Category Archives: 解放軍展望未來戰爭發展

Chinese Military Values Attack & Defense as the Important Focus of Combat in Cognitive Domain Operations



Value attack and defense is an important way to conduct cognitive domain operations from a strategic level. Usually, value attack and defense is achieved by intervening in people’s thinking, beliefs, values, etc., in order to achieve the purpose of disintegrating the enemy’s consensus, destroying the enemy’s will, and then gaining comprehensive control over the battlefield. Accurately grasping the characteristics, mechanisms, and means of value attack and defense is crucial to gaining future cognitive domain combat advantages.

Characteristics of the cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense refers to the intervention and influence on relatively stable cognitive results by inducing deep logical thinking and value judgment changes of individuals or groups, in order to reconstruct people’s cognitive abilities such as will, thinking, psychology, and emotions. Value attack and defense mainly has the following characteristics:

Soft confrontation. Traditional warfare mainly relies on violent means to weaken and disintegrate the enemy’s military capabilities, and usually has a high intensity of war. Cognitive domain warfare will no longer be limited to hard confrontations such as siege and conquest, but will focus more on infiltration and counter-infiltration, attack and counter-attack, control and counter-control around value positions. By competing for the dominance of cognitive domain confrontation, the combat effectiveness of the physical domain and information domain will be further stimulated, thereby seizing the initiative on the battlefield and even achieving the effect of defeating the enemy without fighting. In practice, value offense and defense often focus on the cultural traditions, values ​​and social psychology of a country or nation, and ultimately achieve the purpose of destroying the enemy’s will, cognitive manipulation, and mental control.

Full-dimensional release. Modern warfare is increasingly characterized by being holistic, multi-domain, and all-time. Cognitive domain warfare aims to influence battlefield effects by intervening in human consciousness, and the relative stability of consciousness determines that people’s worldviews, beliefs, and other values ​​are generally relatively stable. Therefore, value offense and defense need to be carried out in a long-term, uninterrupted, holographic, and full-dimensional manner. From a temporal perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between peace and war, and is always at war, constantly accumulating and gradually releasing combat effectiveness; from a spatial perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between the front and rear of combat, and is carried out in all directions in tangible and intangible spaces; from a field perspective, value offense and defense blurs the boundaries between military and non-military, and occurs not only in the military field, but also in the political, economic, diplomatic, and cultural fields, showing the characteristics of full-domain coverage.

Empowered by science and technology. Cognitive domain warfare is a technology-intensive and complex system engineering. The full-process penetration of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, brain science, and quantum computing is triggering iterative upgrades and profound changes in cognitive domain warfare. Intelligent tools fundamentally enhance the ability of cognitive domain combatants to manipulate and interfere with the opponent’s thinking. Human-machine hybrid as a new means and new style of combat power will change the main body of future wars. Autonomous confrontation and cloud brain victory may become the mainstream attack and defense mode. In recent years, NATO has launched cognitive electronic warfare equipment aimed at changing the opponent’s value cognition and behavior through information attack and defense. Technological development has also triggered a cognitive revolution. The rapid spread of information has further accelerated the differences in public value cognition. Cognitive islands have exacerbated the value gap between different subjects. The social structure changes brought about by intelligence are profoundly changing the political and cultural pattern. From this point of view, in future cognitive domain warfare, it is crucial to grasp the “bull’s nose” of scientific and technological innovation and master key core technologies to seize the initiative on the battlefield.

The mechanism of cognitive domain of value attack and defense

Value attack and defense is a high-level confrontation in cognitive domain operations, and the target of action is people’s deep cognition. Consciousness is the reflection of social existence in the brain. The regulation of social existence, the guidance of public consciousness and the change of human brain function can strengthen or reverse human consciousness. If you want to win the opponent in the attack and defense confrontation, you must follow the laws of thinking and cognition and grasp the winning mechanism of value attack and defense.

