China Military Review of US Cyberspace Development Strategy // 中國軍事美國網絡空間發展戰略述評


发布日期: 2015 – 10 – 15


With the dependence on cyberspace continues to improve, the US cyberspace security into national security strategy category, has promulgated the “Cyberspace Policy Assessment”, “Cyberspace International Strategy”, “cyberspace operations strategy” and a series of policy file, accelerate the construction of cyberspace security strategy system, vigorously strengthen the network combat forces, to achieve hegemony in cyberspace control. April 2015, the US Department of Defense has issued “Cyberspace Strategy” (hereinafter referred to as “the new cyber strategy”) summary, for the first time publicly that the cyberspace operations as one of the options for future tactical military conflict that the United States has exceeded the network space combat preparation system, weapons and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, forming an effective mode of network attack and defense, has all the ability to launch cyber war.

  First, the US Cyberspace Strategy Evolution
  Cyberspace security strategy of the United States began in the late 20th century, at the Clinton and the Bush administration has been further strengthened and developed, eventually forming a “national strategy for cyberspace security.” Since 2009, the Obama administration has issued a series of strategic documents for the United States constructed a three-dimensional network security strategy system, international politics and international security situation had a significant impact.
  (A) in the Clinton and the Bush administration, cyberspace into context of US national security strategy, issued its first “cyberspace national strategy.”
  The Clinton administration information industry as an emerging pillar industries and vigorously support, promote the rapid development of the Internet, but also to the United States to rely on the network rose to an unprecedented degree, the information industry has become the largest industry in 1995 – growth in the US economy during 1998 The actual contribution rate of more than 35%. Published by the end of 1999, “US National Security Strategy Report” for the first time defined the US cyberspace security interests that network security threats to US national security posed challenges presented initial ideas to prevent security risks of cyberspace through international cooperation and other means. In early 2000 the introduction of “defending America’s cyberspace – to protect the national information system plan”, became the first programmatic document of the United States to maintain network security space. Release of this document is another important motivation is the US government tried to develop new rules of the game, to ensure American power distribution of wealth in cyberspace, to build a strong, growing and innovative US economy.[12]
  The Bush administration since the “September 11” incident, the United States has changed the concept of security, network spatial development strategy adjustment from “development priority” to “Security First”, and promulgated the “National Cyberspace Security Strategy” in 2003. The strategy identifies strategic position cyberspace security, cyberspace is defined as “to ensure the nation’s critical infrastructure properly functioning ‘nervous system’ and the national control systems,” the security situation in cyberspace to make a new judgment, that the new situation combined with the hostile forces of terror and information technology to pose a serious threat to US national security, will clearly improve cyberspace security to national security strategic level. “US National Security Strategy,” the strategy report issued in 2002, “Homeland Security National Strategy” and other reports, constituted after the “9.11” incident the new US national security strategy system. [12]
  (B) The Obama administration efforts to build US cyberspace security strategy stereo system, and actively seek a higher degree of cyberspace world hegemony, to ensure that the three core interests prosperity, security, the US government values ​​determined in cyberspace
  President Obama took office, started the 60-day cyberspace security assessment, and in May 2009, issued a “cyberspace policy review.” In the report published ceremony, Obama delivered an important speech entitled “to protect the American network infrastructure”, specifies the development of new national cyberspace security strategy, led by the National Security Council, the integrated use of diplomatic, military, economic, intelligence and law enforcement “four in one” means ensuring security in cyberspace, so that the strategic concept of cyberspace Obama administration’s horizon.
  1, cyberspace security threats as an excuse to network infrastructure as a national strategic asset, by all means to protect the security of cyberspace
  US cyberspace strategy document, the threat is the highest frequency vocabulary appears. The United States believes in cyberspace Chiang Kai-shek himself facing a new invisible smoke of war, and has been at a disadvantage, worried about the future possible outbreak of “Network Pearl Harbor” or “medium” 9/11 “incident [10]. To this end, Obama came to power after repeatedly stressed, should the network security as part of national security strategy, the network infrastructure will be increased to protect national strategic asset. March 2009, the US Center for Strategic and International Studies, submitted to “ensure the new presidency cyberspace” first report’s recommendations is that the network is an important wealth of the country, “the United States will not hesitate to use all means of national power ensuring security in cyberspace. issued “cyberspace policy assessment report” in May 2009 that day, Obama said in a speech, cyber threats are “one of the most serious challenges to US economic and national security faced” network infrastructure will be regarded as a strategic national facility “to protect the facility will become a national security priority issue.” We can say that all US cyberspace strategy and policy documents are as a starting point.
