the "Outline" as the main guidance material, read several important works of Comrade Jiang Zemin, deeply study and master the basic spirit and basic viewpoints of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further unify the thoughts and actions of all officers and soldiers with Deng Xiaoping Theory and uphold the important thought of "Three Represents", further condense wisdom and strength into realizing the tasks set by the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, resolutely obey the commands of the Party Central Committee, the Central Military Commission and Chairman Jiang, and strive to achieve the grand goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. Goal and strive for the revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the army.

    On June 18, a theoretical seminar for the whole army to study and implement the important thought of "Three Represents" was held in Beijing. The meeting emphasized that we must more firmly establish the guiding position of the important thought of "Three Represents" in military building, gather the will and strength of the officers and soldiers under the banner of the important thought of "Three Represents", and further lay a solid foundation for adhering to the Party's support for the military. The ideological and theoretical foundation of absolute leadership enables the entire military to always maintain a mental state of advancing with the times, shoulder the sacred mission, actively promote military reform with Chinese characteristics, and achieve leap-forward development of military modernization.

    In mid-June, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army put forward opinions on conscientiously implementing the spirit of the notice of the CPC Central Committee and setting off a new upsurge in studying and implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" throughout the army.

    With the approval of the Central Military Commission, the General Political Department entrusted the National Defense University to hold two rotational training courses for leading cadres above the military level in late August and mid-September to study and implement the important thinking of the "Three Represents". Recent students from the entire army and the Armed Police Force Hundreds of leading cadres above the military level each conducted a 10-day study. The rotation training class is guided by the spirit of Comrade Hu Jintao's "July 1st" important speech, in accordance with the requirements of the Central Committee's "Notice" and the General Administration's "Opinions", and based on the "Study Outline of the Important Thought of "Three Represents"" and "Jiang Zemin's Thought on National Defense and Army Construction" "Outline" as the basic clue, organized students to study Comrade Jiang Zemin's works and the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In order to deepen the deep understanding and systematic grasp of the content learned, and to understand the latest theoretical research results, the rotation training class also invited relevant members of the Central Propaganda Group, the Central Literature Research Office, the National Development and Reform Commission, Peking University, and the Military Ideological and Theoretical Front. Experts and scholars gave special lectures and counseling reports. Through rotation training, the trainees have a new understanding of the historical background, practical basis, scientific connotation, spiritual essence and historical status of the important thought of "Three Represents", further deepened their understanding of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and enhanced They have a sense of mission and responsibility to use the important thinking of "Three Represents" to guide the reform and construction of the army and create new situations in all work.

    In 2003, the entire army and armed police forces carried out extensive and in-depth educational activities to study and practice the important thought of "Three Represents" and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a well-off society. Through education, the majority of officers and soldiers have further strengthened their political belief in the party's innovative theory, and enhanced their sense of responsibility and mission to consciously apply the important thought of "Three Represents" to promote the reform and construction of the army and contribute to the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society.

    According to the person in charge of the relevant department of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army, the educational activities are implemented in two stages. In the first half of the year, the focus is on studying the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and focusing on special education; in the second half of the year, the implementation of General Secretary Hu Jintao's instructions for leading cadres at the provincial and ministerial levels Study and implement the important speeches at the special seminar on the important thought of "Three Represents" and the deployment of the Party Central Committee and the Central Military Commission, combined with the study of Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, to further deepen educational activities. In education, the main leaders of major units went deep into the troops to provide specific guidance, and nearly a thousand leaders above the military level and more than 10,000 cadres above the regiment level gave lectures to the troops. Many troops invited local party and government leaders to introduce measures to develop the economy and improve people's lives; they organized viewings of video reports on the deeds of advanced people such as Zheng Peimin and Fan Kuangfu; they organized visits to anti-SARS photo exhibitions and invited anti-SARS heroes and models to give reports; and held situation report meetings with experts and scholars. Discussions and exchanges, etc. The officers and soldiers said that in the great journey of socialism with Chinese characteristics, we cannot do without the guidance of the important thought of "Three Represents" for a moment, and we must always persist and unswervingly.

    All units guide officers and soldiers to use the positions, viewpoints and methods of the important thought of "Three Represents" to deeply understand the party's major strategic decisions for the comprehensive progress of the country's economy, society and culture, and encourage everyone to take realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as their own responsibility and consciously obey and serve The overall situation of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. The military medical staff who participated in the fight against SARS at Xiaotangshan Hospital worked hard for more than 50 days and nights and made outstanding achievements in defeating the SARS disease. After floods occurred in the Yellow River, Huaihe, Weihe and other river basins, earthquakes occurred in Xinjiang, Yunnan and other places, and fires broke out in the Greater Khingan Mountains and other areas, more than 100,000 officers and soldiers risked their lives and rushed to the front line of rescue and disaster relief, assisting local governments to relocate and resettle more than 100 people. Thousands of people, transported more than 2 million tons of supplies, and defended the achievements of "moderately prosperous" construction with their blood and lives.