Impacting the value “protection zone”. Occupying the commanding heights of values ​​is the logical starting point for conducting value offense and defense. Social consciousness is often composed of relatively stable core values ​​and peripheral auxiliary theories. Various theories such as economy, politics, religion, and culture can be constructed and adapted to protect core values ​​from external shocks, and therefore also bear the impact and challenge of other values. In the eyes of foreign militaries, value offense and defense is to continuously impact the “protection zone” of the opponent’s ideology through cultural infiltration, religious conflict, strategic communication and other means, in conjunction with actions in the physical and information domains. This often requires seizing the values, political attitudes, religious beliefs, etc. that affect the opponent’s cognition, disrupting their social group psychology, inducing value confusion, shaking their will to fight, destroying cultural identity, and even changing and disintegrating their original cognitive system, so as to instill or implant new values ​​that are beneficial to themselves in order to achieve combat objectives.

Ignite the “trigger point” of conflict. Cognitive domain warfare involves multiple categories such as history and culture, political system, national sentiment, and religious beliefs. The main body of the war has also expanded from simple military personnel to ordinary people. It will become an important means of cognitive domain warfare to stimulate cognitive conflicts among ordinary people by hyping up topic disputes and public events. In recent local conflicts, it is not uncommon for the warring parties to ignite national sentiments through purposeful narratives, trigger political crises and thus affect the war situation. In future wars, some countries will use hot and sensitive events to detonate public opinion, rely on network technology to gather, absorb, mobilize, accurately manipulate and induce ordinary people, thereby promoting general conflicts to rise to disputes of beliefs, disputes of systems, and disputes of values. It will become the norm.

Control the cognitive “fracture surface”. Cognitive space, as an existence at the conceptual level, is composed of the superposition of the subjective cognitive spaces of all combat individuals. It is a collection of differentiated, differentiated, and even conflicting values. However, ideology has a “suturing” function. Through cognitive shaping and discourse construction, it can effectively “suturing” the broken cognition, condense the scattered values, and form a relatively stable cognitive system. After World War II, France had carried out effective cognitive “suturing” on the trauma of defeat. It used a whole set of independent narrative logic to explain how the war provided France with “new opportunities”, which greatly condensed the political identity of the French people with the government. In the battle for value positions in cognitive domain operations, we should focus on the cognitive fracture surface within the enemy, find the cognitive connection points between the enemy and us, and “suturing” the cognition, so as to unite the forces of all parties to the greatest extent and isolate and disintegrate the enemy.

The main means of cognitive domain in value attack and defense

Value attack and defense expands cognitive confrontation from public opinion, psychology and other levels to thinking space, and from the military field to the overall domain, thus achieving a blow to the enemy’s deep political identity. At present, the world’s military powers are strengthening strategic pre-positioning, aiming at the profound changes in target subjects and tactics, changing combat thinking, and actively controlling the initiative of cognitive domain operations.

Aiming at deep destruction. Cognitive domain warfare directly affects people’s brain cognition, and is easier to achieve deep strategic intentions than physical domain warfare. In particular, once the “high-level cognition” of people’s language level, thinking level, and cultural level is broken through, it will help to strategically reverse the battlefield situation and achieve the political purpose of the war. Based on this, cognitive domain warfare often begins before the war, by intervening in the opponent’s internal and foreign affairs, shaking its ideological and value foundations, etc.; during war, it focuses on influencing the enemy’s war decision-making, campaign command, and combat implementation. The value judgment, attack or weaken the decision-making ability and resistance will of combatants, etc. All hostile parties try to “maintain their own world while increasing the destructive pressure of the opponent” in order to achieve decision-making advantages by competing for cognitive advantages, and then achieve the goal of action advantages.

Centered on ordinary individuals. In the future, the subjects of cognitive domain operations will no longer be limited to military personnel. Broadly speaking, individuals who can communicate and disseminate information may become participating forces. Compared with elites in the social field, ordinary people are more likely to accept and disseminate diverse values, and their cognitive space is more likely to be manipulated. At present, online media is becoming the main channel for information exchange and dissemination in the social field, and the purpose of cognitive shaping can be achieved through targeted information guidance and information delivery. Foreign military practices have proved that with the help of cognitive shaping of ordinary individuals, progressive infiltration and cognitive interference can be caused from bottom to top, causing a deviation in the consciousness and ideas between ordinary people and social decision-makers, and failing to reach an effective consensus in key actions.