  2, to improve leadership and command system as the focal point, accelerate the construction of cyberspace deterrence systems and to build capacity-building network attacks.
  Obama believes the US government cyberspace security agencies there strategic center of gravity is unknown, job functions overlap, lack of coordination and other issues, it is necessary to implement the leadership from the top, the overall coordination of network security mechanism. May 2009, the White House announced the formation of cyberspace security office, the president is responsible for the policy decision to provide cyberspace security, coordinate government policies and activities. A month later, the Defense Department announced the creation of Cyberspace Command, responsible for coordinating the US military deployment strategy and network security, unified US military command network warfare, network warfare forces to enter the United States so that harmonized development of the “fast track.” Thus, the United States to create an integrated and comprehensive national cybersecurity leadership system. Published in July 2011, “cyberspace operations strategy”, as the United States Department of Defense first report on cyberspace operations and comprehensive strategy to more effectively carry out military operations in cyberspace provides guidelines and a roadmap, marking the US military operations in cyberspace who has been officially transferred deployment and implementation phase. In 2012, US National Cyber ​​Range officially delivered military trial. In 2013, the United States Cyber ​​Command expanded from 900 people to 4900 people, announced the expansion of 40 network warfare units within three years. 2014, the US Department of Defense released the “Quadrennial Defense Review Report,” clearly put forward the “expansion of investment in new network capabilities, network building 133 task force.” It is noteworthy that from 2013 to the year 2014, the US declared war forces expansion of the network more than three times. Meanwhile, the US also increased efforts to carry out research and development of cyber weapons, arms only reached 2,000 kinds of viruses, and has already entered the US Weapon series. This series of actions that the objective to reach the US military in cyberspace than just ensure its own security in cyberspace, but to build a network to enhance deterrence system through cyberspace attack, towards the consolidation of its “system net power” in cyberspace . [2]
  3, in order to emphasize international cooperation in cyberspace as a means to change and influence the political system and values ​​of other countries, and strive to maintain US hegemony
  In May 2011 the United States issued “Cyberspace International Strategy”, the first time its foreign policy goals combined with cyberspace strategy, marking its focus has been disclosed by the ball itself will be extended to the entire range, while its output cyberspace has become an American an important platform for political models and values. Former Defense Secretary Robert Gates has publicly declared that the network is a “huge strategic American assets in favor of other countries to help promote democracy.” Since then the Department of Defense issued “cyberspace operations strategy” is the introduction of “collective defense” concept, showing the United States to establish a new military alliance in cyberspace intent. Obama Government has been changed over the years, the United States resisted, highly publicized international cooperation in cyberspace, partly because it recognizes that even a superpower like the United States, can not single-handedly solve the problems exist in cyberspace and, more importantly, the United States wants to use its strong network resources, through international action in cyberspace cyberspace control global leadership development, change and affect the political system and values ​​of other countries, to consolidate its hegemony in cyberspace . [4]
  Second, the US Department of Defense the main features of the new cyber strategy
  April 2015, the new cyber strategy US Department of Defense released a continuation of the Obama administration’s strategic vision of cyberspace, for the first time publicly that one should cyberwarfare as a future military conflict tactical options, an explicit proposal to improve cyberspace deterrence and offensive capability, put on active defense and deterrence posture initiative, reflects the next few years, the US space power network construction and distinctive features of related actions, highlighting the US attempts to dominate in cyberspace.
  (A) exaggerated the threat facing the United States in cyberspace, cyberspace has continued to spread fear destruction, wanton shaping cyberspace at the national level enemy
  The new cyber strategy with a larger strategic context described space, repeatedly stressed that the United States risks inherent in cyberspace environment, deliberately exaggerating the threat of cyberspace activities faced constantly looking for new threats, new enemy is the United States to shape the mindset of decision logic and tradition dictates . In the strategy paper publicly available, the “risk” and “threat” were two words appear up to 31 times and 46 times, claiming that the new cyber strategy risks and threats from both the basic structure of the Internet’s inherent ability to handle risks, but also from the interests of the enemies of the United States coveted American networks, systems and data intrusion and malicious damage. The new cyber strategy will be mainly determined by the previous target to prevent extremist network technology and combined adjusted to focus on the national level opponent, Russia, China, Iran, North Korea and other countries as the United States may constitute a threat to the network [1]. These presets national level opponents, both in order to show the necessity of the introduction of the new cyber strategy, but also the threat of the proliferation of network attacks fear of public opinion, and thus eliminate barriers for “Snowden” event generated between the private sector and , dilute the new cyber strategies on social interests and personal privacy violations, to further consolidate public support for DoD and government policies. This judgment with ideological bias and arbitrariness, high-handed and is a very dangerous act. In fact, the United States ahead of the field of security in cyberspace, no one country can be formed a fundamental threat to the United States.