    The most distinctive feature of this educational activity is to focus on transforming learning results into powerful spiritual motivation to promote army building, achieve new development, and create new situations. Many troops guide officers and soldiers to find out the manifestations of outdated thinking in training and teaching, education management, logistics support, equipment construction, etc., correct them one by one, and establish training, management and management systems that are suitable for building a well-off society in an all-round way and building an information-based army. Talent concept. Each unit actively organized officers and soldiers to boldly reform and innovate based on actual combat needs, and developed a number of new achievements such as field command and control systems, wartime work decision-making systems, and simulation training equipment. The troops responsible for emergency mobile operations shouted the slogan of "training scientific and technological elite soldiers to serve as vanguards", practicing skills and improving quality, and successfully completed tasks such as sea training, field training and live ammunition launches. In 2003, more than 120,000 officers and soldiers in the army actively signed up to participate in various correspondence studies and self-study examinations. Thousands of cadres studied for master's and doctoral degrees in military majors. The Central Military Commission's decision on the implementation of the talent strategic project is becoming practical actions for the majority of officers and soldiers. .

    At the end of July 2003, with the approval of the Central Military Commission, the "Jiang Zemin Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" organized and compiled by the General Political Department was officially published and distributed to the entire army. The Central Military Commission issued a notice requiring all officers and soldiers to use Jiang Zemin's "On National Defense and Army Construction" and a series of important speeches as the basic teaching materials, and the "Outline" as important auxiliary materials, conscientiously study and implement Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army construction, and promote the study of the entire army The new upsurge in implementing the important thought of "Three Represents" continues to develop in depth.

    The Central Military Commission held a symposium on the publication of "Jiang Zemin's Ideological Study Outline for National Defense and Army Construction" in Beijing on July 31. The meeting pointed out that Chairman Jiang has formed a complete and systematic thought on national defense and army building in the great practice of leading national defense and army building. Jiang Zemin's thought on national defense and army building, together with Mao Zedong's military thought and Deng Xiaoping's thought on army building in the new era, is a military science system that is in the same vein and keeps pace with the times. It is an important part of the important thought of "Three Represents" and an important part of Marxist military theory. The latest achievements of China's development are scientific guides for military construction and development in the new century and new stage. The entire military must unswervingly regard Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building as the fundamental guideline and guide to action in guiding all work. Leading cadres at all levels should set an example in learning and implementing Jiang Zemin's thoughts on national defense and army building, and take the lead in learning, implementing and applying this scientific theory well.

Logistics support

    The army's logistics work adheres to the important thinking of "Three Represents" to govern all constructions. In accordance with the requirements of actively promoting military reform with Chinese characteristics, it intensifies reform and innovation, accelerates the pace of development, and achieves remarkable results in logistics construction.

    The joint logistics system of the three armed forces is operating well. By adjusting the support relationship, most troops have achieved close-by support; high-quality joint logistics services have been carried out to ensure the timely and full supply of funds and materials; a coordination and cooperation mechanism has been established to provide joint training in peacetime and joint operations in wartime. Guarantee creates conditions.

    With the full launch of a new round of socialization of logistics support, 2,179 canteens in the army were reformed in 2003; 1,283 military service agencies were withdrawn, merged, suspended, or modified; and 1,851 non-combat military camps were undergoing barrack maintenance, water supply and power supply. , greening and cleaning projects, etc.; through various methods such as overall transfer, entrusted management, self-employment, and termination of labor relations, more than 31,000 employees and temporary workers were diverted and resettled.

    In 2003, the total military bidding and procurement exceeded 7 billion yuan, an average saving of more than 10% over the previous year. The reform of the procurement system for troops below the military level has been popularized and centralized procurement has exceeded 1 billion yuan, achieving both economic and social benefits.

    In 2003, the administrative consumable expenditure limit standards for headquarters business departments were implemented for the first time, and key projects such as combat readiness and training were effectively guaranteed. In the first half of 2003, more than 20 million yuan in administrative consumable expenses in the headquarters business funds were reduced through this system.

