Cognitive Warfare The Future Battlefield To Dominate China’s Adversaries
隨著全球資訊化的發展和電腦科學、語言學和神經科學的進步，由人類情感、意志、信念、價值觀等精神心理活動組成的人類認知空間正在演變為軍事競爭的新戰場。 以達到不戰而勝人的效果。 早在2001年7月，美國國防部向國會提交的「網路中心戰」論證報告就指出，除了陸、海、空、天、電力五維戰爭空間外，未來戰爭還將還有第六維度戰爭空間。 ——認知空間。
自人類戰爭誕生以來，不戰而屈人之兵的策略就受到古今中外軍事家的推崇。 無論是“空城計”還是“四面楚歌”，都是中國歷史上認知域戰的經典例子。 孫子說：“不戰而屈敵者，是好人。” 美國內戰期間，北方軍隊被南方軍隊包圍。 關鍵時刻，北軍司令要求談判。 南軍司令沒有說話。 他剛帶領北軍司令來到自己的砲兵陣地，清點了大砲的數量。 當人數達150人時，北軍統帥投降。
隨著科學技術的進步和人類社會的發展，在資訊化和全球化的相互作用下，新興媒體、民族語言、文化產品等承載的各種資訊被用作滲透、影響、塑造敵意的武器。 認知領域的戰鬥，面向國家領導層、軍隊、精英、民眾的認知、情感、意識，最終達到控制一個國家的意識形態、價值觀、民族精神、文化傳統的目的以及歷史信仰，變得越來越強烈。 尤其是腦科學技術、資訊科技、生物技術、材料科技等多學科技術的快速發展，為影響對手認知、實現「不戰而屈人之兵」提供了更直接的手段。
目前，腦科學發展迅速。 腦部影像技術利用電腦科技、語言學和神經科學等，揭示人腦高級認知功能和神經資訊處理方法，從而獲得感覺、知覺、注意力、思考、記憶等心理活動規律。人類個體的潛意識。 它已經成為可能，這為人類在認知空間的競爭奠定了堅實的技術基礎。
讀腦技術可以讀取人類的思想和意識。 人腦由數千億個神經元組成。 當神經元相互作用時，會發生化學反應，釋放出可測量的電脈衝。 借助先進的腦部影像技術，人們可以讀取這些電脈衝，對大腦活動進行定量分析，最終達到分析讀取人腦思維活動的目的。 根據介紹，澳洲科學家發明的智慧頭帶可以監測人腦中數百億個神經元的當前傳輸狀態，進而了解被監測人的即時心理狀態，包括注意力、投入度、興奮度和壓力等。水平。 等待。
腦刺激技術可以增強人腦的特定功能。 自從人類誕生以來，我們主要依靠自然進化來提高我們的能力。 然而，隨著腦科學技術的發展和進步，腦刺激技術可以為人類提高能力提供更直接、更快速的方法。 科學研究發現，人類的認知能力與大腦的特定區域密切相關，對這些區域的特定刺激有助於改善或增強大腦功能。 例如，實施非侵入性大腦刺激技術可以顯著改善人們的睡眠，並增強注意力、記憶力、警覺性和決策能力。
腦控技術可以控制人的思考意識。 腦科學研究表明，人腦產生動作意識後、執行動作前，神經系統的電脈衝活動會發生相應變化，可以透過外部幹擾來控制人的思想。 英國皇家學會2012年發布的《神經科學：衝突與安全》報告認為，認知神經科學（包括腦科學）
具有武器化潛力，可以研發直接作用於神經系統（主要是大腦）的新武器。 而且，意念控製作戰的想法一直是五角大廈的焦點。 早在2004年，美國國防部就開始在杜克大學神經工程中心等6個實驗室大力投入「思想控制機器人」的研究。 《華盛頓郵報軍事週刊》披露，美軍在伊拉克戰爭期間使用了腦控武器。
「攻心為先，攻城為次；戰心為先，兵戰次之」。 目前，資訊化武器裝備越來越貴，價格倍增； 戰場空間多維，戰鬥消耗暴漲； 武器的殺傷力急遽增加。 政治影響力日益增強，發動戰爭不再是實現政治、軍事、經濟等目的的首選。 隨著認知空間作戰方法手段的不斷增加和作戰成本效率的提高，認知對抗在國家安全戰略賽局中的地位日益凸顯，成為軍事競爭的新戰場。 無論是中東、西亞、北非等地區的“顏色革命”，還是敘利亞戰爭，雙方在認知空間上的對抗都在加劇。
戰鬥力很高。 從反武器角度來看，認知空間作戰武器主要是訊息，傳播手段多元。 特別是隨著網路、社群媒體等新媒體的快速發展以及人類社會的網路化，其傳播範圍越來越廣，影響力越來越大。 越來越大。 任何訊息能夠傳播的地方都可能成為認知戰爭的戰場。 與目前的物理域作戰相比，先進戰機、飛彈等武器裝備的單價很容易達到數千萬甚至上億美元。 戰爭的代價是巨大的。 然而，認知空間作戰可以在不開一槍的情況下進行。 敵人失去戰鬥意志。 在海灣戰爭中，以美國為首的聯軍花費了600億美元，最後不得不向日本等盟國索取戰爭資金； 阿富汗戰爭中，美國花了超過3兆美元，卻未能擊敗塔利班，最後被迫撤軍。 伊拉克戰爭初期，美軍進行認知作戰，導致伊拉克國民警衛隊一槍不發突然「消失」。 美英聯軍不到一個月就佔領了巴格達。 隨著生物學、醫學、環境、資訊通信等科學技術在認知領域的廣泛應用，控制人的意志、思維、心理、情緒等認知系統的方式變得更加多樣化和靈活，認知操作的實施變得更加容易。 實施方便，可在戰略、戰役、戰術層面單獨或共同實施，實現較高的作戰性價比。