  (B) expressly DoD cyberspace strategic tasks and objectives, publicly cyberspace operations as a future military conflict tactical options, highlighting the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture.
  The new cyber strategy identifies the Department of Defense “three major tasks” and “five strategic objectives,” first proposed to launch a cyber attack when US national interests are threatened, and asked the US Department of Defense “Developing viable network options into the DoD term plan “for the US president or secretary of defense to provide” full spectrum “of options, when it comes to their national interest to make a variety of decisions.Compared with 2011 the first release version of cyberspace emphasize defensive action by the major network security operations to “offensive action network” changes, and the new cyber strategy frequent word “deterrence”, a total appears 29 times, that the United States has gradually freedom “with precision-guided physical damage to cope with asymmetric means to deal with cyber attacks” on US deterrence into network attacks to protect US national cybersecurity strategy, squeezing US major strategic competitors cyberspace policy choices available. At the same time, the new cyber strategy first proposed holding cyberspace operations as a tactical option, option to control the use of network operations escalation of the conflict, create conflict environment. Visible, the new cyber strategy has been the traditional means of fighting the physical space and virtual cyberspace means of integration, clearly convey to the world the determination of the American retaliation and sufficient network capacity to implement retaliation, far beyond the active defense category, highlighting the United States will protect cyberspace, attacks and confrontation blend of deterrence and offensive posture. [1] [8]
  (Iii) strengthen the integration with traditional combat power, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, with the power to launch cyber warfare system
  US military cyberspace operations following the fifth field of land, sea, air, space after the new cyber cyberspace operations strategy requires the option into the Defense Department plans to ensure that all areas of military operations in cyberspace and physical space Action Action coordinated. The new cyber strategy proposed to mobilize all forces, build a comprehensive system of joint operations, including the Ministry of Defence led government departments, between government and enterprises and international concerted action. The new cyber strategy breakthrough in Cyberspace “civil-military separation” trend strategy, Cyberspace Command, National Security Agency, the organic integration of the Central Security Agency, the Ministry of Defence is responsible for network forces combat training and guidance to the intelligence network functions and network operations functions are distinguished by the Defense Department-led combat troops network. One important goal of the new cyber strategy is to build a 2018 offensive and defensive, flexible forms of cyberspace forces, including 133 teams from the 6200 Department of Defense and the military soldiers, civilian and contract employees and other components. Among them, 13 responsible for the national infrastructure network protection mandate national task forces and eight country support teams; 27 to assume the task of attacking the enemy’s network operations task force and 17 combat support units; 68 responsible for the protection of the United States Department of Defense and the military network protection force network and system security tasks. These actions show that the US military has been resolved cyberspace warfare establishment system, apparatus and equipment, and a series of joint integration bottlenecks, explore the formation of an effective mode of generating combat capabilities of network attack and defense, with the power to launch cyber warfare system. [7]
  (Iv) continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, consolidate US leadership in the world in the field of network information for its dominate cyberspace to provide technical support.
