Category Archives: 中國解放軍敘事戰爭

解放軍:以認知為中心的戰爭:應對複雜戰爭的作戰概念

People’s Liberation Army: Cognition-centered warfare: operational concepts for dealing with complex wars

2023-11-09 10:39:55來源:《軍事文摘》

「三個之變」揭示戰爭複雜性成長動因
戰爭是充滿蓋然性的領域,變是貫穿其始終的基本特徵。 習主席強調,要緊盯科技之變、戰爭之變、對手之變。 科技之變是基礎,戰爭之變是主體,對手之變是關鍵,科技之變引發戰爭之變,戰爭之變促使對手之變。 「三個之變」促使戰爭形態演變、戰爭領域拓展、戰爭目標轉變、戰爭影響擴大,揭示了戰爭複雜性成長動因。
科技之變顛覆戰爭制勝基礎。 科學技術是核心戰鬥力,是軍事發展中最活躍、最具革命性的因素。 縱觀世界軍事發展史,每一次重大科學技術創新,都開啟了一場新的軍事變革,而每一場軍事變革都把軍事發展推向一個新的時代,科技創新成為提高軍隊戰鬥力的巨大引擎 。 目前,新一輪科技革命和軍事革命加速發展,現代戰爭資訊化程度不斷提高,智慧化特徵日益顯現,對軍事革命驅動作用愈發凸顯,一些前沿技術飛速發展,可能從根本上改變戰爭面貌和 規則,大國軍事博弈更體現為技術上的顛覆和反顛覆、突襲和反突襲、抵銷和反抵銷。 美海軍「復仇女神」項目,包括偵察、誘餌、幹擾等系統,誘餌類系統涵蓋空中、水面和水下,可在分散式人工智慧引擎的調度、指控下,互相補充,協同欺騙,真實營造出 一個“幽靈航母編隊”,徹底顛覆了傳統的電子欺騙手段,將資訊欺騙提升到前所未有的高度。 可以說,科技從來沒有像今天這樣深刻影響國家安全和軍事戰略全局,深刻介入、支持、主導戰爭形態演變和作戰樣式創新,甚至顛覆戰爭制勝機制。

美海軍「復仇女神」計畫基於網路化協同電子戰
概念,將不同系統集成,利用無人分散式
電子戰平台的集群實現大規模協同電子戰

戰爭之變突顯戰爭複雜性特徵。 現代戰爭正在發生深刻變化,呈現前所未有的多樣性和複雜性。 這種超級複雜性源自於多種原因:一是各種先進技術或武器不斷湧現,帶來許多不確定性;二是戰場覆蓋陸、海、空、天、網、電和認知等多個 領域;三是多種作戰對象、作戰樣式、作戰領域、作戰方式交叉關聯與組合,構成複雜的「混合戰爭」;四是人工智慧演算法將大量作戰要素建構到一個複雜的邏輯中,並以人類 思維所不及的機器速度促使各種要素組合、解構、再組合。 2022年烏克蘭危機中,表面上看來是俄羅斯和烏克蘭兩國之間的對抗,實質上是美西方國家和俄羅斯之間進行的「混合戰爭」;俄烏兩軍廣泛使用軍事、民用無人機,拓展 「無人+」運用模式,展現出未來無人智能作戰雛形;烏軍在美北約空天態勢情報的支持下,頻繁使用低成本的無人裝備對俄軍重要武器平台實施突襲,凸顯新質 作戰力量對傳統作戰體系大型武器裝備的不對稱破襲優勢。 科技之變最終將引發戰爭之變,單一要素對戰爭的影響越來越弱,多個要素構成的聯合作戰體系將對戰爭產生複雜影響,戰爭的非線性、不確定性、混亂性、開放性 、適應性、對抗性等複雜性特徵將呈指數級增長趨勢,這將導致人們對戰爭進展和勝負的認知判斷更加困難。
對手之變加速戰爭複雜性成長。 戰爭之變促使對手之變。 目前,我們正經歷百年未有之大變局,主要軍事強國積極進行戰略調整,推進新一輪軍事變革,呈現出以下特點:一是體制編制的聯合化、小型化、自主化趨勢更加明顯;二 是武器裝備呈現數位化、精確化、隱形化、無人化、智能化的發展趨勢;三是作戰形態向“四非”(非接觸、非線形、非對稱和非正規)和“三無” (無形、無聲、無人)作戰方向發展;四是軍隊指揮形態朝向扁平化、自動化、網路化、無縫化方向發展。 美國將我視為最主要的戰略對手,竭力對我打壓遏制,大力加強作戰概念創新,先後提出「混合戰爭」「多域戰」「馬賽克戰」等新型作戰概念,聲稱要打一場讓對手 「技術看不懂、打擊難預測、速度跟不上」的高端戰爭。 美軍「馬賽克戰」的核心是無人、低成本、快速、致命、靈活、可重組,基於分散式態勢感知,借助智慧化輔助決策工具,借鑒搭積木、構拼圖的概念,自適應制定任務規劃 ,動態重組作戰兵力,將作戰平台的功能分解到更多數量、單一功能的節點,大量功能節點建構作戰體系。 以“殺傷網”取代“殺傷鏈”,若干個節點失效或缺失,作戰體係可自適應重組。
戰爭複雜性成長推動戰爭制勝機理轉變
隨著國防科技的快速發展、武器裝備的更新換代和戰爭形態的快速嬗變,現代戰爭呈現指數式、爆炸性的複雜變化。 這些變化看起來眼花撩亂,但背後是有規律可循的,根本的是戰爭的勝利機理變了。 只有搞透現代戰爭制勝機理,才能準確識變、科學應變、善於求變,牢牢掌握未來戰爭主動權。
戰爭形態由冷兵器戰爭轉變為智慧化戰爭。 戰爭形態是關於戰爭的整體性認知。 迄今為止,人類戰爭形態大致經歷了冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭、資訊戰爭四個歷史階段,正朝向智慧化戰爭邁進。 認知戰的歷史幾乎和人類戰爭史一樣久遠。 在冷兵器戰爭、熱兵器戰爭、機械化戰爭時代,認知戰更多是以輿論戰、心理戰形式出現。 隨著人類進入資訊化時代,網路空間科技的發展大大拓展了認知戰的空間,豐富了認知戰的戰技術手段,使認知戰的滲透性、時效性、震懾性大大增強,認 知戰的地位和作用得到空前提高。 未來,戰爭形態將進入智慧化戰爭,大量智慧化的武器系統和平台將裝備軍隊、投入作戰。 認知戰不僅可對敵方人員的認知實施幹擾、欺騙,也能透過「對抗性輸入」「資料中毒」等演算法欺騙手段對智慧裝備的認知實施攻擊,其應用場景和範圍將進一步擴大 ,地位和作用也將進一步提高。

無人機逐漸成為戰爭的主角,
作戰複雜性進一步增加
戰爭目的由武力征服更多向精神征服轉變。 現代戰爭的致勝機制與以往相比發生了很大變化,戰爭的暴力性得到遏制,作戰目的由原來的攻城略地、殲滅敵有生力量,轉變到使對方服從己方意志,作戰手段從武力征服更多地向 著重心理和精神征服轉變,這使得認知戰在現代戰爭中的地位、角色日益凸顯。 近年來,「混合戰爭」成為大國競爭的主要手段,越來越多的國家開始專注於利用新型領域、新型手段來達到傳統作戰難以達到的政治、軍事、經濟目的。 「混合戰爭」是國家、非國家行為體以及個人等戰爭主體的混合,是常規戰爭、非常規戰爭等戰爭樣式的混合,是作戰、維穩、重建等軍事行動的混合,是政治、軍事、經濟 、民生等多領域的混合,是擊敗敵軍、爭取民心等多種作戰目標的混合,這與認知戰高度契合。 「混合戰爭」的作戰領域由軍事領域拓展到了政治、經濟、文化、民生等領域;作戰方式由火力戰、兵力戰向外交戰、經濟戰、網路戰、心理戰、輿論戰等多方向拓展, 這與認知戰高度一致,其核心要義都是“亂中取利”,主要目的都是爭奪人心,作戰指導都是以巧取勝。
戰爭制勝域由物理域資訊域轉變為認知域。 現代戰爭同時發生在物理、資訊和認知三個領域,物理域和資訊域是從物質域中脫離出來的,認知域是從精神域中脫離出來的。 物理域是傳統的戰爭領域,由作戰平台和軍事設施等構成,為資訊化戰爭提供物質基礎。 資訊域是新崛起的戰爭領域,即資訊產生、傳輸和共享空間,是資訊化戰爭較量的重點。 認知域是人類認知活動涉及的範圍和領域,既是人類感覺、知覺、記憶和思考活動的空間,也是知識生成、交換、關聯、儲存和運用的空間,也是作戰活動中感知、判斷、決策 和指揮與控制的空間。 認知域存在於作戰人員的意識領域之中,影響其判斷與決策,是正在崛起的戰爭領域。 隨著網路資訊和人工智慧等技術的發展,認知域的範圍大大拓展,正在從人的意識領域向現代認知工具和人工智慧領域拓展。 軍事技術的發展拓展了認知域的範圍,為認知戰提供了更先進、更快捷、更有效的物質技術手段,使認知戰的滲透性、時效性、震懾性大大增強,從根本上 改變了認知戰,使得認知域成為超越物理域、資訊域的新的致勝領域,成為大國博弈、軍事對抗的終極之域。
戰爭制勝機理由資訊制勝向認知制勝轉變。 戰爭對抗歸根究柢是認知的博弈與對抗,掌握了製認知權很大程度上就掌握了戰爭主動權,喪失了製認知權就會在戰爭中處於被動挨打的境地。 獲得更高、更強的製認知權是製勝強敵的關鍵。 想辦法掌握制認知權進而奪取戰場綜合製權,從而以最小代價獲得最大勝利,是現代戰爭特別是認知戰的重要機理和內在規律。 近年來,美軍先後提出以「決策中心戰」「馬賽克戰」等為代表的未來戰爭新理念,意圖將複雜性作為一種為對手製造多重困境的武器,要求在保障自身戰術「選擇優勢」的 同時,透過給敵方製造高複雜度決策影響,幹擾其決策能力,在認知域實現對敵顛覆性優勢。 在資訊化戰爭的初級和中級階段,作戰的關鍵是奪取制網權和製資訊權,貫穿著「網路優勢→資訊優勢→決策優勢→作戰優勢」的遞進模式。 在資訊化戰爭進入高級階段後,奪取制資訊權變得越來越困難,作戰的關鍵是使敵方陷入“決策困境”,使其即使擁有資訊優勢,也不能正確決策,從而失去作戰優勢,擁有認 知優勢才能擁有作戰優勢。 未來戰爭,認知優勢是最重要的戰略優勢,認知對抗是最主要的對抗形式,可謂「無認知不戰爭」。
因應複雜戰爭催生認知中心戰作戰概念
為因應現代戰爭複雜性特徵指數級增長趨勢,我們必須運用複雜性科學的理論與方法,轉變以住平台中心戰火力至上、殺傷為王的觀念,確立以認知為中心的作戰思想。 認知中心戰,指以認知域為致勝領域,以奪取認知優勢為作戰目標,圍繞幹擾認知手段、壓制認知管道、影響認知產生,對敵人員和智慧裝備的認知進行 幹擾、壓制、欺騙和誘導,透過奪取和維持認知優勢來獲取作戰優勢的一種新型作戰概念。 其主要製勝機理有以下幾點。

