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China Military Operational Use of Information Warfare Equipment //中國軍事信息戰裝備的作戰運用





Information warfare is against C4ISR systems and C4ISR systems, information superiority is the competition, the main purpose is to ensure the normal operation of one’s own information systems, from the enemy’s use, paralysis and destruction; the same time, trying to use, paralysis and destruction of the enemy’s information systems, make paralyzed, confused state. Including strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield information warfare two parts.

Strategic information warfare and information warfare battlefield

Strategic information warfare is the main features of a wide range of sectors covering all key political, economic, technological, military and special areas; special way, relates to psychological warfare, media warfare, deception warfare, media warfare and other special tools; special target, mainly through the decoy attack warfare, psychological warfare, information awareness enemy deterrence system and thinking system; great harm, make the whole country’s economic, political or military to a standstill, even regime change can make it happen; special person, not necessarily military combatants, computer experts, international crime syndicates, hacking or terrorist organizations with ulterior motives and so may become combatants.

Battlefield Information War battle took place in the space of information warfare, refers to the battle for the preparation and the integrated use of information technology tools and a variety of information weapons, information warfare platform and C4ISR systems, reconnaissance and early warning detection, information processing and transmission, arms control and guidance, operational command and control, deception and disguise interference and military strategy and other aspects of all-out confrontation and struggle. Battlefield Information War by interfering with or disrupting the enemy’s decision-making process, so that the enemy can not effectively coordinated action. Thus, the first enemy influence decisions, then the impact of their actions, which is to win air superiority electromagnetic, and then obtain air superiority, and finally the use of conventional forces to take combat operations. Seized control of information, seize the initiative on the battle space, and the competition for the right to make land, air, naval supremacy and control of space to lay a good foundation and a necessary condition.

Basic information warfare battlefield combat forces and means of information is digitized forces and weapons and equipment, the main contents include operational secrecy, military deception, electronic warfare, psychological warfare and firepower to destroy, core purpose is to fight for the right to access information battle space, control and use rights. Battlefield Information War is against information systems, which directly affects the entire battle space, processes, and success or failure of the entire war. The main battlefield information warfare style combat electronic warfare and cyber warfare. Electronic warfare is an important part of information warfare battlefield, mainly decoy for enemy communications, radar and other electromagnetic radiation sources of interference, sabotage and destruction activities. The Gulf War, not only the first large-scale use of electronic warfare, and formally adopted as a battle of the war and the particular stage of the battle action. Kosovo War, NATO used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and the first use of electromagnetic pulse bombs and conducted the first network warfare. Cyber ​​warfare in cyberspace computer, using a network against the Internet activities, and for the first time in the Kosovo war. NATO cyber warfare measures include: network publicity; hacker attacks; attacks on financial networks. The main characteristics of the FRY cyberwarfare is people’s war mode, geek, geeks and computer enthusiasts spontaneously a lot of network operations, such as conduct online propaganda attack NATO website, use the Internet to pass intelligence.

War information warfare equipment, electronic warfare equipment.

Electronic warfare equipment, the development trend of increasing integration and universal, local wars under conditions of informatization, the electromagnetic environment on the battlefield increasingly complex, kind of separation from each other in the past, single-function electronic warfare equipment has been far can not meet the operational needs.Integration and generalization has become the focus of the development of electronic warfare equipment and electronic warfare equipment, the total future direction of development. In order to deal more effectively with the threat of information warfare electromagnetic complex, the next generation of electronic warfare equipment, the extensive use of advanced computer technology to significantly improve the automation of the entire system in order to have better real-time capabilities, since the adaptability and full power management capabilities. Working frequency electronic warfare equipment continuously expanding, increasing the transmission power, the development of millimeter-wave technology and photovoltaic technology, the modern electronic warfare equipment to keep the operating frequency band wider development.Overall, the future scope of work of electronic warfare equipment will be extended to the entire electromagnetic spectrum. GPS interference and anti-interference will be concerned about the practice of war has shown that, if they lose the support of GPS, information superiority will be greatly weakened, so that command and control, reconnaissance, combat, troop movement and other military links are facing a severe test, severely reduced combat effectiveness. Focus on the development of new anti-radiation and electronic warfare jamming aircraft, emphasis on the development of new, special electronic warfare technology and equipment, such as for anti-satellite laser weapons, high-energy particle beam weapons, and meteor burst communications, neutrino communication and the like.

Computer viruses as weapons

Within military information systems, battlefield information acquisition, transmission, processing and other functions required to complete computer and network, computer network is performed on the basis of information warfare and Pioneer. Use of software drivers and hardware magnetic induction sniffer sniffer network sniffer, etc. is an important way to attack networks. These sniffing tool was originally a test device, used to diagnose and repair assistance network, so it is a powerful tool for network administrators to monitor the network, but in the information war is a terrible computer virus weapons. It enables network “denial of service”, “information tampering” Information “halfway stealing” and so on. In addition, it will focus on design “trap door.” “Trap door” also known as “back door” is an agency computer system designers previously configured in the system, appear in the application or during the operating system, programmers insert some debugging mechanism. System Programmer For the purpose of attacking the system, deliberately left few trap door for a person familiar with the system to outdo each other to sneak into the normal system protection system. Network is an important infrastructure of information warfare, network centric warfare is mainly carried out based network, the network is reliable to determine the outcome of the war. Therefore, to strengthen the research network attack and defense operations for the win future information warfare is essential.

Electromagnetic pulse bomb

During the Iraq war, the US used a lot of electronic warfare equipment, and use of electromagnetic pulse bombs fell on Iraq and the Iraqi army broadcast television systems of various types of electronic radiation. Electromagnetic pulse bomb, also known as microwave pulse bomb, by a microwave beam into electromagnetic energy, a new type of directed energy weapons damage other electronic facilities and personnel.Its working principle is: after high power microwave antenna gathered into a bunch of very narrow, very strong electromagnetic waves toward each other, heat, ionizing radiation, etc. relying on the combined effect of electromagnetic waves generated by this beam, lethal voltages in electronic circuits inside the target and current, breakdown or burn sensitive components which, damage data stored in the computer, so that each other’s arms and paralyzed the command system, the loss of combat effectiveness. According to tests, a briefcase-sized microwave bomb, can produce up to 300 million watts of power pulse. After its plurality of coupling, then become adjustable radiation source, generating more than 2 billion watts of pulse waves. This is somewhat similar to pulse electromagnetic pulse generated when nuclear explosions, can easily enter the underground bunker from power and communication channels, which rely on radio to make, radar, computer, power grids and telephone modern weapons systems, biological and chemical weapons and their production Libraries workshop in an instant paralysis.

GPS jamming devices

Also in the Iraq war, the Iraqi use of GPS jamming device for Tomahawk cruise missiles were effective interference, this is the first time in actual combat on the GPS guidance system interference. GPS signal is weak, it is easy to interference. A Russian company to provide a 4-watt power handheld GPS jammers, less than $ 4,000 can buy.If purchased from retail electronic component assembly shops, you can spend $ 400 to create a disturbance over a radius of 16 km of GPS jammers. Before the war in Iraq war, the United States had expected to interfere with the GPS signal the Iraqi side. In fact, the United States had already given their GPS bombs and missiles loaded with anti-jamming technology to make these GPS-guided weapons to continue to use the GPS signal in the case of interference; even if the GPS signal is lost, they can also use their own weapons guidance systems other inertial navigation, laser-guided, so that their own to reach the target. Nevertheless, early in the war in Iraq, the US military more than a dozen Tomahawk cruise missiles due to interference or deviates from a predetermined route, fell Turkey, Syria and Iran. Small GPS jammers problem alerted the US government, Powell personally investigate the source of Iraq GPS jammers, Russia and other countries exerted considerable pressure.

During the first Gulf War, GPS navigator as a trial product for the first time issued to desert warfare personnel, the effect is obvious. At that time, all weapons, including cruise missiles, including not using the GPS navigation device. The war in Iraq, we see that almost all combat platforms, every man, almost all of missiles and bombs have adopted this navigation device, so that the tanks, planes, ships maneuver more accurate missiles and bombs original the probability of error reduced to 1-3 meters, maximum 10 meters range.   Everything there is a benefit must be a disadvantage. Disadvantages and drawbacks of GPS navigation information is the same weaponry, is the electronic interference.From the perspective of the development of weapons and equipment, the purchase of a cruise missile costs $ 100 million, while manufacturing a GPS jammer only a few hundred dollars, as a strategic defensive side, if a large number of development and the development of GPS jammers, not only for the US missile and the bomb is a threat to its tanks, planes, ships and navigation personnel will also have a huge impact. Of course, we should also see the US fight a battle, and further, after the end of the war in Iraq is bound according to the lessons of the war, improved GPS system. Is expected to be improved in three areas: First, the GPS satellites, satellite launch is mainly to enhance the signal and transmit as many GPS satellites; the second is to improve the guidance system, mainly to increase the combined guidance system, after interference in the GPS guidance, automatic recovery or transfer other inertial navigation mode to ensure the normal operation of the platform and weapons; the third is GPS anti-jamming, mainly to improve the GPS receiver anti-jamming capability, the development of new GPS receiver, in the theater of the local military and civilian GPS reception machines and electronic jammers and interference suppression.

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China NPC Emphasis on Solving National Security System Issues//中國家安全體系「全國人大會議公布了《十三五規劃綱要(草案)》


March 5, 2016 during the Chinese NPC and CPPCC, National People’s Congress announced the “Thirteen Five-Year Plan (draft)”, under the title “establishment of a national security system,” complete the chapter, first expounded on China’s implementation of “the country’s overall security View of concrete ideas “in. Prior to that, although related concepts to promote its fast, but in addition to the super-agency “National Security Council” has been officially running, as well as a small amount of the agency personnel arrangements, almost no more news.