In the form of protracted warfare. Unlike the direct attack and destruction of “hard” targets in the physical domain military struggle, the potential target of cognitive domain warfare is human cognition. The value attack and defense is aimed at changing the concepts, beliefs, will, emotions, etc. of the combat targets, which often requires subtle influence and step-by-step operations. Effective cognitive offense is generally launched in the combat preparation stage and runs through the entire war. By collecting the opponent’s cognitive situation, decision-making habits, thinking patterns, etc., targeted actions such as creating a situation and changing the atmosphere are carried out. Therefore, cognitive domain warfare needs to strengthen the overall design, especially focusing on coordinating multiple forces, and strengthening pre-positioned preparations in multiple positions such as public opinion field creation and diplomacy, so as to form an overall combat force.



















People’s Liberation Army Perspective Development of Future Wars


2024-02-29 06:48:18


You cannot understand war without understanding the times. As society enters the era of intelligence, the form of war has also undergone profound evolution. In the same way that humans produce, they fight in the same way. In the era of intelligence, intelligent production methods will inevitably shape intelligent warfare. With the development of science and technology, the presentation of war, decision-making methods, organizational styles and support models will undergo subversive changes.

Changes in the presentation of war. The form of war is the historical coordinate of the development process of war. It determines the era of human war activities in each period. Since the 1960s and 1970s, with the new military revolution unfolding magnificently around the world, the form of war has also begun a continuously accelerating process of transformation from mechanized warfare to information-based warfare, and finally to the advanced stage of information-based warfare – —The transformation of intelligent warfare. Future wars will enter an era supported by intelligent technology. The fields of confrontation will involve politics, economy, diplomacy, society and many other fields. The combat space will expand from traditional physical space to virtual cognitive space. Combat force formation will evolve from human-machine hybrid formation to wireless. Human combat clusters are changing. Combat operations will develop from human-machine collaboration and human-centered operations to unmanned autonomous operations. On the surface, it may seem calm, but the confrontation in the invisible space is turbulent. The strategic game of hybrid warfare will become increasingly clear, and the war will fully enter the stage of “wisdom and victory”. “era.

Changes in the way war is made. All along, war decision-making methods have been comprehensively restricted by various factors such as battlefield reconnaissance, command, communications, and support. With the development and progress of technologies such as intelligent unmanned aerial vehicles and network information, war decision-making methods will undergo an intelligent transformation, showing the characteristics of data support, algorithm leadership, human-machine collusion, and distributed autonomy. Before initiating actions in the physical battlefield space, all parties in wars and confrontations calculate first and then fight. They use cloud brain fusion to process massive intelligence data obtained from multiple sources, and use digital twins, virtual reality and holographic projection imaging technologies to launch intelligent confrontations in the network virtual space. Deduction, complete comparative analysis of the comprehensive strength of the enemy and ourselves, and use the deduction results to serve war decisions. When making decisions in war, the “human-in-the-loop” brain-computer cooperation decision-making method is adopted, using the perceptual divergent thinking of the human brain and the powerful computing and statistical capabilities of computers to quickly judge the situation, plan tasks, issue instructions, and autonomously control, to realize the art of decision-making and The perfect combination of decision science.

Changes in the organization of war. In recent years, whether it is concepts such as “autonomous warfare”, “shadow warfare” and “sixth generation warfare”, or the US military’s “Joint Concept”, or the Russian army’s “Armed Forces Construction Plan”, they are all future plans based on the development trend of science and technology. Combat style, war shape and force building concepts. Mechanized warfare is a platform-centered entity destruction strike, information warfare is a network-centered system confrontation operation, and intelligent warfare is a comprehensive strength contest centered on cognitive decision-making. The main support for the combat system is the insurgency. Disruptive technologies such as human control, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, quantum communications, and blockchain emphasize distributed real-time killing centered on cognitive decision-making. In the near future, the continued development of intelligent technologies such as deep neural networks, brain-computer interaction, automated processing, 3D printing, and the Internet of Things will inevitably continue to improve the scientific and technological content of the military field, making the war organization style more manned and unmanned. It has the characteristics of “integration, unmanned autonomy at the front, and human control at the rear”.