《孫子兵法》中提到」故兵無常勢,
水無常形;能因敵變化而取勝者,謂之神「
以網路威懾摧毀敵方作戰意志。 針對敵政治、經濟、軍事、外交、文化中的矛盾弱點,透過網路空間散播威懾性訊息,或透過網路發布閱兵、大規模軍事演習、新式武器裝備研發等訊息,使對手認知與心理產生極 大的恐懼和震撼,遏止敵不利於我的行動舉措執行。 綜合運用網電攻擊手段,對敵重要網電目標和關鍵核心節點實施點穴式打擊和警示攻擊,破壞敵體係作戰能力,影響敵武器裝備效能的正常發揮,對敵實施心理威懾。 美軍「灰色地帶作戰」理論,就是依靠自身技術優勢,主要採取網電反制等行動,應對對手“灰色地帶挑釁”,威懾對手要么放棄“對抗”,要么衝突升級,使之陷入兩難境地。
以資訊欺騙誘導敵方錯誤判斷。 針對敵方的偵察設備、情報機構和指揮系統,透過網路攻擊、電子欺騙等手段隱藏己方軍事企圖、軍事行動和軍事目標,向敵方傳送有關己方的錯誤和虛假的作戰企圖、部隊配置、作戰 能力、作戰方案以及戰場態勢等方面的訊息,或借敵方指揮資訊系統發送虛假命令和訊息,達到誘敵錯誤判斷,擾敵作戰指揮的目的。 針對人工智慧演算法實施「對抗性輸入」「資料中毒」等新型攻擊,使其透過深度學習訓練得到我預設結論,或使其陷入局部最優解中而忽略全局最優。 利用電腦影像、視訊合成、虛擬實境和人工智慧等技術,將聲音、視訊、影像、文字訊息等進行合成,或利用「深度造假」技術,產生以假亂真、真假難辨的虛假訊息,並透過網路 大量傳播,以迷惑欺騙對手,影響其決策和行動。
以資訊壓制阻塞敵方認知手段。 針對敵重要網路目標,以及核心路由器、交換器、網關、重點伺服器等,使用「軟體」「硬」攻擊手段,摧毀其網路節點。 針對敵指揮控制網、通訊傳輸網、武器鉸鍊網和預警探測網等無線鏈路的組網特點,綜合運用電子乾擾、GPS欺騙攻擊、指控鏈路接管、數據劫持控制等技術和手段,壓制其 數據通信,阻斷其通信鏈路,幹擾其作戰指揮。 對敵指揮控制、軍事通訊、預警偵測、空天資訊等軍事網路實施網電致癱攻擊,毀癱影響其作戰的核心網絡,削弱其作戰能力。
以輿論宣傳營造有利輿論環境。 配合國家政治、軍事、外交鬥爭,大力宣傳己方在戰爭中的正義性,激發全體民眾全力支持戰爭的熱情。 借助即時通訊工具、網路論壇、播客、推特、微信等新媒體平台,有計劃地散佈打擊敵方弱點的信息,取得廣泛關注和普遍共鳴後,再適時報料、製造新的熱點,反复造勢 增強影響,形成共振效應擴大效果。 透過巧妙設定議程來進行宣傳“定調”,透過強勢媒體進行輿論造勢,掀起“沉默的螺旋”,控制和引導輿論,改變人們的看法和行為。
以心理攻擊瓦解敵方軍民士氣。 透過網路廣泛傳播經過加工和處理過的訊息,宣傳己方的正義性,展現己方的力量、意志和決心,對敵方在政治上、道德上進行醜化,對內凝聚軍民的思想和意志,對外力爭 法理道義的製高點,從精神上「軟化」「弱化」敵人。 運用多種網路傳播方式和技術手段,向敵方軍民有針對性地發送各種欺騙性、幹擾性、誘導性、威懾性訊息,攻敵心理防線,促進其產生對抗無效心理,進而喪失作戰能力 。

Modern English:

Complexity science is one of the frontier fields of contemporary scientific development. It is a new tool for understanding, understanding, and exploring the phenomena, laws, and mechanisms of war. As the form of war evolves from information war to intelligent war, the complexity of war shows an exponential growth trend, and it becomes increasingly difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to put the enemy into a “decision-making dilemma” so that it can even Even with information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thus losing its combat advantage. The focus of operations will change from “information-centered” to “cognition-centered”, and the winning mechanism will change from “information winning” to “cognitive winning”.

“Three changes” reveal the driving forces behind the increasing complexity of war

War is a field full of possibilities, and change is the basic characteristic that runs through it. President Xi stressed that we must pay close attention to changes in technology, war, and opponents. Changes in science and technology are the foundation, changes in war are the subject, and changes in opponents are the key. Changes in science and technology lead to changes in war, and changes in war prompt changes in opponents. The “three changes” have promoted the evolution of war forms, the expansion of war fields, the transformation of war goals, and the expansion of war influence, revealing the driving forces behind the growth of war complexity.

Changes in technology have overturned the basis for winning wars. Science and technology are the core combat effectiveness and the most active and revolutionary factor in military development. Throughout the history of the world’s military development, every major scientific and technological innovation has started a new military revolution, and every military revolution has pushed military development into a new era. Scientific and technological innovation has become a huge engine to improve the military’s combat effectiveness. . At present, a new round of scientific and technological revolution and military revolution are accelerating. The degree of informatization of modern warfare is constantly increasing, and the characteristics of intelligence are becoming increasingly apparent. The role of driving the military revolution is becoming more and more prominent. The rapid development of some cutting-edge technologies may fundamentally change the face of war and war. According to the rules, the military game between great powers is more embodied in technological subversion and counter-subversion, raids and counter-raids, offsets and counter-offsets. The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project includes reconnaissance, decoy, jamming and other systems. The decoy system covers air, surface and underwater. Under the scheduling and control of the distributed artificial intelligence engine, it can complement each other, coordinate deception, and truly create a A “ghost aircraft carrier formation” completely subverted traditional electronic deception methods and raised information deception to an unprecedented level. It can be said that science and technology has never had such a profound impact on the overall situation of national security and military strategy as it does today. It has profoundly intervened in, supported, and dominated the evolution of war forms and the innovation of combat styles, and has even subverted the mechanism of winning wars.

The U.S. Navy’s “Nemesis” project is based on networked collaborative electronic warfare

Concept, integrating different systems and utilizing unmanned distributed

Clusters of electronic warfare platforms enable large-scale collaborative electronic warfare

The changes in war highlight the complexity of war. Modern warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing unprecedented diversity and complexity. This super complexity stems from many reasons: first, various advanced technologies or weapons are constantly emerging, bringing many uncertainties; second, the battlefield covers land, sea, air, space, network, electricity and cognitive and other multiple third, multiple combat objects, combat styles, combat areas, and combat methods are cross-correlated and combined to form a complex “hybrid war”; fourth, artificial intelligence algorithms build a large number of combat elements into a complex logic, and use human Machine speed beyond the reach of thinking prompts the combination, deconstruction, and recombination of various elements. In the Ukraine crisis in 2022, on the surface it is a confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, but in essence it is a “hybrid war” between the United States and Western countries and Russia; the Russian and Ukrainian armies extensively use military and civilian drones to expand The “unmanned +” application model shows the prototype of future unmanned intelligent operations; with the support of U.S. NATO air and space situational intelligence, the Ukrainian army frequently uses low-cost unmanned equipment to carry out raids on important Russian weapons platforms, highlighting its new qualities Combat forces have asymmetric attack advantages against large weapons and equipment in traditional combat systems. Changes in technology will eventually lead to changes in war. The impact of a single element on war will become weaker and weaker. The joint combat system composed of multiple elements will have a complex impact on war. War is non-linear, uncertain, chaotic and open. Complex characteristics such as adaptability and confrontation will increase exponentially, which will make it more difficult for people to judge the progress and outcome of the war.

Changes in opponents accelerate the growth of war complexity. Changes in war prompt changes in opponents. Currently, we are experiencing major changes unseen in a century. Major military powers are actively making strategic adjustments and promoting a new round of military reforms, which exhibit the following characteristics: first, the trend of joint, miniaturized, and autonomous institutional establishments has become more obvious; second, The first is that weapons and equipment are showing a development trend of digitization, precision, stealth, unmanned, and intelligence; the third is that the combat form is moving towards the “four nons” (non-contact, non-linear, asymmetric and irregular) and the “three nos” (Invisible, silent, unmanned) combat; fourth, the military command form is developing in the direction of flattening, automation, networking, and seamlessness. The United States regards China as its main strategic opponent and strives to suppress and contain China. It has vigorously strengthened the innovation of operational concepts and has successively proposed new operational concepts such as “hybrid warfare”, “multi-domain warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, claiming that it will fight to defeat its opponents. A high-end war in which “technology cannot be understood, strikes are difficult to predict, and speed cannot keep up.” The core of the US military’s “mosaic warfare” is unmanned, low-cost, fast, lethal, flexible and reconfigurable. It is based on distributed situational awareness, with the help of intelligent auxiliary decision-making tools and the concept of building blocks and jigsaw puzzles to adaptively formulate mission planning. , dynamically reorganize combat forces, decompose the functions of the combat platform into a larger number of single-function nodes, and build a combat system with a large number of functional nodes. Replace the “kill chain” with a “kill network”. Several nodes will fail or be missing, and the combat system can be adaptively reorganized.

The increasing complexity of war drives the transformation of the winning mechanism of war

With the rapid development of national defense science and technology, the upgrading of weapons and equipment, and the rapid evolution of war forms, modern warfare has shown exponential and explosive complex changes. These changes may seem dazzling, but there are rules to follow behind them. The fundamental thing is that the winning mechanism of war has changed. Only by thoroughly understanding the winning mechanism of modern war can we accurately recognize changes, respond scientifically, be good at seeking change, and firmly grasp the initiative in future wars.

The form of war has changed from cold weapon warfare to intelligent warfare . The shape of war is a holistic understanding of war. So far, human war has generally gone through four historical stages: cold weapon war, hot weapon war, mechanized war, and information war, and is moving towards intelligent warfare. The history of cognitive warfare is almost as old as the history of human warfare. In the era of cold weapon war, hot weapon war, and mechanized war, cognitive warfare appears more in the form of public opinion warfare and psychological warfare. As mankind enters the information age, the development of cyberspace technology has greatly expanded the space for cognitive warfare, enriched the technical means of cognitive warfare, and greatly enhanced the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare. The status and role of Zhizhan have been unprecedentedly improved. In the future, the form of war will enter intelligent warfare, and a large number of intelligent weapon systems and platforms will be equipped with the military and put into combat. Cognitive warfare can not only interfere with and deceive the cognition of enemy personnel, but also attack the cognition of smart equipment through algorithm deception methods such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning”. Its application scenarios and scope will be further expanded. , the status and role will be further improved.