The first place to prevent hostile forces subversive

From an international perspective, “Comprehensive security concept” for a class is not the first thought. After all, since the end of the Cold War, the security environment upheaval, insecurity diversification, already is a common phenomenon faced by countries. But domestic letters of “overall national security” still kill any world trend, because this piece can be described as all-encompassing grand – covering “political, land, military, economic, cultural, social, science and technology, information, ecology, resources …… and nuclear safety. ”

Although the “official stereotyped” perfect frame Description: “people-safe for the purpose, as the fundamental political security, economic security, based on the Social Security for the protection of military culture in order to promote international security as the basis”, but this piece is clearly ambitious where to start challenge.

When “KNB” first appeared in late 2013 eighteen Third Plenary Session of the resolution, only to see hastily put some “innovative social governance” at the end. Until five months later, the agency announced that it has officially running, trying to explain its official mouthpiece of great significance, it is still mainly externally or internally, vary.

During the two sessions, elaborate “Thirteen five Outline” published by the NPC session, so this kind of ambiguity resolved.

Although the outline, “national sovereignty security regime” concept beautifully, has made the world’s political circles unheard of, but more surprising is that in the fight against the three forces’ violent terror, ethnic separatism, religious extremism “previous activity, will also impressively “hostile forces infiltrate subversive activity” in the first place.

Obviously, to prevent subversion of urgency regime was as if beyond the anti-terrorism, anti-spyware and other traditional threats to national security.

Traditionally, law enforcement departments, the Ministry of Public Security and the famous “national security” system, and its huge cost “stability maintenance” system billions compared to only as a spy / Ministry of National Security Abwehr, more in line with narrowly “national security” concept. The system has also been set up at all levels of “national security leadership team,” leading narrow “national security” and its work force.

Jiang Zemin period, Beijing began to envy the role of the US National Security Council (NSC) at the highest decision-making. As president advisory body, NSC members including President, Vice President, Secretary of State, Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence and National Security Affairs Assistant to the President, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of highest operational commander and director of national intelligence, were appointed to act as the statutory military advisers and intelligence advisers, other government departments and competent officials, invited participants only when needed.

“The Central Leading Group for National Security,” in the year 2000, although the head of the pro-Jiang, but deputy head in charge of foreign affairs for the Central Committee, the Central Foreign Affairs Office director concurrently by the Office, in particular from the group and “Foreign Affairs Leading Group “under one roof, the main coordinating its national security and external affairs. Although not as good as NSC high level, because China and the US but the basic political structure fundamentally different, are also considered to meet the conditions of moderate learning.

Jiang later period, the Chinese domestic policy increasingly independent, and the West in the system of values ​​and rules of becoming the opposition, senior party growing emphasis on co-ordination “International and Domestic Situation.” After learning more individuals came to power centralization, theoretical innovation and the urgent need to safeguard stability of the regime. Thus, despite the increased legitimacy, the study of “KNB” is still brewing since Jiang Zemin claimed, but the design of the system may differ.

Thus, the Chinese Communist Party and the previous system separately, in order to avoid the party on behalf of the administration and other rare progress, is now being accused of “fragmentation, excessive power scattered.” By adding a permanent body, will the party, government, military, law, economics, culture and even social life, and where the “national security” detached power clean sweep, then became “the country to explore a new way of governance.”

Now, in “Baidu Encyclopedia” in terms of self-built, actually it was assumed added, “National Security Council People’s Republic of China” entry, content only involved “state security committee.”

Beijing whether through a constitutional amendment to set up a shadow-style “national KNB” hard to say. However, by the time the CPC Central Committee, the National Security Committee to get the full decision-making power for national security affairs, responsible only to the Politburo and its Standing Committee. As heads of the supreme legislative body of the People’s Congress, only its Vice-President, the National Security Committee of the degree of centralization, even beyond the Central Military Commission.In contrast, the United States NSC decisions, but also to exercise its statutory powers to rely on the President and subject to legislative, judicial checks and balances.

Further overhead Politburo and State Council

The current maximum suspense, or “KNB” materialized, decision-making and institutional settings large to what extent.

An analogy example, although in the network area, the original Central Propaganda Department, Ministry of Public Security, Ministry of State Security, the Ministry of Industry, the Central Foreign Affairs Office / State Council Information Office, Press and Publication Administration and other agencies bull management, but also from 18 Third Plenary session of the decision, the CPC network security and information technology leadership team established in 2014 (referred to as the “net channel group”) / national Internet information office of People’s Republic of China ( “the State Council informatization office”), and set up a separate large business functions, took a lot of network management and monitoring powers.

At the top of its home page, the two names are alternately displayed, complete with party and government bodies.

Rationale for establishing this institution, because the State Department is also the system’s “National Informatization Leading Group” and their offices, “the State Council Information Office” (also referred to as the “State Council Informatization Office”) is difficult to coordinate the CPC Central Committee, the Central Military Commission, the NPC, etc. authority. However, the greater the motivation or senior party controls the Internet public exigencies, and the use of information warfare means to challenge the United States needs. To promote the domestic information technology process, the agency more than the promotion of hand shackles.

Regression KNB, although it has been interpreted as “national security and crisis handling the national level a permanent establishment,” but until March 2016, in the list of institutions directly under the CPC Central Committee and the Communist Party of China Xinhua News Network, the former are still ” central leading group for national security, “and not see” KNB. ”

Although “KNB” was praised as “reduce rules, enhance decision-making efficiency,” but in what things must be raised to this level resolved, which can be left in the original POLITICAL, military and diplomatic level processing is difficult to untangle.

It is with the Central Political and Law Commission as “directly under the central authorities,” the division of labor? It as “directly under the central coordinating body of procedure” in policing governance, anti-anti-cult operations, stability, maritime rights and interests, possession of Xinjiang, financial security, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao, net letter, confidentiality, the working group password (Note: the full name of each team name how to end the relationship) is? In the end how it Ministry of National Security and other government departments, as well as relations with the National Commission on cross-border and coastal defense ministries overseas Chinese citizens and institutions security work inter-ministerial joint conference and many other bureaucracies? I’m afraid that deep-rooted concerns about its effect, less effective, was not excessive.

From The National People’s Congress issued the “Outline”, the more difficult to find: as the basic starting point for the study of governance, the starting point and one of the ultimate value, political, land, economy, society, resources and networks, and other key areas are security policy and called for long-term goals, important areas, major reforms, major projects, programs and policies, require safety risk assessment.

This means that, even if only partially materialized, due to the requirement that all focus areas, all national security coordination mechanism established to maintain, “KNB” already with “deep change Team” (Note: Comprehensively Deepening the Reform Leading Group) as tantamount to a indeed affect the whole body, brought together a large number of power “small government.”

In addition to further overhead Politburo and State Council, set in one of the highest authority, through several sets of much needless repetition mechanism, calling the shots. However executor, it is still the same set of ministries and local, its efficiency, and can really ensure the complex demands of national security in a reasonable portion, not optimistic.

March 5, 2016, Beijing, China, in front of the Great Hall of People’s Liberation Army soldiers walked.Photo: Damir Sagolj / REUTERS

Endanger the interests of the former National Security Systems division, to stimulate the “spy” Country

It can be expected that with the proposed “Thirteen five Outline” “overall national security”, and in the rise of influence “KNB”, the original continent “national security”, “national security” systems are at risk.

“National security” has recently been rumored to be canceled. It is believed that its intelligence gathering in the field of domestic politics to defend the building (social monitoring) hidden forces, investigation of cases against dissent, control ethnic / religious positions against cults and other functions, will disperse to more legalization of criminal investigation and law and order department. Entered into force in 1993, “National Security Law” in 2014 was much more narrowly “anti-spyware law” instead.

And “Thirteen five Outline”, requires the integration of monitoring and early warning systems in different areas, intelligence gathering and analysis capabilities. From the work of national intelligence to see the movements of specific legislation, “national security” system will inevitably lose power “national security” monopoly.

This stimulus, 2014, 2015, Ministry of State Security systems, proactive disclosure reports uncovered espionage significantly increased, but in the end these cases leaked it?

March 2015, published by the National Security Henan province since the first espionage case, a taxi driver observed the airborne unit of foreign institutional Airport, the surrounding circumstances and models; July Sichuan national security nearly a decade for the first time publicly disclosed the spy case, a military unit 4 leakers, provided some military types, quantity, special materials, setting the test time and fault conditions, some provide aerospace internal publications; November, Jilin Baishan Jun captured the partitions a foreign spy shooting and hand-painted Chinese border troops distribution.

These cases certainly have leaked military secrets, but the scope and extent been greatly exaggerated. In recent years, Beijing strengthened its online publication and transmission of state secrets supervision, the biggest problem is still the “secret infinity.” Although Beijing has in recent years to speed up the clear “given secret” work “secret” and “non-secret” boundaries, but because the concept of paranoia, coupled with bureaucratic agencies should rely on “secret” to eat, they do not want to bear responsibility for the secret too wide, Fuzzy boundaries situation no better.

In fact, some experts mainland when rendering espionage threat, has admitted “we take the initiative to trafficking intelligence” indicating that “China also collect / buy foreign intelligence”; an expert in the Ministry of State Security emphasis on “cyber espionage nearly the year more and more active, “to actually” see them from the Internet’s remarks can be found in a number of valuable intelligence “as an example, but the latter is completely unlawful.

Henan above case, there is the Baidu from China “high One” satellite photographs taken by the airport, accurate to 20 meters, “Baidu Panorama” provides a neighboring street to the nearest airport each shop, military fans in China understanding Air transporter models thousands; Sichuan cases, internal publications fuzzy nature, contained a lot of technical discussion with the same military production. And unavoidably, everything is secret practice is nothing more than a cover closed, inefficient, and defects behind Beijing’s military, these are not exposed and supervision, the harm is far more than this information about the outside world.

At the same time, the Confidentiality Commission / Secrets systems have long been cured departmental interests, such as to secrecy, mandatory use map products “Nonlinear confidential treatment technology”, is formed on the map with the location of the actual existence of 100 to 600 meters random deviations. Such an approach, in addition to the official mapping agencies to create huge gains, related to the national industries and national tremendous trouble, there are no secret role – because the location does not become a military objective entity, foreign intelligence agencies and the military does not rely on Chinese map, which judged and attacks unaffected.