Changes in the war support model. Outstanding military strategists at home and abroad in ancient and modern times have all attached great importance to support work in war. As the saying goes, “before the troops and horses are moved, food and grass go first.” For example, in the ancient Battle of Guandu, Cao’s army attacked Wuchao at night, destroying the grain and grass of Yuan Shao’s army, and the entire army was defeated. In modern warfare, due to insufficient logistical supplies, there are numerous examples of aggressive troops on the battlefield having to stop and wait for supplies of military supplies, thus missing fighter planes. Therefore, war support determines the outcome of a war to a certain extent, and its status and role have always been very important. It is not only an important part of military management, but also a key support for winning the war. In the past, war support had too many unified support activities, a single source of support resources, and simple and extensive implementation. However, with the changes in the form of intelligent warfare, the war support model will also undergo subversive changes. Future war support will rely on Internet of Things technology and intelligent information systems to carry out physical distributed storage, virtual centralized management, and military-civilian collaborative supply of support resources, and implement full-area real-time monitoring, intelligent prediction matching, and advance planning and arrangements for the implementation of support organizations. Achieve joint logistics supply, full-area configuration, intelligent deployment, and accurate forwarding of war support resources to ensure that the implementation of war support is accurate, efficient, stable and reliable, and battlefield support capabilities continue to extend to the end.

Changes in the balance of war lines. War is the kingdom of uncertainty. People have known for a long time that it is difficult to achieve victory by relying solely on “straight-line thinking” and “grand formation”. Liddell Hart, a British strategic theorist, analyzed successful strategic cases in the world and found a pattern: 90% used “indirect routes.” However, the “indirect route” has long appeared as a supplementary role to the direct route. However, compared with the past, the modern warfare combat system is huge, with many nodes, and there are many “vital gates” that are vulnerable to attack, which provides a wider range of opportunities for choosing “indirect routes” and implementing “asymmetric” checks and balances. Judging from the several local wars that have occurred in the world in recent years, even the powerful US military attaches great importance to “circumstances” when facing weak opponents. “Those who are good at surprising things are as endless as heaven and earth, and as endless as rivers.” Whether it is now or in the future, the war strategy game between countries, especially the world’s military powers with strong strategic damage capabilities, can neither achieve their own operations according to conventional thinking. In order to achieve the goal, we cannot simply have the idea of ​​​​playing a “dignified formation”. If we want to win future wars, we must follow and develop the winning mechanism of future wars, insist on making good use of the “indirect route”, and do asymmetrical checks and balances, so as to always grasp the initiative in wars.


不理解時代就不能理解戰爭。 社會進入智能化時代,戰爭形態也隨之發生深刻演變。 人類以什麼方式生產,就以什麼方式打仗。 智能化時代有智慧化的生產方式,也必然會塑造出智慧化的戰爭形態。 隨著科技的發展,戰爭的呈現形式、決策方式、組織樣式和保障模式等都將發生顛覆性的改變。

戰爭呈現形式的改變。 戰爭形態是戰爭發展進程的歷史坐標,它確定了每個時期人類戰爭活動所處的時代方位。 自20世紀六、七十年代以來,伴隨著新軍事變革在全球範圍內波瀾壯闊地展開,戰爭形態也開啟了由機械化戰爭向信息化戰爭轉型的持續加速進程,並最終向信息化戰爭的高級階段— —智能化戰爭轉變。 未來戰爭將進入智慧技術支撐的時代,對抗領域將涉及政治、經濟、外交、社會等諸多領域,作戰空間將由傳統的物理空間向虛擬認知空間拓展延伸,作戰力量編組將由人機混合編組向無人作戰 集群轉變,作戰行動將由人機協同、以人為主行動向無人自主作戰發展,表面看似風平浪靜,無形空間的對抗卻是風起雲湧,混合戰爭戰略博弈日漸清晰,戰爭將全面進入“智勝”時代。

戰爭決策方式的改變。 一直以來,戰爭決策方式受戰場偵察、指揮、通信、保障等各項因素的綜合製約。 隨著智慧無人、網路資訊等技術的發展進步,戰爭決策方式將發生智慧化轉變,呈現出資料支撐、演算法主導、人機合謀、分佈自主的特點。 戰爭對抗各方在有形戰場空間發起行動之前,先算而後戰,通過雲大腦融合處理多源獲取的海量情報數據,借助數字孿生、虛擬現實和全息投影成像技術,在網絡虛擬空間先行展開智能對抗 推演,完成敵我綜合實力對比分析,以推演結果服務戰爭決策。 戰中決策時,採用「人在迴路」的腦機配合決策方式,以人腦的感性發散思維和電腦強大的計算統計能力,快速判斷情況、規劃任務、下達指令、自主調控,實現決策藝術和 決策科學的完美結合。