Drones have gradually become the protagonist of war,

Combat complexity further increases

The purpose of war has changed from conquering by force to conquering by spirit. The winning mechanism of modern war has undergone great changes compared with the past. The violence of war has been curbed. The purpose of combat has changed from the original siege of cities and territories and annihilation of the enemy’s effective forces to making the opponent obey one’s own will. The means of combat have changed from conquering by force to conquering more areas. The emphasis on psychological and spiritual conquest and transformation has made cognitive warfare increasingly prominent in its status and role in modern warfare. In recent years, “hybrid warfare” has become a major means of great power competition. More and more countries have begun to focus on using new fields and new means to achieve political, military, and economic goals that are difficult to achieve with traditional warfare. “Hybrid war” is a mixture of war subjects such as states, non-state actors and individuals, a mixture of conventional warfare, unconventional warfare and other war styles, a mixture of military operations such as combat, stability maintenance and reconstruction, and a mixture of political, military and economic The mixture of multiple fields such as military and people’s livelihood is a mixture of multiple combat goals such as defeating the enemy and winning the hearts and minds of the people. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. The operational field of “hybrid warfare” has expanded from the military field to politics, economy, culture, people’s livelihood and other fields; the combat methods have expanded from firepower warfare and troop warfare to diplomatic warfare, economic warfare, cyber warfare, psychological warfare, public opinion warfare and other directions. This is highly consistent with cognitive warfare. Its core essence is to “make profit out of chaos”, its main purpose is to win people’s hearts, and its combat guidance is to win by cleverness.

The winning domain of war changes from the physical domain and information domain to the cognitive domain. Modern war occurs in three fields: physics, information and cognition at the same time. The physical domain and information domain are separated from the material domain, and the cognitive domain is separated from the spiritual domain. The physical domain is a traditional war domain, consisting of combat platforms and military facilities, which provides the material basis for information warfare. The information domain is a newly emerging war field, that is, the space for information generation, transmission and sharing, and is the focus of information warfare competition. Cognitive domain is the scope and field involved in human cognitive activities. It is not only the space for human feeling, perception, memory and thinking activities, but also the space for knowledge generation, exchange, association, storage and application. It is also the space for perception, judgment and decision-making in combat activities. and spaces of command and control. The cognitive domain exists in the field of consciousness of combatants and affects their judgment and decision-making. It is a rising field of warfare. With the development of technologies such as network information and artificial intelligence, the scope of the cognitive domain has greatly expanded, and is expanding from the field of human consciousness to the field of modern cognitive tools and artificial intelligence. The development of military technology has expanded the scope of the cognitive domain, providing more advanced, faster, and more effective material and technical means for cognitive warfare, greatly enhancing the permeability, timeliness, and deterrence of cognitive warfare, and fundamentally It has changed cognitive warfare, making the cognitive domain a new winning field that transcends the physical domain and information domain, and has become the ultimate domain for great power games and military confrontations.

The mechanism for winning wars changes from information victory to cognitive victory. In the final analysis, war confrontation is a game and confrontation of cognition. Mastering the right to control cognition will largely control the initiative in war. Losing the right to control cognition will put you in a passive position of being beaten in the war. Obtaining higher and stronger control rights is the key to defeating powerful enemies. Finding ways to control cognitive power and then seize comprehensive battlefield control, so as to achieve maximum victory at the minimum cost, is an important mechanism and inherent law of modern warfare, especially cognitive warfare. In recent years, the U.S. military has successively proposed new concepts of future warfare represented by “decision-centered warfare” and “mosaic warfare”, intending to use complexity as a weapon to create multiple dilemmas for opponents, requiring it to ensure its own tactical “selective advantage”. At the same time, by creating highly complex decision-making influences on the enemy and interfering with its decision-making capabilities, it can achieve a subversive advantage over the enemy in the cognitive domain. In the primary and intermediate stages of information warfare, the key to combat is to seize network control and information control, which runs through the progressive model of “network advantage → information advantage → decision-making advantage → combat advantage”. After information warfare enters an advanced stage, it becomes more and more difficult to seize control of information. The key to combat is to make the enemy fall into a “decision-making dilemma” so that even if it has information superiority, it cannot make correct decisions, thereby losing its combat advantage and having recognition. Only by knowing the advantages can you have the combat advantage. In future wars, cognitive advantage will be the most important strategic advantage, and cognitive confrontation will be the most important form of confrontation. It can be said that “without cognition, there is no war.”

Coping with complex wars has given rise to the concept of cognitive-centered warfare

In order to cope with the exponential growth trend of the complexity characteristics of modern warfare, we must use the theories and methods of complexity science to change the concept of platform-centered warfare where firepower is supreme and killing is king, and establish a cognitive-centered combat thinking. Cognition-centered warfare refers to taking the cognitive domain as the winning area, taking the cognitive advantage as the operational goal, and focusing on interfering with cognitive means, suppressing cognitive channels, affecting cognitive production, and conducting cognitive operations on enemy personnel and intelligent equipment. Interference, suppression, deception and inducement are a new operational concept that obtains combat advantages by seizing and maintaining cognitive advantages. Its main winning mechanisms are as follows.

Sun Tzu mentioned in “The Art of War” that “there is no constant force in an army;

Water has no permanent shape; those who can win due to the changes of the enemy are called gods.

Use cyber deterrence to destroy the enemy’s will to fight. Targeting the enemy’s political, economic, military, diplomatic, and cultural contradictions and weaknesses, disseminate deterrent information through cyberspace, or publish military parades, large-scale military exercises, new weapons and equipment research and development and other information through the Internet, so as to cause extreme cognitive and psychological changes in the opponent. Great fear and shock, deterring the enemy is not conducive to the implementation of my actions. Comprehensive use of network and electricity attack methods to carry out point strikes and warning attacks against the enemy’s important network and electricity targets and key core nodes, destroying the enemy’s system combat capabilities, affecting the normal performance of the enemy’s weapons and equipment, and providing psychological deterrence to the enemy. The US military’s “gray zone operations” theory relies on its own technological advantages and mainly takes actions such as cyber and electronic countermeasures to respond to the opponent’s “gray zone provocation” and deter the opponent from giving up “confrontation” or escalating the conflict, putting it in a dilemma.

Use information deception to induce the enemy to make misjudgments. Aiming at the enemy’s reconnaissance equipment, intelligence agencies and command systems, use cyber attacks, electronic deception and other means to conceal one’s military intentions, military operations and military objectives, and transmit to the enemy erroneous and false combat plans, troop configurations and operations. capabilities, combat plans, battlefield situation, etc., or use the enemy’s command information system to send false orders and information to induce the enemy to make wrong judgments and disrupt the enemy’s combat command. Implement new attacks such as “adversarial input” and “data poisoning” against artificial intelligence algorithms, allowing them to obtain preset conclusions through deep learning training, or causing them to fall into local optimal solutions and ignore the global optimal. Use technologies such as computer imaging, video synthesis, virtual reality, and artificial intelligence to synthesize sounds, videos, images, text information, etc., or use “deep fake” technology to generate false information that is difficult to distinguish between true and false, and transmit it through the Internet Spread in large quantities to confuse and deceive opponents and influence their decisions and actions.

Use information suppression to block the enemy’s cognitive means. Target the enemy’s important network targets, as well as core routers, switches, gateways, key servers, etc., and use “soft” and “hard” attack methods to destroy their network nodes. Based on the networking characteristics of wireless links such as the enemy’s command and control network, communication transmission network, weapon hinge network, and early warning detection network, comprehensively use technologies and means such as electronic jamming, GPS spoofing attacks, command link takeover, and data hijacking control to suppress them. Data communication, blocking its communication links and interfering with its combat command. Implement cyber-paralysis attacks on enemy command and control, military communications, early warning detection, aerospace information and other military networks, destroying core networks that affect their operations and weakening their combat capabilities.

Use public opinion propaganda to create a favorable public opinion environment . Cooperate with the country’s political, military, and diplomatic struggles, vigorously promote one’s own justice in the war, and stimulate the enthusiasm of all people to fully support the war. With the help of new media platforms such as instant messaging tools, online forums, podcasts, Twitter, and WeChat, we can systematically disseminate information that targets the enemy’s weaknesses. After gaining widespread attention and consensus, we can then promptly report information, create new hot spots, and repeatedly build momentum. Enhance the influence and form a resonance effect to expand the effect. Propaganda “sets the tone” by cleverly setting agendas, building public opinion through powerful media, setting off a “spiral of silence”, controlling and guiding public opinion, and changing people’s opinions and behaviors.

Use psychological attacks to undermine the morale of enemy soldiers and civilians. Through the Internet, processed and processed information is widely disseminated to promote one’s justice, demonstrate one’s strength, will and determination, vilify the enemy politically and morally, gather the thoughts and will of the military and civilians internally, and strive to win externally. The commanding heights of law and morality can “soften” and “weaken” the enemy spiritually. Use a variety of network communication methods and technical means to send various deceptive, disruptive, inductive, and deterrent messages to the enemy’s military and civilians in a targeted manner to attack the enemy’s psychological defense line, promote an ineffective confrontation mentality, and then lose combat capabilities. . Through the Internet, we can create, guide, plan, build, and expand momentum to create a “momentum” that is beneficial to ourselves but not beneficial to the enemy, causing a psychological impact on the other party’s people, thereby affecting or changing their psychological state, and implementing effective psychological attacks.

Use legal struggle to obtain legal and moral support. Use legal weapons to curb the enemy’s possible or future illegal acts, declare the legality of our actions, affirm our power of military counterattack, declare our determination to pursue war responsibilities, and deter the enemy. By exposing the illegality of the enemy’s provocative behavior, criticizing the legal basis for the enemy’s combat operations, and condemning the enemy’s illegal behavior, it causes the enemy’s strategic defeat and our own strategic gain. Use legal means to restrict the enemy’s possible actions, limit the possible interference of third parties, and block other parties from interfering with our own actions. Formulate the laws and regulations necessary for our operations to provide legal protection for our operations, or take legal remedial measures to reduce the possible negative impacts of our operations and ensure that combat operations are carried out in accordance with the law.