Of course, this by no means departmental interests to “spy” Country situation all causes.Overall, Beijing also needed on the mainland society, frequently rendering national security is facing a critical situation, hidden front struggle intense, so trees enemy awareness, inspire patriotic enthusiasm and even xenophobic, secretly strengthen social control.

Moreover, since the Beijing powers and budget oversight from society, the party and the national government itself parents, as long as the name of security, from the whole to the details, any information can be disclosed only to those who choose favorable, remaining airtight, so that with “espionage “Ruling tool if fabulous.

At the same time, Beijing legislative activity in recent years, national security and social stability and other interests in the name of full citizens with increased surveillance, public security mandatory intervention of civil liberties and privileges of the investigation.

November 2015, the National Security Office Jilin even announced espionage and accepted nationwide hotline to report clues, for reasons that remain unknown. The department asked citizens to report suspicious persons “spy, traitor, instigation personnel, intelligence agents, the external agents”, etc., but this is only a political rather than a legal concept concepts also include standard suspicious signs purely surface, many of which are only legal status or the performance of speech, may be entirely unrelated espionage, where “sensitive issues” and “reactionary remarks” but not operational on legal concepts.

Obviously, not called for such a system to report the current espionage, but a wide range of East German-style citizen informers and mutual monitoring, did not say infringe on civil liberties, even in the “dictatorship” discourse system, misunderstanding, framed and frame risks are high.

Criminal Law Amendment (IX), adopted in August 2015, the night the new information network security management refused to fulfill the obligations crime, the crime of illegal use of the information network, information network to help crime and criminal activities, to disrupt the order of state organs crime, the crime of illegal financing of the organization gathering fabricated deliberately spreading false information crime, the crime should be no public disclosure of information on cases of crime reporting and disclosure of information should not be disclosed in the cases, the other 20 counts, terrifying.

The case of Gao Yu, and bookstores case Causeway Bay, but are just beginning.

All this shows that in China, “national security” concept epitaxial greatly expanded, not only to adapt to contemporary national security multifactor interwoven trend, and it is a power struggle and the rule of magic weapon too superficial. In essence, it is the Beijing regime concentrated outpouring of anxiety. The “Thirteen Five Outline” in “protect country” a new action also marks the communist countries in times of crisis, to strengthen the “police state” color of nature, is rapidly recovering.

Note: Team organization full name:

The Central Committee for Comprehensive Management of Social Security, the Central Cult Prevention and Handling of the Leading Group, the Central Leading Group for the maintenance of stability, the central leading group for marine rights and interests, the Central Tibetan Coordination Leading Group, the Central Coordination Group Xinjiang, the Central Steering Committee on Financial Security, the CPC central / State Department double identity Taiwan Affairs leading group, Hong Kong and Macao work coordination group, a centralized network security and information technology leading group, the central Committee and the central password confidentiality work leading group.

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2016年3月5日,中國北京,解放軍士兵在人民大會堂前走過。攝:Damir Sagolj/REUTERS
2015年11月,吉林省國家安全廳竟然公佈了接受全國範圍間諜行為和線索舉報的專線電話,原因至今不明。該部門要求公民舉報可疑人員「間諜、內姦、策反人員、情報員、外圍代理人」 等,但這只是政治概念而非法律概念,列舉的可疑標準也純屬表面跡象,很多是合法身份或僅表現為言論,完全可能與間諜毫無關係,其中的「敏感問題」和「反動言論」更不是法律上可操作的概念。

China Military Strategic High Ground of Information Warfare: Spatial Information Confrontation //中國軍事空間信息對抗:信息化戰爭的戰略制高點


作者:穆志勇 李莉



Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely.

All things Internet era, we must rethink the current and future military struggle in the forefront of what? We are talking about local information technology local war where?Information War made the strategic high ground right where?

All things Internet era, control of information has become the battlefield to win the right to the core of an integrated system, “no network without fighting,” “no victorious day” has become iron law, made ​​winning the war of spatial information right to become a strategic safeguarding national sovereignty, security and development interests ground. It extends to the battlefield where, where the initiative will expand the competition. The main countries in the world attach great importance to and respond to threats and challenges from outer space, the space around the right to development, ownership and control, in a fierce competition.

Spatial information against a new means of strategic deterrence quality checks and balances

Spatial information can play against fighting the enemy afraid, Gongdi key is a new means of strategic deterrence quality of checks and balances. On the one hand, with a strong spatial information attack capability, can effectively curb space power, space to defend the sovereignty, enhance the right to speak and the initiative in the international arena; on the other hand, has enough spatial information defense, deterrence and containment can launch the Iraq war opponents button, effectively resist the threat and destruction in outer space, to prevent loss of control of the space.

The United States will “Space confrontation” as a strategic deterrent capability and the “Global Strike” and “nuclear strike” both, and since 2001 has performed seven times, “Schriever” space combat computer simulation exercises; vigorously the development, testing and deployment of space information weapon, launching the world’s first reusable aircraft able to detect, control, capture, destroy the spacecraft his country “orbital test vehicle” X-37B space fighter, space fighter plans to deploy 2025 troops in outer space; “global commons domain intervention and joint mobility “concept vowed to quickly weaken the enemy space facilities capacity through non-kinetic measures to destroy its anti-space capabilities in key elements.Russia to develop “military space recovery plan,” President Putin has restarted “crown” anti-satellite project, focusing on the development of anti-satellite weapons, the “strategic air and space battles” as the basic style of air and space operations, three satellite launch last year and aerospace It is regarded by the United States’ aerospace killer “and ready after 2016 to establish a modern space combat system. Japan’s new “cosmic basic plan” clearly states “actively enter the field of space”, was “modern security”, expanded and enhanced features for satellites to monitor vessels at sea and ground facilities, and trying to build a set of positioning, communication and intelligence gathering and other functions in one of the new satellite systems, the scope of application of force to achieve the SDF land, sea, air, space-round leap.

Spatial information into a military confrontation priority areas for capacity-building

From the world’s military development, the right to take on the overall system of spatial information system other rights, the right to seize control of the spatial information is action battle for dominance of the main action. Local Wars practice, there is no right to make spatial information, the Air Force is difficult to combat, navy naval difficult, with even the best of other weapons and equipment may also be vulnerable to attack. Spatial Information confrontation multidimensional space operations provide important support, “new quality” of the combat system is the ability to generate combat multiplier, it will be the focus of capacity-building in the military field. From the fight for control of space means, the spatial information against strong controllability, flexibility, use of low threshold, a wide scope, with less damage, be cost-effective, it should be current and future space supremacy capacity-building period key development areas.

Currently, the United States actively promote Asia “rebalancing” strategy, trying to fight the development of spatial information capabilities, not only to develop electronic interference and covert soft kill hard against damage and other spatial information means, actively develop their own approach, rendezvous and docking and other space-based technology against the core , also focused on the development of satellite communications electronic jamming, near real-time detection, interference signal feature recognition, sources of interference positioning technology, efforts to develop a variety of space-based anti-satellite weapons, and has begun to deploy automated attacks, identity systems. November 14, 2012 the United States and Australia announced that the US will place a powerful Air Force C-band radar and space telescope in Australia, and it is clear that the United States will shift the strategic part of Asia.This will enable the US forward-deployed every day to keep better track of up to 200 confirmed over the Asia-Pacific and orbital spacecraft and potential anomalies. According to US media reports, the US Air Force and Lockheed Martin in February this year to start construction work in the future, “Space Fence” The new radar system, which also marks the United States started the S-band ground-based radar system, the radar system will replace the United States in the 1960s developed space surveillance systems. Russia’s “Military News” May 18 reported that Air Force Secretary James declared that the US Air Force budget of $ 5 billion has been requested to establish a defense system for the military space to prepare for a possible conflict. Japan’s space development strategy headquarters set up monitoring force and space, and proposed the next 10 years will be launched 45 satellites ambitious goals in the positive development of the second generation of IGS reconnaissance satellite system, while seeking cooperation with ASEAN countries, to build a Japan center, a network of 68 satellite Earth observation satellites, in an attempt to obtain information from other countries and share with the United States at the same time, strengthen the surrounding sea routes to Japan, the Diaoyu Islands and the adjacent waters of the maritime surveillance capability. According to Japan’s Kyodo News reported, the new “US-Japan defense cooperation guidelines” emphasize the importance of space situational awareness, Japan’s “quasi-zenith” satellite system with US satellite positioning system to achieve docking, the US and Japan will strengthen ocean surveillance satellite, by sharing global marine intelligence, to ensure maritime security channel. Russia already has “reconnaissance, attack, defense” against the ability of spatial information integration, particularly in the fight against satellite communications, missile and space defense confrontation, GPS confrontation, antagonism and kinetic energy anti-satellite laser, etc., with strong technical reserves. Indian space reconnaissance and surveillance satellite system has taken shape, the satellite communication network has covered South Asia and the surrounding area, it has achieved near-real-time satellite communication between the services.

Spatial information warfare against the construction and development should focus grasp

Do a good job preparing military struggle, we must make efforts to grasp the initiative in the military struggle space and cyberspace, problem-oriented and adhere to asymmetric development, according to the lean, joint, multi-energy, high efficiency requirements, to ensure the good spatial information focus of fighting against the construction.

Set the right strategic direction. On the basis of the importance of space supremacy, attaches great importance to the construction and development of spatial information against the problem, deal with spatial information science strength confrontational relationship with other strategic force for development, to ensure priority development of spatial information countervailing force. Implement the military strategy for the new period, co-ordination within and outside Xinjiang Xinjiang, preparing for war with the stop, deter and combat, constantly important areas and key links to achieve new breakthroughs; spatial information against the building into the overall layout of the army information construction, improve space iNFORMATION wARFARE development strategy planning; constantly improve the system of operational doctrines, promote space information against the construction work and orderly conduct.