    The reform of the housing system, which the whole military is concerned about, is advancing steadily. In 2003, the headquarters issued relevant policies on strengthening the management of affordable housing, accelerating the sale of existing housing in the housing sales area and the housing sales of some retired veteran cadres. The existing housing policies have basically completed the supporting facilities. In 2003, the Military Commission invested 950 million yuan in building temporary housing for the families of non-commissioned officers. As of 2003, this work has achieved initial results.

    The Shenyang, Lanzhou, and Jinan Military Regions, which are responsible for the medical reform pilot tasks, have achieved the expected goals of the medical reform pilot. The consumption of outpatient and inpatient funds has increased by 10.5% compared with before the medical reform. The per capita consumption of inpatients has increased by 4.1% compared with before the medical reform. The number of drugs has increased from quantity to variety. The level of medical care has been greatly improved; the standards for collective subsidy for serious illness medical care have been established, and the medical reform work has initially achieved results.

    Logistics informatization construction is advancing steadily. On the basis of the 20 military-wide satellite telemedicine system sites that have been established, more than 60 new sites were built in 2003 for troops stationed in remote and difficult areas, basically forming a large-scale telemedicine system throughout the military. The "Military Housing Construction and Management Information System" has made a qualitative leap in the housing management of the entire military. The largest automated three-dimensional warehouse for military supplies in the entire army was officially put into use at the Military Supply Bureau of the General Logistics, marking the entry into automation of the military supply of military supplies.

The housing system is improving day by day

    After years of exploration and continuous deepening, the military's housing system reform has made significant progress. The housing system has been increasingly improved, and a new housing security system has gradually taken shape. The military's housing security market is large, exports are not smooth, and the housing component of soldiers' wages is low, so they cannot afford to buy a house. These problems are being gradually solved.

    1. Clarify the housing security methods for various types of personnel. Different housing guarantees are implemented for six categories of personnel, including serving cadres, retired cadres, retired cadres, transferred cadres, non-commissioned officers, and employees. Serving cadres mainly live in apartments, and they can buy their own houses if conditions permit; retired cadres mainly buy existing houses in cadres' residences, and retired cadres mainly buy affordable housing specially built for them, and they can also take care of their own houses; transferred and demobilized cadres and Non-commissioned officers purchase housing provided by society after receiving corresponding housing subsidies from the military; employees implement housing reform based on the territorial principle.

    2. Establish a housing subsidy and provident fund system. Housing subsidies for various types of personnel are calculated on a monthly basis and credited to their personal accounts. They will be paid to individuals upon approval to purchase a house or when they retire or change jobs and leave the military. Withdraw part of the funds from the total salary to establish a housing provident fund, which is owned by individuals, stored uniformly, and used exclusively.

    3. Implement zoning for housing sales and develop affordable housing. The living area for military family members is divided into apartment areas and sales areas. The housing in the apartment area ensures that employees can live in and move out after resigning. The houses in the sales area are sold to individuals, the property rights belong to them, and the maintenance is taken care of by themselves. Military units take advantage of the national affordable housing policy to build affordable housing on land in housing sales areas or requisitioned areas for sale to military personnel.

    4. Socialize housing management. The scale of housing security will be reduced to reduce the burden of housing management by the military. All housing sold in housing sales areas and newly built affordable housing will be subject to property management. The management of housing in apartment areas will gradually transition to socialized management.

Housing construction for grassroots cadres has been significantly accelerated

    In order to improve the housing conditions of brigade combat troops, especially those stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas, the Military Commission and the headquarters have allocated special funds on many occasions to start arranging housing construction and renovation. Based on the construction plans formulated by the headquarters, departments at all levels give priority to solving the housing problem of cadres of brigade combat troops stationed in villages and towns and remote and difficult areas. In view of the characteristics of cadres, such as high mobility, being able to come in and out, and people moving around, measures are taken according to local conditions and through the lack of housing. New housing construction, renovation of dilapidated housing, renovation of old housing, and supporting facilities to fill gaps will speed up the progress and expand the scope of benefits. At the same time, we will strengthen survey and design management with quota design as the main content, and strictly implement construction management to ensure that newly built, renovated and renovated housing is economical and practical, and the project quality is excellent. By the end of 2003, the military had invested a total of more than 1.7 billion yuan in building and renovating more than 3 million square meters of housing, enabling more than 50,000 brigade and regiment cadres to live in new homes. An investment of 350 million yuan has been completed in the construction of temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers in the entire army, and 14,000 temporary housing units covering 560,000 square meters have been built for the families of non-commissioned officers, providing housing for 100,000 temporary units for the families of non-commissioned officers.

Military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while they are not employed in the military.