原中國軍事網站:http://www.81it.com/2023/1109/888沒有湯適合你.html

中國軍隊對耗散戰的戰術運用:智慧戰爭中的有效方法論

Chinese Military’s Tactical Use of Dissipative Warfare: Effective Methodology within Intelligent Warfare

隨著智慧化技術快速發展及在軍事上的廣泛應用,智慧化戰爭正成為資訊化戰爭後的新戰爭形態,而耗散戰則成為智慧化戰爭的典型方式。 所謂耗散戰,是指智慧化戰爭體系透過對內富聚融合,對外突變湧現,達成集物質消耗、能量釋散和資訊擴散於一體的綜合戰力的作戰方式。 加強耗散戰研究,有利於我們深入揭示智慧化戰爭制勝機理,贏得未來戰爭賽局主動權。

耗散戰是時代發展的必然結果

耗散戰表現在智慧化時代中物理域、資訊域和認知域的綜合對抗,體現為政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等形式的高度統一,反映了智慧化戰爭體系 所具有的開放性、複雜性和湧現性。

適應智慧化時代的安全情勢要求。 進入智慧化時代,寬網路、大數據、大模型、雲端運算、深度學習等技術快速發展,各政治集團、國家、民族之間的聯繫更加廣泛。 在政治多元、經濟交融、社會開放、科技革命等多重因素作用下,非傳統安全興起並與傳統威脅交織,智慧化戰爭主體與範疇不斷拓展,戰爭時間與空間不斷外延,戰爭與和平如影相 隨並交織一體,戰爭體系將進一步超越局部地域限制,從相對封閉走向更開放,形成更高層次和更大範圍的對抗。 耗散戰強調智慧化戰爭體系在物理域、資訊域和認知域的綜合發力,把政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等形式高度統一併納入敵我對抗範疇,適應了 世界安全情勢發展的時代要求。

符合戰爭形態演變的客觀法則。 戰爭體系的耗散現象自戰爭產生以來便始終存在,只不過在智能化戰爭形態出現之前,由於技術的製約,一直處於較為低級的、簡單的狀態,戰爭對抗僅能表現為物質消耗、能量釋 散和訊息擴散中的某一種形式。 農業時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以物質要素為主導的、以人體為中心的冷兵器戰爭。 工業化時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以能量要素為主導的、以平台為中心的熱核兵器和機械化戰爭。 在資訊化時代,戰爭形態主要表現為以資訊要素為主導的、以網信體系為中心的資訊化戰爭。 進入智慧化時代,智慧化科技將敵我對抗中的認知優勢、決策優勢和行動優勢高度統一起來,實質是將物質、能量和資訊三者高度統一,透過以智賦能、以智聚能、 以智釋能,形成了以智慧要素為主導的、以智慧演算法為中心的智慧化戰爭形態,主要表現形式即為反映智慧化戰爭複雜體系對抗的耗散戰。

具有堅實的哲學理論基礎支撐。 社會形態是戰爭形態的母體,探索和認識智能化戰爭,必須基於歷史唯物主義和辯證唯物主義的基本原理,綜合考察戰爭形態的演進和智能化戰爭所處的社會形態,構建新的戰爭概念和 語境體系。 從哲學角度看,物質、能量和資訊是構成世界的三大要素,物質體現本源的存在,能量體現運動的存在,訊息則體現聯繫的存在,三者遞進交替主導著社會形態和戰爭形態的 演進和運行。 依照辯證唯物論的否定之否定原理,在資訊時代之後的智慧時代,主導社會的要素將繼物質、能量、資訊後再次輪到物質,只不過這個物質是高度資訊化後螺旋式上升後形成的 新型物質,其主要特徵就是具有了智慧化技術屬性。 因此,從本質上講,耗散戰是智慧要素將以前低階戰爭形態中物質、能量和資訊的特性優勢高度統一起來,將戰爭中普遍存在的物質消耗、能量釋散和資訊擴散等形式高度 統一起來,反映了智慧化戰爭的典型特徵。

深刻把握耗散戰的內在要義

耗散戰基於現實世界、涵蓋虛擬世界,適應了智慧化技術快速發展、非傳統安全威脅興起、戰爭主體和範疇不斷拓展的趨勢,呈現出許多新特性。

對抗綜合博弈。 隨著智慧化戰爭形態加速向更高深度和廣度發展,政治、經濟、文化、外交等領域相互聯繫和影響更具廣泛性,戰爭重心開始從軍事系統向社會系統偏移,戰爭利益攸關方 的對抗將體現為政治較量、經濟比拼、軍事攻防、文化衝突和外交制衡等多種形式的綜合博弈,追求的戰爭優勢不再只限於軍事對抗領域。 戰爭制勝方必須適應戰爭體系的開放性、複雜性和湧現性要求,從單一物質、能量和資訊的粗放式消耗和運用轉變到以智慧優勢主導戰爭體系的耗散,力爭在多領域的綜合博弈 中贏得主動和優勢。

主體跨域多元。 智慧化戰爭的主體日益泛化,傳統戰爭需要動員的戰爭潛在力量將處於常態化對抗狀態。 政治力量、各類機構和人員與傳統意義上在戰場廝殺的部隊和軍人一起構成戰爭的主體。 多元化戰爭主體將跨越現實域和虛擬域,出現在陸、海、空、天、電、心理等多個空間域,涵蓋物理域、資訊域、認知域等,涵蓋政治、經濟、文化、 外交等多類社會域。 如社會平民可以用智慧型手機收集軍事戰場上的信息並傳遞給戰爭利益攸關方,造成對戰爭關鍵訊息的擴散,進而影響戰爭決策或一場戰役和戰鬥的勝敗。

力量一體富聚。 虛實力量一體。 圍繞著戰爭目的,一切可能運用的現實力量和虛擬力量將在智能化技術支撐下實現一體化,在平行戰場上按職履責、按規行動;有無力量一體。 無人作戰力量將在經歷人工操作、人工授權、人為監督階段後,實現高度的自主性,並可與各類有人力量按需部署、按需組合,在共同的戰爭規則約束下有效協同、並行 共生;多方力量一體。 基於各領域的廣泛聯繫和戰爭體系的共同目的,黨政軍警民等各方力量將軍事行動與政治、經濟、外交、輿論、法理鬥爭密切配合、統一行動,形成綜合戰力。 總之,在國家或政治集團的一體籌劃下,智慧化戰爭的多元參戰力量雖然物理分散,但能夠圍繞共同的戰爭目的,實現邏輯集中、即時富聚,優勢互補、一體聚優。

效能累積湧現。 高階戰爭形態在具有新質技術特徵的同時,仍涵括低階戰爭形態的特徵優勢。 耗散戰強調在多域持續進行綜合對抗,這既包括物質層面的彈藥、物資、器材甚至作戰人員的消耗,也包括能量層面的不斷匯集和釋放,更包括透過資訊層面的數據、知識、演算法 等的擴散與融合,對人的思考認知、價值追求、道德觀念、情感意志、行為模式等產生不可限制的影響。 在核武的常態嚇阻下,智慧化戰爭呈現出血腥味下降,但政治孤立、經濟封鎖、文化衝突、外交扼殺等將更加嚴峻激烈的局面。 當軍事、政治、經濟、文化、外交等各系統角色持續發揮,效能累積達到某一程度,戰爭體係就會增加負熵,進而實現戰力突變和體系效能湧現,從而獲得戰爭優勢。

在選準作戰重心中打好耗散戰

智慧化戰爭體系透過對內富聚融合,對外突變湧現,跨域增效、以智耗散,達成體係作戰效能最大化,這是耗散戰蘊含的製勝機理。 要在智慧化戰爭中贏得勝勢,必須明確耗散戰的作戰重心,針對對手體系短板弱點,找準戰爭準備的發力點。

著眼體系開放性,封閉孤立對手戰爭體系。 截斷對手戰爭體系與外在戰場環境的物質、能量和資訊交流,使之缺乏物質、能量和資訊來源管道,逐漸走向孤立、封閉和虛弱狀態。 如在戰略層面,採取政治孤立的方式,使對手戰爭體系處於孤立狀態,造成體系熵增。 在戰役層面,可利用切斷資料來源、毀滅資料備份、資料作假、竄改資訊等方法,綜合採用軟硬手段,迫其戰爭體係向封閉狀態轉化,進而降低對方體系效能。

著眼體系複雜性,分域破擊對手戰爭體系。 智慧化戰爭體係要素間連結越多、連結程度越緊密,體系結構可靠性就越低。 運用複雜系統中各分層相對獨立的原理,可製訂戰略全局、戰役局部和戰術行動策略,實現對敵戰爭體系的分層分域破擊。 如在戰略層面,採用經濟封鎖的方式,大大削弱對手的戰爭實力和發展潛力。 在戰役層面,利用作戰系統通訊網路的脆弱性,以網電複合攻擊為基本路徑與手段,採用「毀端、擊元、孤群、斷網、破雲」等方式,破擊對方作戰系統結構 ,促使對方戰爭體系「坍塌」。

著眼體系湧現性,拆解疏散對手戰爭體系。 智慧化戰爭體系只有出現突變和湧現效應,才能快速形成發揮體系效能,獲得耗散戰優勢。 如果只是單一組分或要素發揮作用,不可能形成優勢湧現。 可以預見,當前興起的ChatGPT等技術以及未來更高級的智慧化技術,將提供理解和發現戰爭複雜體系運作行為、狀態和規律的全新思維方式,以及探知客觀規律、改造自然和社會的新手段, 戰爭對抗優勢方將透過虛實結合、平行一體的對抗方式,降低對手戰爭體系的耦合度,達成拆解疏散敵戰爭體系的目的。

Modern English:

Introduction

With the rapid development of intelligent technology and its widespread application in military affairs, intelligent warfare is becoming a new form of warfare after information warfare, and dissipative warfare has become a typical method of intelligent warfare. The so-called dissipative warfare refers to a combat method in which the intelligent warfare system achieves comprehensive combat power integrating material consumption, energy release and information diffusion through internal integration and integration and external mutation. Strengthening research on dissipative warfare will help us deeply reveal the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare and win the initiative in future war games.

Dissipative war is the inevitable result of the development of the times

Dissipative warfare is manifested in the comprehensive confrontation of the physical domain, information domain and cognitive domain in the intelligent era. It is reflected in the high degree of unity in the form of political contest, economic competition, military offense and defense, cultural conflict and diplomatic checks and balances, reflecting the intelligent war system. openness, complexity and emergence.

Adapt to the security situation requirements of the intelligent era. Entering the era of intelligence, technologies such as wide networks, big data, big models, cloud computing, and deep learning are developing rapidly, and the connections between political groups, countries, and ethnic groups have become more extensive. Under the influence of multiple factors such as political pluralism, economic integration, social openness, and technological revolution, non-traditional security has emerged and is intertwined with traditional threats. The subjects and categories of intelligent warfare have continued to expand. The time and space of war have continued to expand. War and peace are like shadows. As they become more integrated, the war system will further transcend local geographical restrictions, move from a relatively closed world to a more open one, and form a higher-level and wider-scale confrontation. Dissipative warfare emphasizes the comprehensive development of intelligent warfare systems in the physical, information and cognitive domains. It highly unifies political contests, economic competitions, military offense and defense, cultural conflicts and diplomatic checks and balances into the scope of confrontation between ourselves and the enemy, adapting to the The requirements of the times as the world security situation develops.