Adhere to military and civilian integration. Strengthening military and civilian integration concept, the basic role of market in resource allocation, according to civil-military integration path of development, through laws, and rich integration of forms and expand the scope of integration, improve the level of integration in the scientific research and technology, weaponry, personnel training, etc. aspects, all-round, multi-domain integration, spatial information against the construction of rich resources and development potential. Pay attention to the military think tank function, strengthen the theoretical study of spatial information confrontation and practical issues, exploration of space information confrontation theoretical system, a clear focus on the construction, development of specific plans, enrich and develop operational guidance to ensure that the substantive work forward.

Construction expertise system. According to aim at the forefront, major breakthroughs require leapfrog development, accelerate the building space information confrontation power system, the formation of spatial information ability to fight as soon as possible. Spatial information effectively combat weaponry put strategic position, pay attention to the fight against cross-border joint information space forces the leading role of the traditional power and strength and spatial information of conventional power, to achieve full-dimensional spatial information to flow freely. Actively promote the use of force against spatial information, spatial information to support real-time navigation information reconnaissance operations exercises, testing and training, the formation of combat capability as soon as possible.

Focus on technological innovation. Strengthen technology research efforts, emphasis on spatial information against key technological innovation, stepping up confrontation frontier exploration of space information technology, focusing on the development of advanced satellite communications confrontation, confrontation reconnaissance and surveillance, target feature recognition, information processing technology, and make breakthroughs can promote space information confrontation key technology and equipment updates; attention, independent research and development may change combat style, disruptive technology group rules of engagement, to prevent enemies of my technical strategy formulation sudden, efforts to form the enemy I have, I have no enemy some non symmetrical technological superiority.

Original Mandarin Chinese:


目前,美積極推進亞太“再平衡”戰略,竭力發展空間信息對抗能力,不僅大力發展電子乾擾軟殺傷和隱性硬毀傷等空間信息對抗手段,積極發展自主逼近、交會對接等天基對抗核心技術,還重點研製衛星通信電子乾擾、近實時探測、干擾信號特徵識別、干擾源定位技術,努力發展各種天基反衛星武器,且已開始部署自動攻擊、識別系統。 2012年11月14日美國和澳大利亞聯合宣布,美軍將在澳大利亞安置功能強大的空軍C波段雷達和太空望遠鏡,並明確表示這是美國將戰略轉向亞洲的一部分。這一前沿部署將使美每天能夠更好地跟踪確認多達200個亞太上空航天器及其軌道和潛在的異常現象。據美國媒體披露,美國空軍與洛克希德馬丁公司在今年2月啟動了未來“太空籬笆”新型雷達系統的建設工作,這也標誌著美國開始啟動了S波段地基雷達系統,該雷達系統將取代美國20世紀60年代研發的太空監視系統。俄羅斯《軍工新聞網》5月18日報導,美國空軍部長詹姆斯宣稱,美空軍已要求50億美元的預算以建立一個防禦系統,為可能發生的太空軍事衝突做準備。日本成立宇宙開發戰略總部和太空監測部隊,並提出今後10年將發射45顆衛星的宏偉目標,在積極發展第二代IGS偵察衛星系統的同時,正在謀求與東盟國家合作,構建一個以日本為中心、由68顆衛星組成的地球觀測衛星網絡,企圖從他國獲得情報並與美國共享的同時,加強對日本周邊海上要道、釣魚島及其附近海域的海洋監視能力。據日本共同社報導,新版《美日防衛合作指針》強調太空態勢感知的重要性,日本“準天頂”衛星系統與美國衛星定位系統將實現對接,美日將利用衛星加強海洋監視,通過共享全球海洋情報,確保海上通道安全等。俄已具備“偵、攻、防”一體的空間信息對抗能力,特別是在衛星通信對抗、導彈和空間防禦對抗、GPS對抗、激光對抗和動能反衛等方面,擁有雄厚的技術儲備。印度空間偵察監視衛星系統已初具規模,衛星通信網已覆蓋南亞及周邊地區,各軍種之間已實現近實時衛星通信。

China’s Future Wars: Seize Control of Information with Big Data // 中國未來戰爭:用大數據奪取制信息權


Source: 《中国科学报

Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war. From the conversion of the entire information flow point of view, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war. Seize control of information has become the air superiority prerequisites command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war.

■ reporter Hu Min Qi

With the continuous development of information technology, human society has entered a letter of “big data era.” Every day, in every corner of the world sensors, mobile devices, social networks and online trading platform to generate hundreds of gigabytes of data.Obama administration even large data called a “future of the new oil,” Who will come to control the flow of data will dominate the future of the world. As we all know, in the military field has been mankind’s most advanced technology laboratory, big data will no doubt shape the future of the war brought a huge change.

Big Data “big” Where

US Global Institutes define big data as: a large scale in the acquisition, storage, management, analysis far beyond the capabilities of traditional database software tool data set (datasets).

Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Wang Weiping told the computer “China Science News” reporter, big data, “big”, of course, first of all refers to the unprecedentedly large volume of data, far beyond the traditional level of computer processing data volume.

With the current popularity of high-speed computer network technology and the rapid development of the Internet, the information data by TB (1TB = 1024GB) level was raised to PB (1PB = 1024TB), EB (1EB = 1024PB), ZB (1ZB = 1024EB) level , and is still explosive growth. It is reported that, in 2010, officially entered the global era ZB 2012 global data reaches 5.2ZB, 2020, the world will have a total amount of data 35ZB. There is a vivid metaphor can help people understand the scale of the data. If 35ZB to burn all the data capacity of a 9GB disc superimposed height will reach 2.33 million km, equivalent to three round-trip between the Earth and the Moon.

Secondly, Wang Weiping said, “big” is also reflected in the type of data processing diversification, far beyond the traditional format and data analysis tools can handle.

Most of the conventional two-dimensional data structure presentation, but with the Internet, the rapid development of multimedia technology and the popularity of video, audio, images, e-mail, HTML, RFID, GPS and sensors to generate unstructured data, every year 60 % growth rate. We expected to account for over 80% of the amount of data in unstructured data.

In addition, he believes that big data also requires real-time data processing. Big data stream is often a high-speed real-time data streams, and often require rapid, continuous real-time processing, to seize the important events that occurred in the first time.

If you look from the military field, command and control systems, space-based support systems, information processing systems, various reconnaissance, surveillance, increasing the amount of information detection system, big data management in the command structure of the complex and also more important than ever . How massive battlefield data storage and in-depth analysis, how to determine the authenticity of the data, the reliability of data sources to ensure the security of data transmission is a key issue facing the warring parties.

Information warfare against large data requirements

Military theorists generally believe that, as early as the 90s of last century, the information war began to rise. It is a weapon of war by the use of information technology affect adversary information and information systems, to protect one’s own information and information systems, to obtain information superiority battlefield combat style. It is essentially by means of information operations, “information flow” control “energy flow” and “material flow”, depriving the enemy of information superiority, information superiority to maintain one’s own, thus seize control of information battlefield.

Military commentator 宋忠平 to “China Science News” reporter explained, the traditional network of information warfare include battle, conventional combat interference and anti-interference system under criminal investigation as well as detection and anti-detection and other content. “Information warfare is the flow of information to fight the war from the point of view convert the entire flow of information, who controls the most real flow of information, whoever controls the initiative in the war.” 宋忠平 he said, “to seize control of information air superiority has become a prerequisite for command of the sea, it is the decisive factor in the future outcome of a war. ”

But he also said that traditional information warfare in dealing with information and data encountered various challenges. The first is the limited traditional information channels, you can not get a lot of information. At the same time, not only a substantial increase in the amount of data, including various types of data in the form of situational awareness data, images, video intelligence, relying on existing information technology, can not be effectively analyze and process the data.

According to reports, the day of the outbreak of the war in Iraq, the US military forward command post in Qatar and Kuwait because the security agencies can not handle large amounts of data have to turn off the device, resulting in correspondence with some assault command post direction almost interrupted.

In addition, Song Zhongping pointed out, data sharing capabilities of traditional information system is relatively weak. “War is the traditional way of fighting off state, superior to subordinate assignments and perform offline, last victories to report a higher level. And only control one army general command of a division, because they tend to be as an independent combat units, which also led to the relevant departments are often their own business, the impact of coordinated operations efficiency. ”

In this context, information war on large data transfer, storage, analysis yielded specific requirements.

The first is the real-time requirements of data processing. Information warfare ultimately generated vast amounts of data collection and processing center to the command center at all levels, the steady stream of gathering data from a variety of sensors, intelligence agencies and the information transmitted to the center together, these data to be processed in real time. Song Zhongping believe that all the information even if it is a battlefield soldier needs to spread information command and control center through the large data to understand the situation frontline, under special circumstances even for a soldier’s equipment orders. Because he may be at the most favorable terrain, you can get maximum advantage.

Followed by data fusion. Song Zhongping proposed by datalink even pull a short road that used to take four to five orders of management skills, the future may only need to complete the three-level management, so as to contribute to the integration of operations, rather than individual branches of the military to fight alone anywhere, anytime to adjust operational command.

Moreover, in his view, the era of big data, in particular to increase the difficulty of defense information, for higher data security requirements. In general, the information war against information security requirements for data transmission is mainly reflected in addressing anti-eavesdropping, jamming and prevent the problem of false information to deceive. I am afraid the future needs a new defense mechanisms to ensure information security.

Thus, in the information war era of big data, the system of military confrontation countries will rely on a variety of military information systems, software and data to a greater extent, at the right time, the right place for the right decisions, directing control and provide the correct information. Leaving the information provided to achieve a reasonable distribution of fast, it is to have the data and unified management, so that the most immediate battlefield information to the department most urgently needed. With the increasing amount of data the battlefield, and efficient mass data storage and analysis, identify the enemy situation changes from the data, the most reasonable prediction of operational programs to better serve the massive data information war military service is a large data processing aims.

Military data mining challenge

However, Wang Weiping noted that a major challenge facing the era of big data is the low value of the density of information. Whether or intelligent systems analysts need to “needle in a haystack” to find useful information from massive data. “It also fully reflects the importance of data mining.” He stressed.

Data mining is a use in massive data analysis tools discovery process between model and data relationships that can help decision-makers to find a correlation between potential data, by discovering the hidden, overlooked factors, it is possible in data storage and management process, dig out important intelligence information, as a basis for decision-making and action.