各方面全面落實。 由於認知資訊不受作戰維度、空間、時間的限制，可以在各種作戰維度、空間、時間中運用，使得認知空間作戰成為全維度、全領域、全領域的基本作戰態勢。時間。 從空間上看，認知空間作戰模糊了前後作戰的界限，呈現出全方位、全天候拓展有形與無形空間的特徵； 從時間上看，認知太空作戰模糊了戰時與平時的界限，轉變為平時用於戰時、戰後持續使用，貫穿於戰爭的整個過程，呈現出「戰時戰時」的特徵。一直”; 從領域來看，認知空間作戰模糊了軍事與非軍事行動的界限，不僅廣泛應用於軍事領域，也滲透到政治、經濟、外交、宗教等各個領域，呈現出全覆蓋的特徵； 從作戰對象來看，認知太空作戰模糊了軍事人員和平民之間的界限，具有全面實施軍事和民用影響的特徵。
殺傷力是巨大的。 認知優勢既是軟實力，也是硬實力。 這是軟實力和硬實力最好結合的智慧實力。 認知優勢通常包括知覺優勢
With the development of global informatization and the advancement of computer science, linguistics and neuroscience, the human cognitive space composed of spiritual and psychological activities such as human emotions, will, beliefs and values is evolving into a new battlefield for military competition. In order to achieve the effect of defeating others without fighting. As early as July 2001, the “Network Centric Warfare” demonstration report submitted to Congress by the U.S. Department of Defense pointed out that in addition to the five-dimensional war space of land, sea, air, space, and electricity, future wars will also have a sixth-dimensional war space. ——Cognitive space.
Cognitive domain battles intensify
Since the birth of human warfare, the strategy of subduing the enemy without fighting has been highly praised by military strategists at home and abroad in ancient and modern times. Whether it is the “empty city strategy” or “embarrassment on all sides”, they are classic examples of cognitive domain warfare in Chinese history. Sun Tzu said: “He who subdues the enemy’s army without fighting is a good man.” During the American Civil War, a northern army was surrounded by a southern army. At the critical moment, the northern army commander asked for negotiations. The southern army commander said nothing. He just led the northern army commander to his artillery position and counted the number of cannons. When the number reached 150, the northern army commander Surrender.