It is in line with the objective laws of the evolution of war forms. The dissipation phenomenon of the war system has always existed since the birth of war. However, before the emergence of intelligent warfare, due to technological constraints, it has always been in a relatively low-level and simple state. War confrontation can only be manifested in material consumption and energy release. A form of dispersion and information diffusion. In the agricultural era, the main form of war was cold weapon warfare dominated by material elements and centered on the human body. In the era of industrialization, the main forms of warfare are thermonuclear weapons and mechanized warfare dominated by energy elements and centered on platforms. In the information age, the form of war is mainly information-based war dominated by information elements and centered on the network information system. Entering the era of intelligence, intelligent technology highly unifies the cognitive advantages, decision-making advantages and action advantages in the confrontation between ourselves and the enemy. In essence, it highly unifies matter, energy and information. Through intelligent empowerment, intelligent energy gathering, Interpreting energy through intelligence has formed an intelligent war form dominated by intelligent elements and centered on intelligent algorithms. The main form of expression is dissipative warfare that reflects the confrontation of the complex systems of intelligent warfare.

It is supported by a solid philosophical theoretical foundation. Social form is the matrix of war forms. To explore and understand intelligent warfare, we must be based on the basic principles of historical materialism and dialectical materialism, comprehensively examine the evolution of war forms and the social form in which intelligent warfare occurs, and construct a new war concept and context system. From a philosophical perspective, matter, energy and information are the three major elements that make up the world. Material embodies the existence of the source, energy embodies the existence of movement, and information embodies the existence of connections. The three progressively and alternately dominate the formation of social forms and war forms. Evolve and run. According to the principle of negation of dialectical materialism, in the intelligent age after the information age, the dominant element of society will be material again after matter, energy, and information. However, this material is formed after a spiral of high informatization. The main characteristic of new materials is that they have intelligent technical properties. Therefore, in essence, dissipative warfare is the intelligent element that highly unifies the characteristic advantages of matter, energy and information in previous low-level warfare forms, and highly integrates the common forms of material consumption, energy release and information diffusion in war. Unified, it reflects the typical characteristics of intelligent warfare.

Deeply grasp the inner essence of dissipative warfare

Dissipative warfare is based on the real world and covers the virtual world. It adapts to the rapid development of intelligent technology, the rise of non-traditional security threats, and the continuous expansion of war subjects and categories, and presents many new characteristics.

Against comprehensive games. As the form of intelligent warfare accelerates to develop to a higher depth and breadth, the political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other fields are more interconnected and have more extensive influence. The focus of war begins to shift from the military system to the social system, and the war stakeholders The confrontation will be reflected in various forms of comprehensive games such as political competition, economic competition, military offense and defense, cultural conflicts, and diplomatic checks and balances. The pursuit of war advantages is no longer limited to the field of military confrontation. The winner of the war must adapt to the openness, complexity and emergence requirements of the war system, transform from the extensive consumption and use of single materials, energy and information to the dissipation of the war system dominated by intelligent advantages, and strive to compete in comprehensive games in multiple fields Gain the initiative and advantage.

Subjects are diverse across domains. The subjects of intelligent warfare are becoming increasingly generalized, and the potential war forces that need to be mobilized for traditional warfare will be in a state of normalized confrontation. Political forces, various institutions and personnel, together with the troops and soldiers fighting on the battlefield in the traditional sense, constitute the main body of the war. Diversified war subjects will span the real domain and the virtual domain, appearing in land, sea, air, space, electricity, psychology and other spatial domains, covering the physical domain, information domain, cognitive domain, etc., covering politics, economy, culture, Diplomacy and other social fields. For example, civilians can use smartphones to collect information on military battlefields and pass it on to war stakeholders, causing the spread of key war information, which in turn affects war decisions or the victory or defeat of a campaign or battle.

Strength is gathered into one body. Virtual and real power are integrated. Focusing on the purpose of war, all possible real and virtual forces that may be used will be integrated with the support of intelligent technology, and they will perform their duties and act according to regulations on parallel battlefields; they will be integrated with and without forces. Unmanned combat forces will achieve a high degree of autonomy after going through the stages of manual operation, manual authorization, and human supervision. They can be deployed and combined with various manned forces on demand, and can effectively coordinate and operate in parallel under the constraints of common war rules. Symbiosis; multiple forces integrated into one. Based on the extensive connections in various fields and the common purpose of the war system, the party, government, military, police and civilians and other forces closely coordinate and act in a unified manner with political, economic, diplomatic, public opinion, and legal struggles to form a comprehensive combat capability. In short, under the unified planning of the country or political group, although the diverse participating forces in intelligent warfare are physically dispersed, they can achieve logical concentration, instant enrichment, complementary advantages, and integration of excellence around the common war purpose.

Effectiveness emerges cumulatively. While high-level warfare forms have new technological features, they still include the characteristic advantages of lower-level warfare forms. Dissipative warfare emphasizes continuous comprehensive confrontation in multiple domains. This includes not only the consumption of ammunition, materials, equipment and even combat personnel at the material level, but also the continuous collection and release of energy at the energy level. It also includes the use of data, knowledge, and algorithms at the information level. The diffusion and integration of information, etc. will have an unlimited impact on people’s thinking and cognition, value pursuit, moral concepts, emotions, will, behavior patterns, etc. Under the constant deterrence of nuclear weapons, intelligent warfare will become less bloody, but political isolation, economic blockade, cultural conflict, diplomatic stranglehold, etc. will become more serious and intense. When the military, political, economic, cultural, diplomatic and other systems continue to play their roles and the cumulative effectiveness reaches a certain level, the war system will increase negative entropy, thereby achieving a sudden change in combat power and the emergence of system effectiveness, thereby gaining a war advantage.

Choose the right focus to fight the dissipation war well

The intelligent warfare system maximizes the combat effectiveness of the system through internal aggregation and integration, external mutation emergence, cross-domain efficiency enhancement, and intelligent dissipation. This is the winning mechanism contained in dissipative warfare. To win in intelligent warfare, it is necessary to clarify the focus of dissipative warfare, target the shortcomings and weaknesses of the opponent’s system, and identify the focus of war preparations.

Focus on the openness of the system and close and isolate the opponent’s war system. Cut off the material, energy and information exchange between the opponent’s war system and the external battlefield environment, causing it to lack material, energy and information source channels, and gradually move towards a state of isolation, closure and weakness. For example, at the strategic level, political isolation is adopted to isolate the opponent’s war system, causing an increase in system entropy. At the operational level, methods such as cutting off data sources, destroying data backups, falsifying data, and tampering with information can be used to force the opponent’s war system to transform into a closed state, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the opponent’s system.

Focus on the complexity of the system and attack the opponent’s war system by domain. The more connections and the closer the connections between the elements of an intelligent warfare system, the lower the reliability of the system structure. Using the principle that each layer in a complex system is relatively independent, we can formulate overall strategic, local campaign and tactical action strategies to achieve layered and domain-based attacks on the enemy’s war system. For example, at the strategic level, the use of economic blockade can greatly weaken the opponent’s war strength and development potential. At the operational level, the vulnerability of the communication network of the combat system is exploited, and network and electricity composite attacks are used as the basic path and means, and methods such as “destroying terminals, attacking elements, lone groups, disconnecting networks, and breaking clouds” are used to destroy the opponent’s combat system structure. , prompting the opponent’s war system to “collapse”.

Focus on the emergent nature of the system and dismantle and disperse the opponent’s combat system. Only when mutation and emergence effects occur in an intelligent warfare system can it quickly form and exert its effectiveness and gain advantages in dissipative warfare. If only a single component or element plays a role, it is impossible to form an advantage. It is foreseeable that the currently emerging technologies such as ChatGPT and more advanced intelligent technologies in the future will provide a new way of thinking for understanding and discovering the operating behaviors, states and laws of complex systems of war, as well as new means of exploring objective laws and transforming nature and society. The dominant side in war confrontation will reduce the coupling degree of the opponent’s war system through a combination of virtual and real, parallel and integrated confrontation methods, and achieve the purpose of dismantling and dispersing the enemy’s war system.

中國國防部原網站:http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/888沒有湯給你html

打贏資訊化智慧化戰爭解放軍必須找到科技融合點推進戰術創新

To Win The Information-based Intelligent War China’s People’s Liberation Army Must Find Science and Technology Integration Point To Evolve Innovation of Tactics

戰法,即作戰方法,指作戰中運用的策略和技術。 戰法創新,既要深謀“策”,也要鑽研“技”。 有“策”無“技”,心有餘而力不足;有“技”無“策”,雖用力而不得法。 既要有策略指導,又具備技術支撐,方能百戰百勝。 打贏資訊化智能化戰爭,開展以謀為先、以智取勝的戰法創新,必須「策」「技」並施,有效解決理論創新與技術應用脫節、作戰行動與技術路徑脫軌等問題。

思維認知「融」。 現代科技快速發展,正推動未來作戰向高端戰爭演進。 既要搶佔理論制高點,又要塑造技術新優勢,理技深度融合創新戰法,是製勝戰場的要訣。 軍人作為戰法創新的主體,必須深刻認知現代戰爭制勝機理,根植理技融合理念,拓展理技融合思維。 目前,兩個突出問題和傾向值得注意:一是科技素養不夠,容易導致對新的戰爭形態認識不深不透,僅憑以往經驗套路研究戰法,對作戰體系中哪些技術起作用、什麼技術 真管用、對敵形成技術優勢從何入手、與強敵存在哪些技術差、如何避免被敵技術壓制等知之不深,重戰法輕技術、重“智謀”輕“智能”,創新的戰法 看似管用,其實缺乏技術支撐,風險度大。 二是把握不准作戰需求,未來戰場景象描繪不夠清晰,雖然技術原理、制勝機理明白了,但對科技在作戰行動中的運用知之不夠,忽略了人的主觀能動性對作戰效能發揮起到的決定性 作用,重技術輕戰法,就技術研技術,或只鑽研技術性能而不考慮戰法運用,或只知技術功效卻不嘗試戰法創新。 凡此,應把指戰員學科技、懂科技、用科技與科技人員學軍事、懂打仗、研戰法統籌起來協調推進,建立戰技專家融合創新機制,對接研究制勝機理,協同嵌入理技融合理念 ,交互幫帶提升戰法創新素質,形成以作戰行動牽引科技運用、以科技運用支撐作戰行動的思想認識,厚實理技融合開展戰法創新的根基。