新华社照片,朱日和(内蒙古),2017年7月30日 庆祝中国人民解放军建军90周年阅兵举行 7月30日,庆祝中国人民解放军建军90周年阅兵在位于内蒙古的朱日和训练基地举行。中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平检阅部队并发表重要讲话。这是受阅部队。 新华社记者 殷刚 摄

戰爭組織樣式的改變。 近年來,無論是「自主戰爭」「影子戰爭」「第六代戰爭」等概念,或是美軍的《聯合構想》,抑或俄軍的《武裝力量建設計劃》,都是基於科技發展態勢提出的未來 作戰樣式、戰爭形態及力量建設構想。 機械化戰爭是以平台為中心的實體毀滅打擊,資訊化戰爭則是以網絡為中心的體系對抗作戰,而智能化戰爭則是以認知決策為中心的綜合實力較量,支撐作戰體系的主要是無人控制 、人工智慧、大數據、雲端計算、量子通訊、區塊鍊等顛覆性技術,強調的是以認知決策為中心的分散式即時殺傷。 在不久的將來,深度神經網絡、腦機互動、自動化處理、3D列印、物聯網等智慧化技術的持續發展也必然會不斷提高軍事領域的科學技術含量,使戰爭組織樣式呈現出「有人無人結合 、前方無人自主、後方有人調控」的特點。

戰爭保障模式的改變。 古今中外,傑出的軍事家無不重視戰爭中的保障工作,正所謂「兵馬未動,糧草先行」。 例如,古代官渡之戰中,曹軍夜襲烏巢使袁紹軍中糧草被毀,全軍敗北。 在現代戰爭中,由於後勤補給不到位,導致戰場上攻勢凌厲的部隊不得不停下來等待軍需物資補給,從而錯失戰機的戰例,不一而足。 因此,戰爭保障從某個意義上決定了戰爭勝負,其地位作用一直以來都十分重要,它不僅是軍隊管理的重要內容,更是贏得戰爭的關鍵支撐。 過去的戰爭保障,保障活動統得過多,保障資源來源單一,保障實施簡單粗放,但隨著智慧化戰爭形態的變化,戰爭保障模式也會發生顛覆性的變化。 未來戰爭保障將依靠物聯網技術和智慧資訊系統,對保障資源進行實體分散式存放、虛擬集中式管理、軍地協作式供應,對保障組織實施進行全局即時監控、智慧預測匹配、超前計劃安排, 實現戰爭保障資源聯勤供應、全域配置、智慧調配、精確前送,確保戰爭保障實施精確有效率、穩定可靠,戰場保障能力不斷向末端延伸。

戰爭制衡路線的改變。 戰爭是不確定性的王國。 長久以來,人們就知道,要想取得勝利,僅憑「直線思維」「堂堂之陣」很難實現。 英國戰略理論家利德爾·哈特分析世界上成功的戰略案例,發現一個規律:90%用的都是「間接路線」。 但是,「間接路線」長期以來都是作為直接路線的補充角色出現。 然而,相較於以往,現代戰爭作戰體系龐大、節點眾多,存在許多易受攻擊的“命門”,為選擇“間接路線”、實施“非對稱”制衡提供了更加廣泛的契機。 從近幾年世界發生的幾場局部戰爭來看,即使是強大的美軍,面對弱小對手也極為重視「迂直之計」。 「善出奇者,無窮如天地,不竭如江河。」不管是現在還是將來,國家間特別是擁有強大戰略毀傷能力的世界軍事強國之間的戰爭戰略博弈,既不能按常規思維實現自己的作戰 目的,又不能簡單抱持著打「堂堂之陣」的想法。 要贏得未來戰爭,必須遵循和發展未來戰爭制勝機理,堅持用好“間接路線”,做好非對稱制衡,從而始終掌握戰爭主動權。

來源:中國軍網-解放軍報 作者:李玉焱 劉河山 責任編輯:尚曉敏