With the advancement of science and technology and the development of human society, under the interaction of informatization and globalization, various information carried by emerging media, national languages, cultural products, etc. are used as weapons to penetrate, influence and shape hostility. The battle in the cognitive domain, which is oriented toward the cognition, emotion, and consciousness of the national leadership, military, elites, and the general public, and ultimately achieves the purpose of controlling a country’s ideology, values, national spirit, cultural traditions, and historical beliefs, is becoming more and more intense. In particular, the rapid development of multidisciplinary technologies such as brain science and technology, information technology, biotechnology, and materials technology has provided more direct means to influence the opponent’s cognition and achieve “conquering the enemy without fighting.”
Currently, brain science is developing rapidly. Using computer technology, linguistics and neuroscience, etc., brain imaging technology can reveal the advanced cognitive functions and neural information processing methods of the human brain, thereby obtaining the rules of psychological activities such as the feeling, perception, attention, thinking, memory and subconsciousness of human individuals. It has become possible, which has laid a solid technical foundation for human beings to compete in the cognitive space.
Brain reading technology can read human thoughts and consciousness. The human brain is made up of hundreds of billions of neurons. When neurons interact, a chemical reaction occurs that releases a measurable electrical impulse. With the help of advanced brain imaging technology, people can read these electrical pulses, conduct quantitative analysis of brain activity, and ultimately achieve the purpose of analyzing and reading the thinking activities of the human brain. According to reports, the smart headband invented by Australian scientists can monitor the current transmission status of tens of billions of neurons in the human brain, and then understand the real-time psychological state of the monitored person, including attention, engagement, excitement and stress levels. wait.
Brain stimulation technology can enhance specific functions of the human brain. Since the birth of human beings, we have mainly relied on natural evolution to improve our capabilities. However, with the development and progress of brain science and technology, brain stimulation technology can provide a more direct and rapid method for humans to improve their abilities. Scientific research has found that human cognitive ability is closely related to specific areas of the brain, and specific stimulation of these areas can help improve or enhance brain function. For example, the implementation of non-invasive brain stimulation technology can significantly improve people’s sleep and enhance attention, memory, alertness and decision-making.
Brain control technology can control people’s thinking consciousness. Brain science research shows that after the human brain generates action awareness and before executing the action, the electrical pulse activity of the nervous system will change accordingly, and people’s thoughts can be controlled through external interference. The “Neuroscience: Conflict and Security” report released by the Royal Society in 2012 believed that cognitive neuroscience (including brain science) has the potential for weaponization and can develop new weapons that directly act on the nervous system (mainly the brain). Moreover, the idea of mind-controlled combat has always been a focus of the Pentagon. As early as 2004, the U.S. Department of Defense began to invest heavily in research on “thought-controlled robots” in six laboratories including the Neural Engineering Center at Duke University. The Washington Post Military Weekly disclosed that the U.S. military used brain-control weapons during the Iraq War.
Cognitive domain has huge operational advantages
“Attack on the heart is first, siege the city second; war on the heart is first, followed by military warfare.” At present, information-based weapons and equipment are becoming more and more expensive, and the price has doubled; the battlefield space is multi-dimensional, and combat consumption has skyrocketed; the lethality of weapons has increased dramatically. The political influence is increasing day by day, and waging war is no longer the first choice to achieve political, military, economic and other purposes. With the increasing number of methods and means of cognitive space operations and the high cost-efficiency ratio of operations, cognitive confrontation has become increasingly prominent in the national security strategic game and has become a new battlefield for military competition. Whether it is the “color revolutions” in the Middle East, West Asia, North Africa and other regions, or the war in Syria, the confrontation between the two sides in the cognitive space is intensifying.
