Category Archives: 中國軍民融合計劃

打贏資訊化智慧化戰爭解放軍必須找到科技融合點推進戰術創新

To Win The Information-based Intelligent War China’s People’s Liberation Army Must Find Science and Technology Integration Point To Evolve Innovation of Tactics

戰法,即作戰方法,指作戰中運用的策略和技術。 戰法創新,既要深謀“策”,也要鑽研“技”。 有“策”無“技”,心有餘而力不足;有“技”無“策”,雖用力而不得法。 既要有策略指導,又具備技術支撐,方能百戰百勝。 打贏資訊化智能化戰爭,開展以謀為先、以智取勝的戰法創新,必須「策」「技」並施,有效解決理論創新與技術應用脫節、作戰行動與技術路徑脫軌等問題。

思維認知「融」。 現代科技快速發展,正推動未來作戰向高端戰爭演進。 既要搶佔理論制高點,又要塑造技術新優勢,理技深度融合創新戰法,是製勝戰場的要訣。 軍人作為戰法創新的主體,必須深刻認知現代戰爭制勝機理,根植理技融合理念,拓展理技融合思維。 目前,兩個突出問題和傾向值得注意:一是科技素養不夠,容易導致對新的戰爭形態認識不深不透,僅憑以往經驗套路研究戰法,對作戰體系中哪些技術起作用、什麼技術 真管用、對敵形成技術優勢從何入手、與強敵存在哪些技術差、如何避免被敵技術壓制等知之不深,重戰法輕技術、重“智謀”輕“智能”,創新的戰法 看似管用,其實缺乏技術支撐,風險度大。 二是把握不准作戰需求,未來戰場景象描繪不夠清晰,雖然技術原理、制勝機理明白了,但對科技在作戰行動中的運用知之不夠,忽略了人的主觀能動性對作戰效能發揮起到的決定性 作用,重技術輕戰法,就技術研技術,或只鑽研技術性能而不考慮戰法運用,或只知技術功效卻不嘗試戰法創新。 凡此,應把指戰員學科技、懂科技、用科技與科技人員學軍事、懂打仗、研戰法統籌起來協調推進,建立戰技專家融合創新機制,對接研究制勝機理,協同嵌入理技融合理念 ,交互幫帶提升戰法創新素質,形成以作戰行動牽引科技運用、以科技運用支撐作戰行動的思想認識,厚實理技融合開展戰法創新的根基。

作戰設計「融」。 世界上從來沒有完全相同的兩場戰爭,戰法創新可以繼承借鑒,不能複製翻版。 目前,軍事理論創新步伐加快、先進科技發展日新月異,戰爭形態深刻變革,呈現出混合多元、變幻莫測的顯著特徵,顛覆性技術、創新性概念、重塑性理論層出不窮。 理技融合設計未來作戰,才能找準提升戰法創新的起點。 要以敢領世界先的勇氣突破思維定勢,用超前眼光、獨特視角創新作戰理論,開發並落地作戰概念,構想作戰場景,創新戰法打法,先把未來戰場的「底圖」勾勒 好,以此對接現代科技應用、牽引先進技術研發。 同時,設計未來作戰不能超越科技極限過於遙遠地“空想”,應立足於一定時期內的科技可行性,在具有現實或可預期科技運用支撐、擁有技術實現路徑的前提下創新戰法,將技術 阻斷、技術突襲、技術壓制、技術調控嵌入作戰行動。

技高一籌「融」。 在現代戰爭中,人是決定性因素的地位沒有變,而科技對戰爭勝負的影響更加凸顯,爭奪科技勝勢在很大程度上決定戰爭勝負,必須始終把科技運用嵌入作戰鏈條、貫穿作戰全程 ,以技術效應支撐戰法運用,以技術優勢驅動作戰效能發揮。 當前,戰法創新中的理技融合,主要矛盾並非技術中少理論,而是理論中缺乏技術,最迫切的是著力推進前沿科技向作戰理論融合滲透。 要加強以武器裝備平台為依託的實質融合,著眼於最大限度地啟動作戰效能,廣泛進行基於行動效能釋放的裝備作戰運用研究、裝備作戰試驗鑑定,透過模擬推演、數據分析來偵測作戰行動的有效性 ,以「數算」驗證「勝算」。 要加強基於作戰任務選擇「最優解」技術手段的深度性融合,從研究作戰對手、確定行動方法,到擬製作戰預案、組織對抗演訓,都要充分考慮敵我技術力量對比,貫徹非對稱 作戰思想,把以優制劣、避強擊弱作為基本原則,謀求技術壓制並防敵壓制,謀求技術阻斷並防敵阻斷,謀求技術顛覆並防敵顛覆,最大限度發揮技術優勢,竭 全力限制敵方技術發揮,以此塑造有利態勢、支撐戰法運用。

集智聚力「融」。 資訊化智能化時代,不論是理論研究,或科技創新,都呈現出開放連結、交叉滲透的顯著特徵。 理技融合進行戰法創新,開放共享是重要的成長點。 推進人機一體式戰法創新,人出智謀、機器來算,以算的結果反推修訂戰法成果,在人機交互中實現理技融合;推進指技人才團隊式戰法創新,組建“ 科學家+指揮官」「戰鬥員+技術員」混合群體,實行聯調聯試、聯演聯訓、聯算聯謀,以戰法的科學性、技術的先進性謀求聯戰聯勝;推進開源眾 籌式戰法創新,軍內軍外結合,線上線下互動,以更開闊的視野、更靈活的形式,集中廣大官兵和各類專業化人才的聰明智慧,開展戰法創新領域的「創客 ”活動,發展匯聚新戰法“資源池”“成果庫”,以實現理技融合的最大效益。

實踐迭代“融”。 理論成果在實務運用中得到檢驗和昇華,科技手段在作戰行動中顯現功能與效益。 戰法創新非一日之功,理技融合也應迭代進步、滾動發展。 要注重整合應用資訊科技與智慧技術,虛擬構設未來作戰景象,在感觸與體驗智慧化作戰環境中創新戰法;要深入開展戰法創新成果虛擬模擬論證,透過虛擬實驗、模擬檢驗,充分驗證 戰法設計的可行性、作戰行動的有效性;要結合演訓活動進行技術性能檢測,透過武器裝備與資訊系統的聚能與釋能實際狀況分析,充分檢驗技術應用的功效與缺陷所在。 從而,在複盤研討、反覆論證、資料檢驗中動態發現與解決問題,理論不適用的修改理論,技術行不通的升級技術,讓戰法引進新領域技術,讓技術顛覆傳統式戰法,實現 技戰一體有機結合,持續推動戰法創新螺旋上升滾動發展。

Modern English:

Find the integration point of theory and technology for innovative tactics

Tactic, that is, combat methods, refers to the strategies and techniques used in combat. To innovate tactics, we must not only think deeply about “strategies”, but also study “techniques”. If there is “strategy” but no “skill”, the mind will be more than sufficient but the strength is insufficient; if there is “skill” but no “strategy”, no matter how hard you try, you will not be able to achieve the goal. It requires both strategic guidance and technical support to be victorious in every battle. To win information-based and intelligent wars and carry out strategic innovation that puts strategy first and wins by outsmarting, we must implement both “policy” and “technique” to effectively solve problems such as the disconnect between theoretical innovation and technological application, and the derailment of combat operations and technological paths.

“Integration” of thinking and cognition. The rapid development of modern science and technology is promoting the evolution of future combat to high-end warfare. It is necessary to seize the theoretical commanding heights and create new technological advantages. In-depth integration of science and technology and innovative tactics are the keys to victory on the battlefield. As the main body of innovation in tactics, military personnel must have a deep understanding of the winning mechanism of modern warfare, root the concept of integrating science and technology, and expand the thinking of integrating science and technology. At present, two outstanding problems and tendencies are worth noting: First, insufficient scientific and technological literacy, which can easily lead to an in-depth understanding of new forms of warfare. Only relying on past experience and routines to study tactics, and which technologies are effective and which technologies in the combat system. I don’t know much about how effective it is, where to start to form a technological advantage over the enemy, what are the technical differences with powerful enemies, how to avoid being suppressed by the enemy’s technology, etc. We emphasize tactics over technology, emphasis on “wisdom” over “intelligence”, and innovative tactics. It seems to work, but in fact it lacks technical support and is highly risky. The second is that the combat needs are not accurately grasped, and the future battlefield scene is not clearly described. Although the technical principles and winning mechanisms are understood, the application of science and technology in combat operations is not known enough, and the decisive role of human subjective initiative in combat effectiveness is ignored. Function, focusing on technology over tactics, researching technology based on technology, or only studying technical performance without considering the application of tactics, or only knowing the efficacy of technology without trying to innovate tactics. In this regard, officers and soldiers should learn, understand, and use science and technology and science and technology personnel should learn military affairs, understand warfare, and study warfare methods in a coordinated and coordinated manner, establish an integration and innovation mechanism for combat technology experts, conduct joint research on winning mechanisms, and collaboratively embed the concept of science and technology integration , interactively help and improve the quality of tactical innovation, form an ideological understanding that combat operations drive the application of science and technology, and use science and technology application to support combat operations, and lay a solid foundation for integrating theory and technology to carry out tactical innovation.

Combat design “integration”. There are never two identical wars in the world. Innovation in tactics can be inherited and learned from, but cannot be copied. At present, the pace of military theoretical innovation is accelerating, advanced science and technology are developing at a rapid pace, and the form of warfare is undergoing profound changes, showing the distinctive characteristics of being mixed, diverse, and unpredictable. Subversive technologies, innovative concepts, and reshaping theories are emerging one after another. Only by integrating science and technology to design future operations can we find and improve the starting point for tactical innovation. We must have the courage to lead the world and break through the stereotypes, use forward-looking and unique perspectives to innovate combat theories, develop and implement combat concepts, conceive combat scenarios, innovate tactics, and first outline the “base map” of the future battlefield. Well, in this way, we can connect the application of modern science and technology and promote the research and development of advanced technology. At the same time, the design of future operations cannot be too far-fetched and “utopian” beyond the limits of science and technology. It should be based on the feasibility of science and technology within a certain period of time, and on the premise of having the support of realistic or foreseeable technology application and having a path for technological implementation, innovate tactics and integrate technology. Interdiction, technological surprise, technological suppression, and technological control are embedded in combat operations.

“Integration” with superior skills. In modern wars, the status of people as the decisive factor has not changed, but the impact of technology on the outcome of wars has become more prominent. The fight for technological victory determines the outcome of wars to a large extent. The use of science and technology must always be embedded in the combat chain and throughout the entire combat process. , use technical effects to support the application of tactics, and use technical advantages to drive combat effectiveness. At present, the main contradiction in the integration of theory and technology in the innovation of tactics is not the lack of theory in technology, but the lack of technology in theory. The most urgent thing is to promote the integration of cutting-edge technology into combat theory. It is necessary to strengthen the substantive integration based on weapons and equipment platforms, focus on activating combat effectiveness to the maximum extent, carry out extensive research on the combat application of equipment based on operational effectiveness release, equipment combat testing and identification, and test the effectiveness of combat operations through simulation deductions and data analysis. , verify the “probability of winning” with “number calculations”. It is necessary to strengthen the in-depth integration of technical means to select “optimal solutions” based on combat tasks. From studying combat opponents and determining action methods to formulating combat plans and organizing confrontation exercises, we must fully consider the technical strength comparison between the enemy and ourselves, and implement asymmetric The operational philosophy takes the superiority of the inferior and the avoidance of the strong to attack the weak as the basic principle, seeks technological suppression and prevents the enemy from suppressing it, seeks technological blockage and prevents the enemy from blocking it, seeks technological subversion and prevents the enemy from subverting it, maximizes the use of technological advantages, and does everything possible. Make every effort to limit the enemy’s technological performance in order to create a favorable situation and support the use of tactics.

Gather wisdom and strength to “integrate”. In the era of informationization and intelligence, both theoretical research and scientific and technological innovation show the remarkable characteristics of open linkage and cross-penetration. The integration of science and technology carries out strategic innovation, and open sharing is an important growth point. Promote the innovation of man-machine integrated tactics, where people use their ingenuity and machines do calculations, and use the calculation results to revise the results of tactics, and realize the integration of science and technology in human-computer interaction; promote the innovation of team-based tactics for finger-technical talents, and form a ” A mixed group of “scientists + commanders” and “combatants + technicians” implements joint debugging and testing, joint exercises and training, and joint calculations and calculations, and seeks joint victory with the scientific nature of tactics and advanced technology; promotes open source and mass Tactics innovation, integration within and outside the military, online and offline interaction, with a broader vision and more flexible form, pool the wisdom of officers and soldiers and various professional talents to carry out “makers” in the field of tactics innovation “Activities, develop and gather new tactics “resource pools” and “results libraries” to achieve maximum benefits from the integration of science and technology.

Practice iterative “integration”. Theoretical achievements have been tested and sublimated in practical applications, and scientific and technological means have demonstrated their functions and benefits in combat operations. Innovation in tactics is not something that can be accomplished in a day, and the integration of science and technology should also be iteratively progressed and developed on a rolling basis. It is necessary to focus on the integrated application of information technology and intelligent technology, to virtually construct future combat scenarios, and to innovate tactics while feeling and experiencing the intelligent combat environment; it is necessary to carry out in-depth virtual simulation demonstrations of the innovative results of tactics, and fully verify them through virtual experiments and simulation tests. The feasibility of tactical design and the effectiveness of combat operations; technical performance testing must be carried out in conjunction with drills and training activities, and the efficacy and flaws of technical applications must be fully tested by analyzing the actual energy collection and release of weapons, equipment and information systems. Therefore, problems can be discovered and solved dynamically during review discussions, repeated demonstrations, and data testing, and we can modify theories where the theory is not applicable and upgrade technologies where technology is not feasible, so that tactics can introduce new field technologies, and technology can subvert traditional tactics and achieve success. The organic combination of technology and combat continues to promote the spiral and rolling development of tactical innovation.