According 宋忠平 revealed before the “September 11” incident, intelligence officers are judged to master a lot of data, but it ignores the valuable information.

Thus, after the “September 11” incident, the US Defense Advanced research projects in the following year’s annual technology conference, explains how to use the data in a unified and integrated database mining techniques.

The so-called new data sources is the “transaction space.” If the terrorists to plan and execute a terrorist activity, they will certainly leave some kind of “data footprint” in the information space. That is, they need to “deal.” Data records of such transactions, which can be communications, finance, education, health care, can also travel, transportation, immigration, housing and so on all other data records. It is the application data in the United States “transaction” space mining technology to detect and track terrorists.

It is understood that, in 2002, the big drug lords in Afghanistan preparing to provide funding for al-Qaeda and other terrorists, US military intelligence analysts is through data mining, data funds operational plan with the Al-Qaida Curry Curry’s case data in real time, independent association to guide the US military before the enemy further action.

So, how to enhance the ability of data mining technically. Wang Weiping told the “China Science News” reporter, at the entrance of the control of data quality is critical. That is, the data preparation is an important prerequisite for data mining, because it directly affects the accuracy and efficiency of data mining. “If all the data of varying quality into the channel, it is difficult and then the quality is not high, data processing, they will cause serious interference of useful information.”

In short, the data preparation phase, the need for data cleansing, and secondly, the need to analyze the selected data, reduction processing range. In data preprocessing stage, including the elimination of duplicate data, remove noise, missing data processing, data type conversion, etc. The purpose is to process the data into a form suitable for data mining, and on the basis of data selected on mining data for further reduction to reduce processing time and memory resources, making mining more efficient.

Future wars will change shape

The Obama administration on March 29, 2012 issued a “big data research and development initiatives” (Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative), will enhance the development of big data for national policy. The US Big Data project is an important part of the US national projects. It is understood that the United States Department of Defense and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency under the existing big data projects a total of 10, wherein the data to decision-making, internal network threats, video search and analysis, X- and other project data are representative.

The most important data to decision-making projects, mainly refers to a variety of new ways to take advantage of huge amounts of data, integrate perception, cognition and decision support systems to create a truly autonomous system, making it possible to customize the motorized operation and decision-making ; video search and analysis; network project aimed at internal threats through the use of new cyber threats judgment technology to improve the accuracy of Discovery network spying activities, frequency and speed, so early exposure and prevent sabotage opponents, and enhance network security level of one’s own Once the project is successful, analysts massive video library will be able to quickly and accurately retrieve specific video content, thereby enabling fully, efficiently mine the useful information hidden in the image; X- data project mainly through the development of large capacity scalable data analysis algorithms needed to handle distributed data repository irregular data. Through the development of efficient human-computer interaction devices and visual user interface technology, in order to better diversify tasks, perform operations more quickly.

With the implementation and realization of large data projects, future wars revolutionary change may occur.

Song Zhongping considered one of the most important large-value data is predicted that the data algorithm is applied to a mass of data to predict the likelihood happening up, therefore, the ability to command and decision-making future war can produce a great leap forward.

He told the “China Science News” reporters, for example, as early as in the first Gulf War, the US military before the war with improved civil war games, war process, outcomes and casualties were deduction, the deduction results and the actual results of the war are basically the same. And before the war in Iraq, the US military use of computer systems wargame exercises, deduction “against Iraq” war plan. Then the reality of the invasion of Iraq and the US military victory actions, and also the results of war games are almost exactly the same. At this point, combat simulations have changed from manual mode to computer mode.

“Relying on big data and cloud computing platform, pre-war simulation deduction, from the use of weapons, to play war command means, it can be clearly revealed, as a basis for decision-making during the war.” 宋忠平 said, “Once operational plan has question, can adjust to ensure a minimum combat casualties and win. ”

Secondly, the integration of data is expected to break the barriers between the military services. Big Data can solve troops across military services, cross-sectoral coordination problems, truly integrated operations.

In addition, Song Zhongping believe big data can change the future form of war. In particular, the pursuit of large US data have supported autonomy unmanned combat platform.For example, currently the world’s most advanced unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, “Global Hawk”, to continuously monitor the moving target, to accurately identify the various types of aircraft ground, missiles, and vehicles, and even can clearly distinguish gear car tires. Song Zhongping pointed out that UAVs the ability to do real-time image transmission is critical. Currently, the US is using a new generation of very high frequency communications satellite as a support big data platform.

Future, UAVs could even get rid of human control to achieve full autonomy of action. US unmanned experimental aircraft X-47B is the representative of that already in the case of fully human intervention, automatically take off and land on aircraft carriers and perform combat missions.

“Global Hawk” unmanned aerial vehicles

Further reading  From Data to Decisions

Speed ​​of information processing information systems, target acquisition time situation, the decision cycle and fast response time determines the success of military operations. In the background of big data, speed up the transfer of battlefield information, shortening “from sensor to shooter” cycle, and “discovery that is destroyed,” the operational objectives, the most important issue information system must address. Therefore, the “Data to Decisions project” has become a big data project in the US the most critical one.Currently, the US Army has increased its massive information fusion capability, combat is building intelligent decision support system has made some achievements.

US Army Distributed Common Ground System

The end of 2012, the US Army has begun to deploy combat-proven through intelligence systems in the world. December 14, “the Army Distributed Common Ground System” (D6A) approved the Defense Acquisition Executive Committee (DAE) is responsible for implementation by.

Previously, D6A just as a quick reaction capability, successfully used in Iraq and Afghanistan. Currently D6A been approved for all Army troops, and has been deployed to all brigade-level units. “Rapid reaction capability” refers to a rapid deployment to meet the most immediate and most urgent needs of the system, such as combat environment, but it does not get the approval of the full deployment.

D6A task for the entire federal army and its intelligence agencies and between the Allies, processing, development and dissemination of information, instead of nine different types of legacy systems, an important part of the Army’s modernization program. D6A can help users to share applications, text files, graphics, photographs, maps, etc. Compared with the old system, D6A in 2012 and 2017 savings of $ 300 million. In the whole life cycle (2012 – 2034), D6A savings of approximately $ 1.2 billion.

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology

“Titan” certification Tactical Network Information Technology (Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN) functions similar to Web search engine application software, commanders for tactical operations center to monitor the received instruction information and publish updated. “Titan” to filter information according to specific mission requirements, clearing commander computer screen (desktop), providing topographic maps, pictures, and text links concise instruction template to form a common operational picture. “Titan” also provides a command post of the future (CPOF) and Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below / Blue Force Tracking Support (FBCB2-BFT) systems can be integrated with data from other critical areas.

Intelligent network control software mobile command center

Intelligent network control software mobile command center (Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software) is a handheld mission command systems, can receive and publish one’s own and enemy forces location information, integrated from the tactical unattended ground sensors various types of sensors and radar detection system information to the enemy in order to achieve progress in real-time monitoring and protection of the weak areas.

Combatants companion artificial intelligence software

Warfighter partner (Warfighter Associate) artificial intelligence software that can automatically search for information about the dialogue between the various types of sensitive target text chat tool to detect soldiers advance will be reported to the command post of the future common operational picture, for example, when a troop of soldiers found minefields, usually manually enter the relevant information on the various information systems, the software can automatically extract the grid coordinates minefields will automatically enter the next command post system, 15 to 20 minutes in advance, in the common operating picture generate relevant information, otherwise the message will be delayed or submerged. Driving artificial intelligence technology, operational and tactical knowledge database theory, the “combatants partner” to complete the cleanup command post next screen, highlight important information, provide warnings and recommendations, and other auxiliary functions users perform the correct decision and action programs.

Original mandarin Chinese:



■本報記者 胡珉琦





當前伴隨著計算機網絡技術的迅速發展和互聯網的高速普及,信息數據量已由TB(1TB=1024GB)級升至PB(1PB=1024TB)、EB(1EB=1024PB)、ZB(1ZB=1024EB)級,並仍在呈爆炸式地增長。據悉,全球在2010 年正式進入ZB 時代,2012 年全球數據量達到5.2ZB,預計到2020年,全球將總共擁有35ZB 的數據量。有一個形象的比喻可以幫助人們理解這些數據的規模。如果把35ZB 的數據全部刻錄到容量為9GB 的光盤上,其疊加的高度將達到233 萬公里,相當於在地球與月球之間往返三次。


以往數據大都以二維結構呈現,但隨著互聯網、多媒體等技術的快速發展和普及,視頻、音頻、圖片、郵件、HTML、RFID、GPS 和傳感器等產生的非結構化數據,每年都以60 %的速度增長。預計,非結構化數據將佔數據總量的80%以上。





軍事評論員宋忠平向《中國科學報》記者解釋,傳統的信息戰包括了網絡攻防戰,常規作戰中的干擾與反干擾,還有刑偵系統下的偵測與反偵測等內容。 “信息戰打的就是信息流的戰爭。從整個信息流的轉換來看,誰控制了最真實的信息流,誰就控制了這場戰爭的主導權。”宋忠平說,“奪取制信息權已經成為奪取制空權、制海權的先決條件,是未來戰爭勝敗的決定性因素。”



此外,宋忠平指出,傳統信息系統的數據分享能力比較弱。 “傳統戰爭是一種離線狀態下的作戰方式,上級給下級分配任務,並在離線狀態下執行,最後向上級匯報一個戰果。而且命令一般只能管一個軍一個師,因為他們往往是作為一個獨立的作戰單位。這也導致了相關部門往往各自為營,影響協同作戰的效率。”







不過,王偉平指出,大數據時代面臨的一大挑戰是信息的價值密度低。無論是分析人員還是智能係統都需要“大海撈針”,從海量數據中找到有用信息。 “這也充分體現了數據挖掘的重要性。”他強調。






那麼,如何從技術上提升數據挖掘的能力。王偉平告訴《中國科學報》記者,在入口處對數據質量進行把控是非常關鍵的。也就是說,數據準備是數據挖掘的重要前提,因為它直接影響到數據挖掘的效率和精準度。 “如果質量參差不齊的數據統統進入通道,便很難再對質量不高的數據進行處理,他們將對有用信息造成嚴重的干擾。”