作戰設計「融」。 世界上從來沒有完全相同的兩場戰爭,戰法創新可以繼承借鑒,不能複製翻版。 目前,軍事理論創新步伐加快、先進科技發展日新月異,戰爭形態深刻變革,呈現出混合多元、變幻莫測的顯著特徵,顛覆性技術、創新性概念、重塑性理論層出不窮。 理技融合設計未來作戰,才能找準提升戰法創新的起點。 要以敢領世界先的勇氣突破思維定勢,用超前眼光、獨特視角創新作戰理論,開發並落地作戰概念,構想作戰場景,創新戰法打法,先把未來戰場的「底圖」勾勒 好,以此對接現代科技應用、牽引先進技術研發。 同時,設計未來作戰不能超越科技極限過於遙遠地“空想”,應立足於一定時期內的科技可行性,在具有現實或可預期科技運用支撐、擁有技術實現路徑的前提下創新戰法,將技術 阻斷、技術突襲、技術壓制、技術調控嵌入作戰行動。

技高一籌「融」。 在現代戰爭中,人是決定性因素的地位沒有變,而科技對戰爭勝負的影響更加凸顯,爭奪科技勝勢在很大程度上決定戰爭勝負,必須始終把科技運用嵌入作戰鏈條、貫穿作戰全程 ,以技術效應支撐戰法運用,以技術優勢驅動作戰效能發揮。 當前,戰法創新中的理技融合,主要矛盾並非技術中少理論,而是理論中缺乏技術,最迫切的是著力推進前沿科技向作戰理論融合滲透。 要加強以武器裝備平台為依託的實質融合,著眼於最大限度地啟動作戰效能,廣泛進行基於行動效能釋放的裝備作戰運用研究、裝備作戰試驗鑑定,透過模擬推演、數據分析來偵測作戰行動的有效性 ,以「數算」驗證「勝算」。 要加強基於作戰任務選擇「最優解」技術手段的深度性融合,從研究作戰對手、確定行動方法,到擬製作戰預案、組織對抗演訓,都要充分考慮敵我技術力量對比,貫徹非對稱 作戰思想,把以優制劣、避強擊弱作為基本原則,謀求技術壓制並防敵壓制,謀求技術阻斷並防敵阻斷,謀求技術顛覆並防敵顛覆,最大限度發揮技術優勢,竭 全力限制敵方技術發揮,以此塑造有利態勢、支撐戰法運用。

集智聚力「融」。 資訊化智能化時代,不論是理論研究,或科技創新,都呈現出開放連結、交叉滲透的顯著特徵。 理技融合進行戰法創新,開放共享是重要的成長點。 推進人機一體式戰法創新,人出智謀、機器來算,以算的結果反推修訂戰法成果,在人機交互中實現理技融合;推進指技人才團隊式戰法創新,組建“ 科學家+指揮官」「戰鬥員+技術員」混合群體,實行聯調聯試、聯演聯訓、聯算聯謀,以戰法的科學性、技術的先進性謀求聯戰聯勝;推進開源眾 籌式戰法創新,軍內軍外結合,線上線下互動,以更開闊的視野、更靈活的形式,集中廣大官兵和各類專業化人才的聰明智慧,開展戰法創新領域的「創客 ”活動,發展匯聚新戰法“資源池”“成果庫”,以實現理技融合的最大效益。

實踐迭代“融”。 理論成果在實務運用中得到檢驗和昇華,科技手段在作戰行動中顯現功能與效益。 戰法創新非一日之功,理技融合也應迭代進步、滾動發展。 要注重整合應用資訊科技與智慧技術,虛擬構設未來作戰景象,在感觸與體驗智慧化作戰環境中創新戰法;要深入開展戰法創新成果虛擬模擬論證,透過虛擬實驗、模擬檢驗,充分驗證 戰法設計的可行性、作戰行動的有效性;要結合演訓活動進行技術性能檢測,透過武器裝備與資訊系統的聚能與釋能實際狀況分析,充分檢驗技術應用的功效與缺陷所在。 從而,在複盤研討、反覆論證、資料檢驗中動態發現與解決問題,理論不適用的修改理論,技術行不通的升級技術,讓戰法引進新領域技術,讓技術顛覆傳統式戰法,實現 技戰一體有機結合,持續推動戰法創新螺旋上升滾動發展。

Modern English:

Find the integration point of theory and technology for innovative tactics

Tactic, that is, combat methods, refers to the strategies and techniques used in combat. To innovate tactics, we must not only think deeply about “strategies”, but also study “techniques”. If there is “strategy” but no “skill”, the mind will be more than sufficient but the strength is insufficient; if there is “skill” but no “strategy”, no matter how hard you try, you will not be able to achieve the goal. It requires both strategic guidance and technical support to be victorious in every battle. To win information-based and intelligent wars and carry out strategic innovation that puts strategy first and wins by outsmarting, we must implement both “policy” and “technique” to effectively solve problems such as the disconnect between theoretical innovation and technological application, and the derailment of combat operations and technological paths.

“Integration” of thinking and cognition. The rapid development of modern science and technology is promoting the evolution of future combat to high-end warfare. It is necessary to seize the theoretical commanding heights and create new technological advantages. In-depth integration of science and technology and innovative tactics are the keys to victory on the battlefield. As the main body of innovation in tactics, military personnel must have a deep understanding of the winning mechanism of modern warfare, root the concept of integrating science and technology, and expand the thinking of integrating science and technology. At present, two outstanding problems and tendencies are worth noting: First, insufficient scientific and technological literacy, which can easily lead to an in-depth understanding of new forms of warfare. Only relying on past experience and routines to study tactics, and which technologies are effective and which technologies in the combat system. I don’t know much about how effective it is, where to start to form a technological advantage over the enemy, what are the technical differences with powerful enemies, how to avoid being suppressed by the enemy’s technology, etc. We emphasize tactics over technology, emphasis on “wisdom” over “intelligence”, and innovative tactics. It seems to work, but in fact it lacks technical support and is highly risky. The second is that the combat needs are not accurately grasped, and the future battlefield scene is not clearly described. Although the technical principles and winning mechanisms are understood, the application of science and technology in combat operations is not known enough, and the decisive role of human subjective initiative in combat effectiveness is ignored. Function, focusing on technology over tactics, researching technology based on technology, or only studying technical performance without considering the application of tactics, or only knowing the efficacy of technology without trying to innovate tactics. In this regard, officers and soldiers should learn, understand, and use science and technology and science and technology personnel should learn military affairs, understand warfare, and study warfare methods in a coordinated and coordinated manner, establish an integration and innovation mechanism for combat technology experts, conduct joint research on winning mechanisms, and collaboratively embed the concept of science and technology integration , interactively help and improve the quality of tactical innovation, form an ideological understanding that combat operations drive the application of science and technology, and use science and technology application to support combat operations, and lay a solid foundation for integrating theory and technology to carry out tactical innovation.

Combat design “integration”. There are never two identical wars in the world. Innovation in tactics can be inherited and learned from, but cannot be copied. At present, the pace of military theoretical innovation is accelerating, advanced science and technology are developing at a rapid pace, and the form of warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing the distinctive characteristics of being mixed, diverse, and unpredictable. Subversive technologies, innovative concepts, and reshaping theories are emerging one after another. Only by integrating science and technology to design future operations can we find and improve the starting point for tactical innovation. We must have the courage to lead the world and break through the stereotypes, use forward-looking and unique perspectives to innovate combat theories, develop and implement combat concepts, conceive combat scenarios, innovate tactics, and first outline the “base map” of the future battlefield. Well, in this way, we can connect the application of modern science and technology and promote the research and development of advanced technology. At the same time, the design of future operations cannot be too far-fetched and “utopian” beyond the limits of science and technology. It should be based on the feasibility of science and technology within a certain period of time, and on the premise of having the support of realistic or foreseeable technology application and having a path for technological implementation, innovate tactics and integrate technology. Interdiction, technological surprise, technological suppression, and technological control are embedded in combat operations.

“Integration” with superior skills. In modern wars, the status of people as the decisive factor has not changed, but the impact of technology on the outcome of wars has become more prominent. The fight for technological victory determines the outcome of wars to a large extent. The use of science and technology must always be embedded in the combat chain and throughout the entire combat process. , use technical effects to support the application of tactics, and use technical advantages to drive combat effectiveness. At present, the main contradiction in the integration of theory and technology in the innovation of tactics is not the lack of theory in technology, but the lack of technology in theory. The most urgent thing is to promote the integration of cutting-edge technology into combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the substantive integration based on weapons and equipment platforms, focus on activating combat effectiveness to the maximum extent, carry out extensive research on the combat application of equipment based on operational effectiveness release, equipment combat testing and identification, and test the effectiveness of combat operations through simulation deductions and data analysis. , verify the “probability of winning” with “number calculations”. It is necessary to strengthen the in-depth integration of technical means to select “optimal solutions” based on combat tasks. From studying combat opponents and determining action methods to formulating combat plans and organizing confrontation exercises, we must fully consider the technical strength comparison between the enemy and ourselves, and implement asymmetric The operational philosophy takes the superiority of the inferior and the avoidance of the strong to attack the weak as the basic principle, seeks technological suppression and prevents the enemy from suppressing it, seeks technological blockage and prevents the enemy from blocking it, seeks technological subversion and prevents the enemy from subverting it, maximizes the use of technological advantages, and does everything possible. Make every effort to limit the enemy’s technological performance in order to create a favorable situation and support the use of tactics.

Gather wisdom and strength to “integrate”. In the era of informationization and intelligence, both theoretical research and scientific and technological innovation show the remarkable characteristics of open linkage and cross-penetration. The integration of science and technology carries out strategic innovation, and open sharing is an important growth point. Promote the innovation of man-machine integrated tactics, where people use their ingenuity and machines do calculations, and use the calculation results to revise the results of tactics, and realize the integration of science and technology in human-computer interaction; promote the innovation of team-based tactics for finger-technical talents, and form a ” A mixed group of “scientists + commanders” and “combatants + technicians” implements joint debugging and testing, joint exercises and training, and joint calculations and calculations, and seeks joint victory with the scientific nature of tactics and advanced technology; promotes open source and mass Tactics innovation, integration within and outside the military, online and offline interaction, with a broader vision and more flexible form, pool the wisdom of officers and soldiers and various professional talents to carry out “makers” in the field of tactics innovation “Activities, develop and gather new tactics “resource pools” and “results libraries” to achieve maximum benefits from the integration of science and technology.

Practice iterative “integration”. Theoretical achievements have been tested and sublimated in practical applications, and scientific and technological means have demonstrated their functions and benefits in combat operations. Innovation in tactics is not something that can be accomplished in a day, and the integration of science and technology should also be iteratively progressed and developed on a rolling basis. It is necessary to focus on the integrated application of information technology and intelligent technology, to virtually construct future combat scenarios, and to innovate tactics while feeling and experiencing the intelligent combat environment; it is necessary to carry out in-depth virtual simulation demonstrations of the innovative results of tactics, and fully verify them through virtual experiments and simulation tests. The feasibility of tactical design and the effectiveness of combat operations; technical performance testing must be carried out in conjunction with drills and training activities, and the efficacy and flaws of technical applications must be fully tested by analyzing the actual energy collection and release of weapons, equipment and information systems. Therefore, problems can be discovered and solved dynamically during review discussions, repeated demonstrations, and data testing, and we can modify theories where the theory is not applicable and upgrade technologies where technology is not feasible, so that tactics can introduce new field technologies, and technology can subvert traditional tactics and achieve success. The organic combination of technology and combat continues to promote the spiral and rolling development of tactical innovation.