    The newly issued "Interim Measures for Social Security for Military Spouses While Not Employed in the Military" clearly stipulates that military spouses can enjoy basic living allowances while not employed in the military. The "Measures" stipulate that according to the hardship of the military station, military spouses shall enjoy corresponding basic living allowances every month while they are not employed in the military. At the same time, in order to promote employment and re-employment, a system of declining basic living allowances is implemented. For military personnel stationed in Category I and Category II difficult remote areas determined by the state and Category III island units determined by the military, their spouses can receive the full standard of basic living allowance for up to 60 months while they are not employed in the army; for soldiers stationed in general areas, the maximum period is 60 months. , the maximum period for which the spouse can receive the full standard of basic living allowance while serving in the military and not employed is 36 months. After the full period of the basic living subsidy standard for an unemployed military spouse expires, the rate of 8% of the basic living subsidy standard will be reduced year by year. The reduced minimum basic living allowance standard will be determined by the General Logistics Department with reference to the unemployment insurance standard in provincial capital cities. For servicemen stationed in the third and fourth categories of difficult remote areas determined by the state and the special, first and second category island units determined by the military, the basic living subsidy standards for their spouses will not be reduced during the period when they are not employed in the army.

More than 99% of hospitals across the military have implemented information management

    According to relevant departments of the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army, by the end of 2003, with the exception of four military hospitals stationed in remote areas such as Tibet, more than 99% of hospitals in the army had implemented information management and achieved significant benefits.

    The military hospital information system has 26,000 Internet-connected computers, and 11 information bases have been established. In 2003, some major military regions have already implemented networking from military region agencies to hospitals. The entire military will gradually implement networking of hospital information systems. Headquarters agencies can directly understand the medical, teaching, scientific research, etc. conditions of all military hospitals through the wide area network, providing scientific basis for macro decision-making. . The hospital information system strengthens the control of hospital management links and realizes full-process management; it simplifies the work process and facilitates patients' medical treatment; it improves the quality of medical care and reduces medical errors. Relying on the hospital information system, the military has carried out medical reform pilots in the Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, and Lanzhou Military Region. More than 1.3 million officers, soldiers and their family members have been able to seek medical treatment with "medical cards", reducing medical treatment and referral procedures. On April 1 next year, the entire military will implement card-based medical treatment. Hospital information systems have also achieved remarkable results in rational drug use, electronic medical records and medical imaging applications. If outpatient prescriptions and inpatient medication orders are unreasonable, the hospital information system will automatically display them and provide patients with the best medication options, avoiding the phenomenon of random large prescriptions; electronic medical files standardize the writing of disease course records; computers of medical imaging data Collection, storage and retrieval provide convenience for improving work efficiency and medical quality.

For the first time, a high-level expert team was dispatched to troops stationed in remote and difficult areas.

    A senior expert team from the General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army arrived in Xining City, Qinghai Province on August 11 and began to provide technical services to the grassroots troops of the Qinghai-Tibet Military Station stationed in remote and difficult areas. This is the first time the army has organized an intellectual service activity for grassroots troops stationed in remote and difficult areas. The expert team members participating in this intellectual service activity are composed of young and middle-aged experts and professors from medical units, military academies, and scientific research units affiliated to the General Logistics Department, including 1 academician, 8 doctors, and 2 masters. Among them are experts who have returned from overseas studies, as well as advanced models across the country and the army and "three-star" talents from the General Logistics Department. According to the actual needs of the troops, the expert team will go deep into the military stations, hospitals, warehouses, oil pipeline troops, and automobile transportation troops along the Qinghai-Tibet Line, and provide face-to-face services to the officers and soldiers by holding academic lectures, equipment maintenance, medical services, psychological consultation, etc., to help the officers and soldiers. Solve technical problems encountered by the troops, guide the development of new technologies and new businesses, and impart relevant business knowledge needed by the grassroots. The expert team donated medical equipment worth more than 1.4 million yuan to the troops.


    When talking about the modernization of military weapons and equipment in 2003, leading comrades from the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army emphasized that the important thinking of "Three Represents" should be effectively used as a scientific guide for all work and as the fundamental driving force for the leap-forward development of military equipment construction. In-depth study of new situations and new problems faced, and actively promote theoretical innovation adapted to the development of weapons and equipment; vigorously promote scientific and technological innovation, on the basis of "production generation, development generation, pre-research generation", focus on "exploration generation" research; Steadily promote institutional and mechanism innovation. We must adapt to the general trend of new military changes in the world and strive to seek new breakthroughs and new leaps in the construction of weapons and equipment. It is necessary to adapt to the requirements of the development of high-tech weapons and equipment and ensure the successful completion of major scientific research and test tasks. We must obey and serve the overall development of the country and actively contribute to building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way.