The combat effectiveness is high. From the perspective of counter-weapons, cognitive space combat weapons are mainly information, with various means of dissemination. Especially with the rapid development of new media such as the Internet and social media, as well as the networking of human society, its dissemination scope is getting wider and wider, and its influence is increasing. getting bigger. Anywhere information can spread can become a battlefield in cognitive wars. Compared with the current physical domain operations, the unit price of advanced fighters, missiles and other weapons and equipment can easily reach tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of dollars. The cost of war is huge. However, cognitive space operations can be used without firing a single shot. The enemy loses his will to fight. In the Gulf War, the U.S.-led coalition spent 60 billion U.S. dollars, and finally had to ask Japan and other allies to finance the war; in the Afghanistan War, the U.S. spent more than 3 trillion U.S. dollars but failed to defeat the Taliban, and was eventually forced to withdraw. In the early days of the Iraq War, the U.S. military carried out cognitive operations, causing the Iraqi National Guard to suddenly “disappear” without firing a single shot. The U.S.-British coalition captured Baghdad in less than a month. With the extensive application of science and technology such as biology, medicine, environment, and information communication in the cognitive field, the ways to control cognitive systems such as people’s will, thinking, psychology, and emotions have become more diverse and flexible, and the implementation of cognitive operations has become easier. It is easy to implement and can be implemented individually or jointly at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels to achieve a high operational cost-effectiveness ratio.
Fully implemented in all dimensions. Since cognitive information is not limited by operational dimensions, space, and time, it can be used in various operational dimensions, spaces, and times, making cognitive space operations a basic combat situation that is all-dimensional, all-domain, and all-time. From a spatial point of view, cognitive space operations blur the boundaries between front and rear operations, showing the characteristics of all-round and all-weather expansion of tangible and invisible spaces; from a time point of view, cognitive space operations blur the boundaries between wartime and peacetime, transforming In peacetime, it is used in wartime, and it continues after the war, throughout the entire process of the war, showing the characteristics of “war at all times”; from a field perspective, cognitive space operations blur the boundaries between military and non-military operations, and are not only widespread It is used in the military field, and penetrates into various fields such as politics, economy, diplomacy, religion, etc., showing the characteristics of full coverage; from the perspective of combat objects, cognitive space operations blur the boundaries between military personnel and civilians, and have the ability to comprehensively implement military and civilian Characteristics of impact.
The lethality is huge. Cognitive advantage is both soft power and hard power. It is the smart power that best combines soft and hard power. Cognitive advantages usually include perceptual advantages, knowledge advantages, psychological advantages and decision-making advantages. Perceptual advantages can help the military improve the lethality of weapon platforms. U.S. Air Force combat tests show that after a combat aircraft gains a perception advantage, its lethality can be increased by 2.5 times. However, if the aircraft is at a disadvantage in perception, it will be in a state of information confusion to a large extent, and will not only become “blind” or “deaf”, They may also become “idiots” who act blindly and “idiots” who are deceived by the enemy’s false information. In the future, intelligent warfare will, to some extent, be a contest of knowledge. Knowledge has become an important military element. Only by forming a knowledge advantage can we fully utilize the performance of high-tech weapons and equipment and achieve the best combination of people and weapons. Decision-making advantage is the core of cognitive space advantage and the key to winning future wars. Establishing and protecting one’s own decision-making advantages, and attacking and weakening the enemy’s decision-making advantages will be the focus of future war confrontations. Only by gaining a decision-making advantage can we form a full-spectrum advantage and ultimately win the war.
Give full play to the advantages of non-military power. Future wars are hybrid wars, involving not only the military field, but also many non-military fields. Due to restrictions such as the laws of war, military power cannot be used in non-military fields, but cognitive space operations can exert its unique advantages to achieve war goals. For example, during the Second Lebanon War, the Lebanese military made full use of the power of the media to publicize a large number of civilian casualties to win the support of international public opinion; internally, it used pictures of destroyed Israeli military equipment to publicize the results of the war, which not only forced the Israeli military to compress as much as possible The duration of the operation resulted in its inability to achieve its operational objectives, and it also received support from Arab countries, thus gaining strategic initiative. As cognitive space becomes a new battlefield space, non-military forces are likely to become the main force in cognitive space operations, and combat operations will become more and more frequent. According to statistics, in recent local wars, the ratio of non-military forces to military combat forces has reached 4:1, with non-military forces engaged in cognitive operations accounting for the vast majority.