奧巴馬政府於2012年3月29日發布了《大數據研發倡議》(Big Data Research and DevelopmentInitiative),將大數據研發提升為國家政策。而美軍大數據項目正是美國國家項目的重要組成部分。據了解,美國國防部及其下屬國防高級研究計劃局現有的大數據項目共有10個,其中,數據到決策、網絡內部威脅、影像檢索與分析、X-數據項目等是具有代表性的。

最重要的數據到決策項目,主要指的是通過各種新途徑充分利用海量數據,整合感知、認知和決策保障系統,以創造一種真正自主的系統,使之可以自主機動作業並作出決策;網絡內部威脅項目目的是通過採用新式網絡威脅判斷技術,提高探知網絡刺探活動的精度、頻度和速度,從而及早暴露和防範對手的破壞活動,並提升己方的網絡安全水平;影像檢索與分析項目一旦取得成功,分析人員將能從海量視頻庫中快速、精確地檢索特定的視頻內容,由此便能充分、高效地挖掘影像中隱藏的有用信息; X-數據項目主要是通過開發大容量數據分析所需的可擴展算法, 以便處理分佈式數據存儲庫中的不規則數據。通過開發高效的人機互動設備和可視用戶界面技術,以便在多樣化任務中更好、更快地執行操作。














2012年底,美國陸軍開始在全球全面部署經過作戰驗證的情報系統。 12月14日,“陸軍分佈式通用地面系統”(D6A)獲得批准,並由國防採辦執行委員會(DAE)負責實施。

此前,D6A只是作為一種快速反應能力,成功用於伊拉克和阿富汗。目前D6A已獲批用於陸軍所有部隊,並已部署到所有旅級單位。 “快速反應能力”是指一種可以快速部署,以滿足最直接、最迫切需要的系統,比如作戰環境,但它不一定獲得了全面部署的批准。

D6A用於整個陸軍以及它與聯邦情報機構和盟軍之間的任務、處理、開發和傳播情報,取代了9種不同類型的舊系統,成為陸軍現代化計劃的重要組成部分。 D6A可以幫助用戶共享應用程序、文本文件、圖表、照片、地圖等等。與舊系統相比,D6A在2012~2017年可節約3億美元。而在整個壽命週期中(2012~2034年),D6A可節約大約12億美元。


“泰坦”認證網絡戰術信息技術(Tactical Information Technology for Assured Networks, TITAN)的功能類似於網絡搜索引擎應用軟件,指揮官用於在戰術作戰中心監控接收到的信息和發布更新後的指令。 “泰坦”可根據具體任務需求過濾信息,清理指揮官的計算機屏幕(桌面),提供與地形圖、圖片和文本鏈接的簡明指令模板,以形成通用作戰圖。 “泰坦”還提供了對未來指揮所(CPOF)和21世紀部隊旅及旅以下作戰指揮/藍軍跟踪(FBCB2-BFT)系統的支持,可融合來自其他領域的關鍵數據。


智能式網絡中心移動指揮控制軟件(Command and Control Mobile Intelligent Net-Centric Software)是一種手持式任務指揮系統,可接收和發布己方和敵軍部隊的位置信息,綜合來自戰術無人值守地面傳感器等各類傳感器和雷達探測系統的信息,從而實現對敵軍進展的實時監控和對薄弱區域的防護。


作戰人員伴侶(Warfighter Associate)人工智能軟件,可自動搜尋各類文本交談工具,探測士兵之間有關敏感目標的對話信息,提前將其反饋給未來指揮所的通用作戰圖,例如當某部隊的士兵發現地雷場後,通常會在各類信息系統上人工輸入相關信息,該軟件能夠自動提取地雷場的網格坐標,將其自動輸入未來指揮所繫統,提前15~20分鐘,在通用作戰圖上生成相關信息,否則該信息會延遲或被淹沒。在人工智能技術、作戰理論與戰術知識數據庫的驅動下,“作戰人員伴侶”能完成清理未來指揮所顯示屏、突出重要信息、提供警告和建議等輔助用戶決策和執行正確的行動方案的功能。

Source: 《中国科学报

China Options and the New US Network Warfare Strategy // 中国的选项和新的美国网络战战略


来源: 中国电子报


April 23, the US Department of Defense released a new web strategy to replace in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy.” The new network strategy clearly reflects the “war to end war”, “pre-emptive” thinking explicit proposal to strengthen the construction of the network deterrence, and under what circumstances you can use cyber weapons against network attacks, and lists the greatest threat to countries China, Russia, Iran, North Korea thinks it. The US strategy is bound to intensify the arms race in cyberspace, increasing the likelihood of cyber war broke out, bring more unrest to cyberspace, our response should be prepared in advance, to prepare for contingencies.

The new network strategy “new” Where?

First, a clear network deterrence as a strategic objective. Prior to this, the US has been pursuing a strategy of active defense, the Department of Defense in 2011 issued a “cyberspace operations strategy” in spite of the new network to be deployed weapons, but still mainly focus on cyber defense. The new network strategy will focus on the network as a deterrent, will build the power of the Internet to deal with cyber war as a key objective, and clearly the network architecture includes 133 troops teams. As US Secretary of Defense Carter said, the new network strategy will show the determination of the American cyber attacks to retaliate, “We need to prove to the world that we will protect themselves.”

Second, a clear expansion of the coverage of the network of national defense. The United States has multiple departments, including the Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security and the National Security Bureau in network security, while the United States a lot of critical information infrastructure by the private sector operators, in order to protect the network security of government departments closely between public and private institutions Cooperation.Although the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in the proposed public-private partnership to strengthen, also referred to strengthen cooperation between the Department of Homeland Security, but the new strategy will be directly “to protect local interests are not destructive and core network attack “the department of Defense and other written tasks, network infrastructure, private sector operators are also included in the scope of protection of the department of Defense, but also proposes strengthening cybersecurity information sharing among government departments and between public and private institutions.

The third is clearly cyber war adversary. Although the United States has been an enemy list, but its previous strategy documents are rarely directly named 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” in only a general reference to rival cyberspace. But the new network strategy was to dedicate China, Russia, Iran and North Korea and other countries put forward, which is the number of countries in recent years has repeatedly accused. In fact, the United States has been through a variety of ways to find a reasonable excuse for network monitoring, network armaments and other acts taken against cyber attacks accusing China, Russia and other countries are most common in the United States in April 2015 the company released a FireCam accused China and Russia were two reports of cyber attacks.

What impact will the world?

First, the network will be further intensified competition in armaments. According to the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research in 2013 statistics, there are 47 countries, announced the formation of a network warfare units, 67 countries set up a network of non-military security agencies. With further exacerbated cyberspace security threats, data still growing, new network strategy to attack the United States and deterrence as the core will further aggravate the situation. As the world network of the most powerful country, the United States continued to increase network armaments efforts, other countries will inevitably increase its own power into the network.

Second, large-scale networks will continue to increase the risk of war. In recent years, cyber conflict between nations has been emerging, but the conflict is still the main non-governmental forces, the conflict broke out between the network such as Malaysia and the Philippines, North Korea and South Korea, although part of the conflict emerge out of the shadow of national power, but there is no State publicly acknowledged. US network to the new network strategy war on its head, and set trigger conditions for cyber attacks, in the current absence of international standards related to cyberspace, cyber war risk between countries will continue to increase.

Third, the network will become the fuse of conflict in the real world war. In recent years, the United States has been trying to set a standard network warfare, from the 2011 “cyberspace operations strategy” to 2013’s “Tallinn Manual”, to the new network strategy, the United States has been as a response to the reality of armed combat cyber attacks a means. However, due to technical limitations, network attacks traced still difficult to achieve, the US government and corporate network attacks blamed the lack of direct evidence, or even need to confirm whether the other attacks by cyber attacks, such as the media reported that the United States finds that a North Korean attack from Sony Sony Korea nearly 10 years of network attacks. In this case, it is the United States armed attacks as an excuse to invade his country may occur.

How should China respond?

First, the introduction of national cybersecurity strategy. Based on important principles and national positions to protect national security in cyberspace, the formation of a clear framework for strategic action in cyberspace, improve top-level design Cyberspace national strategic layout.Key areas and key elements for the development of integrated package of cyberspace action plan, including countries such as the protection of critical information infrastructure, the establishment of a sound network and information security system.

The second is to establish a network of space defense forces. Established under the Ministry of Defence into the establishment of the network unit, identify core functions and the main task of the network forces, formed a dedicated network security personnel training and selection of channels, rapid formation of cyberspace defense capability. Set up in the National Technology Plan network security technology projects, research network attack and defense technology and equipment, the establishment of Cyber ​​Range, conduct regular network attack and defense drills, form a network combat capability.

Third, actively participate in international cooperation in cyberspace. Participation in the intergovernmental process of network security cooperation, strengthen dialogue between Russia and the United States, European Union and other countries and regions, forming a major cyber security incident communication and coordination mechanisms. Actively promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation within the framework of the United Nations, the promotion of international conventions to resist the formation of cyber war, the establishment of a unified network of weapons found, network attacks and other recognized international standards.Actively participate in international exchanges and publicly announced our attitude to cyber war, emphasized that States have the responsibility and obligation to protect its cyberspace and critical infrastructure from threats, interference and sabotage attacks.

Original Mandarin Chinese:














China’s Effort at network security has become a major trend of international cooperation



The present era, the rapid development of information society, a safe, stable and prosperous cyberspace, a country and world peace and development increasingly significant. It is considered after land, sea, air, space “fifth space” in cyberspace and Internet governance has become an important global issue for the international community unprecedented attention.