中國國防部原文來源: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/888沒有湯適合你.html

中國軍隊做好戰爭準備,科學研究旨在實現戰場統治

Chinese Military Readies for War with Scientific Research Designed to Achieve Domination on the Battlefield

4月下旬,軍事科學院戰爭研究院順利完成上報兩項作戰重大問題研究工程的立項論證建議書。 這是研究院著眼履行核心職能,科研攻關始終瞄準備戰打仗的具體實踐。

戰爭研究院是全軍專門研究戰爭、設計戰爭的科學研究機構。 作為新組成單位,大項任務多、臨時任務多、論證申報任務多是他們科學研究工作的主要特徵。 年初,針對人少事急、科研任務壓茬推進的實際情況,該研究院黨委對照戰鬥力標準,把旨在強軍勝戰的科研工作擺在重要位置。 他們依據備戰急需、打仗急用、部隊急盼的標準,調整確立了戰爭與作戰問題研究、條令法規編排等方向的重點科研任務,壓減了10餘項偏離主責主業的課題,新增 了一批戰爭形態、作戰風格等聚焦備戰打仗的課題研究。 該研究院領導介紹,院黨委要求班子成員在重大科研任務中既掛帥又出征,做到主要精力向重點任務投放,力量配備、經費支持等向作戰研究傾斜。

同時,研究院持續深化「小核心、大外圍」協同攻關,不斷創新科學研究組織模式。 他們在研究院內部進行軍事理論人員和軍事科技人員「捆綁式」研究,打通科研壁壘;與軍事醫學研究院、國防工程研究院等兄弟單位互派專家參與重大專案研究,實現優勢互補;組織科研 人員參加各類重大演訓活動,找準科研需求;舉辦多邊軍事交流活動,使科研人員及時了解最新軍事科技動態。 此外,他們也積極與地方科研院所合作,將地方優質科研資源為己所用,形成研究戰爭、設計戰爭、運籌戰爭、驗證戰爭的閉合迴路。

去年以來,該研究院先後完成百餘項科研課題,在核心作戰概念開發、聯合作戰實驗等研究上取得重要突破,提交國家高端智庫研究報告、重要問題評估報告等60餘份,推出一批戰略 性強、原創性強、前瞻性強的創新成果。

Modern English:

In late April, the Institute of War Research of the Academy of Military Sciences successfully completed the submission of project demonstration proposals for two major combat issue research projects. This is a concrete practice of the institute focusing on fulfilling its core functions and always aiming at scientific research and preparation for war.

The War Research Institute is a scientific research institution specializing in the study and design of war in the entire military. As a newly established unit, the main characteristics of their scientific research work are many major tasks, many temporary tasks, and many demonstration and application tasks. At the beginning of the year, in response to the actual situation where there were few people and urgent tasks and scientific research tasks were being pushed forward, the party committee of the institute put the scientific research work aimed at strengthening the army and winning the war in an important position in accordance with the combat effectiveness standards. Based on the criteria of urgent need for war preparation, urgent need for war, and urgent need of troops, they adjusted and established key scientific research tasks in the research of war and combat issues, and the compilation of doctrines and regulations, etc., and reduced more than 10 topics that deviated from their main responsibilities and main business, and added new A batch of research on war forms, combat styles and other topics focusing on war preparation and combat were carried out. According to the leader of the institute, the party committee of the institute requires team members to both take command and go out on major scientific research tasks, so that the main energy should be devoted to key tasks, and force allocation and financial support should be tilted towards combat research.

At the same time, the institute continues to deepen the collaborative research of “small core and large periphery” and continuously innovates the scientific research organization model. They carry out “bundled” research by military theoretical personnel and military scientific and technological personnel within the institute to break down barriers to scientific research; they exchange experts with sister units such as the Military Medical Research Institute and the National Defense Engineering Research Institute to participate in major project research to achieve complementary advantages; organize scientific research Personnel participate in various major exercises and training activities to identify scientific research needs; multilateral military exchange activities are held to keep scientific researchers informed of the latest military science and technology trends. In addition, they also actively cooperate with local scientific research institutes to use local high-quality scientific research resources for their own use, forming a closed loop of researching war, designing war, operating war, and verifying war.

Since last year, the institute has completed more than 100 scientific research projects, made important breakthroughs in the development of core operational concepts and joint operational experiments, submitted more than 60 national high-end think tank research reports and important issue assessment reports, and launched a number of strategies. Innovative results that are highly innovative, original and forward-looking.

解放軍原文參考:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0514/c1888沒有湯給你.html

中國軍事上對敘事戰爭的運用

Chinese Military Use of Narrative Warfare

中國解放軍敘事戰爭

Traditional Mandarin Chinese:

語言也是武器。 軍事鬥爭除了可以動用飛機、坦克等硬手段外,也可以將語言修辭作為實現軍事目標的手段。 不同於話語,敘事更為宏廣。 認清軍事敘事的內涵與特點,對於建構未來軍事理論具有重要意義。

語言是上膛的「手槍」。 「敘事戰」指以語言為武器,以佔據世界軍事論述主導權為目標而展開的軍事理論創新與競爭。 從目標上可分為進攻性敘事、防禦性敘事和威懾性敘事等,依手段可分為作戰概念敘事、軍事理論敘事、軍事話語敘事、軍事話語敘事等。 內容既涉及國防和軍事建設、軍事戰略層面的敘事,也包括戰略、戰役、戰術層面作戰概念的敘事,還包括作戰標準、作戰規則的權威制定和議程設定。 把握敘事主導權,是贏得認知戰的前提與基礎。 把握了敘事主導權,也就掌握了國際意識形態鬥爭的主動權、領導權,進而獲得軍事論述主導權。

成功的敘事需要吸引力。 與嚴密的邏輯論證不同,敘事透過引人入勝的故事吸引觀眾,二戰時期德國「閃擊戰」神話就是如此。 這個橫空出世的戰術其實是一戰後期「胡蒂爾戰術」或「滲透戰術」的翻版,但在軍事界和各類媒體的華麗包裝下,迅速成為德國能夠橫掃歐洲的「魔法」。 目前,美軍各軍種都在推出令人眼花繚亂的作戰概念,儘管不少是對以往作戰思想的翻新和包裝,然而這種頗具「概念股」意味的營銷方式成功吸引了世界軍事界的注意和追捧 ,甚至影響了其他國家軍事變革的方向和軍事理論的製定。

敘事是軍事發展的“設計”

中國解放軍敘事戰爭

敘事既是理論研究者腦中的思考脈絡,也是媒體口中的報道風格,它對內構成了理論研究的習慣,對外則成為描述對手的行文規範,涉及理論、概念、宣傳、話術手段等諸多內容 。 因此,可以從四個方面來認識敘事在軍事上發揮作用的方式。

作戰概念敘事影響未來軍事建設與發展。 作戰概念既是一種作戰理念,本身也是一種武器和作戰手段。 作戰概念的敘事競爭讓作戰雙方極力追求軍事技術運用和作戰方法手段的共同演化,力爭使雙方作戰理念和方法手段處於相近的水平。 當國家軍事實力差距龐大時,強大的國家力求主導設計戰場,實現對作戰對手的降維打擊。 當國家軍事實力差距不明顯時,雙方作戰概念的賽局結果可能是混沌未知的。 各方窮盡所有,在時代框架所能允許的範圍內,盡量全景描述可能的作戰方式和手段。 在你來我往的作戰概念「敘事戰」之中,新型戰爭方式最終會在雙方軍事理論家的「腦力激盪」中誕生,在演訓實踐中定型,最終在戰場對決中進行檢驗。

軍事理論敘事能左右軍事戰略的發展。 軍事理論敘事有助於確定國家安全利益、識別現實和潛在威脅,也有助於針對性規劃國防與軍隊發展戰略。 例如,馬漢「海權論」的提出,既有力滿足了本國海軍發展需求,同時也成為二戰後各國爭奪海洋利益、發展海上力量的重要思想源頭。 美軍1990年代以來對高新技術戰爭的敘事,引導了世界新軍事革命浪潮,帶來了武器裝備和部隊編制體制的重大變革。 近年來,美軍相繼提出「多域戰」「分散式海上作戰」等新作戰概念,反映出其希望藉助先進作戰概念繼續佔據世界軍事發展前沿、引領軍事變革方向的意圖。

軍事話語敘事可塑造軍事認知環境。 軍事論述透過構設術語,對軍事理論內容進行議程設置,塑造軍事語境,內化對手思考方向,讓其在既設的軍事框架內認知作戰環境、作戰手段,進而創設自己熟悉的作戰“ 劇本”,讓對手陷入其中卻渾然不知。 譬如美軍名義繁多的作戰概念,既有服務本軍種利益競爭的需要,也有試錯性的作戰概念推演,同時還有意無意地給對手製造「概念圈套」。

軍事話術敘事可主導話語權顛倒黑白。 透過名詞構造等話術,強勢敘事者可對既有概念做出新表述,模糊人們對原有概念的理解,形成強勢話語對弱勢話語的壓制。 透過高調宣傳、片面解讀、美化包裝和選擇性運用政策法規等手段,既妖魔化對手,又彰顯強勢敘事者自身行動的「正義性」和「合法化」。 近年來,西方國家把意識形態領域的政治語言敘事模式轉變成軍事話語權進行輸出,隱密地將價值評價植入軍事層面的敘事之中。 例如,描述同樣性質的作戰行動,西方國家自己會用「低強度戰爭」「航行自由行動」等帶有中性和正義色彩的詞彙,卻貶損別國為「灰色地帶行動」。

善於爭奪「麥克風」主導權

從內容來看,敘事屬於語言藝術範疇,並不神祕。 在認清其特徵及作用方式的基礎上,如何在軍事敘事的鬥爭維度上贏得勝利,是擺在我們面前的重要理論和現實問題。 筆者認為,爭奪「敘事戰」主導權,應該注意把握四點原則。

注重量體裁衣服務國家策略。 軍事服從政治。 軍事敘事不能天馬行空,應該與國家戰略敘事一致,否則二者的分裂將嚴重損害國家安全利益。 二戰前夕,法國奉行的以「馬奇諾防線」為代表的防禦性軍事敘事,無法支撐其政治上與東歐國家的同盟戰略體系,令法國失去了應對德國威脅的可信能力。 因此,軍事上的敘事貴在圍繞著國家戰略目標「就地取材」「你打你的,我打我的」。 我軍歷史上的「麻雀戰」「零敲牛皮糖」「小群多路戰」等作戰概念,有力支撐了我軍作戰實踐。 現今俄軍結合自身實際,創造性地發展了「混合戰爭」理論,為自身尋求到迥異於美軍卻適合俄羅斯特色的作戰方式,並在俄格衝突等行動中有效維護了其國家戰略利益。