Cognitive domain combat methods are diverse
In essence, cognitive domain operations start from the spiritual level of war, taking people’s will, beliefs, thinking, psychology, etc. as the objects of combat, triggering cognitive imbalances by attacking the opponent’s perceptual system, and attacking their value system to promote combat. The target is emotionally disturbed and attacks its belief system, causing the target’s will to collapse, thereby achieving the combat goal. According to the cognitive space combat mechanism, its combat methods mainly include the following.
Destroy the will to fight. To dismantle the will to war is to declare to hostile countries the determination to fight and the will to use force by displaying powerful new weapons and equipment, new combat forces, mobilizing and deploying troops, and large-scale military exercises, so as to intimidate and deter the enemy’s military and civilians. The opponent retreats or surrenders, abandoning war operations. As for the timing of use, it is mainly used before war, aiming to defeat the enemy without fighting, and can also be used during combat. At the operational level, operations to disrupt the will to fight are mainly used at the strategic and operational levels, reflecting the will and determination of a country or group to safeguard interests. In peacetime, it usually manifests itself in the form of revelations in the cognitive field, exercises in the military field, blockades in the diplomatic field, sanctions in the economic field, etc.; in times of war, it usually manifests itself in the use of battlefield information advantages to show the enemy the results of the battle and directly express the will to fight. and determination to achieve cognitive enhancement of combat effectiveness. For example, pictures of the precise destruction of important targets in war are transmitted to enemy soldiers and civilians in the form of images or videos, which enhances the memory of the combat effects in the enemy’s cognitive field, creates a psychological shadow on the enemy, and makes them lose their will to fight.
Attack the idea of faith. Attacking beliefs and concepts refers to using various means to guide enemy soldiers and civilians to abandon or form certain beliefs and concepts, so as to disintegrate the spiritual pillars of enemy soldiers and civilians, change their attitude towards war, and then force the enemy to give up resistance. The main means of attacking beliefs and concepts include: vilifying the enemy’s political or spiritual leaders, destroying the values of the enemy’s military and civilians, and inducing young people to change their “three views.” For example, in the Iraq war and the Libyan war, the US military vilified Saddam Hussein and Gaddafi were typical examples. Another example is to use the Internet, social media and other channels to attack the beliefs of the enemy’s military and civilians, induce cognitive confusion among the enemy’s military and civilians, change their concepts, and thereby destroy the enemy’s public opinion foundation for war.
Public opinion attacks psychology. The psychology of public opinion attack refers to the use of various cognitive operations, such as creating a combat situation and atmosphere, to strongly stimulate the normal psychological state of enemy soldiers and civilians, thereby affecting combat judgment, decision-making, and actions. Public opinion attack psychological operations are not about eliminating the impact, but about controlling and minimizing the impact on one’s own military and civilians, and maximizing the impact on the enemy’s military and civilians. The U.S. military predicts through analysis of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq that the proportion of attrition due to psychological problems will reach 10% to 25% in future operations. In recent local wars, the US military has always used psychological warfare as a “multiplier” of combat effectiveness and a “reducer” of combat costs. It must be used in every battle and every battle. Israel’s “Debka Files” website disclosed that in order to isolate Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, the US military called senior Syrian military officials and said bluntly: “General, we have used the global positioning system to determine your position, and then sent snipers Hand. What do you want to do now? If I were you, I would definitely think twice about who I should be loyal to.”
The battlefield conceals truth and reveals lies. Concealing truth and showing falsehood refers to concealing the true battlefield situation and combat intentions through various actions, creating and displaying illusions, inducing the enemy to make wrong decisions, and achieving the purpose of controlling the war situation. For example, in ancient times, “hanging sheep beats drums”, “thatched boats borrow arrows”, and “empty city strategy” all infiltrated the idea of concealing the truth and revealing the false. In future wars, both combatants will usually use false information in the information acquisition process to induce confusion in the enemy’s situation; use saturated information blocking in the information processing process to induce the enemy to make inaccurate analysis and judgment; use viruses in the information feedback process , Trojan horse attack means to make the enemy’s command decision-making errors.