Currently, the world is not peaceful. Traditional threats and non-traditional threats intertwined. To benefit from the global network of development and also suffered network attack, and this behavior with the further development of information technology and the Internet more frequently. Currently, the traditional network boundaries become increasingly blurred, non-traditional security threats increase, distributed denial of service, advanced persistent threats and other new network attacks intensified. Network global information infrastructure frequent high-risk vulnerabilities intrusion, critical information infrastructure and critical information systems security is facing serious threats. Network attacks are gradually infiltrate the various types of network terminals. In addition, phishing, hackers, cyber-terrorism, and other issues of rampant Internet rumors, disturb and destroy the countries of normal production and life, and even threaten the stability of state power.

In recent years, the world has a profound understanding of the importance of joint response to network security threats, network security, international cooperation has become a major trend. October 2013, ICANN, IETF, W3C and other major international Internet governance institutions signed the “Montevideo was Asia,” the statement, all stakeholders equal participation as the future direction of development of Internet governance. April 2014, the Brazilian Internet Conference issued a “multi-stakeholder network in the world declared,” and proposed future “Global Principles” Internet governance and the “road map.” In the same month, Japan and the US conducted a second comprehensive network security dialogue between the two countries will further strengthen cooperation in the field of cyber defense. In October, Japan and South Korea signed the “on the strengthening of cooperation in the field of network security memorandum of understanding” to establish network security affairs consultation mechanism to discuss the fight against cyber crime and cyber terrorism, cooperation in the establishment of the Internet emergency response. In May, the new EU disclosed 2015-2020 to strengthen the fight against crime, cyber-terrorism plan. In the same month, Russia and China signed the “inter-governmental cooperation agreement in the field of international information security”, the two sides focus on the use of computer technology in particular undermine national sovereignty, security and the threat of interference in internal affairs area. In June, the global Internet Governance Council of the Global Alliance held in Brazil, a clear governance model of cooperation. In July, German Internet Industry Roundtable, deepen cooperation in the network security aspects. In August, the United Nations Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Information Security held a meeting to report to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for the first time a unified constraint own activities in cyberspace, including critical foundation can not use the Internet to attack his country’s nuclear power plants, banking, transportation, water supply systems, etc. facilities, and can not be implanted “backdoor” in IT products and so on. In September, the United States on outstanding issues in the field of law enforcement in combating cyber crime and other security-depth exchange of views and reached important consensus; the eighth “China-US Internet Forum” held in Seattle, talks between the two countries aimed at promoting exchanges Internet industry and cooperation, continue to promote the world of Internet and network information security. In October, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Member States authorities was successfully held in Xiamen City, Fujian Province, the “Xiamen -2015” Network counter-terrorism exercises; the sixth Sino-British Internet Roundtable opened in London, the two countries signed the first network security protocol; Chinese military sixth Xiangshan Science Society Forum and the China international strategic Association jointly sponsored the Beijing national Convention Center, which is an important issue around the “code of conduct in cyberspace” build mode, path, content and other discussions. December 1, State Councilor Guo Shengkun US Attorney Lynch, Johnson, Secretary of Homeland Security, co-chaired the first Sino-US cyber crime and related matters joint high-level dialogue.

Mandarin Chinese:



近年來,世界各國已深刻認識到共同應對網絡安全威脅的重要性,網絡安全國際合作已成大趨勢。 2013年10月,ICANN、IETF、W3C等國際互聯網治理主要機構共同簽署了“蒙得維得亞”聲明,將所有的利益相關者平等參與視為未來互聯網治理的發展方向。 2014年4月,巴西互聯網大會發表《網絡世界多利益攸關方聲明》,提出未來互聯網治理的“全球原則”和“路線圖”。同月,日美進行了第二次網絡安全綜合對話,兩國將進一步強化在網絡防禦領域的合作。 10月,中日韓簽署《關於加強網絡安全領域合作的諒解備忘錄》,建立網絡安全事務磋商機制,探討共同打擊網絡犯罪和網絡恐怖主義,在互聯網應急響應方面建立合作。 5月,歐盟新披露了2015年至2020年強化打擊網絡恐怖犯罪的計劃。同月,俄羅斯與中國簽署了《國際信息安全保障領域政府間合作協議》,雙方特別關注利用計算機技術破壞國家主權、安全以及乾涉內政方面的威脅。 6月,全球互聯網治理聯盟在巴西召開全球理事會,明確了合作的治理模式。 7月,中德互聯網產業圓桌會議召開,深化在網絡安全等方面的合作。 8月,聯合國信息安全問題政府專家組召開會議,並向聯合國秘書長提交報告,各國首次統一約束自身在網絡空間中的活動,包括不能利用網絡攻擊他國核電站、銀行、交通、供水系統等重要基礎設施,以及不能在IT產品中植入“後門程序”等。 9月,中美就共同打擊網絡犯罪等執法安全領域​​的突出問題深入交換意見,達成重要共識;第八屆“中美互聯網論壇”在西雅圖召開,會談旨在促進中美兩國互聯網業界的交流與合作,持續推動世界互聯網和網絡信息安全。 10月,上海合作組織成員國主管機關在福建省廈門市成功舉行了“廈門-2015”網絡反恐演習;第六屆中英互聯網圓桌會議​​在倫敦開幕,簽署兩國首個網絡安全協議;中國軍事科學學會和中國國際戰略協會聯合主辦的第六屆香山論壇在北京國家會議中心舉行,其中一個重要議題是圍繞“網絡空間行為準則”的構建模式、路徑、內涵等展開討論。 12月1日,國務委員郭聲琨與美國司法部部長林奇、國土安全部部長約翰遜共同主持首次中美打擊網絡犯罪及相關事項高級別聯合對話。

Source: China Information Security

China’s PLA & Toward Winning ‘informationized local wars’


At the beginning of the 2016, President Xi Jinping gave his commander’s intent for reorganizing China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at this beginning of the week, China announced a series of major comprehensive reforms for the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) that will defiinitely forge China’s military modernization emphasis for the immediate and long term.


The Chinese leadership intent for the overhaul is to redefine roles, missions and authorities of the PLA military services, consolidates Communist Party of China (CPC) control over the nearly autonomous military branches, and ultimately attain new levels of combat effectiveness drsigned under a new set of military guidelines of fighting and winning ‘local wars under informationized conditions.’

The first wave of official announcements included changes in the organisational force structure, starting at the highest echelons of command. Specifically, the creation of a new command structure; a joint staff under the Central Military Commission (CMC) that integrated the previous four general departments. The CMC will now manage the PLA through the Joint Staff Department comprised of 15 departments, commissions and offices.

The second significant measure is the inauguration of three new PLA services: PLA Ground Forces, PLA Rocket Forces and PLA Strategic Support Forces. The previous Second Artillery Corps, in charge of China’s nuclear and conventional ballistic missiles, has been upgraded to the PLA Rocket Force, a full service branch on par with the navy, air force, and, for the first time, the army.

The third major military reform measure, announced on 1 February 2016 @ 21:15 Local, is the restructuring of previous seven ‘military regions’ to five ‘major war zones’ or theater operations. While very similar to the US Military component commands the PLA re-oragnization reflects a move toward truly joint operations . The new major Chinese military commands now represent the Northern, Eastern, Southern, Western, and Middle or Central theaters, which are now mimicking the US Department of Defense (DoD) concept of Combatant Commands.

Changes in the PLA’s organization force structure complement its gradual technological advances. While since Novemeber 8th, 2012, the PLA under President Xi Jinping has seen many accomplishments: from the introduction of next generation of supercomputers such as the TianHe – 2,  aviation prototypes such as the J-16, J-20, J-31, new helicopters and UAVs, to the ongoing construction of a second aircraft carrier, as well as record number of commissioned People’s Liberarion Army Navy (PLAN) ships such as Type 054A, 056 frigates and 052C destroyers.

In the next five to ten years, China is expected to transfer many experimental models from R&D to the production stage (Plan 863), including a number of systems in what the PLA calls ‘domains of emerging military rivalry’: outer space, near space, cyber space, and under water.

These include next generation ballistic missiles, nuclear and conventional, long-range precision-strike assets such as hypersonic vehicles, offensive and defensive cyber capabilities and new classes of submarines, supported by a variety of high-tech directional rocket rising sea mines with accurate control and guidance capacity.

PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF)

Of all the newly established units, the PLA Strategic Support Forces (SSF), 戰略支援部隊. represents perhaps the most significant development. While details remain hidden under a veil of secrecy, unofficial Chinese PLA sources and Chinese language press reports indicate that the SSF will consist of three independent branches: ‘cyber force’ with ‘hacker troops’ responsible for cyber offense and defense; ‘space force’ tasked with surveillance and satellites; and ‘electronic force’ responsible for denial, deception, disruption of enemy radars and communications systems. The overaarching focus of this reorganizartion is to create an effective and strategic support force” to strengthen the network and space attack.

The SSF integrates the previous PLA General Staff Headquarters Third and Fourth Departments, responsible for technical reconnaissance, electronic warfare, cyber intelligence and cyber warfare, as well as absorbing the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the former PLA General Political Department, tasked with information operations, propaganda and psychological warfare.

This corresponds to PLA writings on future conflicts such as Science of Military Strategy that emphasise a holistic perspective toward space, cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum that must be defended to achieve information dominance. This is the ability to gather, transmit, manage, analyse and exploit information, and prevent an opponent from doing the same as a key prerequisite for allowing the PLA to seize air and naval superiority.

To this end, the PLA recognises the importance of controlling space-based information assets as a means of achieving true information dominance, calling it the ‘new strategic high ground.’ Consequently, establishing space dominance is an essential component of achieving military ‘information dominance.’

Strategic Chinese Military Implications

Ultimately, the key question is this: will the reforms in the PLA’s organisational force structure will be reflected in its operational conduct, particularly in the PLA’s capabilities to exploit cyber-kinetic strategic interactions in its regional power projection, as well as responses in potential crises and security flashpoints in East Asia?

On one hand, China’s political and military elites believe that a new wave of the global Revolution in Military Affairsis gathering pace, led principally by the US, and China must therefore accelerate the pace of its military development. Internally, however, the reforms are designed primarily to close the PLA’s inter-service rivalries, interoperability gaps and the dominance of the ground forces.

In other words, significant capability gaps will continue to exist.