中國國防部原文來源: http://www.mod.gov.cn/gfbw/jmsd/888沒有湯適合你.html

透過智慧戰爭洞察中國軍隊打贏戰爭的演變

Insight into Chinese Military’s Evolution of Winning Wars through the use of Intelligent Warfare

引言

軍事理論家常說,勝利往往向那些能預見戰爭特性變化的人微笑,而不是向那些等待變化發生後才去適應的人微笑。 近年來,以人工智慧為代表的顛覆性技術發展迅速,並廣泛應用於軍事領域,使戰爭形態加速向智慧化演變,與之相應的戰爭觀也正在發生嬗變。 及時發現變化,主動應對變化,積極適應變化,才能夠在未來戰爭中立於不敗之地。

從“以強打弱”到“以智制拙”

「強勝弱敗」是帶有一定普遍性的戰爭制勝法則。 即使是那些以弱勝強的戰例,往往也必須在局部和特定時段形成對敵的力量優勢才能真正取勝。 在智慧化戰爭時代,智力優勢對戰鬥力的貢獻率遠高於其他要素。

在智慧化戰爭對抗中,人的智慧廣泛滲透到作戰領域、移植到武器系統,全域多維、各種類型的智慧化作戰平台能夠快速耦合作戰力量,根據任務需求建構作戰體系,自主實施協同作戰, 任務結束迅速回歸待戰狀態,呈現智慧自主趨勢。 智慧程度更高更強的一方,能夠更好地開發和運用「以智制拙」機理,甚至據此設計戰爭、主導戰局發展,取得最終勝利。 也要看到,智慧化戰爭時代很可能存在由低到高的多個發展階段,盡可能讓自己處於高級階段,攻擊對手使其處於低維度的階段,也是以高打低「智勝」機理 的運用。

從“消滅力量”到“摧毀認知”

隨著戰爭形態加速向智慧化演進,作戰空間逐漸由物理域、資訊域拓展至認知域,以有形戰場擴展到無形戰場,由人的精神和心理活動構成的認知空間已成為新的作戰 空間。 與傳統戰爭中以消滅敵人有生力量為主要目的不同,智能化戰爭將更著重於削弱敵方的士氣,瓦解敵方的意志,摧毀敵方的認知。

透過智慧分析對手的性格偏好、心理特徵、決策習慣,可有針對性地「量身定制」威懾訊息,利用智慧化等前沿技術優勢,以形象逼真的方式向對手展現強大實力,使焦慮、猜疑 、恐慌等情緒在其內部不斷發酵,最終導致不攻自破。 被譽為「新石油」的大數據在豐富情報來源的同時,也成為作用於對手認知的重要「武器」。 透過對大數據進行加工處理,並刻意“洩露”給對手,將給其製造新的“戰爭迷霧”,使其陷入認知迷茫的境地。 在智慧化戰爭中,圍繞著攻心奪誌所展開的鬥爭博弈將更加激烈,而佔據認知優勢的一方將比對方先勝一籌,更加容易掌握主動、先機。

從“以人為主”到“人機協同”

在傳統戰爭中,軍事力量的組織與運用均以人為主。 隨著智慧技術的廣泛應用,無人裝備的比例不斷提高。 在智慧化戰爭中,作戰任務將由人機協同完成,兩者將實現有機融合、優勢互補。 外軍提出的第三次「抵銷戰略」將人機協作等作為重點發展的關鍵技術,其先後提出的「忠誠僚機」等概念也旨在探索實現有人/無人協同作戰。 可以預見,人機協同將在未來戰爭中發揮重要作用。

利用無人偵察力量進行立體多維的戰場態勢感知,可為有人作戰力量即時提供情報支援;利用無人平台攜帶中繼負荷,可為有人作戰力量持續提供通訊中繼支援;利用無人作戰力量深入 前方戰場,可吸引敵方攻擊,迫敵暴露位置,為有人作戰力量提供目標引導和火力支援;利用無人運輸裝備為前線提供物資補給,可提高後勤保障效率,降低運輸成本,減少非必要的 人員傷亡。 在人工智慧的輔助下,有人作戰力量與無人作戰力量將在數量規模、功能作用等方面實現科學分工與合理搭配,從而使整體效能最大化。

從“以大吃小”到“以快吃慢”

在傳統戰爭中,往往需要透過增加兵力數量來彌補在裝備性能等方面的短板。 “兵之情主速”,軍事智能化的飛速發展大大提升了信息傳遞速度和武器打擊精度,大幅縮減了偵察預警、情報處理、指揮決策、火力打擊、毀傷評估的時間,加速OODA殺傷鏈循環 ,使「發現即摧毀」成為可能。

高超音波飛彈、雷射武器、微波武器、電磁脈衝武器等新型快速殺傷武器進一步將戰爭節奏推向「秒殺」。 在海灣戰爭中,OODA環的迴路時間需要3天;在伊拉克戰爭中,迴路時間已縮短至10分鐘以內;而在敘利亞戰爭中,迴路已幾乎實現了近實時。 在智慧化戰爭中,利用察打一體無人平台對敵方的核心指揮所、高層指揮官等高價值目標進行快速定點清除,將使對方還來不及反應就遭受重創,甚至面臨癱瘓的險境。 可見勝利不一定眷顧軍力規模龐大的一方,行動迅速而精準的一方將更有可能贏得戰場先機。 根據統計,人工智慧應對戰場變化所需的反應時間比人類快400倍以上。 面對瞬息萬變的戰場態勢,人們將更傾向於借助人工智慧技術實現指控係統的自適應規劃和自主決策,使指控模式由“人在環路上”轉變為“人在環路外”,從而在減輕 指揮人員負擔的同時,提高作戰效率和執行任務的成功率。

從“整合製勝”到“集群制勝”

傳統的裝備發展概念是將大量資金投入到高度整合的高精尖武器平台研發中,以期在戰爭中憑藉代際優勢和性能優勢實現對敵方的降維打擊。 然而,開發部署多功能高階平台不僅需要耗費大量的時間和經費,當把多個軟硬體模組整合到單一武器平台時,還可能出現彼此之間不相容的情況。 一旦該平台被摧毀,將造成重大損失。 人工智慧等顛覆性技術的軍事應用促使無人群聚快速發展。 無人集群具有數量規模大、綜合成本低、去中心化等優勢,無人平台之間相互協調、分工合作,可自主決策並有組織地執行作戰任務,即使部分無人平台被毀,也不 影響整體作戰效能。 外軍提出的「決策中心戰」「馬賽克戰」等作戰概念,即著眼利用無人集群完成作戰任務。 在智慧化戰爭中,透過將偵察監視、資訊通聯、指揮控制、火力打擊等功能分散到大量功能單一的無人作戰單元中,建構高魯棒性、高彈性的“殺傷網”,然後根據任務 需要對組合方式進行調整,將使其湧現出強大的群體智能,給對手製造極大的不確定性,進而把對手困在OODA環的判斷環節,無法做出有效決策。 此外,由於無人集群數量龐大,可使對手的探測、跟踪、攔截能力迅速達到飽和,對手因無法摧毀集群中的所有無人平台,而不得不面臨防禦工事失效的困境。

從“軍事主導”到“多元混合”

傳統戰爭主要依賴暴力手段使敵方屈服於己方意志,通常具有較強的戰爭強度,平時與戰時界線分明。 隨著軍事鬥爭領域向太空、網路、智慧等新型領域不斷拓展,以及經濟、文化、外交、法律等手段在戰爭中的作用不斷凸顯,智能化戰爭將在「灰色地帶」為代表的多個領域 以「多管齊下」的形式展開。 戰爭強度可能會減弱,平戰界線將更加模糊。 無論是2019年沙烏地阿拉伯油田因遭到無人機攻擊而導致一半石油停產,或是2021年美國最大輸油管因遭遇網路攻擊而導致大面積油料短缺,各類新型攻擊手段所帶來的深遠影響均 不可小覷。

隨著智慧化技術的發展成熟,綜合運用多種手段對對手的工業、交通、金融、通訊、能源、醫療等設施和網路發動的攻擊將更加普遍。 智慧化戰爭的門檻將呈現下降趨勢,參戰方可能採取不宣而戰的方式發起融合經濟戰、外交戰、網路戰、輿論戰、心理戰、法律戰等多種樣式的混合戰爭,使對手疲 於應付。

從“實戰驗兵”到“實驗演兵”

在傳統條件下,由於缺乏科學的模擬模擬與評估工具,因此只有在實戰中才能檢驗出軍隊的真實能力。 在智慧化條件下,利用虛擬實境技術可基於實際的戰場環境和任務背景創造具有較強立體感和真實感的虛擬場景。 該場景不僅可以從聲音、外觀、性能等多個維度對武器裝備等客觀事物進行還原,還能模擬大霧、大雨和暴風雪等各種惡劣天氣,以可視化的形式展現戰場的地形、氣象、水文 、電磁、核化等訊息,接近戰場的真實狀況。

根據現實中敵方的特徵設定虛擬環境中的假想敵,並對戰局的可能走向進行智慧模擬仿真,可使官兵在正式開戰前就已在虛擬實境中數次「親歷」戰爭,從而對裝備性能 、戰爭節奏、敵我情況都了然於胸,在執行現實任務時將更加游刃有餘。 在伊拉克戰爭爆發前,美軍曾秘密開發了一款模擬巴格達作戰環境的電腦遊戲,在派遣到伊拉克執行任務的人員中,接受過遊戲訓練的人員生存率高達90%。 隨著現實中收集到的數據不斷豐富完善,虛擬戰場的搭建將更加逼真,對戰場態勢的走向預測將更加準確,關於演習的綜合評估將更加可信,敵對雙方都力圖通過智能推演即可預先 獲知戰爭結果,將可能出現不戰或小戰就「屈人之兵」的情況。

Modern English:

Insight into the evolution of the winning mechanism of intelligent warfare

■Xie Kai, Zhang Dongrun, Liang Xiaoping

introduction

Military theorists often say that victory tends to smile on those who can foresee changes in the character of warfare, rather than on those who wait for changes to occur and then adapt. In recent years, disruptive technologies represented by artificial intelligence have developed rapidly and are widely used in the military field, accelerating the evolution of war into intelligence. Correspondingly, the concept of war is also changing. Only by discovering changes in a timely manner, proactively responding to changes, and actively adapting to changes can we remain invincible in future wars.

From “using the strong to defeat the weak” to “using wisdom to control the weak”

“The strong wins and the weak loses” is a certain universal law for winning wars. Even in those battles in which the weak defeat the strong, it is often necessary to form a strength advantage over the enemy locally and at a specific period of time in order to truly win. In the era of intelligent warfare, the contribution rate of intelligence superiority to combat effectiveness is much higher than other factors.

In intelligent warfare, human intelligence has widely penetrated into the combat field and been transplanted into weapon systems. All-domain, multi-dimensional, and various types of intelligent combat platforms can quickly couple combat forces, build combat systems based on mission requirements, and independently implement collaborative operations. After the mission ends, it quickly returns to the ready-to-fight state, showing a trend of intelligent autonomy. The side with higher and stronger intelligence can better develop and use the “wisdom to control” mechanism, and even design wars based on this, dominate the development of the war situation, and achieve final victory. It should also be noted that in the era of intelligent warfare, there are likely to be multiple stages of development from low to high. Try to keep yourself in an advanced stage and attack the opponent to a low-dimensional stage. This is also the mechanism of “outsmarting” by using high to defeat low. application.

From “destroying power” to “destroying cognition”

As the form of war accelerates to evolve towards intelligence, the combat space gradually expands from the physical domain and information domain to the cognitive domain, and extends from the tangible battlefield to the invisible battlefield. The cognitive space composed of human spirit and psychological activities has become a new combat space. space. Different from the main purpose of traditional war, which is to eliminate the enemy’s physical strength, intelligent warfare will pay more attention to weakening the enemy’s morale, disintegrating the enemy’s will, and destroying the enemy’s cognition.

By intelligently analyzing the opponent’s personality preferences, psychological characteristics, and decision-making habits, deterrence information can be “tailored” in a targeted manner, and the advantages of cutting-edge technologies such as intelligence can be used to demonstrate powerful strength to the opponent in a realistic way, making anxiety and suspicion Emotions such as fear and fear continued to ferment within it, eventually leading to its self-defeat. Big data, known as the “new oil”, not only enriches the source of intelligence, but also becomes an important “weapon” that affects the opponent’s cognition. By processing big data and deliberately “leaking” it to the opponent, a new “fog of war” will be created for it, making it fall into a state of cognitive confusion. In intelligent warfare, the struggle for the heart and mind will become more intense, and the party with the cognitive advantage will be better than the other party, making it easier to seize the initiative and take advantage of opportunities.

From “people-oriented” to “human-machine collaboration”

In traditional warfare, the organization and use of military force are dominated by people. With the widespread application of smart technology, the proportion of unmanned equipment continues to increase. In intelligent warfare, combat tasks will be completed by man-machine collaboration, and the two will achieve organic integration and complementary advantages. The third “offset strategy” proposed by foreign military forces focuses on human-machine collaboration as a key technology for development. Concepts such as “loyal wingman” proposed by them are also aimed at exploring the realization of manned/unmanned collaborative operations. It is foreseeable that human-machine collaboration will play an important role in future wars.

The use of unmanned reconnaissance forces to carry out three-dimensional and multi-dimensional battlefield situation awareness can provide real-time intelligence support for manned combat forces; the use of unmanned platforms to carry relay loads can continuously provide communication relay support for manned combat forces; the use of unmanned combat forces can provide in-depth The forward battlefield can attract enemy attacks, force the enemy to expose their positions, and provide target guidance and fire support for manned combat forces; using unmanned transportation equipment to provide material supplies to the front line can improve logistics support efficiency, reduce transportation costs, and reduce unnecessary Casualties. With the assistance of artificial intelligence, manned combat forces and unmanned combat forces will achieve scientific division of labor and reasonable coordination in terms of quantity, scale, functions, etc., thereby maximizing overall effectiveness.

From “eating the small with the big” to “eating the slow with the fast”

In traditional wars, it is often necessary to increase the number of troops to make up for shortcomings in equipment performance and other aspects. “Soldiers love the main speed”, the rapid development of military intelligence has greatly improved the speed of information transmission and weapon strike accuracy, greatly reduced the time for reconnaissance and early warning, intelligence processing, command decision-making, fire strikes, damage assessment, and accelerated the OODA kill chain cycle , making “discovery and destruction” possible.

New rapid-kill weapons such as hypersonic missiles, laser weapons, microwave weapons, and electromagnetic pulse weapons have further pushed the pace of war to “instant kill.” In the Gulf War, the loop time of the OODA loop took 3 days; in the Iraq War, the loop time has been shortened to less than 10 minutes; and in the Syrian War, the loop time has almost achieved near real-time. In intelligent warfare, the use of unmanned platforms that integrate surveillance and combat to quickly and precisely eliminate high-value targets such as the enemy’s core command posts and high-level commanders will cause the opponent to suffer heavy damage before it has time to respond, and may even face the danger of paralysis. It can be seen that victory does not necessarily favor the side with large military strength. The side that moves quickly and accurately will be more likely to gain the upper hand on the battlefield. According to statistics, the reaction time required for artificial intelligence to respond to battlefield changes is more than 400 times faster than that of humans. Faced with the ever-changing battlefield situation, people will be more inclined to use artificial intelligence technology to realize adaptive planning and autonomous decision-making of the command and control system, so that the command and control mode changes from “people on the loop” to “people outside the loop”, thereby mitigating the While reducing the burden on command personnel, it can improve combat efficiency and the success rate of mission execution.

From “Integration to Win” to “Cluster to Win”

The traditional equipment development concept is to invest a large amount of money in the research and development of highly integrated, sophisticated weapon platforms, in order to achieve dimensionality reduction against the enemy by virtue of generational advantages and performance advantages in war. However, the development and deployment of multi-functional high-end platforms not only requires a lot of time and money, but when multiple software and hardware modules are integrated into a single weapon platform, there may also be mutual incompatibility. Once the platform is destroyed, significant losses will occur. The military application of disruptive technologies such as artificial intelligence has promoted the rapid development of unmanned swarms. Unmanned clusters have the advantages of large scale, low overall cost, and decentralization. The unmanned platforms coordinate with each other, divide labor and cooperate, and can make decisions independently and carry out combat tasks in an organized manner. Even if some unmanned platforms are destroyed, there will be no Affect overall combat effectiveness. The operational concepts such as “decision-centered warfare” and “mosaic warfare” proposed by foreign military forces focus on using unmanned swarms to complete combat missions. In intelligent warfare, by dispersing reconnaissance and surveillance, information communication, command and control, fire strike and other functions into a large number of unmanned combat units with single functions, a highly robust and elastic “kill network” is constructed, and then based on the mission The combination method needs to be adjusted, which will allow it to emerge with powerful group intelligence, creating great uncertainty for the opponent, thereby trapping the opponent in the judgment link of the OODA loop and unable to make effective decisions. In addition, due to the large number of unmanned swarms, the opponent’s detection, tracking, and interception capabilities can quickly reach saturation. Because the opponent cannot destroy all unmanned platforms in the swarm, the opponent has to face the dilemma of defense failure.

From “military dominance” to “diversified mixture”

Traditional war mainly relies on violent means to make the enemy succumb to one’s own will. It usually has a strong war intensity and has a clear boundary between peacetime and wartime. As the field of military struggle continues to expand into new fields such as space, network, and intelligence, and the role of economic, cultural, diplomatic, legal and other means in war continues to become more prominent, intelligent warfare will be carried out in many fields represented by “grey zones” In the form of “multi-pronged approach”. The intensity of war may weaken, and the boundaries between peace and war will become more blurred. Whether it is the Saudi oil fields that were attacked by drones in 2019, which caused half of its oil production to cease, or the largest oil pipeline in the United States that suffered a cyber attack in 2021, which caused a large-scale oil shortage, the far-reaching impact of various new attack methods has been Not to be underestimated.

As intelligent technology develops and matures, it will become more common to use a variety of means to launch attacks on opponents’ industrial, transportation, financial, communications, energy, medical and other facilities and networks. The threshold for intelligent warfare will show a downward trend, and warring parties may resort to undeclared warfare to launch hybrid wars that integrate economic warfare, diplomatic warfare, cyber warfare, public opinion warfare, psychological warfare, legal warfare and other styles to tire out their opponents. To cope.

From “actual combat test” to “experimental exercise”

Under traditional conditions, due to the lack of scientific simulation and evaluation tools, the true capabilities of the military can only be tested in actual combat. Under intelligent conditions, virtual reality technology can be used to create virtual scenes with a strong three-dimensional sense and realism based on the actual battlefield environment and mission background. This scene can not only restore objective things such as weapons and equipment from multiple dimensions such as sound, appearance, and performance, but can also simulate various severe weather such as heavy fog, heavy rain, and blizzards, and visually display the terrain, meteorology, and hydrology of the battlefield. , electromagnetic, nuclear and other information, close to the real situation on the battlefield.

Setting the imaginary enemy in the virtual environment based on the characteristics of the enemy in reality and conducting intelligent simulation of the possible direction of the war situation can enable officers and soldiers to “experience” the war several times in virtual reality before the official war begins, thereby having a better understanding of the performance of the equipment. , the rhythm of war, and the situation between ourselves and the enemy are all clear, and you will be more comfortable when performing realistic tasks. Before the outbreak of the Iraq War, the US military secretly developed a computer game that simulated the combat environment in Baghdad. Among the personnel sent to perform tasks in Iraq, the survival rate of those who received game training was as high as 90%. As the data collected in reality continue to be enriched and improved, the construction of the virtual battlefield will become more realistic, the prediction of the direction of the battlefield situation will be more accurate, and the comprehensive assessment of the exercise will be more credible. Both sides of the enemy will strive to predict the situation through intelligent deduction. Knowing the outcome of the war, it may be possible to “subdue the enemy’s troops” without fighting or with a small battle.

中國軍隊做好戰爭準備,科學研究旨在實現戰場統治

Chinese Military Readies for War with Scientific Research Designed to Achieve Domination on the Battlefield

4月下旬,軍事科學院戰爭研究院順利完成上報兩項作戰重大問題研究工程的立項論證建議書。 這是研究院著眼履行核心職能,科研攻關始終瞄準備戰打仗的具體實踐。

戰爭研究院是全軍專門研究戰爭、設計戰爭的科學研究機構。 作為新組成單位,大項任務多、臨時任務多、論證申報任務多是他們科學研究工作的主要特徵。 年初,針對人少事急、科研任務壓茬推進的實際情況,該研究院黨委對照戰鬥力標準,把旨在強軍勝戰的科研工作擺在重要位置。 他們依據備戰急需、打仗急用、部隊急盼的標準,調整確立了戰爭與作戰問題研究、條令法規編排等方向的重點科研任務,壓減了10餘項偏離主責主業的課題,新增 了一批戰爭形態、作戰風格等聚焦備戰打仗的課題研究。 該研究院領導介紹,院黨委要求班子成員在重大科研任務中既掛帥又出征,做到主要精力向重點任務投放,力量配備、經費支持等向作戰研究傾斜。

同時,研究院持續深化「小核心、大外圍」協同攻關,不斷創新科學研究組織模式。 他們在研究院內部進行軍事理論人員和軍事科技人員「捆綁式」研究,打通科研壁壘;與軍事醫學研究院、國防工程研究院等兄弟單位互派專家參與重大專案研究,實現優勢互補;組織科研 人員參加各類重大演訓活動,找準科研需求;舉辦多邊軍事交流活動,使科研人員及時了解最新軍事科技動態。 此外,他們也積極與地方科研院所合作,將地方優質科研資源為己所用,形成研究戰爭、設計戰爭、運籌戰爭、驗證戰爭的閉合迴路。

去年以來,該研究院先後完成百餘項科研課題,在核心作戰概念開發、聯合作戰實驗等研究上取得重要突破,提交國家高端智庫研究報告、重要問題評估報告等60餘份,推出一批戰略 性強、原創性強、前瞻性強的創新成果。

Modern English:

In late April, the Institute of War Research of the Academy of Military Sciences successfully completed the submission of project demonstration proposals for two major combat issue research projects. This is a concrete practice of the institute focusing on fulfilling its core functions and always aiming at scientific research and preparation for war.

The War Research Institute is a scientific research institution specializing in the study and design of war in the entire military. As a newly established unit, the main characteristics of their scientific research work are many major tasks, many temporary tasks, and many demonstration and application tasks. At the beginning of the year, in response to the actual situation where there were few people and urgent tasks and scientific research tasks were being pushed forward, the party committee of the institute put the scientific research work aimed at strengthening the army and winning the war in an important position in accordance with the combat effectiveness standards. Based on the criteria of urgent need for war preparation, urgent need for war, and urgent need of troops, they adjusted and established key scientific research tasks in the research of war and combat issues, and the compilation of doctrines and regulations, etc., and reduced more than 10 topics that deviated from their main responsibilities and main business, and added new A batch of research on war forms, combat styles and other topics focusing on war preparation and combat were carried out. According to the leader of the institute, the party committee of the institute requires team members to both take command and go out on major scientific research tasks, so that the main energy should be devoted to key tasks, and force allocation and financial support should be tilted towards combat research.

At the same time, the institute continues to deepen the collaborative research of “small core and large periphery” and continuously innovates the scientific research organization model. They carry out “bundled” research by military theoretical personnel and military scientific and technological personnel within the institute to break down barriers to scientific research; they exchange experts with sister units such as the Military Medical Research Institute and the National Defense Engineering Research Institute to participate in major project research to achieve complementary advantages; organize scientific research Personnel participate in various major exercises and training activities to identify scientific research needs; multilateral military exchange activities are held to keep scientific researchers informed of the latest military science and technology trends. In addition, they also actively cooperate with local scientific research institutes to use local high-quality scientific research resources for their own use, forming a closed loop of researching war, designing war, operating war, and verifying war.

Since last year, the institute has completed more than 100 scientific research projects, made important breakthroughs in the development of core operational concepts and joint operational experiments, submitted more than 60 national high-end think tank research reports and important issue assessment reports, and launched a number of strategies. Innovative results that are highly innovative, original and forward-looking.

解放軍原文參考:http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2019/0514/c1888沒有湯給你.html

中國特色治網之道和網絡強國戰略思想

The Way of Internet Governance with Chinese Characteristics and the Strategic Thought of Network Power

網絡安全和信息化事關黨的長期執政,事關國家長治久安,事關經濟社會發展和人民群眾福祉。習近平同志站在我們黨“過不了互聯網這一關,就過不了長期執政這一關”的政治高度,準確把握信息化變革帶來的機遇和挑戰,明確提出要努力把我國建設成為網絡強國。中央黨史和文獻研究院編輯的《習近平關於網絡強國論述摘編》一書的第三部分,以“努力把我國建設成為網絡強國”為題,收入了習近平同志的相關論述。

縱觀世界文明史,人類先後經歷了農業革命、工業革命、信息革命。每一次產業技術革命,都給人類生產生活帶來巨大而深刻的影響。如今,以互聯網為代表的信息技術日新月異,引領了社會生產新變革,創造了人類生活新空間,拓展了國家治理新領域,極大提高了人類認識世界、改造世界的能力。互聯網讓世界變成了“雞犬之聲相聞”的地球村,相隔萬里的人們不再“老死不相往來”。世界因互聯網而更多彩,生活因互聯網而更豐富。

人類社會正在經歷偉大的信息革命,中國正處在信息化快速發展的歷史進程之中,信息革命時代潮流與中華民族偉大復興歷史進程發生了歷史性交匯,為我們全面建設社會主義現代化國家帶來新的機遇和挑戰。習近平同志指出,信息化為中華民族帶來了千載難逢的機遇。我們正逢其時,要順勢而為、乘勢而上、相向而行。

隨著網絡信息技術日新月異,全面融入社會生產生活,也深刻改變著全球經濟格局、利益格局、安全格局。世界主要國家都把互聯網作為經濟發展、技術創新的重點,把互聯網作為謀求競爭新優勢的戰略方向。能不能適應和引領互聯網發展,成為決定大國興衰的一個關鍵。誰掌握了互聯網,誰就把握住了時代主動權;誰輕視互聯網,誰就會被時代所拋棄。一定程度上可以說,得網絡者得天下。信息化為我國搶占新一輪發展制高點、構築國際競爭新優勢提供了有利契機。

中國高度重視互聯網發展,自接入國際互聯網以來,我們按照積極利用、科學發展、依法管理、確保安全的思路,加強信息基礎設施建設,發展網絡經濟,推進信息惠民。同時,我們依法開展網絡空間治理,網絡空間日漸清朗。儘管起步稍晚,但經過二十多年努力,迅速縮短了同發達國家的信息化差距,成為舉世矚目的網絡大國。同時也要看到,雖然我國網絡信息技術和網絡安全保障取得了不小成績,但同世界先進水平相比還有很大差距。我們在自主創新方面還相對落後,區域和城鄉差異比較明顯,國內互聯網發展瓶頸仍然較為突出。

黨的十八大以來,以習近平同志為核心的黨中央審時度勢、高瞻遠矚,順勢應時,吹響了向網絡強國進軍的號角。 2014年2月27日,在中央網絡安全和信息化領導小組第一次會議上,習近平同志提出,要從國際國內大勢出發,總體佈局,統籌各方,創新發展,努力把我國建設成為網絡強國。

建設網絡強國是黨中央從黨和國家事業發展全局出發作出的重大決策。黨的十八大以後,黨中央從進行具有許多新的歷史特點的偉大斗爭出發,重視互聯網、發展互聯網、治理互聯網,作出一系列重大決策、提出一系列重大舉措,推動網信事業取得了歷史性成就。

我們提出建設網絡強國戰略目標,網信工作頂層設計和總體架構基本確立,出台《關於加強網絡安全和信息化工作的意見》,基本理順互聯網管理領導體制機制,形成全國“一盤棋”工作格局;網絡意識形態安全得到切實維護,做大做強網上正面宣傳,在管網治網上出重拳、亮利劍,打贏網絡意識形態領域一系列重大斗爭,根本扭轉了過去網上亂象叢生、陣地淪陷、被動挨打的狀況,網絡空間正能量更加強勁、主旋律更加高昂;國家網絡安全屏障進一步鞏固,制定實施網絡安全法,加強網絡安全保障能力建設,關鍵信息基礎設施安全保護不斷強化,網絡違法犯罪活動得到有效遏制,全社會網絡安全意識和防護能力明顯增強;網信軍民融合取得階段性成效,網絡安全威懾反制能力不斷增強;注重發揮信息化對經濟社會發展的驅動引領作用,“互聯網+”行動計劃深入實施,數字經濟、共享經濟蓬勃發展;信息領域核心技術創新取得積極進展,新一代移動通信(5G)、高性能計算、量子通信等技術研究實現突破,一批網信企業躋身世界前列;網絡空間國際話語權和影響力顯著提升,高舉網絡主權大旗,推動構建網絡空間命運共同體,積極參與全球互聯網治理進程,創設並成功舉辦世界互聯網大會,中國理念、中國主張、中國方案贏得越來越多認同和支持;加快網絡基礎設施建設和信息化服務普及,網上交易、手機支付、共享出行等新技術新應用廣泛普及,電子政務加速發展,網絡扶貧紮實推進,社會治理和基本公共服務水平持續提升,人民群眾有了更多獲得感、幸福感、安全感。這些歷史性成就的取得,充分證明黨中央關於加強黨對網信工作集中統一領導的決策和對網信工作作出的一系列戰略部署是完全正確的。

新時代呼喚新思想,新實踐孕育新理論。在努力建設網絡強國的進程中,我們不斷推進理論創新和實踐創新,不僅走出一條中國特色治網之道,而且提出一系列新思想新觀點新論斷,形成了網絡強國戰略思想。概括起來,主要有以下幾個方面。

第一,明確網信工作在黨和國家事業全局中的重要地位。我們提出,沒有網絡安全就沒有國家安全,沒有信息化就沒有現代化,網絡安全和信息化事關黨的長期執政,事關國家長治久安,事關經濟社會發展和人民群眾福祉,過不了互聯網這一關,就過不了長期執政這一關,要把網信工作擺在黨和國家事業全局中來謀劃,切實加強黨的集中統一領導。

Network security and informatization are related to the long-term governance of the party, the long-term stability of the country, economic and social development and the well-being of the people. Comrade Xi Jinping stood at the political height of our party “If you can’t pass the hurdle of the Internet, you can’t pass the hurdle of long-term governance”, accurately grasped the opportunities and challenges brought about by the informatization revolution, and clearly stated that we should strive to build our country into a cyber power. The third part of the book “Excerpts of Xi Jinping’s Discussions on Internet Power” edited by the Central Academy of Party History and Documentation is titled “Strive to Build my country into a Cyber ​​Power” and includes relevant expositions by Comrade Xi Jinping.

Looking at the history of world civilizations, humanity has successively undergone agricultural revolution, industrial revolution and information revolution. Every revolution in industrial technology has had a huge and profound impact on human production and life. Today, information technology represented by the Internet is changing with each passing day, leading new changes in social production, creating a new space for human life, expanding new areas of national governance, and greatly improving human ability to understand and transform the world. The Internet has turned the world into a global village where “the voices of chickens and dogs hear each other”, and people separated by thousands of miles no longer “do not communicate with each other”. The world is more colorful because of the Internet, and life is richer because of the Internet.

Human society is undergoing a great information revolution, and China is in the historical process of rapid development of informatization. The trend of the era of information revolution and the historical process of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation have had a historic intersection, which has brought great benefits to us in building a modern socialist country in an all-round way. New opportunities and challenges. Comrade Xi Jinping pointed out that informatization has brought golden opportunities to the Chinese nation. We are at the right time, and we must follow the trend, ride on the trend, and meet each other halfway.

With the rapid development of network information technology and its comprehensive integration into social production and life, it has also profoundly changed the global economic pattern, interest pattern, and security pattern. Major countries in the world regard the Internet as the focus of economic development and technological innovation, and regard the Internet as a strategic direction for seeking new competitive advantages. Whether it can adapt to and lead the development of the Internet has become a key to determining the rise and fall of a big country. Whoever controls the Internet will grasp the initiative of the times; whoever despises the Internet will be abandoned by the times. To a certain extent, it can be said that those who win the Internet win the world. Informatization provides a favorable opportunity for my country to seize the commanding heights of a new round of development and build new advantages in international competition.

China attaches great importance to the development of the Internet. Since its access to the international Internet, we have strengthened the construction of information infrastructure, developed the network economy, and promoted information to benefit the people in accordance with the ideas of active utilization, scientific development, law-based management, and security assurance. At the same time, we have carried out cyberspace governance in accordance with the law, and cyberspace has become increasingly clear. Although it started relatively late, after more than 20 years of hard work, it quickly narrowed the informatization gap with developed countries and became a network powerhouse that has attracted worldwide attention. At the same time, we must also see that although my country’s network information technology and network security have made great achievements, there is still a big gap compared with the world’s advanced level. We are still relatively backward in terms of independent innovation, the differences between regions and urban and rural areas are relatively obvious, and the bottleneck of domestic Internet development is still relatively prominent.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has judged the situation, looked far ahead, followed the trend, and sounded the clarion call to march towards a cyber power. On February 27, 2014, at the first meeting of the Central Network Security and Informatization Leading Group, Comrade Xi Jinping proposed that we should proceed from the international and domestic trends, make an overall layout, coordinate all parties, innovate and develop, and strive to build my country into a cyber power .

Building a cyber power is a major decision made by the Party Central Committee based on the overall development of the Party and the country. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee proceeded from the great struggle with many new historical characteristics, attached importance to the Internet, developed the Internet, and governed the Internet. sexual achievement.

We put forward the strategic goal of building a strong network country, basically established the top-level design and overall structure of network information work, issued the “Opinions on Strengthening Network Security and Informatization Work”, basically straightened out the Internet management leadership system and mechanism, and formed a national “one game of chess” work pattern; The security of Internet ideology has been effectively safeguarded, positive online propaganda has been made bigger and stronger, and heavy blows and sharp swords have been used to manage and control the Internet. A series of major struggles in the field of Internet ideology have been won, which has fundamentally reversed the past. In the situation of being occupied and passively beaten, the positive energy of cyberspace is stronger and the main theme is more high-spirited; the national network security barrier is further consolidated, the network security law is formulated and implemented, the construction of network security guarantee capabilities is strengthened, and the security protection of key information infrastructure is continuously strengthened. Activities have been effectively curbed, and the awareness of network security and protection capabilities of the whole society have been significantly enhanced; the military-civilian integration of network information has achieved phased results, and the network security deterrence and countermeasure capabilities have been continuously enhanced; attention has been paid to the driving and leading role of informatization in economic and social development, “Internet + “The action plan has been implemented in depth, the digital economy and the sharing economy have flourished; positive progress has been made in core technology innovation in the information field, breakthroughs have been made in the research of new-generation mobile communication (5G), high-performance computing, quantum communication and other technologies, and a number of network information enterprises have entered the world In the forefront; the international discourse power and influence of cyberspace have been significantly improved, holding high the banner of cyber sovereignty, promoting the construction of a community of shared future in cyberspace, actively participating in the process of global Internet governance, creating and successfully hosting the World Internet Conference, and winning More and more recognition and support; speed up the construction of network infrastructure and the popularization of information services, the widespread popularization of new technologies and new applications such as online transactions, mobile payment, and shared travel; the accelerated development of e-government affairs; The service level continues to improve, and the people have a greater sense of gain, happiness, and security. The achievement of these historic achievements fully proves that the Party Central Committee’s decision on strengthening the party’s centralized and unified leadership over cybersecurity and informatization work and a series of strategic deployments for cybersecurity and informatization work are completely correct.

The new era calls for new ideas, and new practices breed new theories. In the process of striving to build a strong network country, we have continuously promoted theoretical innovation and practical innovation, not only blazing a way to govern the network with Chinese characteristics, but also put forward a series of new ideas, new viewpoints and new conclusions, forming the strategic thinking of a strong network country. To sum up, there are mainly the following aspects.

First, clarify the important position of cybersecurity and informatization work in the overall situation of the party and the country. We propose that there will be no national security without network security, and no modernization without informatization. If we do not pass the hurdle of being in power for a long time, we must place cybersecurity and informatization work in the overall planning of the party and the country, and earnestly strengthen the party’s centralized and unified leadership.

Second, clarify the strategic goal of building a cyber power. We propose that we must accelerate the construction of a cyber power from the height of realizing the “two centenary” goals and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In accordance with the requirements of strong technology, strong content, strong foundation, strong talents, and strong international discourse power, we must move towards the basic popularization of network infrastructure, significant enhancement of independent innovation capabilities, comprehensive development of the digital economy, strong network security guarantees, and balanced network offensive and defensive capabilities. Keep moving forward, and finally achieve the goal of advanced technology, developed industry, both offensive and defensive capabilities, full control of network control, and indestructible network security.

Third, clarify the principles and requirements for building a cyber power. We propose that we must adhere to the principles of innovative development, governing by law, ensuring security, promoting benefits and eliminating disadvantages, and benefiting the people, adhere to innovation-driven development, cultivate new kinetic energy with informatization, and use new kinetic energy to promote new development; adhere to the rule of law, so that the Internet will always be under the rule of law. We will continue to operate healthily on track; adhere to the correct concept of network security, and build a national network security barrier; adhere to the principle of equal emphasis on preventing risks and promoting healthy development, and grasp opportunities and challenges, so that the Internet can better benefit the society; The people have a greater sense of gain in sharing the fruits of Internet development.

Fourth, clarify the international propositions for Internet development and governance. We propose to adhere to the four principles of global Internet governance: respecting Internet sovereignty, maintaining peace and security, promoting openness and cooperation, and building a good order. The five-point proposal for building a community of shared future in cyberspace, such as ensuring network security and building an Internet governance system, emphasizes joint advancement of development, joint maintenance of security, joint participation in governance, and joint sharing of achievements, and jointly build a peaceful, secure, open, and cooperative cyberspace.

Fifth, clarify the basic methods for doing a good job in cybersecurity and informatization work. We realize that cybersecurity and informatization work involves many fields, and it is necessary to strengthen overall planning and coordination, implement comprehensive management, and form a strong work force. It is necessary to grasp the dialectical relationship between security and development, freedom and order, openness and autonomy, management and service, and comprehensively promote various tasks such as network content construction, network security, informatization, and international governance of cyberspace.

General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important thoughts on the network power, adhere to the Marxist position, viewpoint and method, based on the new era background of human beings entering the information society, systematically summed up our party’s practical experience in network management and network governance, and profoundly answered why we should build a network power and how to build a network power. A series of major theoretical and practical issues such as building a powerful network country, with a high-level view, overall control, profound thinking, and rich connotations, have become the guide to action leading the development of my country’s Internet information industry, and are the fundamental principles for doing a good job in Internet information work. Continuously enrich and develop.

Focusing on the overall development of human society, Comrade Xi Jinping creatively put forward the concept of making the Internet better benefit the world and the people of all countries, and building a community with a shared future in cyberspace. He proposed a Chinese plan for global Internet development and governance, and contributed Chinese wisdom. The mind of a responsible big country and Comrade Xi Jinping’s broad mind of the leader of a big country to seek peace and development for the world and civilization and progress for mankind.

We must combine in-depth study of Comrade Xi Jinping’s important expositions on building a strong network country, strengthen the “four consciousnesses”, strengthen the “four self-confidence”, and achieve “two safeguards”, constantly explore new paths for building a strong network country, and open up a new realm of global network governance , Let the Internet become a powerful boost to realize the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

(Author: Xu Shan, Director of the Second Division of the First Research Department of the Central Academy of Party History and Documentation, Deputy Editor)

普通話來源:http://www.cac.gov.cn/2021-03/08/c_161677810000.htm

中國軍隊對外軍網絡空間作戰力量的分析與認識——解放軍態勢感知系列

Chinese Military Analysis and Understanding of Foreign Military Cyberspace Combat Forces – People’s Liberation Army Situational Awareness Series

从世界主要国家网络空间作战力量建设情况看,美军作为最早公开宣布建设网络空间作战力量的军队,具备较强实力,在战争实践中多次实施了网络空间作战行动。欧盟、俄罗斯等组织和国家也展开了网络空间作战力量建设,并进行了一些实战行动。研究分析世界主要国家和地区军队网络空间作战力量建设的成功经验做法,对我国网络空间发展具有重要借鉴和启示意义。

随着网络信息技术的迅猛发展及在军事上的广泛运用,网络空间已成为继陆、海、空、天 4 个疆域之后的新兴作战疆域,网络空间作战也成为全域联合作战不可分割的重要组成部分,并成为夺取和保持作战主动权、控制权和制胜权的关键。美国、俄罗斯、日本等世界主要国家纷纷制定网络空间安全和发展战略,组建网络空间作战部队,研发先进网络技术和武器装备,加紧抢夺这一新的战略制高点。

1 美国引领网络空间建设

无论是网络空间概念和理论研究,还是其他相关技术研究和应用实践,美国都是网络空间发展的策源地和引领者,带动了各个国家与地区的网络空间发展。美军网络部队是世界上最早建立的“成建制”网络作战部队,历经克林顿时期初建防御、小布什时期网络反恐、奥巴马时期慑战并举和特朗普政府时期“前出防御”等阶段,已发展成为拥有 133 支网络任务分队、各军种数万人规模的网络作战部队。

1.1 强化战略威慑地位

美国为争夺网络空间的主控权和发展权,主动应对未来战争形态变化的新要求,将网络空间确立为与陆、海、空、天并列的新兴作战疆域,将其作为战略威慑力量摆到战略地位。

美国颁布的网络空间相关重要战略文件如表 1所示。2011 年,美国先后发布《网络空间国际战略》《网络空间可信身份识别国家战略》和《国防部网络空间行动战略》3 大战略文件,首次提出将网络空间视为第五作战域,将对网络空间的利用和控制提升为基本国策。

近年来,美军立足大国竞争,进一步提升网络空间的战略地位,网络空间作战的作战体系结构基本形成。2018 年,美军先后发布新版《国防部网络战略》[1] 以及《网络空间作战》联合条令,明确网络空间作战本身可作为独立作战样式达到创造战术、战役或战略效果,也可实现与其他领域作战样式的集成,通过协同作战以提升联合作战效能;2020 年,美网络空间日光浴委员会发布《来自未来的警告》报告,提出“前出防御”战略,建议由美国国防部将其拓展至国家层面,该战略是以持续交锋为主要行动模式,以行为塑造、获益拒止和成本强加为根本途径的国家网络空间分层威慑战略。

1.2 领导体制分工明确

美国将国家网络安全业务总体分成国土安全业务、国防业务、情报业务、执法业务 4 个部分,如图 1 所示。其中,国土安全业务由国土安全部主导,主要负责协调重要基础设施的网络空间安全,保护政府与商用网络和系统;国防业务由国防部主导,由美军网络司令部牵头,各军兵种提供组成部队力量,兼具攻击、防御、军事信息基础设施运维管理 3 大职能,是美网络安全力量的核心;情报业务由国家安全局主导,主要负责探测国外网络空间恶意活动,同时向国土安全局和国防部提供能力支援;犯罪执法则涉及司法部等多个部门及其下属机构。

表 1 美国颁布的网络空间相关重要战略文件

图 1 美国网络空间组织管理协调框架

美军网络司令部成立于 2009 年,原隶属于美军战略司令部,2017 年 8 月,美军网络司令部升级为第 10 个独立的美军联合作战司令部,将作战指控职责划归至网络司令部,并由国家安全局局长兼任司令官。对于美军网络作战,尤其是实时性要求很高的作战来说,此举措理顺了指挥控制关系,升级后的美国网络司令部与其他机构间的组织关系如图 2 所示。

图 2 升级后的美国网络司令部与其他机构间的组织关系

美军网络司令部接受美国总统、国防部长指挥,对国家网络任务部队总部、网络空间联合部队总部、军种网络空间部队总部和国防部信息网络联合部队总部等拥有作战控制权;各总部对配属的国家任务分队、作战分队、防护分队和支援分队等拥有作战控制权。

作战期间,美军网络司令部根据美国总统、国防部长指令开展网络作战行动,对所属部队实施作战控制,并向联合作战司令部提供定制的兵力包进行支援。兵力包由网络司令部所属网络作战部队、作战支援人员和其他网络空间力量组成。网络司令部对兵力包拥有作战控制权,并视情况将作战控制权指派给下属司令部。接受兵力包的指挥官拥有战术控制权,对网络空间作战时机和节奏进行控制。

1.3 组织力量规模庞大

美军网络部队是世界上最早建立的“成建制”网络作战部队,很早就开始征召网络人才,组建网络部队,并举行秘密演习。当前,美军基本形成了由网络司令部负责作战,各军种及国防信息系统局等国防部业务局负责建设的总格局。与陆、海、空作战领域不同,网络空间作战域的特殊性要求管理(军政)与作战(军令)这两条链条必须进行更紧密的合作。

美军网络空间战略作战力量主要是网络司令部下辖的 133 支网络任务分队,约 6200 名现役和文职人员。根据国防部 2013 年指示,该部队由各军种抽组力量组建(陆军 41 支,海军 40支,空军 39 支,海军陆战队 13 支)而成,2016年具备初始作战能力,2018 年具备全面作战能力,其主要遂行国防部信息网络运维防护行动、进攻性网络空间作战和防御性网络空间作战等任务。133 支网络任务分队根据肩负任务类型不同,编为国家网络任务部队、作战任务部队和网络防护部队 3 种类型部队。当前,美网络任务部队正扩充规模,2024 年将完成 21 支网络防护分队组建,使网络任务分队数量增至 154 支。

美军网络空间战术作战力量主要由美网络司令部下辖的陆军、海军、空军和海军陆战队4 大网络司令部的网络空间部队构成(总人数约为 8 万人),承担各军种网络防护和作战支援任务,在联合作战中为网络任务部队的进攻、防御和运维行动提供支撑。各军种网络司令部也正加紧网络作战力量的扩充与整合工作,为网络任务部队行动和各军种网络防护提供支撑。

1.4 作战能力系统全面

在装备研发上,美军遵循“边建边用、建用一体”的原则,不断加大网络战武器系统和装备的研发力度,开展网络作战关键技术的研究工作,在网络防御、网络攻击、监测预警、指挥控制和训练评估等方面开展了多个研究计划,并先后投入了数百亿美元用于研制开发各种网络空间作战装备,进而推动和改进网络作战技术水平,提升服务保障能力和作战效率。

网络防御最具代表性的装备包括“网络诱骗”系统、“网络狼”软件系统、网络攻击报警系统和网络漏洞扫描仪等,同时,美军还非常重视对“主动网络防御”概念的应用,这促使网络攻击溯源技术取得了长足的发展。网络攻击拥有“震网”“火焰”等威力强大的多种计算机病毒;战场网络攻击比较有代表性的是空军“舒特”系统和海军 EA-18G“咆哮者”飞机。侦察感知具备获取敌方通信、内容、网络协议、硬件地址、口令、身份鉴别过程、网络漏洞等信息的能力,通过实施“棱镜”“主干道”“码头”“核子”等一系列监控项目和“爱因斯坦”“普罗米修斯”等计划,形成大规模的情报生产能力,力图构建全球范围内的网络空间态势感知体系。

1.5 装备研制力量兼收并蓄

美军网络作战武器装备研发始终按照军商民结合、兼收并蓄的方法进行。网络空间作战装备与常规作战装备不同,其主要是以代码为基础、以设计为核心的研制生产形式,供应链的层级关系并不明晰。如今,美国具有以美国国防部高级研究计划局(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency,DARPA)为核心的军方研究力量,以诺斯罗普·格鲁曼、雷声、洛克希德·马丁等传统防务公司为主,互联网、电子、软件、信息安全等领域公司兼收并蓄的研制力量。

美军方、政府科研机构和传统防务公司的网络空间研究方向通常覆盖网络空间侦察(态势感知)、监视、攻击、防御、测试验证、综合集成中的一方面或多个方面;而互联网、电子、软件、信息安全等领域公司,则在各自领域开展网络空间技术研究与装备研制生产。另外,由于网络空间作战装备的研发产品主要是软件,是一种逻辑层产品,这导致网络空间基础研究与装备研制生产之间的界限模糊,各大院校和政府科研机构,甚至一些小型科研团队及个人,也是美国网络空间工业的重要组成部分。网络空间研制生产能力主要力量结构如图3 所示。

图 3 美国网络空间研制生产能力主要力量结构

其中,大中型军工企业是美国网络空间装备分系统 / 子系统 / 技术领域研发的中坚力量。近几年,美国传统大中型军工企业以“兼并重组”为主要手段,迅速进入网络安全领域,形成了以诺斯罗普·格鲁曼、雷声、波音、洛克希德·马丁等几家综合性公司为龙头的网络安全国防产业,在 DARPA 和各军种网络空间项目的竞标中,这些大中型军工企业通常占据主承包商位置。

2 欧洲紧随其后蓄势待发

欧洲网络空间工业的起步晚于美国,主要侧重于对网络空间防御和网络空间安全问题的研究。近几年,欧洲各国政府和国防 / 电子企业也纷纷投入到网络空间安全领域,通过逐步完善战略政策,公私联合,引导网络空间技术研发,现已初步形成了跨越整个欧洲及其他国家和地区的网络空间防御体系。具体表现为以下几个层面。

研发层面,欧洲各国既唯美国马首是瞻,又借助北约、欧盟等跨国平台实现欧洲内部、欧洲与美国之间的融合互补,最终形成了共性与特性兼具的、仅次于美国的网络空间安全能力。

组织管理层面,由于欧洲国家大多规模较小,便于管理,因此成就了相对高效、一体化、能力强大的网络空间管理机制。同时,由于欧洲国家众多,存在竞争,因此,一些有关网络空间安全方面的国家级合作实施有时也存在阻力。

系统研发层面,由于欧洲很多国家的数字化、软件化、网络化水平非常高(甚至高于美国),导致其与美国一样面临非常大的网络空间防御压力,因此,其网络空间发展以确保网络空间安全为主。近几年,在以防御为主的网络空间思想的引领下,逐步加强网络空间技术,特别是网络空间安全技术的研发,同时,在原有信息技术基础设施的研究基础上推陈出新,在物联网等领域扩大投入和部署。当各国纷纷投入网络空间安全市场时,一些主要欧洲国家的网络空间安全产品已经占有较大的市场份额,开拓出一定规模的全球市场。

3 俄罗斯网络空间发展思路别具一格

相比西方国家,俄罗斯一直关注全面、大范围的信息空间,对作为信息空间子域的网络空间,没有像美国这样的深入和系统的研究。但由于俄罗斯长期对信息安全领域的关注和工业积累,使其在网络空间领域具有较好的基础。具体表现为以下几个层面。

战略规划层面,俄罗斯曾发布了一系列旨在保护国家各个方面信息安全的法律文件,例如《俄罗斯联邦信息安全学说》《俄罗斯社会信息发展战略》等,但在现有的法律文件中,没有涵盖信息空间与网络空间的关系体系,“网络安全”这一术语并未从“信息安全”的概念中分离。随着网络安全风险的不断增大,俄罗斯自 2010 年开始,将保护网络空间安全的重点放在关键信息基础设施方面,先后颁布了《俄罗斯联邦武装力量在信息空间活动的构想观点》《2020 年前俄罗斯联邦国际信息安全领域国家政策框架》《俄罗斯联邦网络安全战略构想(草案)》《俄罗斯联邦信息安全学说(第二版)》及《俄罗斯联邦关键信息基础设施安全法》等法律文件,从多个层面阐述了俄罗斯为推动网络空间发展的战略目标,以及为保护关键信息基础设施、指导网络空间发展所实施的重要举措。组织机构层面,2013 年 8 月,俄罗斯政府宣布在俄罗斯武装部队下面组建一个专门的信息战机构,且决定组建网络安全司令部和一个武装部队新机构,目的是提高该国的网络作战能力。

应用实践层面,美国 2010 年出版的《网络指挥官手册》中显示,全球网络作战的唯一实例是 2007—2009 年发生在爱沙尼亚、格鲁吉亚和吉尔吉斯斯坦的信息网络攻击事件,这 3 次小规模的攻击都是俄罗斯所为,可以认为俄罗斯在网络安全领域拥有独一无二的实战经验。

研发力量层面,俄罗斯拥有实力突出的网络安全防御公司,例如,卡巴斯基实验室是全球信息安全领域的一家重要企业,俄罗斯技术集团旗下的“俄罗斯技术信息”公司也是俄罗斯核心的网络安全公司。由于

透明度有限,很难从公开渠道发现俄罗斯具备网络攻击装备研发能力的公司,但并不代表俄罗斯没有这样能力的公司,此外,俄罗斯黑客组织在全球都享有“盛名”,此行为推动了民间网络空间装备的研制、生产和交易。

4 日本掀起网络空间发展热潮

日本是全球信息技术最先进的国家之一,同时也受到越来越多从针对个人到针对公共部门及基础设施的网络空间威胁,因此日本很早就开始关注网络空间安全议题。日本将这些威胁归为“信息安全”范畴,并在 2005 年成立了国家信息安全中心以应对威胁。随着美国提出的“网络空间”概念被广泛接受,日本也于 2010年前后开始从国家层面专门强调“网络空间”,并将网络安全作为影响国家安全的重要议题。具体表现为以下几个层面。

战略规划层面,2013 年,日本政府发布首份《网络安全战略》,该战略从国家层面推动网络安全建设与发展,明确提出了要将日本建设成为网络安全强国。2015 年 8 月、2018 年 7 月,日本政府先后出台了 2 份升级版《网络安全战略》,主要是为 2020 年东京奥运会和残奥会的网络安全防护提供准备。

组织机构层面,2010 年,日本防卫厅组建了一支由陆、海、空自卫队计算机专家构成的5 000 人左右的“网络战部队”,让其专门从事网络系统的攻防。日本“网络战部队”的主要任务是负责研制开发可破坏其他国家网络系统的跨国性“网络武器”,并承担自卫队计算机网络系统防护、病毒清除、程序修复等任务;开发战术性“网络武器”,并研究网络战的有关战术等;支援“网络特攻队”的反黑客组织、反病毒入侵等任务。国际研究人士指出,从日本“网络战部队”身上,可以看到美军“超级黑客部队”的影子。

应用实践层面,日本在网络攻防演习中,更注重贴合实战背景,从而提升演习的实用性和针对性。在 2014 年“3·18”演习中,预设场景为 2020 年东京奥运会期间日本关键基础设施遭遇网络攻击。在 2019 年日美举行的“山樱”联合演习中,预设场景为日本东京都和西南地区遭受导弹袭击等多项事态并发,该演习旨在检验指挥控制系统在网络和电磁攻击下的运转情况并研习对策。

系统研发层面,日本在构建网络作战系统中强调“攻守兼备”,拨付大笔经费投入网络硬件及“网络战部队”建设,分别建立了“防卫信息通信平台”和“计算机系统通用平台”,实现了自卫队各机关、部队网络系统的相互交流和资源共享。

5 启示建议

从世界主要国家网络空间作战力量建设情况看,美国、俄罗斯、日本及欧盟等世界主要国家和组织通过战略规划指导、组织机构建设、作战力量组建、系统装备研发等手段,不断强化军队网络空间作战力量建设,这对我国网络空间发展具有一定借鉴参考意义。

5.1 深化顶层设计,提升网络空间战略地位

网络空间使国家利益的边界得到极大的延伸和扩展,网络日益成为国家政治、经济、文化和社会活动的基础平台,成为实体经济的命脉和整个社会赖以正常运转的神经系统。由此可见,网络安全已不仅仅是网络自身的安全问题,其影响已辐射至国家安全和国家利益的方方面面,因此,有必要从国家战略层面整体谋划部署国家的网络安全问题。我国应借鉴国外网络空间战略经验,从国家层面制定网络空间战略、强化网络安全立法、构建国际合作体系,从国家层面整体谋划部署国家网络安全发展。

5.2 夯实能力基础,发展网络空间对抗能力

近年来,随着我国信息化建设的推进,国家网络基础设备的全面普及,来自国内外的网络安全威胁呈现多元化、复杂化、频发高发趋势,对我网络空间安全构成重大威胁,导致我国政府机构、关键基础设施的重要信息系统可能面临大规模的敏感信息外泄和信息系统瘫痪等安全风险。为保障网络空间信息基础设施的完整性、可用性,须提高其生存能力,对网络威胁做到快速响应,并在合适的时机主动发起攻击。基于此,我国必须从理论、技术和人才等方面出发,夯实网络空间能力基础,为未来可能出现的网络空间对抗和防御提供保障。

5.3 加强力量建设,构建网络空间支撑体系

如今,网络空间已成为新兴作战域,必须建设强大的网络空间作战部队,夺取这一新兴作战域的控制权,才能有效维护网络空间的国家安全和发展利益。自 2009 年 6 月美军网络司令部组建以来,美军的网络军事力量建设取得较大成效,形成了美国网络安全的有力军事保障,同时也对其他国家网络空间构成巨大威胁。我们必须加快网络空间部队建设步伐,不断提升全民的网络安全意识和信息防护能力,并加强国防动员建设,培养预备力量,打造有足够作战能力的网络作战力量体系,才能有效遏制抗衡对手对我国的网络威胁。

6 结 语

网络空间因其具有不受时空限制、不受作战目标约束、作战力量支撑来源广泛、作战过程突变性较强等特点,成为军队谋求发展的重要作战力量。近年来,美国、俄罗斯、日本及欧盟等世界主要国家和组织致力于推动网络空间作战力量建设,以抢夺在该领域的优势地位。我国应加快推进军队网络空间力量建设,提升我国网络空间作战能力,以谋求未来信息化战争的制胜权。

引用格式:李硕 , 李祯静 , 王世忠 , 等 . 外军网络空间作战力量发展态势分析与启示 [J]. 信息安全与通信保密 ,2022(5):90-99.

作者简介 >>>

From the perspective of the construction of cyberspace combat forces in major countries in the world, the U.S. military, as the first army to publicly announce the construction of cyberspace combat forces, has relatively strong strength and has carried out cyberspace combat operations many times in war practice. Organizations and countries such as the European Union and Russia have also launched cyberspace combat force building and carried out some actual combat operations. The study and analysis of the successful experience and practices of the major countries and regions in the world in the construction of military cyberspace combat forces has important reference and enlightenment significance for the development of cyberspace in my country.

With the rapid development of network information technology and its wide application in the military, cyberspace has become an emerging combat domain following the four domains of land, sea, air, and space, and cyberspace operations have also become an inseparable and important component of all-domain joint operations part, and become the key to gaining and maintaining the operational initiative, control and victory. The United States, Russia, Japan and other major countries in the world have formulated cyberspace security and development strategies, established cyberspace combat forces, and developed advanced network technologies and weapons and equipment, stepping up to seize this new strategic commanding height.

  1. The United States leads the construction of cyberspace

Whether it is cyberspace concept and theoretical research, or other related technology research and application practice, the United States is the source and leader of cyberspace development, driving the development of cyberspace in various countries and regions. The U.S. military’s cyber force is the earliest “established” cyber combat force in the world. It has gone through stages such as the establishment of defense during the Clinton era, cyber counter-terrorism during the Bush era, simultaneous deterrence and war during the Obama era, and “forward defense” during the Trump administration. It has developed into a network combat force with 133 network task teams and tens of thousands of people in various services.

1.1 Strengthening the strategic deterrent position

In order to compete for the control and development of cyberspace, the United States actively responds to the new requirements of changes in the shape of future wars, and establishes cyberspace as an emerging combat domain alongside land, sea, air, and space, and places it as a strategic deterrent. Strategic Position.

The important strategic documents related to cyberspace promulgated by the United States are shown in Table 1. In 2011, the United States successively issued three major strategic documents, the “International Strategy for Cyberspace”, the “National Strategy for Trusted Identity in Cyberspace” and the “Strategy for Cyberspace Operations of the Department of Defense”. The use and control of cyberspace has been elevated to a basic national policy.

In recent years, based on competition among major powers, the U.S. military has further enhanced its strategic position in cyberspace, and a combat system structure for cyberspace operations has basically taken shape. In 2018, the U.S. military successively released the new version of the “DoD Cyber Strategy” [1] and the “Cyberspace Operations” joint doctrine, clarifying that cyberspace operations themselves can be used as an independent combat style to achieve tactical, operational or strategic effects, and can also be integrated with other fields. The integration of combat styles improves the effectiveness of joint operations through coordinated operations; in 2020, the U.S. Cyberspace Sunbathing Committee released the “Warning from the Future” report, proposing the “defense forward” strategy, and recommending that the U.S. Department of Defense expand it to the national level , the strategy is a national cyberspace layered deterrence strategy based on continuous confrontation as the main mode of action, and behavior shaping, benefit denial, and cost imposition as the fundamental approaches.

1.2 The leadership system has a clear division of labor

The United States divides its national cyber security business into four parts: homeland security business, national defense business, intelligence business, and law enforcement business, as shown in Figure 1. Among them, the homeland security business is dominated by the Department of Homeland Security, which is mainly responsible for coordinating the cyberspace security of important infrastructure and protecting government and commercial networks and systems; the national defense business is dominated by the Department of Defense, led by the US Cyber Command, and various military services provide troops It has three major functions of attack, defense, and military information infrastructure operation and maintenance management. It is the core of the US cyber security force; the intelligence business is dominated by the National Security Agency, which is mainly responsible for detecting malicious activities in foreign cyberspace. The Ministry of Defense provides capability support; criminal law enforcement involves multiple departments including the Department of Justice and its subordinate agencies.

Table 1. Important strategic documents related to cyberspace promulgated by the United States

Figure 1. Management and coordination framework of cyberspace organizations in the United States

The U.S. Cyber Command was established in 2009 and was originally affiliated to the U.S. Strategic Command. In August 2017, the U.S. Cyber Command was upgraded to the 10th independent U.S. Joint Operations Command, and the responsibility for combat command was assigned to the Cyber Command. And the director of the National Security Agency also serves as the commander. For the U.S. military’s network operations, especially operations with high real-time requirements, this move straightens out the command and control relationship. The organizational relationship between the upgraded U.S. Cyber Command and other agencies is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The organizational relationship between the upgraded US Cyber Command and other agencies

The U.S. Cyber Command is under the command of the President and Secretary of Defense of the United States, and has operational control over the headquarters of the National Cyber Mission Force, the Headquarters of the Joint Cyberspace Forces, the Headquarters of the Cyberspace Forces of the Services, and the Headquarters of the Joint Forces of the Department of Defense Information Network; Mission detachments, combat detachments, protection detachments and support detachments have operational control.

During the operation, the U.S. Cyber Command conducts cyber operations in accordance with the instructions of the U.S. President and Secretary of Defense, implements operational control over its subordinate forces, and provides customized force packages to the Joint Operations Command for support. The force package is composed of cyber combat forces, combat support personnel and other cyberspace forces under the Cyber Command. Cyber Command maintains operational control of force packages and delegates operational control to subordinate commands as appropriate. The commander receiving the force package has tactical control over the timing and tempo of cyberspace operations.

1.3 Large scale of organizational strength

The U.S. military’s cyber force is the first established “organized” cyber combat force in the world. It has long recruited cyber talents, formed a cyber force, and held secret exercises. At present, the U.S. military has basically formed a general pattern in which the Cyber Command is responsible for operations, and the military services and the Defense Information Systems Agency and other Ministry of Defense business bureaus are responsible for the construction. Different from the land, sea, and air combat domains, the particularity of the cyberspace combat domain requires that the two chains of management (military administration) and operations (military orders) must cooperate more closely.

The U.S. military’s cyberspace strategic combat force is mainly composed of 133 cyber mission teams under the Cyber Command, with about 6,200 active duty and civilian personnel. According to the instructions of the Ministry of National Defense in 2013, the force was formed by drawing forces from various services (41 from the Army, 40 from the Navy, 39 from the Air Force, and 13 from the Marine Corps). It mainly performs tasks such as the operation and maintenance protection operations of the Ministry of National Defense information network, offensive cyberspace operations, and defensive cyberspace operations. The 133 cyber mission teams are organized into three types of troops: national cyber mission troops, combat mission troops, and network protection troops, according to the different types of tasks they undertake. Currently, the U.S. Cyber Task Force is expanding its scale. By 2024, 21 cyber protection teams will be formed, increasing the number of cyber task teams to 154.

The cyberspace tactical combat force of the U.S. military is mainly composed of the cyberspace forces of the four major cybercommands of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps under the U.S. Cyber Command (the total number is about 80,000 people), and they are responsible for network protection and combat support of various services. The mission provides support for the offensive, defensive, and operation and maintenance operations of the cyber mission force in joint operations. The network commands of various services are also stepping up the expansion and integration of network combat forces to provide support for the operations of network mission forces and the network protection of various services.

1.4 Comprehensive combat capability system

In terms of equipment research and development, the U.S. military adheres to the principle of “building while using, and integrating construction and use”, continuously intensifies the research and development of cyber warfare weapon systems and equipment, and conducts research on key technologies for cyber warfare. A number of research programs have been carried out in early warning, command and control, and training and evaluation, and tens of billions of dollars have been invested in the research and development of various cyberspace combat equipment, thereby promoting and improving the level of network combat technology, enhancing service support capabilities and operational capabilities. efficiency.

The most representative equipment for network defense includes “network deception” system, “cyber wolf” software system, network attack alarm system and network vulnerability scanner. At the same time, the US military also attaches great importance to the application of the concept of “active network defense”. It has promoted the rapid development of network attack traceability technology. Cyber attacks include a variety of powerful computer viruses such as “Stuxnet” and “Flame”; battlefield cyber attacks are more representative of the Air Force’s “Shuter” system and the Navy’s EA-18G “Growler” aircraft. Reconnaissance perception has the ability to obtain information such as enemy communications, content, network protocols, hardware addresses, passwords, identity authentication processes, and network vulnerabilities. Programs such as “Einstein” and “Prometheus” have formed large-scale intelligence production capabilities and are trying to build a global cyberspace situational awareness system.

1.5 Equipment research and development forces are all-inclusive

The research and development of the U.S. military’s network combat weapons and equipment has always been carried out in accordance with the method of combining military, commercial and civilian, and inclusive. Cyberspace combat equipment is different from conventional combat equipment. It is mainly a code-based, design-centric development and production form, and the hierarchical relationship of the supply chain is not clear. Today, the United States has a military research force with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) as the core, and traditional defense forces such as Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, and Lockheed Martin. The company is the mainstay, and the company has an eclectic research and development force in the fields of Internet, electronics, software, and information security.

The cyberspace research directions of the U.S. military, government scientific research institutions, and traditional defense companies usually cover one or more aspects of cyberspace reconnaissance (situational awareness), surveillance, attack, defense, test verification, and comprehensive integration; while the Internet, electronics, Companies in the fields of software and information security carry out cyberspace technology research and equipment development and production in their respective fields. In addition, since the research and development products of cyberspace combat equipment are mainly software, which is a logical layer product, this has led to a blurred boundary between basic research in cyberspace and equipment development and production. Teams and individuals are also an important part of the US cyberspace industry. Figure 3 shows the main power structure of cyberspace R&D and production capabilities.

Figure 3 The main force structure of US cyberspace R&D and production capabilities

Among them, large and medium-sized military enterprises are the backbone of the research and development of the US cyberspace equipment subsystem/subsystem/technical field. In recent years, the traditional large and medium-sized military enterprises in the United States have rapidly entered the field of network security through “mergers and reorganizations” as the main means, and formed several companies such as Northrop Grumman, Raytheon, Boeing, and Lockheed Martin. Comprehensive companies are the leading network security defense industry. In the bidding of DARPA and various military cyberspace projects, these large and medium-sized military enterprises usually occupy the position of main contractors.

2 Europe follows closely behind

The European cyberspace industry started later than the United States, mainly focusing on research on cyberspace defense and cyberspace security issues. In recent years, European governments and national defense/electronic companies have also invested in the field of cyberspace security. Through the gradual improvement of strategic policies, public-private alliances, and guidance of cyberspace technology research and development, a network that spans the entire Europe and other countries and regions has been initially formed. Cyberspace defense system. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of research and development, European countries not only follow the lead of the United States, but also rely on NATO, the European Union and other transnational platforms to achieve integration and complementarity within Europe and between Europe and the United States, and finally formed a cyberspace security capability with both commonality and characteristics, second only to the United States .

At the level of organization and management, since most European countries are small in scale and easy to manage, they have achieved a relatively efficient, integrated, and powerful cyberspace management mechanism. At the same time, due to the large number of European countries and the existence of competition, there are sometimes obstacles to the implementation of national-level cooperation on cyberspace security.

At the level of system research and development, due to the very high level of digitalization, softwareization, and networking in many European countries (even higher than the United States), they are facing great pressure in cyberspace defense just like the United States. Therefore, their cyberspace development is to ensure cyberspace Safety first. In recent years, under the guidance of cyberspace thinking that focuses on defense, the research and development of cyberspace technology, especially cyberspace security technology, has been gradually strengthened. Expand investment and deployment in the field. When countries are investing in the cyberspace security market one after another, the cyberspace security products of some major European countries have already occupied a relatively large market share and opened up a certain scale of global market.

  1. Russia’s cyberspace development ideas are unique

Compared with Western countries, Russia has always paid attention to comprehensive and large-scale information space, and has not conducted in-depth and systematic research on cyberspace as a subdomain of information space like the United States. However, due to Russia’s long-term attention to the field of information security and industrial accumulation, it has a good foundation in the field of cyberspace. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of strategic planning, Russia has issued a series of legal documents aimed at protecting information security in all aspects of the country, such as the “Russian Federation Information Security Doctrine”, “Russian Social Information Development Strategy”, etc., but in the existing legal documents, it does not cover The relational system between information space and cyberspace, the term “cyber security” is not separated from the concept of “information security”. With the continuous increase of network security risks, Russia has focused on the protection of cyberspace security on key information infrastructure since 2010, and successively promulgated “Conceptual Viewpoints of Russian Federation Armed Forces in Information Space Activities” and “2020 Legal documents such as the National Policy Framework in the Field of International Information Security of the Russian Federation, the Strategic Conception of the Russian Federation Network Security (Draft), the Doctrine of Information Security of the Russian Federation (Second Edition) and the Law on the Security of Key Information Infrastructures of the Russian Federation It expounds Russia’s strategic goals to promote the development of cyberspace at multiple levels, as well as the important measures implemented to protect key information infrastructure and guide the development of cyberspace. At the organizational level, in August 2013, the Russian government announced the formation of a specialized information warfare agency under the Russian Armed Forces, and decided to form a cyber security command and a new agency of the armed forces, with the aim of improving the country’s cyber combat capabilities.

At the level of application practice, the “Network Commander’s Handbook” published by the United States in 2010 shows that the only example of global network operations is the information network attacks that occurred in Estonia, Georgia, and Kyrgyzstan from 2007 to 2009. These three small-scale attacks They are all done by Russia. It can be considered that Russia has unique practical experience in the field of network security.

In terms of research and development capabilities, Russia has a network security defense company with outstanding strength. For example, Kaspersky Lab is an important company in the field of global information security, and the “Russian Technological Information” company under the Rostec Group is also a core network security company in Russia. because

Transparency is limited, and it is difficult to find Russian companies capable of researching and developing cyber attack equipment from public channels, but this does not mean that Russia does not have such capabilities. In addition, Russian hacker organizations enjoy a “famous reputation” around the world. Research, production and trade of equipment.

4 Japan set off a wave of cyberspace development

Japan is one of the countries with the most advanced information technology in the world. At the same time, it is also subject to more and more cyberspace threats ranging from targeting individuals to public sectors and infrastructure. Therefore, Japan has long paid attention to cyberspace security issues. Japan classifies these threats under the umbrella of “information security” and established the National Information Security Center in 2005 to address the threat. As the concept of “cyberspace” proposed by the United States has been widely accepted, Japan also began to emphasize “cyberspace” at the national level around 2010, and regarded cybersecurity as an important issue affecting national security. Specifically, it is manifested in the following levels.

At the level of strategic planning, in 2013, the Japanese government issued the first “Network Security Strategy”, which promotes the construction and development of network security at the national level, and clearly proposes to build Japan into a powerful country in network security. In August 2015 and July 2018, the Japanese government successively issued two upgraded versions of the “Cyber Security Strategy”, mainly to prepare for the network security protection of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games.

At the organizational level, in 2010, the Japanese Defense Agency established a “cyber warfare force” of about 5,000 people composed of computer experts from the land, sea, and air self-defense forces to specialize in the attack and defense of network systems. The main task of Japan’s “cyber warfare forces” is to develop transnational “cyber weapons” that can destroy the network systems of other countries, and undertake tasks such as self-defense force computer network system protection, virus removal, and program repair; develop tactical “cyber weapons” “, and study the relevant tactics of cyber warfare; support the anti-hacking organization and anti-virus intrusion tasks of the “Network Special Attack Team”. International researchers pointed out that from the Japanese “cyber warfare forces”, we can see the shadow of the US military’s “super hacker force”.

At the level of application practice, Japan pays more attention to the actual combat background in network offensive and defensive exercises, so as to improve the practicality and pertinence of the exercises. In the “March 18” exercise in 2014, the preset scenario was that Japan’s key infrastructure encountered cyber attacks during the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. In the “Yamazakura” joint exercise held by Japan and the United States in 2019, the preset scenario was that Tokyo and the southwest region of Japan were attacked by missiles and other events concurrently. The exercise aimed to test the operation of the command and control system under cyber and electromagnetic attacks situation and study countermeasures.

At the level of system research and development, Japan emphasizes “both offense and defense” in building a network combat system, allocates a large amount of funds to invest in network hardware and “network warfare troops”, and establishes a “defense information communication platform” and a “common computer system platform” respectively. It facilitates the mutual communication and resource sharing of various organs and military network systems of the Self-Defense Force.

5 Apocalyptic Suggestions

From the perspective of the construction of cyberspace combat forces in major countries in the world, major countries and organizations in the world, such as the United States, Russia, Japan, and the European Union, have continuously strengthened military cyberspace operations through strategic planning guidance, organizational structure construction, combat force formation, and system equipment research and development. This has certain reference significance for the development of my country’s cyberspace.

5.1 Deepen the top-level design and enhance the strategic position of cyberspace

Cyberspace has greatly extended and expanded the boundaries of national interests. The Internet has increasingly become the basic platform for national political, economic, cultural and social activities, the lifeblood of the real economy and the nervous system on which the entire society depends. It can be seen that network security is not only a security issue of the network itself, but its impact has radiated to all aspects of national security and national interests. Therefore, it is necessary to plan and deploy the country’s network security issues from the national strategic level. my country should learn from the experience of foreign cyberspace strategies, formulate cyberspace strategies at the national level, strengthen cybersecurity legislation, build an international cooperation system, and plan and deploy national cybersecurity development as a whole at the national level.

5.2 Consolidate the foundation of capabilities and develop cyberspace countermeasures

In recent years, with the advancement of my country’s informatization construction and the comprehensive popularization of national network infrastructure equipment, network security threats from home and abroad have shown a trend of diversification, complexity, and frequent occurrence, posing a major threat to China’s cyberspace security, leading to my country’s Important information systems of government agencies and critical infrastructure may face security risks such as large-scale leakage of sensitive information and paralysis of information systems. In order to ensure the integrity and availability of cyberspace information infrastructure, it is necessary to improve its survivability, respond quickly to cyber threats, and initiate attacks at the right time. Based on this, our country must proceed from the aspects of theory, technology, and talents to consolidate the foundation of cyberspace capabilities and provide guarantees for possible cyberspace confrontation and defense in the future.

5.3 Strengthen strength building and build a cyberspace support system

Today, cyberspace has become an emerging combat domain. It is necessary to build a powerful cyberspace combat force and seize control of this emerging combat domain in order to effectively maintain national security and development interests in cyberspace. Since the establishment of the U.S. Cyber Command in June 2009, the U.S. military has made great achievements in the construction of cyber military power, forming a strong military guarantee for U.S. cyber security, and at the same time posing a huge threat to the cyberspace of other countries. We must speed up the construction of cyberspace forces, continuously improve the cybersecurity awareness and information protection capabilities of the whole people, strengthen national defense mobilization, cultivate reserve forces, and build a network combat force system with sufficient combat capabilities, so as to effectively contain and counter the opponent’s attack on our country. cyber threat.

6 Conclusion

Cyberspace has become an important combat force for the military to seek development because of its characteristics such as not being restricted by time and space, not being constrained by combat objectives, having a wide range of sources of support for combat forces, and strong mutations in the combat process. In recent years, major countries and organizations in the world, such as the United States, Russia, Japan, and the European Union, have been committed to promoting the construction of cyberspace combat capabilities in order to seize the dominant position in this field. my country should accelerate the construction of military cyberspace forces and enhance our country’s cyberspace combat capabilities in order to seek the right to win future information warfare.

Citation format: Li Shuo, Li Zhenjing, Wang Shizhong, et al. Analysis and Enlightenment of the Development Situation of Foreign Military Cyberspace Combat Forces [J]. Information Security and Communication Secrecy, 2022(5):90-99.

Reference: https://www.163.com/dy/article/

習近平主席:民用軍事融合行動提高戰鬥力

President Xi Jinping: Civil Military Fusion Operations Enhancing Combat Effectiveness

編者按

中國軍民融合計劃

軍民融合式發展,是提高民兵預備役部隊非戰爭軍事行動能力的最有效途徑。要實現全方位、寬領域、大縱深的融合,必須強化融合意識、加大融合力度、拓展融合渠道,堅持以任務為牽引,以實戰需求為目標。陝西某預備役團將當地各類資源納入戰備儲備體系,實現即徵即用,隨時能遂行雙應任務,使軍地形成了借勢發展、借船行舟、借梯上樓的良好格局;湖南懷化軍分區把加強民兵預備役部隊建設,作為各級黨委、政府和軍事機關的共同責任,為提升民兵預備役部隊非戰爭軍事行動能力提供了可靠支撐。他們的經驗值得借鑒。

陝西某預備役團發揮軍民融合優勢提升部隊戰鬥力

整合資源,向實戰化步步緊逼

■薑山 王莉

中國軍民融合計劃

初春的黃土高原某地域,一片寂靜。突然,一架“敵”機呼嘯而來,陣地上數門防空火砲迅速捕捉目標,吐出道道火舌,短短30秒,目標灰飛煙滅。上演這精彩一幕的,是陝西某預備役團。然而幾年前,該團的戰鬥力還是麻繩拴豆腐——提不起來。如此明顯的進步從哪裡來?團領導一語中的:“軍民融合讓部隊戰鬥力提升駛入了快車道!”

精細管理,夯實戰鬥力基礎

3月初,結合年度整組工作,該團28名營以上預備役軍官進行個人述職,並接受現役、預備役黨委委員及地方組織部門人員的現場提問和評議。最終,5人因評議結果不合格,被列入調整出隊名單。該團政委胡楊告訴筆者:“‘真刀真槍’的考評,能夠激勵預備役軍官履職盡責,為部隊建設加油使勁。”

前幾年,該團就協調地方制訂了《預備役軍官管理細則》等相關規定,然而由於缺乏具體措施,操作難度大,導致部分預備役軍官參加軍事活動積極性不高,召之難來的現象時有發生。 2015年,該團黨委與延安市委組織部、人事局、財政局等部門聯合出台《預備役軍官軍地聯合考評實施辦法》,將熟悉軍地作戰協調、服務戰鬥保障等6大類25個方面內容,納入預備役軍官地方年度績效考評體系,明確要求各單位在調整崗位、選人用人時,優先使用在軍事訓練、完成急難險重任務中表現突出的預備役軍官,對不遵守部隊紀律、訓練消極應付、成績不達標的個人取消評選先進的資格。

部隊意見進入地方決策,消除了預備役軍官干好幹壞“上級不清楚”“使用不參照”等問題,從根本上調動了預備役軍官參訓的積極性。 1月初,該團組織預備役軍官集訓,來自6個縣區的預備役軍官全部按時參加,無一請假。

確保預備役官兵與部隊日常信息互通,是實現“訓在平時、育在平時、管在平時”的前提條件。該團與地方高校共同研製開發《預備役官兵信息管理系統》,對預備役官兵進行網上政治教育、隨機點名抽查、軍地聯合講評;預備役官兵也可通過該系統向部隊反映自己的情況,為軍地雙方信息互通提供了平台。

為實現軍地優勢互補,促進軍地融合建設,他們還把加強軍事訓練與促進企業生產有機結合起來。編組在某公司的汽車連,不但定期分批對預備役人員進行駕駛技能、維修技能等方面的專業培訓,還針對運輸過程中可能發生的失火、爆炸、破壞等意外情況,在預備役官兵中開展滅火、防爆處突等技戰術課目的訓練,確保一經拉動,立即執行任務。

摸清底數,催生戰鬥力提升

提起去年團隊接受上級整建制戰備考核拉動演練的一幕,團長張棟面露尷尬之色。當時部隊集結,該團徵召預編在某駕校的15台重型運輸車,對方卻以教學任務重為由不予調撥。無奈,團裡只得向市交通局尋求幫助,導致集結時間比預定晚了2個小時。

有裝備卻不能為我所用,出現這樣的問題,雖在意料之外,卻在情理之中。一方面,預編裝備在地方經濟建設快速發展中加快了“退役”週期,另一方面,地方單位新增的科技含量高、技術性能好的新型軍民通用裝備,不能及時進入預編序列。團黨委會上,黨委“一班人”達成一致:必須著眼戰時保障需求整合軍地資源,讓地方高新裝備納編進程和地方經濟建設速度同步,打牢充足完備、對接實戰的裝備保障基礎。

為此,團隊依據《國防動員法》《加強預備役部隊建設的意見》和《預備役部(分)隊戰備工作規定》等法規制度,修訂《裝備物資管理規定》,完善各類裝備保障方案,實現通用裝備物資的儲備、徵用等法規化。與預編單位簽訂《預編裝備責任書》,確保平時能夠保障訓練和應急使用,戰時能夠緊急徵用,遂行作戰任務,實現了裝備資源管理的製度化。他們還對全市範圍內的主要裝備維修機構、科研單位、生產廠家進行調查摸底,與30餘家企業單位簽訂近百種《裝備物資儲備協議》,明確各方的責任義務,摸清了裝備底數。

通過市國動委宏觀調控,該團在延安市6個縣區分級分層建起車炮庫、戰備物資器材庫,實行抗洪搶險、森林滅火、防爆維穩等分隊裝備物資預儲,大幅縮短了部隊快速反應時間。

該團從解放軍邊防學院、延安大學等軍地院校和科研院所請來電子、信息和網絡專家,與全團官兵攜手攻關,建立起“預徵裝備信息數據庫”,實現了預編裝備由“靜態管理”到“動態管理”的轉變,一批跨行政區域大中型企業和事業單位的通信設備、運輸車輛和工程機械等最新軍民通用裝備,在經過嚴格的性能檢測後被預編進來。

自我加壓,立起戰鬥力標準

凜冽的西北風中,一場信息化條件下的實戰化演練在黃土高原展開。 “藍軍”利用衛星偵察、電磁干擾等手段,頻頻擾亂“紅軍”行動計劃;“紅軍”陣營處變不驚,迅速啟用備用通信網,同時開啟反干擾設備,破解“藍軍”的不間斷打擊……在此次演練中擔負網絡保障任務的,是該團依托延安大學信息學院組建的網絡戰分隊。近年來,該團融合軍地資源推動部隊實戰化訓練,取得了顯著成效。

為了打牢戰鬥力生成基礎,他們藉助當地各高校和訓練機構的教學優勢,組織預備役人員進行小專業知識集訓、士官升級培訓;借助新裝備廠家和修理機構的技術優勢,為部隊組織技術人員和修理骨幹培訓;借助現役部隊的人才、裝備、設施優勢,對雷達、標圖、無人機等複雜專業和小兵種專業官兵開展針對性訓練,先後培養了70餘名雷達專業尖子、120餘名標圖能手、30餘名無人機操作駕駛骨幹……

同時,他們依托編兵單位,針對預備役官兵不同的工作崗位,開展多種形式的崗位練兵活動。去年以來,該團先後依托地方國動委、應急辦組織應急指揮演練,與三大通信運營公司進行應急通信演練,與交通、醫療、民政等部門聯合進行應急保障演練,促進了軍地聯合指揮、通信和保障能力的提高。

Modern English Translation:

Editor’s note

Military-civilian integrated development is the most effective way to improve the non-war military operations capabilities of the militia and reserve forces. To achieve omni-directional, wide-ranging, and large-depth integration, it is necessary to strengthen the awareness of integration, increase integration efforts, expand integration channels, adhere to task-driven, and actual combat needs as the goal. A reserve regiment in Shaanxi incorporated various local resources into the combat readiness reserve system, realizing that it can be used immediately upon requisition, and can perform dual-response tasks at any time, so that the military and the military have formed a good pattern of development, borrowing boats and boats, and borrowing ladders to go upstairs; Huaihua, Hunan Military sub-regions regard strengthening the construction of militia reserve forces as the joint responsibility of party committees, governments, and military agencies at all levels, and provide reliable support for enhancing the non-war military operations capabilities of militia reserve forces. Their experience is worth learning.

A reserve regiment in Shaanxi takes advantage of military-civilian integration to enhance its combat effectiveness

Integrate resources and press harder for actual combat

■ Jiang Shan Wang Li

A certain area of ​​the Loess Plateau in early spring was silent. Suddenly, an “enemy” aircraft roared in, and several anti-aircraft guns on the position quickly captured the target, spitting out flames. In just 30 seconds, the target was wiped out. This wonderful scene was staged by a reserve team in Shaanxi. However, a few years ago, the combat effectiveness of the regiment was still tied to tofu with twine—it couldn’t be mentioned. Where does such obvious progress come from? In the words of the regiment leader: “Military-civilian integration has improved the combat effectiveness of the troops and entered the fast lane!”

Fine management to consolidate the foundation of combat effectiveness

At the beginning of March, combined with the annual work of the entire group, the regiment’s 28 reserve officers and above battalion conducted personal reports, and accepted on-site questions and comments from members of the active and reserve party committees and local organization departments. In the end, five people were included in the list of adjustments due to unqualified evaluation results. Hu Yang, the political commissar of the regiment, told the author: “The evaluation of the’real swords and guns’ can inspire reserve officers to perform their duties and work hard for army building.”

In the past few years, the regiment coordinated with the local authorities to formulate the “Regulations for the Management of Reserve Officers” and other relevant regulations. However, due to the lack of specific measures and the difficulty of operation, some reserve officers are not highly motivated to participate in military activities, and sometimes it is difficult to recruit. occur. In 2015, the party committee of the regiment, the Organization Department of the Yan’an Municipal Party Committee, the Bureau of Personnel, the Bureau of Finance and other departments jointly issued the “Implementation Measures for the Joint Evaluation of Reserve Officers and Military Areas”, which will be familiar with the contents of 6 categories and 25 aspects such as military and local combat coordination and service combat support. , Incorporated into the local annual performance appraisal system for reserve officers, and clearly requires that all units prioritize the use of reserve officers who have outstanding performance in military training and completing urgent, difficult, dangerous and heavy tasks when adjusting positions, selecting and appointing personnel, and responding passively to non-compliance with military discipline and training , Individuals who fail to meet the standard will be disqualified for advanced selection.

The opinions of the troops entered the local decision-making process, eliminating the problems of “unclear superiors” and “non-reference” for reserve officers, and fundamentally aroused the enthusiasm of reserve officers to participate in training. In early January, the regiment organized a training camp for reserve officers. All reserve officers from six counties and districts participated on time, and none of them asked for leave.

Ensuring the daily information exchange between reserve officers and troops is a prerequisite for achieving “training in peacetime, education in peacetime, and management in peacetime.” The regiment and local colleges and universities jointly developed the “Reserve Officers and Soldiers Information Management System” to conduct online political education, random roll-calling, and joint military and civilian commentary on reserve officers and soldiers; reserve officers and soldiers can also use the system to report their own situation to the military and serve The information exchange between the two parties provides a platform.

In order to realize the complementary advantages of the military and the land and promote the integration of the military and the land, they also organically combined the strengthening of military training with the promotion of enterprise production. The automobile company grouped in a certain company not only provides professional training in driving skills and maintenance skills for reserve personnel in batches on a regular basis, but also conducts fire fighting among reserve officers and soldiers in response to accidents such as fire, explosion, and damage that may occur during transportation. The training of technical and tactical courses such as explosion-proof and sudden-disruption, to ensure that the task is performed immediately once it is pulled.

Find out the bottom line, promote combat effectiveness

Speaking of last year’s team accepting the superior reorganization system combat readiness assessment to pull the drill, the team leader Zhang Dong showed embarrassment. At that time, the army was assembled and the regiment recruited 15 heavy transport vehicles pre-programmed in a driving school, but the other party refused to transfer them because of the heavy teaching task. Reluctantly, the group had to seek help from the Municipal Transportation Bureau, causing the assembly time to be 2 hours later than scheduled.

I have the equipment but I can’t use it for me. Although such a problem appears unexpected, it is reasonable. On the one hand, pre-programmed equipment has accelerated the “retirement” cycle in the rapid development of local economic construction. On the other hand, new military-civilian general equipment with high technological content and good technical performance added by local units cannot enter the pre-programmed sequence in time. At the regiment party committee, the “group of people” of the party committee reached an agreement: it is necessary to integrate military and military resources based on the needs of wartime support, so that the process of local high-tech equipment acquisition and the speed of local economic construction can be synchronized, and a sufficient, complete, and actual combat equipment support foundation must be laid .

To this end, the team revised the “Regulations on the Management of Equipment and Materials” in accordance with the “National Defense Mobilization Law,” “Opinions on Strengthening the Construction of Reserve Forces”, and “Regulations on the Preparation of the Reserve Department (Sub) Teams”, and revised the “Regulations on the Management of Equipment and Materials” to improve various equipment support plans to achieve Regulations on the reserve and requisition of general equipment and materials. Sign the “Pre-compiled Equipment Responsibility Letter” with the pre-compiled unit to ensure that it can guarantee training and emergency use in peacetime, and can be requisitioned urgently in wartime, and carry out combat tasks, realizing the institutionalization of equipment resource management. They also investigated the main equipment maintenance organizations, scientific research units, and manufacturers in the city, and signed nearly one hundred “equipment material reserve agreements” with more than 30 enterprises, clarified the responsibilities and obligations of all parties, and figured out the equipment base. .

Through the macro-control of the Municipal State Movement Committee, the regiment has built a car and artillery warehouse and a war-preparation material warehouse in 6 counties and districts of Yan’an City. It has implemented pre-storage of equipment and materials for units such as flood fighting and rescue, forest fire fighting, explosion protection and stability maintenance. Quick reaction time of troops.

The regiment invited electronics, information, and network experts from military academies and scientific research institutes such as the People’s Liberation Army Frontier Defense Academy, Yan’an University, etc., worked hand in hand with the entire regiment’s officers and soldiers to tackle key problems, established a “pre-commissioned equipment information database”, and realized pre-compiled equipment From “static management” to “dynamic management”, a batch of the latest general-purpose military and civilian equipment such as communications equipment, transportation vehicles and construction machinery for large and medium-sized enterprises and institutions across administrative regions have been pre-programmed after strict performance testing.

Self-pressurize and set up the standard of combat effectiveness

In the harsh northwest wind, an actual combat exercise under the conditions of information technology was launched on the Loess Plateau. The “Blue Army” used satellite reconnaissance, electromagnetic interference and other means to frequently disrupt the “Red Army” action plan; the “Red Army” camp became calm and quickly activated the backup communication network, and at the same time turned on anti-jamming equipment to crack the “Blue Army”‘s continuous attack… In this exercise, it is the network warfare detachment formed by the regiment based on the School of Information of Yan’an University that is responsible for the network security task. In recent years, the regiment has integrated military and land resources to promote the actual combat training of troops, and has achieved remarkable results.

In order to lay a solid foundation for combat effectiveness, they used the teaching advantages of local universities and training institutions to organize reserve personnel to conduct small professional knowledge training and non-commissioned officer upgrade training; use the technical advantages of new equipment manufacturers and repair organizations to organize technical personnel and repairs for the troops Key training: Taking advantage of the talents, equipment, and facilities of the active army, we carried out targeted training for officers and soldiers in complex professions such as radar, mapping, drones, and small arms, and successively trained more than 70 top radar professionals and more than 120 mapping experts , More than 30 key drone operators…

At the same time, they rely on military formation units to carry out various forms of on-the-job training activities for the different positions of reserve officers and soldiers. Since last year, the regiment has successively organized emergency command drills based on the local State Mobility Commission and the Emergency Management Office, conducted emergency communications drills with the three major communications operating companies, and conducted emergency support drills with the transportation, medical, and civil affairs departments, which promoted joint military and civilian command. , Communication and support capabilities.

湖南省懷化軍分區協調軍地強力推進深度融合發展

瞄準戰場,讓潛力變成戰鬥力

■徐小平 湯金平

3月初,湖南省懷化軍分區對所屬民兵預備役組織整頓進行驗收,由軍分區、駐軍司令部、市政府督查室組成的聯合督導組,令編兵單位領導耳目一新,又倍感緊張。檢查現場,軍分區負責人員編制核實,駐軍負責各專業隊伍經訓率、專業對口率核查,市政府督查室針對問題下達整改時限,並當場進行績效評分。

軍分區司令員向型楚滿懷信心地說,瞄準戰場推進軍民深度融合,就是要依據戰時民兵預備役擔負的支援保障任務編實隊伍,協調地方黨委政府按軍事需求抓落實,駐軍單位按作戰行動要求進行驗收,這樣才能真正把動員潛力變成實實在在的戰鬥力。

雙重履職,務軍興武變得更主動

2月16日,春節長假後上班第3天,分管武裝工作的懷化市常務副市長楊親鵬得知個別縣、市領導對民兵整組工作落實不力,當即責成相關人員以市政府的名義下發通知,召開民兵整組再動員、再部署大會,分會場就設在各縣、市政府會議室。

近年來,該軍分區和所屬人武部黨委主動擔當,積極作為,為駐地黨委政府提建議、當參謀,把民兵預備役發展融入轄區內經濟社會發展大局,帶動地方黨委、政府樹牢了“一盤棋、一家人、一體化”的軍民融合深度發展理念。

市委、市政府把部隊建設納入目標績效和領導履職“雙重”考核已形成新常態;市縣兩級每次召開常委會、政府常務會前,都要詢問軍分區、人武部是否有關於武裝工作的議題上會研究;當地高速路網建設主動為部隊預留3個出入口供戰時所需;新建的2萬平方米的地下商貿城改寫了市人防平均面積不夠的缺陷……曾經的“大利大融、小利小融、無利不融”現像一去不返。

拆除“圍牆”,共贏發展成為新常態

去年初,軍分區協調駐軍單位和地方召開研討會,共同探討融合發展之策。與會領導一致認為,推進軍民融合深度發展,必須打開“大門”,拆掉“圍牆”,徹底改變自我封閉、自成體系的軍地建設思維模式,實現富民與強軍目標相統一。

該軍分區走出“就分區抓分區,就武裝抓武裝”的思想誤區,採取“請進來、走出去”的方式,與地方共享共用部分軍事設施,增強軍地互動、軍地交流、軍民往來,鞏固深化軍政軍民關係。民兵預備役組織調整、專業分隊訓練、年度軍事考核、規模演練,駐軍單位指派督導組參加,現場指導評估,提出改進意見。地方各編兵單位打破機制壁壘、人才壁壘、競爭壁壘,集合軍地科技資源優勢,實現效益最大化,為部隊和國防建設注入了新活力。

今年2月,鶴城區按要求組建民兵搶修分隊,軍事科參謀彭毅前往汽修企業協調。幾位企業負責人聽說要組建民兵隊伍,非常痛快地答應了,令他大呼意外。他深有感觸地說,以往到組建單位協調編組民兵開展訓練,單位領導總是找各種理由推辭,如今全市上下強化國防觀念,政府出面搞協調、抓落實,人武部再不用唱“獨角戲”了!

不講“感情”,依法融合實現制度化

軍民融合深度發展,離不開完善的製度機制。近年來,懷化市軍地雙方始終圍繞健全機製做工作。

軍分區黨委堅持黨管武裝製度,推動應急指揮進入政府應急管理體制,建立聯席會議、請示報告、協調督導等製度,走開應急指揮體系一體化建設的路子;軍地雙方圍繞軍民融合工作的管理體制、工作機制、機構關係、對象範圍、程序方式、和法律責任等核心內容,制訂《關於進一步推進軍民深度融合發展的意見》,破除制約軍民深度融合思想觀念上、政策體制上的障礙;建立以市委、市政府督查室為主、軍分區與駐軍單位機關為輔的軍民融合督導巡視機構,對民兵預備役整組、徵兵工作、軍事訓練等各個階段性工作進行巡視督導,促進軍地各級強化強軍興武觀念;把軍民融合發展納入市、縣黨管武裝績效考評和黨政領導政績考核內容,考核分值佔績效分值的7.6%。

軍分區政委陳雲龍告訴記者,嚴格落實績效考核,驅動軍民融合發展車輪,實現軍民融合深度發展。

Modern English Translation:

The Huaihua Military Sub-district in Hunan Province coordinated the military and the military to vigorously promote deep integrated development

Aiming at the battlefield, turning potential into combat effectiveness

■Xu Xiaoping Tang Jinping

At the beginning of March, the Huaihua Military Division of Hunan Province checked and accepted the organization and rectification of the militia reserve. The joint supervision team composed of the military division, the garrison headquarters, and the municipal government inspection office made the leaders of the military organization refreshed and nervous. At the inspection site, the military divisions are responsible for the staffing verification, the garrison is responsible for the verification of the training rate and professional counterpart rate of each professional team, and the municipal government inspection office issues a rectification time limit for the problem and conducts performance evaluation on the spot.

Commander Xiang Xingchu of the military division said with confidence that aiming at the battlefield to promote deep military-civilian integration is to organize teams based on the support and support tasks undertaken by the wartime militia reserve, coordinate local party committees and governments to implement military requirements, and garrison units operate according to combat operations. Acceptance is required, so that the mobilization potential can be truly turned into real combat effectiveness.

Double performance of duties, the military becomes more active

On February 16th, on the third day of work after the long Spring Festival holiday, Yang Qinpeng, the executive deputy mayor of Huaihua City, in charge of armed work, learned that individual county and city leaders had failed to implement the work of the militia group, and immediately instructed relevant personnel to issue it in the name of the city government. It was notified that the militia group re-mobilization and redeployment meeting was held, and the branch venues were set up in the conference rooms of the county and city governments.

In recent years, the subdistricts of the army and the Party Committee of the People’s Armed Forces Department have taken the initiative and acted actively, advising the resident party committee and government, serving as a staff member, integrating the development of the militia reserve into the overall economic and social development of the area under its jurisdiction, and spurring the local party committees and governments to establish a “game of chess,” The in-depth development concept of military-civilian integration of “one family, integration”.

The municipal party committee and the municipal government have incorporated the military construction into the target performance and leadership performance “dual” assessment has become a new normal; each time the municipal and county levels hold standing committees and government executive meetings, they must ask whether the military divisions and the Ministry of Human Resources and Armed Forces have any questions about armed forces. The topic of work will be studied; the construction of the local expressway network actively reserves 3 entrances and exits for the troops for wartime needs; the newly built 20,000 square meter underground trade city rewrites the defect that the average area of ​​the city’s civil air defense is insufficient… The phenomenon of “big profit and big financial, small profit and small financial, no profit but no financial” will never return.

Demolition of the “wall”, win-win development becomes the new normal

At the beginning of last year, the military divisions coordinated the garrison units and localities to hold a seminar to jointly discuss strategies for integrated development. The leaders at the meeting agreed that to promote the in-depth development of military-civilian integration, it is necessary to open the “door”, tear down the “wall”, completely change the self-enclosed and self-contained thinking mode of military construction, and achieve the unity of enriching the people and strengthening the military.

The military division has gone out of the ideological misunderstanding of “grasping the division by division, and grabbing the armed forces”, adopting the method of “inviting in and going out”, sharing some military facilities with the locality, enhancing military-to-military interaction, military-to-military exchanges, and military-civilian exchanges. Consolidate and deepen military-political military-civilian relations. The militia reserve organization adjustments, professional unit training, annual military assessments, and scale drills, the garrison units appoint a supervision team to participate, conduct on-site evaluations, and put forward suggestions for improvement. Local military formations break through barriers to mechanisms, talents, and competition, and combine military and civilian scientific and technological resource advantages to maximize benefits and inject new vitality into the construction of the army and national defense.

In February this year, Hecheng District organized a militia emergency repair unit as required, and Peng Yi, a military staff officer, went to the auto repair company to coordinate. Several business leaders heard that the militia team was to be formed, and they agreed very happily, which surprised him. He said with deep feeling that in the past, when the unit was organized to coordinate and organize militias to carry out training, unit leaders always found various reasons to refuse. Now the whole city strengthens the concept of national defense, the government has come forward to coordinate and implement, and the Ministry of Human Resources and Armed Forces no longer has to perform “one-man shows.” Up!

Do not talk about “feelings”, and achieve institutionalization through integration according to law

The in-depth development of military-civilian integration is inseparable from a sound institutional mechanism. In recent years, the military and civilian sides of Huaihua City have been working on a sound mechanism.

The party committee of the military sub-region adheres to the system of party management and armed forces, promotes emergency command into the government emergency management system, establishes joint meetings, request reports, coordinated supervision and other systems, and takes the road of integrated construction of the emergency command system; both military and civilian sides manage the work of military-civilian integration The core content of the system, working mechanism, institutional relationship, scope of objects, procedures and methods, and legal responsibilities, etc., formulate the “Opinions on Further Promoting the Development of Deep Military-civilian Integration” to remove the ideological, conceptual, and policy system barriers that restrict the deep integration of military and civilian; The military-civilian integration supervision and inspection organization, mainly composed of the municipal party committee and municipal government inspection offices, and supplemented by military sub-regions and garrison units, conducts inspections and supervision of all phases of the work of the militia reserve, conscription, military training, etc. Strengthen the concept of strengthening the army and rejuvenating the military; incorporate the development of military-civilian integration into the performance evaluation of city and county party management and armed forces and the performance evaluation of party and government leaders. The evaluation score accounts for 7.6% of the performance score.

Chen Yunlong, political commissar of the military division, told reporters that strict implementation of performance appraisal will drive the development of military-civilian integration and achieve deep development of military-civilian integration.

Original Chinese Military URL: http://www.mod.gov.cn/power/2016-03/15/content_4646679_2.htm