靈巧拆解詞語進行反向敘事。 詞語建構是對已有概念作出新表述,模糊對原有概念的理解,從而達到引導輿論的目的,是建構話語體系常用的手段之一。 美軍當今大量所謂的新式作戰概念往往是新瓶裝舊酒。 例如“分散式海上作戰”,其實是“分散兵力”或“狼群戰術”借用網路領域概念的語言升級,“海上遠徵基地作戰”炒的則是“跳島戰術”的冷飯。 對待這些作戰概念,千萬不能人雲亦雲。 應運用批判性思維,透過反向敘事的方式擠出作戰概念敘事中的水分,撥開雲霧見真容。

積極奪取認知空間,對抗敘事霸權。 「敘事戰」的終極目標是奪取認知領域的話語權、制腦權。 如今網路是敘事的主戰場,自媒體、社群網路、直播影片等是認知對抗、「敘事戰」的重要平台。 西方軍事強國憑藉佔據全球輿論高點的優勢,用一套霸權性質的話術,構設了一套服務資本利益、維護霸權地位的價值和標準體系,形成了偏向於網絡霸權國家的選擇性敘事取向。 處在這種不利的敘事環境下,應著重探索弱勢敘事空間的話術手段,在媒體、智庫等敘事平台構造話語連動機制,逐步拓展敘事空間,贏得更多的社會認同、更多的公眾青睞和 影響力。

防止落入作戰概念的敘事陷阱。 作戰概念超前並不代表軍事實力領先。 戰爭對決,作戰概念從來不是製勝武器,更無法左右戰爭的結局。 冷戰後美國發起的幾場戰爭,均憑藉絕對的非對稱優勢以強對弱、以優勝劣,其背後密碼為:實力+新作戰概念,其中何者為決定因素還有待商榷。 因此,應避免落入對手作戰概念的敘事陷阱,防止被對手牽引追逐作戰概念創新以致被帶偏節奏。 要堅持「你打你的,我打我的」的原則,用清醒的頭腦、理智的思維謀求有中國特色的軍事理論敘事,練就制勝強敵的過硬「內功」。

Modern English Version:

With the development of psychological warfare, cyber warfare, social media warfare, cognitive warfare and other theories and their application in combat practice, the competition for military discourse power has become increasingly fierce. Using language as a weapon, a strong narrative can not only suppress the opponent to form discourse dominance, but also subtly shape the opponent’s thinking habits, guide the opponent to follow suit, and form an asymmetric advantage in discourse, thereby achieving “conceptual attack.”

Narrative can strangle the “throat” of military theory

Language is also a weapon. In addition to using hard means such as aircraft and tanks, military struggles can also use language and rhetoric as a means to achieve military goals. Unlike discourse, narrative is broader. Recognizing the connotation and characteristics of military narratives is of great significance to constructing future military theories.

Language is a loaded pistol. “Narrative warfare” refers to military theoretical innovation and competition that uses language as a weapon and aims to dominate the world’s military discourse. According to the goal, it can be divided into offensive narrative, defensive narrative and deterrent narrative. According to the means, it can be divided into operational concept narrative, military theory narrative, military discourse narrative, military rhetoric narrative, etc. The content involves not only the narrative of national defense and army construction and military strategy, but also the narrative of operational concepts at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels. It also includes the authoritative formulation and agenda setting of operational standards and operational rules. Grasping narrative dominance is the prerequisite and foundation for winning the cognitive war. By grasping the dominance of narrative, we also grasp the initiative and leadership of the international ideological struggle, and then gain the dominance of military discourse.

Successful narratives require appeal. Rather than strictly logical arguments, narrative engages the audience through a compelling story, as was the case with the German “Blitzkrieg” myth of World War II. This unexpected tactic was actually a replica of the “Hutier tactics” or “infiltration tactics” in the late World War I. However, under the gorgeous packaging of the military circles and various media, it quickly became the “magic” that allowed Germany to sweep across Europe. Currently, all branches of the U.S. military are launching dazzling combat concepts. Although many of them are refurbishments and packaging of previous combat ideas, this marketing method with a “concept stock” meaning has successfully attracted the attention and pursuit of the world’s military circles. , and even influenced the direction of military reforms and the formulation of military doctrines in other countries.

Narrative is the “designer” of military development

Narrative is not only the thinking thread in the minds of theoretical researchers, but also the reporting style in the media. It constitutes the habit of theoretical research internally, and it becomes the writing standard for describing opponents externally, involving theories, concepts, propaganda, rhetorical techniques and many other contents. . The way narrative works in the military can therefore be understood in four ways.

The operational concept narrative affects future military construction and development. The combat concept is not only a combat concept, but also a weapon and combat method. The narrative competition of operational concepts has led both combatants to pursue the co-evolution of the application of military technology and operational methods, striving to bring the operational concepts, methods and means of both sides to a similar level. When there is a huge gap in national military strength, the more powerful country strives to dominate the design of the battlefield and achieve dimensionality reduction against combat opponents. When the gap in national military strength is not obvious, the outcome of the game of combat concepts between the two sides may be chaotic and unknown. All parties tried their best to fully describe possible combat methods and means within the framework of the times. In the “narrative war” where operational concepts come and go, new methods of warfare will eventually be born in the “brainstorming” of military theorists on both sides, finalized in training practices, and finally tested in battlefield duels.

Military theoretical narratives can influence the formulation of military strategies. Military theoretical narrative helps to determine national security interests, identify actual and potential threats, and also helps to plan national defense and military development strategies in a targeted manner. For example, the proposal of Mahan’s “Sea Power Theory” not only effectively met the country’s naval development needs, but also became an important ideological source for countries to compete for maritime interests and develop maritime power after World War II. The U.S. military’s narrative of high-tech warfare since the 1990s has led the world’s new wave of military revolution and brought about major changes in weapons, equipment, and troop establishment systems. In recent years, the US military has successively proposed new operational concepts such as “multi-domain warfare” and “distributed maritime operations”, reflecting its intention to continue to occupy the forefront of world military development and lead the direction of military transformation with the help of advanced operational concepts.

Military discourse narratives can shape the military cognitive environment. By constructing terminology, military discourse sets the agenda for military theoretical content, shapes the military context, internalizes the opponent’s thinking direction, allows them to recognize the combat environment and combat methods within the established military framework, and then creates a familiar combat ” Script”, allowing the opponent to fall into it without knowing it. For example, the U.S. military’s numerous operational concepts not only serve the needs of competing interests of the service, but also involve trial-and-error operational concept deductions. They also intentionally or unintentionally create “conceptual traps” for opponents.

Military narrative can dominate the discourse and confuse right and wrong. Through discourse techniques such as noun construction, strong narrators can make new expressions of existing concepts, blurring people’s understanding of the original concepts, and forming a strong discourse that suppresses weak discourse. Through high-profile propaganda, one-sided interpretation, beautifying packaging, and selective use of policies and regulations, it not only demonizes opponents, but also demonstrates the “justice” and “legitimation” of the powerful narrator’s own actions. In recent years, Western countries have transformed the political language narrative model in the ideological field into military discourse power for export, and covertly embedded value evaluations into military-level narratives. For example, when describing combat operations of the same nature, Western countries themselves will use neutral and just terms such as “low-intensity war” and “freedom of navigation operations”, but disparage other countries’ operations as “gray zone operations.”

Good at competing for “microphone” dominance

From the content point of view, narrative belongs to the category of language art and is not mysterious. On the basis of understanding its characteristics and mode of action, how to win victory in the struggle dimension of military narrative is an important theoretical and practical issue before us. The author believes that when fighting for dominance in “narrative warfare”, four principles should be paid attention to.

Pay attention to tailor-made services to serve the national strategy. The military is subordinate to politics. The military narrative cannot be arbitrary and must be consistent with the national strategic narrative, otherwise the split between the two will seriously damage national security interests. On the eve of World War II, the defensive military narrative represented by the “Maginot Line” pursued by France was unable to support its political alliance strategic system with Eastern European countries, causing France to lose its credible ability to respond to the German threat. Therefore, the importance of military narratives revolves around the national strategic goals of “using local materials” and “you fight yours, and I fight mine.” Combat concepts such as “Sparrow Warfare”, “Single-Group Warfare” and “Small Group Multi-Road Warfare” in the history of our army have strongly supported our army’s combat practice. Nowadays, the Russian military has creatively developed the “hybrid warfare” theory based on its own actual conditions, seeking a combat method that is completely different from the US military but suitable for Russian characteristics, and has effectively safeguarded its national strategic interests in operations such as the Russia-Georgia conflict.

Cleverly dismantle words to create reverse narratives. Word construction is to make new expressions of existing concepts and blur the understanding of original concepts, so as to achieve the purpose of guiding public opinion. It is one of the commonly used means to build a discourse system. A large number of so-called new combat concepts in the US military today are often old wine in new bottles. For example, “distributed maritime operations” is actually a linguistic upgrade of “dispersed forces” or “wolf pack tactics” borrowing concepts from the cyber domain, while “maritime expeditionary base operations” are a waste of “island hopping tactics”. When dealing with these operational concepts, we must not follow others’ opinions. Critical thinking should be used to squeeze out the moisture in the narrative of the combat concept through reverse narrative, and see through the clouds and fog to see the true face.

Actively seize cognitive space and resist narrative hegemony. The ultimate goal of “narrative warfare” is to seize the right to speak and control the brain in the cognitive field. Nowadays, the Internet is the main battlefield for narrative, and self-media, social networks, live videos, etc. are important platforms for cognitive confrontation and “narrative warfare.” Relying on the advantage of occupying the commanding heights of global public opinion, Western military powers use a set of hegemonic rhetoric to construct a system of values ​​and standards that serve capital interests and maintain hegemonic status, forming a selective narrative orientation that favors cyber hegemons. In this unfavorable narrative environment, we should focus on exploring the means of discourse in the weak narrative space, construct a discourse linkage mechanism in narrative platforms such as media and think tanks, gradually expand the narrative space, and win more social recognition, more public favor, and Influence.

Avoid falling into the narrative trap of operational concepts. Being advanced in operational concepts does not mean leading in military strength. In war duels, combat concepts are never the winning weapon, let alone the outcome of the war. The several wars launched by the United States after the Cold War all relied on absolute asymmetric advantages to defeat the weak with the strong and win with the superior. The code behind this is: strength + new combat concepts. Which of these is the decisive factor remains to be discussed. Therefore, we should avoid falling into the narrative trap of our opponents’ operational concepts, and avoid being led by our opponents to pursue innovations in operational concepts, leading to being led astray. We must adhere to the principle of “you fight yours and I fight mine”, use a clear mind and rational thinking to seek a military theoretical narrative with Chinese characteristics, and develop excellent “internal strength” to defeat powerful enemies.

解放軍日報原網址 : http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2021/1207/c88-xxxx888html

解放軍報原作者:沈文科、薛鍅興