    The General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army regards the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications as an important part of the implementation of the talent strategy project. By the end of 2003, more than 400 doctors and masters had taken leadership positions at or above the regiment level, and more than 150 of them served as military division-level leaders. position. Highly educated young cadres have become the main body at the division and regiment levels of the General Armament Department. About 90% of the leadership teams above the regiment level have a bachelor's degree or above. This has basically formed a good situation of orderly replacement and the emergence of talents, thus providing a good foundation for the army's weapons and equipment. The long-term development of modernization provides organizational guarantee.

    The General Armament Department is responsible for the major tasks of military weapons and equipment construction and national defense scientific research and testing. In order to meet the long-term development needs of weapons and equipment construction and further improve national defense scientific research and testing capabilities, under the unified deployment of the Party Committee of the General Armament Department, all levels have regarded the selection and training of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, good quality and great development potential as a long-term and urgent task. To grasp the tasks of the regiment and above, adopt the method of using a group, training a group, and reserving a group, and orderly enrich the outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications into leadership positions above the regiment, and gradually realize the younger, more knowledgeable and professional team of commanding officers at the military division level. change. By 2003, a group of "Doctoral Commanders", "Doctoral Bosses" and "Doctoral Principals" had been trained. In the process of selecting and training outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications, all levels of the General Armament Department do not engage in seniority ranking. Instead, they emphasize "priority awareness" and "advanced awareness" and arrange a group of outstanding young cadres with high academic qualifications to serve in important leadership positions in advance. Become the organizer and commander of key equipment development, major scientific research and test tasks, and key national defense technology research. For particularly outstanding young cadres with a high degree of education, extraordinary measures such as small steps and quick steps are taken to promote them. Among a group of young military leaders promoted in recent years, more than half have doctorates and master's degrees.

    The General Armaments Department of the People's Liberation Army conscientiously follows the functions assigned by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, strengthens the audit supervision and management of national defense scientific research funds of the military and national defense science and technology industry departments, strives to improve the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds, and effectively ensures the safety of new equipment and major national defense scientific research experiments completion of the task.

    According to the person in charge of the Audit Bureau of the General Armaments Department, the national defense scientific research finance and audit department has taken various measures to strictly manage and audit national defense scientific research funds, which has further improved the efficiency of the use of national defense scientific research funds; the guarantee of national defense scientific research funds has been significantly strengthened, and management procedures have been strengthened. It is more standardized and the flow of funds is more reasonable; the national defense scientific research contract system has been further promoted and deepened, which has greatly promoted and guaranteed the smooth completion of major scientific research and test tasks; the audit and supervision of national defense scientific research funds has been strengthened, and a number of violations of national defense scientific research funds have been seriously investigated and punished The use of units and individuals specified in the management effectively ensures that national defense scientific research funds are earmarked for their exclusive use. An audit of the use of national defense scientific research funds for 26 key national defense projects and some scientific research units of various military industrial group companies shows that the use of national defense scientific research funds by the military and national defense science and technology industry departments is good, with standardized management and complete financial accounting systems, effectively ensuring the national defense The needs of scientific research and the development of new equipment. Significant progress has been made in the development of a number of new weapons and equipment, important breakthroughs have been made in a number of key national defense scientific and technological projects, the quality of national defense scientific research and test products has been significantly improved, and the progress of some key national defense scientific research projects has been advanced.

    In August 2003, the General Armament Department of the People's Liberation Army adopted a competitive negotiation method and signed purchase contracts for space launch propellant railway vehicles with three vehicle manufacturers. This marks that the reform of the military equipment procurement system is gradually deepening.

    Different types of space launch propellant railway vehicles, such as tank cars, maintenance cars, and passenger cars, used to be ordered from designated manufacturers. The cost of the vehicles continued to rise, but the technical performance, reliability, and after-sales service of the products did not improve significantly. In order to implement the "Equipment Procurement Regulations" and deepen the reform of the equipment procurement system, the General Equipment Department introduced a competition mechanism in vehicle ordering. Based on the technical characteristics of propellant transport vehicles and the actual conditions of the railway vehicle manufacturing industry, it used competitive negotiation for the first time to select contractors. factory. During the negotiation process, the Equipment Department followed the principles of "fairness, impartiality, science, and merit selection" and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the manufacturers participating in the competitive negotiations from aspects such as quotation, quality, service, and credit standing. In the end, the three vehicle manufacturers with the lowest quotations and the best plans became the pre-transaction manufacturers. This purchase was 1.32 million yuan less than budgeted.