In the long-term the coordinated exploitation of space, cyber-space, electromagnetic spectrum and strategic information operations will likely enable four critical missions for the PLA:

  1. Force enhancement to support combat operations and improve the effectiveness of military forces such as ISR, integrated tactical warning and attack assessment, command, control and communications, navigation and positioning and environmental monitoring;
  2. Counter-space missions to protect PLA forces while denying space capabilities to the adversary;
  3. Information operations to direct influence on the process and outcome in areas of strategic competition, and;
  4. Computer network operations targeting adversaries data and networks.

Consequently, the PLA’s growing military-technological developments may significantly alter both the strategic thought and operational conduct of major powers in East Asia, including the US and its Five Eyes allies including the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Canada, and Australia.

Original content published at this Australian Source

China’s Strategic Support Forces – Mission and Combat Power Intent


来源:人民网  作者:邱越  时间:2016-01-06


    December 31, 2015, People’s Liberation Army’s governing bodies, the PLA rocket forces, the PLA strategic support troops inaugural meeting was held in Beijing Bayi Building.The newly established strategic support units is quite mysterious, whether it is a kind of military do? Military expert Yin Zhuo interview, said in an interview with People’s Daily, the main mission of strategic support task force is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. It is an important force in joint operations, and action will be the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army rocket integration, throughout the war always, is the key to winning the war power.

Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujun noted that the strategic support units is to safeguard the national security of the new combat forces is an important growth point of our military combat capability of quality, mainly the strategic, fundamental, all kinds of support are strong safeguards after forces from the formation of functional integration. The establishment of strategic support units, help to optimize the structure of military forces, thus improving the overall capacity. We will adhere to system integration, civil-military integration, strengthening the new combat forces, and strive to build a strong modernization strategy support units.

Yin 卓介绍 said strategic support units main task of the mission is to support the battlefield, so that our army in the aerospace, space, network, and electromagnetic space battle can get local advantage, to ensure smooth operations. Specifically, the strategic support unit tasks include: return of target detection, reconnaissance and target information; undertake everyday navigation operations, and Beidou satellite and space reconnaissance means management; undertake electromagnetic space and cyber space defense mission .

During the war, Reconnaissance Force cyberspace can help master the movements of the enemy army to help troops develop operations to ensure the achievement battlefield victory.In peacetime, with the increasing degree of national information technology, security, electromagnetic space and cyberspace are increasingly important. Yin Zhuo pointed out that with the satellite navigation facilities in civil applications in the future high-speed rail, ship, aircraft, vehicle or car will be equipped with on-board positioning facilities that our country’s socialist construction will play an important role. In addition, the face of many hackers on the Internet for the illegal actions of the implementation of such important government facilities, military facilities, civilian facilities important to the implementation of network attacks, which requires that we must be equipped with appropriate defenses. Strategic support forces in protecting the country’s financial security and people’s daily lives and safety will play an important role.

“Strategic support units is an important force in joint operations.” Yin Zhuo said, now can not do without any combat operations in cyberspace offensive and defensive strategic support troops in reconnaissance, early warning, communications, command, control, navigation, ocean digital, digital construction and other aspects of the Earth play an important role, and provide strong support for the joint battlefield operations, in order to achieve the goal of winning local wars under conditions of informatization.

Yin Zhuo noted that the strategic support units are not a separate fighting force, it will blend in with the Army, Navy, Air Force, Army and other branches of the military rocket actions form an integrated joint operations, strategic combat support units throughout the whole process, penetrated into every combat operations, will be the key to winning the war power.

Original Mandarin Chinese:








China’s World Internet Conference and the Future of Chinese Cyberspace

William Hagestad II


December 2015, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) invited me to attend the World Internet Conference (WIC) in Wuzhen, People’s Republic of China (PRC).

It is important to understand that the Chinese Government had created a 20 kilometer security exclusion zone around the epicenter of the WIC. The Chinese residents of Wuzhen were replaced with a regiment of soldiers from the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and plainclothes policemen and women of China’s Ministry of State Security.

Opening day of the WIC China’s President, Xi Jinping gave his opening comments, a heavenly mandate for the largely handpicked Communist Party of China (CPC) member and international audience “Cyberspace is not a place [that is] beyond the rule of law”. President Xi’s opening address was focused on delegates including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and Pakistani president Mamnoon Hussain; conspicuously absent were officials from the United States, England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand.

Chinese President Xi provided direction which included a proposed the “four principles and five propositions”, systematically expounding China’s concept of a “China Network View” in the New Period. His focus included a statement that China is willing countries to strengthen dialogue and exchanges, effective management and control differences, and promote the development of the parties to the generally accepted international rules of cyberspace, cyberspace develop international conventions on terrorism, the fight against cybercrime and improve mutual legal assistance mechanisms, and jointly safeguard peace and security in cyberspace .

China’s 21st Century Boxer Rebellion

Short history lesson lest we forget how the Western failed to read between the Chinese tea leaves of China’s 21st Century network sovereignty initiative. During the early 1900’s an eight nation coalition of Eight Powers had invaded and occupied North Eastern China. The Qing Dynasty Chinese rebels known as the Boxer’s called this foreign invasion the “八國聯軍”, or Eight-Nation Alliance. This eight nation alliance included the Empire of Japan, United Kingdom, French Third Republic, German Empire, Austria-Hungary, Kingdom of Italy, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.[1] the capital of the Qing Empire, was captured eight countries & invading armies this day…”the darkest day in modern Chinese history.”[2] Save the attendance of Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev at the 2015 WIC, none of the other members of the 1900 “八國聯軍” were invited to officially attend China future discussion on the Internet at the WIC. It is prophetic then that the Chinese have not forgotten the foreign invasion and occupation of China’s homeland so long ago as backdrop for the WIC and the new future of China’s version of the Internet in the form of a Chinese Binary Rebellion…where delaying, denying and disrupting foreign incursions into China’s Internet are an echo and reminder of the 1900’s Boxer Rebellion.


You Are Either Part of the Party or You are Not

One of the important comments made by President Xi which underscores China’s current proposal for a secured and stable International Internet is that “Everyone should abide by the law, with the rights and obligations of parties concerned clearly defined. Cyberspace must be governed, operated and used in accordance with the law so that the internet can enjoy sound development under the rule of law.”[3]

Perhaps in the light of America’s National Security Agency failure to properly vet and control traitorous contractors, Chinese President Xi called for Chinese (sic) government action was needed to strengthen “civilised behaviour” on the internet, adding and calling for measures to “rehabilitate the cyber ecology”.[4]

China’s new cyber ecology will include, according to President Xi’s keynote speech will include building China into a global cyber power, speeding up Internet infrastructure development and imperative that China be regarded as a staunch defender of international cybersecurity.[5] Certainly the recent agreement with the United States on a high-level and mutual dialogue on cybercrime is evidence of China’s willingness to work with even the harshest critics of its organic Internet governance policies.[6]

International governments should make no mistake however, China’s leader emphasized that “cyber security is as important as national security.” And thus both Internet security and informatization are China’s major strategic issues concerning any country’s security and development.[7]

Curiously, however, President Xi’s keynote comments were live-tweeted by the state-run news portal, Xinhua, China’s official news agency, and broadcast on YouTube.[8] Both of these Western social media platforms are services which are blocked by Beijing.

Indeed as the WIC came to a conclusion, international cooperation was a main focus for China’s leadership as “President Xi Jinping urged all countries to respect Internet sovereignty, jointly safeguard cybersecurity, cooperate with an open mind, and improve Internet governance together.”[9]


Thus, given the international audience represented at the WIC, guidelines were given for adhering to the new Rule of Law on China’s version of an international Internet or be left behind and thus unable to participate in the world’s largest economy. Indeed Mr. Eugene Kaspersky signed a very lucrative contract at the WIC forging a unique cyber-security partnership with the China Cyber Security Company, thus demonstrating China’s willingness to embrace and recognize Internet technology such as those offered by Kaspersky.[10]


The Future of China’s Internet


Indicative of what the future holds for the Internet within the People’s Republic of China is the Xiaomi mobile phone I was provided on the first day of the WIC. While the number was Chinese, the SIM card was registered in Hong Kong allowing me to access typically blocked Western Internet websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google. China’s future Internet may include allowing limited access to the forbidden fruits of the Western Internet.


Similarly, the hotel the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) put me up in also came with a ‘special Internet account’ where access to usually blocked services was allowed, such as those enabled by my shiny new Xiaomi. However, as I switched off the ‘special account’, the familiar Chinese Internet presented itself and Gmail, Facebook, and Twitter were all blocked.


I expect that the future Internet we will all globally experience in the future will encompass an ability to access Chinese versions of Western Internet services, while denying or restricting our ability to use Western Internet technologies which may or may not be surveilled by Western intelligence services.


Quite frankly, my experience at China’s World Internet Conference was a positive one. Given the 20 kilometer security exclusion zone I felt very safe, no jihadist terrorists wielding legal semi-automatic weapons in Wuzhen. From a global cyber security researcher perspective, even though I could access both the Chinese and Western versions of the Internet, my experience was actually no different than any of the many other global locations I have visited in the past.


While the People’s Republic of China forges forward with a global secure definition of cyberspace which embodies both national security and sovereignty it will be up to other global governments to decide whether to be part of China’s secure Internet party or be left behind.

[1] “八国联军”.  八国联军侵华战争_八国联军为什么侵华_八国联军是哪八国 – 趣历史. Chinese History Topics. (December 2015). (Chinese Internet). Accessed:

[2] Ibid.

[3] “2nd World Internet Conference”. (December16-18, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Xi: China a staunch defender of cybersecurity”. September 25, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[7] “Xi: Efforts should be made to build China into cyber power”. (February 28th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[8]  “China is home to 670 million Internet users & over 4.13 million websites: President #XiJinping says at #WIC2015. Twitter. (December 15th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[9] “2nd World Internet Conference concludes”. Xinhua. December18th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed:

[10] “Russia’s Kaspersky Labs signs deal with China Cyber Security Company as Beijing and Moscow call for end to US domination of internet”. (December17th, 2015). (Internet). Accessed: