China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy 国家信息化战略中的军民结合

China’s Civilian & Military Informatization Development Strategy


“中辦發〔2006〕11號各省、自治區、直轄市黨委和人民政府,中央和國家機關各部委,解放軍各總部、各大單位,各人民團體: 《2006—2020年國家信息化發展戰略》已經黨中央、國務院同意,現印發給你們,請結合實際認真貫徹落實。”


國 務 院 辦 公 廳

China Communist Party

“Affecting all Chinese provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Communist Party of China, all committees and governments, central ministries and state organs, the People’s Liberation Army headquarters, major units, and people’s organizations:” This 2006–2020 National Informatization Development Strategy applies effective immediately”

[Foreign military and civilian strategy [1] ]

(A) legal form of integrating the armed forces to implement the strategy

The United States and other developed countries attach great importance to integrating the armed forces of institutional strengthening to the people, as a national strategy and to promote it in the form of legislation. After the Cold War, according to changes in the international situation, the US Congress and the Department of Defense issued a “National Defense Authorization Act ( 1993 ) “and” streamlining of the Federal Acquisition Act ( 1994 ), “affirmed the principle of legal form of military and civilian integration. The United States has enacted the “Defense transition strategy”, “National Security Strategy of Science and Technology ( 1995 ) “and” National Defense Science and Technology Strategy ( 2000 ) “, the strategic goal is:” to create a both to meet military requirements and meet the business needs of advanced national technology and industrial base. ” US Department of Defense in 2003, released in a new version of DOD5000.1 , stressing that “give priority to civilian products, technology and services”, provides that “to the extent feasible, the task can be modified requirements to facilitate civilian products, technology and services,” the procurement . British Ministry of Defense in 2001 for the promulgation of the 21 century national defense science and innovation strategy, clearly the long-term development of national defense science and technology point of view, the Ministry of Defence must attract the world advanced technology in the civilian sector to participate in defense research and development, accelerate weapons Update pace. French 1994 annual defense white paper also clearly announced that “the defense industry to consider the direction of the dual-use and military research and civilian research to combine as far as possible.”

(B) to promote the development of dual-use technology from both the investment and organization

The main countries in the world to start and accelerate new revolution in military affairs and military information technology, which is to implement the military strategy of the important people skills background. US Department of Defense in 1995 and published in “dual-use technology, aimed at obtaining affordable cutting-edge technology of the national defense strategy” and proposed to have important military needs but also has the potential transfer of dual-use technology, do need government intervention, clear by the government to invest in development. In 1998 the US Department of Defense promulgated the “National Defense Authorization Act”, asked the military to increase investment in the development of dual-use technology, and provides dual-use technology sharing principle of project funds. From the 20 century, 90 years began, the United States has implemented a variety of special programs to support the development of dual-use technology. In recent years, a substantial increase in the US defense budget, the 2007 fiscal year reached 5064 billion US dollars, compared with 2003, an increase of one-third of the defense budget in the 30-40% invested in the defense industry, it is worth noting that the US Department of Defense 20 Century 90 ‘s end total annual investment in IT is about 500 billion dollars in 2006 increased in 742 million US dollars, focus on supporting the development of dual-use of information technology. US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency ( DARPA ) attaches great importance to the development and application of dual-use technology, which is half of the office responsible for the development of dual-use technology.

In order to facilitate the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States in 1993, including the establishment of the armed forces and the Ministry of Commerce, the Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (year NASA ) and the National Science Foundation ( NSF ) and other units’ defense technology transition committee ” . The United States also developed a joint research and development agreement ( CRADA ), to support the development of federal technology transfer to the private sector, encouraging joint investment with industry to develop dual-use technologies and projects. If we say that the era of mechanization technologies accounted for all military and civilian technology military equipment 30-40% , then the era of military and civilian integration of information technology will account for 80-90% . In enhancing the economic competitiveness of key technologies and key defense technologies listed in the US Department of Defense Department of Commerce elected in respect of about 80% overlap. British Ministry of Defense and Trade and Industry jointly invest in the development of dual-use technology, including a number of areas, including aviation, the British set up a special bureau defense technology transfer, scientific research institutions engaged in management of civil defense projects and funding contracts, using competitive mechanisms to encourage having strong technical force of civilian institutions to develop military technology. France through the implementation of the space program, space program, nuclear programs and electronic, information and communication plans a number of projects to develop dual-use technology. Japanese defense procurement is mainly aimed at using defense contracts as a means to promote the development of advanced technologies, especially having a civilian or dual use of advanced technologies.

Accelerate the development of dual-use technologies in the military, while information technology and services in the national economy, resulting in huge economic benefits, a study reported that the US Congress, the second application of space technology, each invested one dollar, we can produce seven dollars efficiency [2] . 2006 early American NASA Goddard Space Flight Center will be awarded the development of a simple, safe and low cost of the patent license single-walled carbon nanotube manufacturing method of ISM company, formed a production capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes, these Nanotubes can be widely used in various fields of medical, fuel cells, video displays, solar batteries, etc., to promote the economic development of the United States [3] .

Management and equipment procurement mechanisms (iii) the reform of research projects, encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment

Civilian high-tech enterprise innovation system and a flexible, quick response, the results of many. Supporting civilian enterprises to develop products for the military, it has become the guidelines of the US military. 2003 introduced the “defense industrial transformation roadmap,” emphasized the need to change the main contractor control defense market situation, through the bidding and government procurement forms to encourage enterprises to participate in civilian research and production equipment, guide and encourage enterprises to master the innovative technology into the civil defense thereby forming the size of both, the new defense market structure of many vendors. For example, the US communications equipment maker Motorola Inc. have independent military communications equipment manufacturing sector, both the production of Boeing civil aviation with the machine also produces military aircraft, Lockheed – Martin, the company’s main business is system integration, aviation, aerospace and technical services, are dual-use technology. To support SMEs, the United States has enacted the Small Business Innovation program. The US scientists, engineers, nearly half of military-related research, about one-third of enterprises and military production, whereas the Ministry of Defence orders for the total order amount accounts for 90% . British military research facilities management reform measures, encourage the use of military research facilities in the civilian sector technology development. France set up an integrated project team from the Department of Defense Weaponry Department, the military services Staff, industry composition, management of weapons and equipment procurement program development and projects. French Defense Weaponry Department promptly inform the military to SMEs development plan, acquisition plan set aside 10% for small and medium enterprises, to encourage them to participate in the competitive procurement of weapons and equipment. German weaponry annual plan by the General Armament Department operations departments, the services bureau, defense technology and industry cooperation Acquisition Department developed together. Germany developed a “Federal Republic of Germany ordered assignments principles” clearly defined weaponry defense contractor general contractor in the task, the task must be assigned to military orders to subcontractors by means of competition, in the form of legislation to protect small and medium enterprises to participate in defense research mission competition. Note that the Japanese government has the military capacity to foster private enterprise, the Japanese are eligible to receive military orders of enterprises has reached two thousand, basically formed a technologically advanced, wide range and great potential of military research and production system. Russia’s two ways to establish the defense industry system integration of military and civilian, in the implementation of the defense industry group, the formation of large-scale military company at the same time, part of the military enterprises demutualization, privatization, so that military enterprises retain the core military production capacity at the same production civilian.

A greater proportion of military production undertaken by civilian enterprises, contribute to the formation of military bidding competition mechanism, thereby reducing costs, improving quality and production of military enterprises to civilian products companies face appeared, facilitate international technical exchange and absorption of foreign advanced technology. Military through purchase orders, to strengthen cooperation with the civilian high-tech enterprises, to provide abundant funds or venture capital, which has become a developed country WTO era important mode of government to support their strategy of industrial development, enhance international competitiveness, in addition, military and technical performance of the process of challenging requirements, promote the growth of civilian high-tech enterprise technological innovation and high-quality scientific and technological talents. The development of civilian high-tech enterprises to grow, for the defense industry has laid a solid foundation, also contributed to the national economic development, and enhance the strength of the country.

(Iv) open defense procurement, maximize the use of civilian norms and standards

In order to promote the development of civil-military integration, many countries have carried out reforms to military standards, the equipment acquisition process and vigorously promote the use of civil standards and commercial specifications. US forces continue to pursue the reform of military standards, based on the past all military standards and specifications to conduct a comprehensive clean-up review, the repeal of the 4000 military specification remainder (including single-piece specification) and 300 remainder military standards, adopted the 1784 item civilian standards ( non-governmental standard), the equipment acquisition process, limit the use of military norms and standards, not only does the civil standard is available to meet the military requirements when considering the use of military standards, and the use of military standards must be approved or existing civilian standards can not. UK Equipment Acquisition management, not to military standards and military specifications and performance-based specifications proposed procurement requirements, given enough freedom and flexibility contractor. Japan 1999-2002 years, a total amend or repeal the military technical standards and technical specifications 10231 , accounting for all military technical standards 74 percent . In 2003 , the Defense Agency also proposed in its new weapons and equipment procurement policy making, instead of using civilian technology standard about 18,000 entries Defense Agency dedicated military standards and norms.

US defense scientist famous Gansler estimate, the implementation of civil-military integration, the United States Department of Defense Department of Defense procurement could save the equivalent of the total annual fee of 20% or more. Although the US military R & D expenditure of the United States the proportion of total funding from the last century, 60 years of 50% is reduced to the current 15% , but the US military technology but gained rapid development, mainly due to integrating the armed forces of the new system.

[To change the information into a new military and civilian military features, integrating the armed forces]

A new era of international competition, information into the characteristics of modern military equipment is becoming one of the core content of the new revolution in military affairs of States. An information era notable feature is the combination of surface defense economy and social economy more widely, military technology and civilian technology deeper degree of integration, association technological innovation and new revolution in military affairs increasingly tight. Developed countries have the information technology as a strategic national research priorities, the United States and Japan in the field of R & D investment in information separately account for the total R & D investment of 40% or more, the United States Department of Defense 2005 budget on science and technology information systems and sensors accounted for 35.7% .

(A) information technology in all areas of civil industrial technology is the most easy to achieve also the people’s army also

Information industry is large in scale compared to other industrial sectors and technology updates quickly, there is no other information technology fields like civil industry as more people realize also the military also. The United States since 1999 years has launched the “fast bird”, “Ikonos” and other dual-use high-resolution satellite, in 2001 in Afghanistan, “Operation Enduring Freedom”, the US “fast bird” and “Yi Kenuo Sri Lanka “satellite to 20 US dollars / km ² price to US Department of Defense provides photographic reconnaissance image related operations area. IT-based civilian battlefield information network in the Iraq war also played an important role, via satellite, drones and other airborne sensors to obtain information on a computer map updated every friendly and enemy positions every five minutes. The Pentagon claims that China and the US Air Force, the war in Iraq, the extent of information the Navy reached 70% , ground forces also up 50 percent or more. US information technology has made ​​such rapid progress, China has played an important role in military technology.

(B) in the civilian market-wide test of IT applications in the military low-cost and reliable utility

Dedicated to the military use of information technology, although in training and military exercises, but without a real baptism after the test is limited. Civil information products market is large, hundreds of millions or even billions of people subjected to extensive tests using its technology, fierce competition in the market also contributed to accelerate its improvement and perfection, easy-to-use products, the cost to decline rapidly. From the military GPS and the Internet is a good example, which after a civilian market competition and popularity improvement to mature and reliable and cost-effective way reflect the greater value in military applications.

(C) Information technology can rapidly increase the combat effectiveness of military applications

Performance information weaponry is much higher than the mechanized weaponry, but the development of high risk, high investment, an increase in its cost of IT accounts for a large proportion. Many civilian high-tech product development of low cost, standard upgrade quickly, just put a small amount of money to improve its performance can meet the requirements of military systems, make full use of civilian IT achievements can significantly reduce costs. United States, Britain, Japan and other developed countries in the development of information technology weaponry and equipment system, especially when a variety of military information systems, directly from the market civilian technology sector and corporate purchasing high-tech equipment, such as communications equipment, all kinds of computers, all kinds of computer software, security anti-virus software, satellite image analysis equipment to minimize the risk of national defense research and development investment. US Department of Defense contractor is due to the direct use existing commercial software and hardware, greatly reducing development time information Weapon System.

In addition, the use of information technology to transform and upgrade weapons systems is rapidly effective measures to improve the combat effectiveness. A typical weapon system development cycle for up to 7-15 years, the high cost of its replacement. The typical development cycle civilian IT hardware and software business a few months to a few years, mobile phones and PC replacement is faster, with a civilian rapid development of information technology to transform weapons and equipment, only a few funds, Every few years the performance of existing weapons and equipment will be able to a higher level, thereby prolonging the service life. Western countries show a measure of existing mechanized weaponry information transformation, the development time and cost required, roughly equivalent production of new weaponry 1/4 to 1/3 .


(D) The information construction in the military use of civil IT and products beneficial to the national defense mobilization

Army civilian information technology products through the use of these technologies to deepen understanding, familiar with the use of these products, once wartime there is a need to quickly collect a large number of civilian products, and in the armed forces of these products can be quickly effective. US troops in 95 percent of the computer is in the civilian military communications conducted online, with commercial networks linked up to 15 million units changed hand, the Iraq war, the US military also requisitioned and rented some commercial satellites and civilian information networks, in order to bridge the information transfer capability deficiencies. IT complexity it becomes replace the faulty equipment maintenance module, civilian technology products helps to reduce the use of troops and equipment spare parts inventory. In addition, the use of civil information technology products also provide the possibility for civilian IT enterprises to participate in military equipment maintenance, thus reducing maintenance costs of troops and equipment. 2003 , the United States in the Iraq war, has with the world’s four 10,000 manufacturers signed a 50 million copies of material support contract, “the contractor battlefield” socialization of military logistical support.

(E) The development of intellectual property in the competition for civil defense information technology helps improve information security

IT field of international, market-oriented walking in front of other areas, competition is quite fierce patents, the United States, Japan and other developed countries to ten in 2005 by the end of the cumulative patent applications in China in 46.27% concentrated in the field of information. Many IT even basic technology is also likely to be used in the military field, the developed countries are often incorporated into this limit exports of the column, especially China, and therefore unable to equip our troops or through the introduction of foreign advanced weapons systems procurement. At a critical time in international politics, the military situation changes, do not rule out the possibility of the introduction of certain key parts weaponry stuck or certain functional failure exists. On the other hand, China’s civilian IT through international competition, hard work, has been the rapid development, the domestic IT companies are also corresponding increase innovation capability, some of the technology has reached the world advanced level, such as third generation mobile communication TD-SCDMA . In order to compete and reduce costs needs, many domestic enterprises have developed information technology products dedicated chip, to change the long-standing dependence on foreign chip status, while developing the capability to rapidly increase, to undertake the task of developing national defense to lay a good foundation dedicated chip . These chips use civilian high-tech and specialized in military equipment in the army would avoid the kinds of information security with its own technology.

(F) make full use of local advantages of network professionals prepared to deal with cyber warfare preparation

Information is double-edged sword, information technology to improve the combat capability of the armed forces but also requires special attention to the information network security. An essential feature of cyberwarfare is asymmetric, low cost and easy to attack and attack and hard to defend, particularity cyber warfare means will lead to future war ” civilians ” trend, “hackers” may become a war hero. To prevent ” network’9.11′ incident , ” President George W. Bush early in 2002 on the release of the first 16 numbers , ” National Security Presidential Directive , ” the history of the formation of the US military is the world’s first network hacker troops – cyber warfare capabilities constitute the Joint Command, The Army and Navy also have a computer emergency response unit, the Air Force is responsible for the implementation of the establishment of a network of Air Force attack these troops from the world’s top computer experts and ” hacker ” , and currently has formally incorporated into the order of battle in Las Vegas on the largest computer exhibition, former US Assistant Secretary of Defense Sihamoni had in his speech on the ” hacker ” who said: ” If you considered the rest of his life to doing, make sure you do not forget the Department of Defense. ” In addition, the US military also hired some hackers specialize in computer vulnerability testing. 2004 In September , the US set up by 28 international industry consortium composed of major companies specialized home – NCW Industries Alliance, to strengthen the military and civilian aspects of the field of information technology coordination.

(G) make full use of scientific and technological resources of a strong army and civil service

It was reported that the US Air Force in terms of the lack of high-tech professional officer Capt up to two-thirds of the Army Navy also facing the same problem. US Department of Defense, NASA and other very seriously the role of the United States Academy of Engineering and universities and other research institutions and companies in the defense consulting RAND research and personnel training. According to foreign military experts estimate that the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan and other major developed countries developing high-tech weapons and equipment information required for 80-90% from local businesses, 10-20% from their military research institutes that the basis of dual-use items and technology sector may bear the civil, defense, science and technology department and the military technology sector specializing in purely military projects, and overall system project. US military reconnaissance plane EP-3 electronic information system consists of a variety of functional equipment components, many of them readily available on the market and are not necessarily technologically advanced products, but its integrated performance of the system on a higher level, visible integrated innovation You can increase the value.

The total amount of scientific and technical personnel and research and development staff accounted for the world’s first and second place, to make good use of the intellectual resources will significantly enhance our military’s strength in the balance of forces. Establish civil-military integration of scientific and technological innovation system, the development of military and civilian science and technology co-ordinate the project and reasonable deployment of dual-use items, do not repeat and can complement each other to achieve the optimal combination of scientific and technological resources of the country, at the same time vigorously develop local resources by means of force personnel to ensure national defense construction in a strategic initiative. The Central Military Commission in 2007 issued a “attract and retain high-level military professional and technical personnel provisions”, the increased focus on the introduction and use of high-quality human resources community efforts to further improve the policy mechanism innovation. System established academicians, academicians hired as technical adviser, full use of the state’s top talent and intelligence resources to better serve the army major decision-making advice, major scientific research and high-level personnel training; in preparation for military struggle and closely related major research projects (project) and key disciplines, a chief expert positions, for the community to hire high-level professional and technical personnel.

[Seize the opportunities of information technology, to promote civil-military integration, integrating the armed forces]

China’s national defense scientific research and industrial system is set up on the basis of the planned economy, the planned economy of management concepts and tools still play a leading role in the management and self-contained closed hinder the establishment of a market-oriented philosophy, is not conducive to cooperation and innovation culture the formation, performance assessment indicators of military units rely on the lack of industrial development and promote the civil requirements or mission, in research programs and equipment procurement in military and civilian disjointed. Since reform and opening, the defense industry began with the development of a single military structure structure change, the nuclear industry, shipbuilding industry, information industry to the military and civilian, to benefit from the transfer of military technology to civilian use, the radiation leading role in the defense industry to the local economy and society significantly enhanced, but these transfers have not yet risen to the institutional level. On the other hand, our country has grown to a group of innovative and industrial capacity of civilian high-tech enterprises, capable military mission, but the lack of demand for military communication channels norms, policies and regulations related to the imperfection of reason, basically it less involved in national defense tasks. If there are no civilian technology sector urgent national security needs, it is impossible to obtain in the areas of national defense and security level of strong support, it is difficult to play a greater role in supporting the civilian sectors to support and not to assume the task of training defense, nor conducive to its development and growth. Compared with developed countries, China’s military and civilian from positive interaction and coordinated development goals are still many gaps, more prominent is the lag corresponding laws and regulations and institutions. Military and civilian national behavior and reflects the will of the state, not only to rely on technological innovation, but also to rely on innovation and institutional innovation to achieve.

In the CPC Central Committee and State Council in 2006 issued in ” 2006-2020 National Information Development Strategy “, pointed out the global information technology are causing profound changes in today’s world, reshaping the world political, economic, social, cultural and military a new pattern of development. Accelerate the development of information technology, it has become the common choice of all countries. And clearly put forward the development of China’s information technology strategic approach – the overall planning, resource sharing, deepen the application, seek practical, market-oriented, based on innovation, military and civilian, safe and reliable.

In the implementation of the national development strategy, we need to learn from foreign ideas, to address the constraints of institutional issues from military and civilian regulations, coordination mechanisms, standards and procurement policies and other strategic height. The current need to establish and improve the bidding system, the formation of fair and equitable competition, maximize the use of mature private standards, guidance and encouragement to master innovative technology enterprises, especially small and medium sized companies to enter the defense sector, so as to form a new multi-vendor defense industry system, led military mission to enhance the level of civilian development, adding vitality to economic development, to achieve military and civilian interaction.

In an important experience in promoting foreign military and civilian aspects of the information is from the start. Revolution in military affairs in the world today, is the rapid development of information technology and its wide range of applications in the military field for direct power, high-tech advantages of local wars in conditions of informationization to be achieved, relying solely on national defense science and technology sector and the military system itself to be ineffective, soldiers and civilians combined, integrating the armed forces is the key, information technology is one of the important starting point. In the task of industrialization, information technology integration and development of our country with the military mechanization and informatization complex development goals, information technology has become a very good combination of points overall economic construction and national defense construction. In particular, most of the reform of the State Council, gave birth to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, not only from the organic unity of the organization will be industrialization and information management, and the civilian industry and the defense industry closely, from the institutional to seize information strategic opportunity to strengthen civil-military integration provides an important guarantee. Ministry of Industry and Information Technology at the same time implementation of national information technology and new industrial development strategy, will give full consideration to the development needs of the defense industry and the development of weapons and equipment, the establishment of military and civilian national level to promote policies and coordination mechanisms to promote industrialization, information technology and defense comprehensive and coordinated development and enhance the independent innovation capability of science and technology industry, and actively explore market-oriented approach combining military and civilian, military and civilian industries planning to achieve convergence between supply and demand docking and resource sharing [4] , two-way play the leading role, promoting the national economy and national defense modernization.

Seventeenth Party Congress report pointed out that “national defense and army building, we must stand on national security and the development of strategic height, overall economic development and national defense building” . “To attain the building computerized armed forces and winning the information war strategic objectives, accelerate composite development of mechanization and information, and actively carry out military training under conditions of informationization, build a modern logistics, intensify training a large number of qualified military talent, effectively change the mode of generating combat. ““Reform of the defense industry to adjust and of weapons and equipment procurement, improve weapons and equipment developed by independent innovation capability and quality benefits. Establish and improve military and civilian, combine military weaponry and equipment research and production system to the people, military personnel training and military security system , adhere to thrift and hard work, out of a Chinese characteristics, civil-military integration path of development. “Discuss these important military and civilian strategic approach is to achieve scientific development. We must seize the opportunities of information technology, integrating the armed forces to do this great article, make our country prosperous and our armed forces powerful while building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

Original Mandarin Chinese:





世界主要國家啟動和加速推進新軍事變革和軍隊信息化建設,這是推行民技軍用戰略的重要背景。美國國防部於1995年發表《兩用技術,旨在獲取經濟可承受的前沿技術的國防戰略》,提出了對有重要軍事需求同時又具有轉移潛力的兩用技術,確實需要政府介入的,明確由政府進行投資開發。 1998年美國國防部頒布的《國防授權法》,要求軍方必須加大對兩用技術開發的投資,並規定了兩用技術項目經費的分攤原則。從20世紀90年代開始,美國還實施了多種專項計劃,支持軍民兩用技術開發。美國近年來大幅度增加國防預算,2007財年達到5064億美元,比2003年增加了1/3,國防預算中30-40%投資到國防工業,值得注意的是,美國國防部20世紀90年代末每年對信息技術的投資總額約為500億美元,2006年增至742億美元,重點支持軍民兩用信息技術的開發。美國國防部國防先進技術研究計劃局(DARPA)十分重視軍民兩用技術的開發和應用,其半數辦公室負責軍民兩用技術的發展。

為了推動軍民一體化的實施,美國於1993年成立了包括三軍和商務部、能源部、運輸部、國家航空航天局(NASA)以及國家科學基金會(NSF)等單位的“國防技術轉軌委員會” 。美國還制定了聯合研究和發展協議(CRADA),支持聯邦開發的技術轉讓給私營部門,鼓勵與工業界聯合投資和合作開發兩用技術項目。如果說機械化時代軍民技術結合占到全部軍事裝備技術的30-40%,那麼,信息化時代軍民技術融合將會占到80-90%。在美國國防部推選的國防關鍵技術與商務部列出的提高經濟競爭力的關鍵技術中就有約80%是重疊的。英國國防部與貿工部聯合投資開發包括航空領域在內的多項軍民兩用技術,英國還專門成立國防技術轉化局,管理民用科研機構從事國防項目的合同和經費,採用競爭機制,鼓勵具有較強技術力量的民用機構開發軍用技術。法國通過實施航天計劃、航空計劃、核能計劃和電子、信息與通信計劃等多項計劃來開發軍民兩用技術。日本國防採購主要著眼於利用國防合同作為一種手段,促進先進技術特別是具有民用或兩用用途的先進技術的發展。

發展軍民兩用技術在加速軍隊信息化建設的同時,服務於國民經濟,產生巨大的經濟效益,美國國會一份研究報告稱,航天技術的二次應用,每投入1美元,能產出7美元的效益[2]。 2006年初美國NASA戈達德航天飛行中心將所開發的一種簡單、安全且費用較低的單壁碳納米管製造方法的專利許可權授予ISM公司,形成了單壁碳納米管生產能力,這些納米管可廣泛應用於醫療、燃料電池、視頻顯示器、太陽能電池等各個領域,推動了美國經濟的發展[3]。


民用高新技術企業創新體系機制靈活,反應快,成果多。扶持民用企業為軍方開發產品,已成為美軍方的指導方針。 2003年出台的《國防工業轉型路線圖》強調,必須改變主承包商控制國防市場的局面,通過招標和政府採購形式鼓勵民用企業參與裝備科研生產,引導和鼓勵掌握創新技術的民用企業進入國防領域,從而形成大小兼備、眾多供應商的新型國防市場格局。例如,美國的通信設備生產商摩托羅拉公司就有獨立的軍事通信設備生產製造部門,美國波音公司既生產民航用機也生產軍用機,洛克希德-馬丁公司的主營業務就是系統集成、航空、航天和技術服務,都是軍民兩用的技術。為了扶持中小企業,美國還專門製定了小企業創新計劃。目前美國的科學家、工程師中有近半從事與軍事有關的研究,約有1/3的企業與軍工生產有關,而訂貨量約佔國防部總訂貨量的90%。英國改革軍用科研設施管理辦法,鼓勵民用部門利用軍用科研設施進行技術開發。法國成立了由國防部武器裝備總署、軍種參謀部、工業界組成的一體化項目小組,參與武器裝備採辦計劃的製定和項目的管理。法國國防部武器裝備總署及時向中小企業通報軍品發展計劃,專門留出採辦計劃的10%給中小企業,鼓勵他們參加武器裝備採辦的競爭。德國的武器裝備年度計劃是由總裝備部各業務局、各軍種局、國防技術採辦總署和工業界一起合作制訂的。德國製訂了《聯邦德國訂貨任務分配原則》,明確規定武器裝備的總承包商在承包國防任務後,必須用競爭手段向分包方分配軍工訂貨任務,以法規形式保護中小型企業參與國防科研任務的競爭。日本政府注意扶植有軍工生產能力的民間企業,日本有資格接受軍品訂貨的企業已達兩千餘家,基本形成了一個技術先進、門類齊全、潛力巨大的軍事科研生產體系。俄羅斯從兩方面建立軍民一體化國防科技工業體制,在實行國防工業集團化、組建大型軍工集團公司的同時,將部分軍工企業股份化、私有化,讓軍工企業在保留核心軍工生產能力的同時生產民品。



為了推動軍民一體化的發展,許多國家都紛紛對軍用標准進行了改革,在裝備採辦過程中大力倡導利用民用標準和商業規範。美軍不斷推行軍事標準改革,在對過去所有軍用標準和規范進行全面清理審查的基礎上,廢止了4000餘項軍用規範(含單篇規範)和300餘項軍用標準,採納了1784項民用標準(非政府標準),在裝備採辦過程中,限制使用軍事規範和標準,只有在確實沒有民用標準可用,或現有民用標準不能滿足軍事要求時才考慮使用軍用標準,而且使用軍用標準必須經過批准。英國在裝備採辦管理中,不以軍用標準和軍用規範而以性能規範為主提出採購要求,給予承包商足夠的自由度和靈活性。日本1999-2002年間,共修改或廢止軍事技術標準及技術規範10231項,佔所有軍事技術標準的74%。 2003年,防衛廳在其製定的新武器裝備採辦政策中又提出,用民用技術標準取代約18000項防衛廳專用的軍品標準和規範。












軍隊通過使用民用信息技術產品加深了對這些技術了解,熟識這些產品的使用,戰時一旦有需要可以迅速徵集大量民用產品,而且在部隊中這些產品能迅速發揮效用。美軍中95%的軍事通信是在民用網上進行的,與商業網相聯的計算機達15萬台之多,伊拉克戰爭中美軍還徵用和租用了部分商業衛星和民用信息網絡,以彌補信息傳輸能力的不足。信息技術的複雜性使其裝備的維修變為故障模塊的更換,民用技術產品的採用有利於減少部隊裝備備件的庫存。另外,民用信息技術產品的使用也為民用信息技術企業參與部隊裝備維修提供了可能,從而也降低了部隊裝備的維修費用。 2003年,美國在伊拉克戰爭中,先後同全球4萬個生產商簽訂了50萬份物資保障合同,“承包商上戰場”實現軍隊後勤保障的社會化。




信息化是雙刃劍,軍隊的信息化建設在提高作戰能力的同時也需要特別關注對信息網絡的安全防護。網絡戰的一個基本特點是不對稱性,攻擊成本低且易攻難守,網絡戰手段的特殊性將導致未來戰爭的“平民化”趨勢,“黑客”有可能成為戰爭的主角。為了防止出現“網絡’9·11’事件”,布什總統早在2002年就發布了第16號“國家安全總統令”,組建美軍歷史上也是世界上第一支網絡黑客部隊——網絡戰聯合功能構成司令部,陸軍和海軍也各有電腦應急反應分隊,空軍則建立了專門負責實施網絡進攻的航空隊。這些部隊由世界頂級電腦專家和“黑客”組成,目前已經正式編入了作戰序列。在美國拉斯維加斯最大的計算機展覽上,美國前助理國防部長莫尼曾在演講中對“黑客”們說:“如果你們考慮過餘生要幹些什麼,請務必不要忘記國防部。”此外,美軍還僱用一些黑客專門從事計算機漏洞測試工作。 2004年9月,美國成立了由28家專業化大公司組成的國際工業財團——網絡中心戰工業聯盟,加強信息技術領域方面的軍民協調。









黨的十七大報告指出,“國防和軍隊建設,必須站在國家安全和發展戰略全局的高度,統籌經濟建設和國防建設”。 “堅持科技強軍,按照建設信息化軍隊、打贏信息化戰爭的戰略目標,加快機械化和信息化複合發展,積極開展信息化條件下軍事訓練,全面建設現代後勤,加緊培養大批高素質新型軍事人才,切實轉變戰鬥力生成模式”。 “調整改革國防科技工業體制和武器裝備採購體制,提高武器裝備研製的自主創新能力和質量效益。建立和完善軍民結合、寓軍於民的武器裝備科研生產體系、軍隊人才培養體系和軍隊保障體系,堅持勤儉建軍,走出一條中國特色軍民融合式發展路子”。上述重要論述是實現軍民結合科學發展的戰略方針。我們要抓住信息化的機遇,做好寓軍於民這篇大文章,在全面建設小康社會進程中實現富國和強軍的統一。

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