  For a long time, the US military has the advantage of science and technology as an important part of the national security strategy, and always will be technological innovation as the key to maintaining US military strength and capacity. As a network of information technology and the birthplace of the leader, the United States Department of Defense to maintain and expand the leading edge technologies that will continue to strengthen basic research and applied research, technology continues to improve deterrence and offensive capabilities in cyberspace. The new cyber strategy proposed, the Defense Department must build and command and control systems to increase investment, continues to accelerate technological innovation in the field of cyberspace, vigorously carry out research and development with significant advantages over the technology, focusing on staff training to improve cyberspace, effective organization basic research and applied research capacity for action needed to fully develop the required DoD cyberspace capabilities. In recent years, the United States looks to shape the full spectrum cyberspace operations capability can cope with all types of threats in the successful development of “chute”, “Fire” and “shock web” more than 2,000 kinds of network warfare weapons on the basis of increasing network space war frontier technology investment, and actively develop a new generation of network technology and virtual battlefield assault weapons, and network warfare weapons and conventional weapons integration, in order to achieve a variety of battlefield environment flexible ways to combat.The new cyber strategy conference selection in the birthplace of Silicon Valley Stanford University, in person at the Secretary of Defense Carter, will seek to show that the Ministry of Defence and a new mechanism between the private sector and research institutions, technology, people and information and cooperation, and develop a wide range of industries channel sector R & D cooperation, greatly enhance the ability to act in cyberspace, to provide a solid technical support for the United States to expand the network space interests, safeguarding cyberspace hegemony. [7]
  Third, the construction of cyberspace security forces Inspiration
  The new US Defense Department cyber strategy highlights the US military in cyberspace deterrence and offensive posture, releasing its attempt hegemony in cyberspace danger signal, and to our country as one of its main rivals in cyberspace, cyberspace is bound for China safety and national security have a profound impact. Faced with the threat of US cyberspace strategy, China should accelerate the pace of construction of power networks, and resolutely safeguard national sovereignty interests in cyberspace, safeguard national cyberspace security.
  (A) firmly established Cyberspace Security Strategy in national security, strengthen national security in cyberspace top-level design, in line with China’s national conditions to speed up the formation of a military cyberspace security strategy system
  President Xi pointed out that no network security is no national security, no information will be no modernization. This important exposition, clear cyberspace strategic position for the construction of the security forces of cyberspace provided a powerful impetus.Currently, the national cyberspace security forces involved in military dress, especially after fighting equipment sector, and national industry, finance, energy, transportation, education and other sectors. Therefore, we should focus on promoting the interdisciplinary, multisectoral cyberspace security system construction, the formation of strong guidance, perfect features, dynamic evolution of cyberspace security strategy system. National Cyberspace Security Strategy should carry out national cyberspace security situation assessment, clarify the department’s own cyberspace security policy, as well as the main tasks and the division of responsibilities in national security in cyberspace, military and civilian science linkage design, comprehensive coverage, responsive network space security forces system, organizational system and institutional system. Cyberspace military strategy should focus on military operations security, the implementation of self-defense and homeland defense needs collaboration, scientific planning cyberspace “reconnaissance, attack, defense, control” forces, specifically the construction of military use of cyberspace timing, principles and tasks, as well as synergies with local forces. Cyberspace International Strategy should focus oppose hegemony in cyberspace, cyberspace governance rights and fight for the right to speak, and resolutely safeguard national cyberspace sovereign interests and development interests, and actively promote the peaceful development and common prosperity of the international cyberspace.
  (Ii) accelerate the construction of an appropriate scale, combined offensive and defensive cyberspace security forces, and constantly improve the network space combat capability, to provide strategic support for the maintenance of national security in cyberspace
  To effectively respond to threats in cyberspace main rival joint operations and information technology support to high-quality compound talents as the main body, accelerate the construction of electricity network integration, hardware and software combination, both offensive and defensive cyberspace power system, focusing on the development of intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities, integrated attack, defense capabilities and affect the control system capacity to effectively meet the security and defense tasks require effective counterattack. At present, shall be in accordance with the strategic and operational level, based on the national and military security and electronic warfare forces network-based, command, reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” and six security forces to focus the power of the network set up directly under the army’s troops and the attachment of various branches / departments of strategic and security reconnaissance, attack, defense, “three wars” four network power forces the enemy to achieve the Internet, critical infrastructure, national defense information network, information systems and other defense battlefield combat. Technical support base in accordance with cyberspace security needs, the establishment of core technology research and development equipment, offensive and defensive range, a number of joint combat exercises and other technical support base, to provide technical support for the network equipment research, development, testing and evaluation.
  (C) to strengthen cyberspace theoretical research, and actively explore cyberspace mode of generating combat, and strive to improve the combat capability of our army cyberspace
  In the process of the evolution of the war, military battlefield Game by plane, three-dimensional multi-dimensional virtual battlefield to battlefield extended form, combat and operational means of war is undergoing revolutionary change, to win victory in future wars but no longer rely on bullets and explosives byte strings and no longer rely on the military but on the scale of the number of botnets, will nurture and birth of a new doctrine. Accelerate innovation in cyberspace combat theory, system analysis of the historical evolution of human warfare, to find common characteristics and laws of war, exploring new ideas that may occur in the military field, the new theory, in-depth study of cyberspace doctrine, doctrine, combat styles, and elements cyberspace power system composed of the elements of its own scientific judgment and changes in the relationship between the shape of cyberspace changes and evolution. Increased interdependence cyberspace winning mechanism, system analysis cyberspace and physical space constraints and mutual enhancement of mutual relations, in-depth mechanism, attack and defense mechanism, the mechanism of the effect of war in cyberspace right, and the mechanism of self-organizing collaborative research, and actively explore cyberspace winning new mechanisms and new ways. Actively explore cyberspace combat formation mechanism, focusing on national cyberspace security strategies to enhance the combat effectiveness of troops starting point, the system analyzes cyberspace combat formation structure, composition and structure analysis of the interaction between the various elements of the fighting, a network of scientific space combat effectiveness the new model provides a solid theoretical innovation for our military in cyberspace can fight to win the war.
  (D) seize the new round of technological change information network a major opportunity, and vigorously promote the development of self-control cyberspace security core technology and key equipment, consolidate our network security space technology base.
  For a long time, the United States use of network information technology security threat to other countries, for the recent implementation of high-performance computing technology embargo, indicating that it will not easily give up the leading international cyberspace security right to speak. After the “Prism” incident, the world is generally recognized that there is no core technology, key equipment and self-controlled, cyberspace will be the lifeblood of the hands of others, have increased self-controlled information network construction. Currently, a new round of worldwide information network technology is ushering in a new wave of development, the development of large data, networking, quantum information, cutting-edge cloud computing and other emerging technologies are driving traditional information network technology to enter the replacement stage, to promote the network basis for, the system shape and space technology security mechanism profound changes. Should make full use of information network technology upgrading precious “time window”, to focus the forefront of key technologies in the emerging field of security basic, global impact of cyberspace, increase their own information network technology and independent information industry development efforts continue promoting the “nuclear high base” of major projects, and actively create the ecological environment of self-control application, determined to get rid of cyberspace security key technologies the kinds of passive situation, the lifeblood of the national cyberspace security technology and industrial development firmly in control of their own hands.
  (E) give full play to the advantages of our system, promote China’s cyberspace security forces and civilian integration development, to build military and civilian science linkage, peacetime and wartime national cyberspace security system
  Cyberspace has a “peacetime and wartime, civil-military one” determined by the characteristics of cyberspace security system must take military and civilian integration development model.Important features of the new US Department of Defense cyberspace security strategy is to mobilize the army of human, technical and industrial resources, accelerate the formation of cyberspace prominent military and technological superiority. China should give full play to the advantages of the system and network advantages of a big country, and actively promote the cyberspace combat forces military and civilian integration, fully absorb the military, local professional and technical strength and nurture talent in the private sector network attack and defense, national parties formed a unified command under the system of ” power system main force “and” guerrilla “a combination of; by improving the organization and leadership to build civil-military integration, program planning, collaborative innovation and industrial development at the national cyberspace security system, and promote the development of dual-use network information technology to optimize civil-military dual network information industry layout, accelerate the formation of “galloping market can not only battle-hardened” information technology industrial base; establish and improve civil-military integration network defense mobilization system, a clear linkage military and civilian cyberspace security system and operation mechanism, promote the integration of military and civilian network space action joint exercises, and actively explore how to play the power of the people’s war in cyberspace, condensed balance enemies, against tremendous energy hegemony, the realization of China’s power network by the network power to leap.
Original Mandarin Chinese:
隨著對網絡空間的依存度不斷提​​高,美國將網絡空間安全納入到國家安全戰略範疇,先後頒布《網絡空間政策評估》、《網絡空間國際戰略》、《網絡空間行動戰略》等一系列政策性文件,加快構建網絡空間安全的戰略體系,大力加強網絡作戰力量建設,以實現對網絡空間控制的霸權地位。 2015年4月,美國防部又發布《網絡空間戰略》(下文簡稱“新版網空戰略”)概要,首次公開表示將網絡空間行動作為今後軍事衝突的戰術選項之一,表明美國已突破了網絡空間作戰的編制體制、武器裝備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,形成了網絡攻防的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的全部能力。

克林頓政府將信息產業作為新興支柱產業大力扶持,推動了互聯網的高速發展,也使美國對於網絡的依賴上升到了前所未有的程度,信息產業成為美國最大的產業,1995-1998年期間對美國經濟增長的實際貢獻率達35%以上。 1999年底公佈的《美國國家安全戰略報告》首次界定了美國網絡空間安全利益構成,認為網絡安全威脅對美國國家安全構成挑戰,提出了通過國際合作等方式防範網絡空間安全風險的初步設想。 2000年初出台《保衛美國的網絡空間——保護信息系統的國家計劃》,成為美國維護網絡空間安全的第一份綱領性文件。推出這份文件的另一個重要動因是美國政府試圖通過制定新的遊戲規則,確保美國在網絡空間中分配財富的權力,建立強大的、不斷增長的創新型美國經濟。 [12]
布什政府自“9·11”事件後,改變了美國的安全觀,將網絡空間發展戰略從“發展優先”調整為“安全優先”,並於2003年頒布了《網絡空間安全國家戰略》。該戰略明確了網絡空間安全的戰略地位,將網絡空間定義為“確保國家關鍵基礎設施正常運轉的’神經系統’和國家控制系統”,對網絡空間安全形勢做出了新的判斷,認為新形勢下恐怖敵對勢力與信息技術的結合對美國國家安全構成嚴峻威脅,明確將網絡空間安全提高到國家安全的戰略高度。該戰略報告與2002年頒布的《美國國家安全戰略》、《美國國土安全國家戰略》等報告,構成了“9·11”事件後美國新的國家安全戰略體系。 [12]
美國網絡空間戰略文件中,威脅是出現頻率最高的詞彙。美國認為,自己在網絡空間中正面臨著一場新的看不見硝煙的戰爭,且已處於劣勢,擔心未來可能爆發“網絡珍珠港”或是“網上‘9·11’”事件[10]。為此,奧巴馬上台後不斷強調,應把網絡安全作為國家安全戰略的一部分,將網絡基礎設施上升為國家戰略資產加以保護。 2009年3月,美國戰略與國際問題研究中心提交的《確保新總統任內網絡空間安全》報告提出的第一條建議就是,網絡是國家的重要財富,“美國將不惜動用一切國家力量之手段確保網絡空間安全。在2009年5月發布《網絡空間政策評估報告》​​的當日,奧巴馬發表講話稱,網絡威脅是“美國經濟和國家安全所面臨的最嚴重的挑戰之一”,網絡設施將被視為戰略性國家設施“保護該設施將成為國家安全的優先課題”。可以說,美國所有網絡空間戰略及相關政策文件都是以此為出發點。
奧巴馬政府認為,美國政府網絡空間安全機構存在著戰略重心不明、工作職能重疊、缺乏協調配合等問題,因此必須從最高層實施領導,全面協調網絡安全機制。 2009年5月,白宮宣布組建網絡空間安全辦公室,負責為總統提供網絡空間安全方面的決策方針,協調政府相關政策與活動。一個月後,國防部宣布創建網絡空間司令部,負責協調美軍網絡安全策略及部署,統一指揮美軍網絡戰,使得美國網絡戰力量進入統一協調發展的“快車道”。由此,美國打造了一體化的綜合性國家網絡安全領導體制。 2011年7月公佈的《網絡空間行動戰略》,作為美國防部首份有關網絡空間作戰行動的綜合戰略,更為美軍有效開展網絡空間行動提供了指南和路線圖,標誌著美軍網絡空間軍事行動已正式轉人部署與實施階段。 2012年,美國家網絡靶場正式交付軍方試用。 2013年,美網絡司令部由900人擴編到4900人,宣布3年內擴建40支網絡戰部隊。 2014年,美國防部發布《四年防務評估報告》​​,明確提出“投資新擴展的網絡能力,建設133支網絡任務部隊”。值得關注的是,從2013年到2014年一年中,美軍宣稱網絡戰部隊擴編3倍以上。與此同時,美國還加大力度開展網絡武器的研發,僅病毒武器就達2000多種,且早已進入美軍武器序列。這一系列動作表明,美軍在網絡空間要達成的目標絕不僅僅是保證自身網絡空間安全,而是要通過提升網絡空間攻擊能力構建網絡威懾體系,實現鞏固其在網絡空間的“製網權” 。 [2]
2011年5月美國出台《網絡空間國際戰略》,首次將其外交政策目標與網絡空間戰略結合在一起,標誌著其關注重點已公開由自身擴展到整個球範圍,同時網絡空間也成為其輸出美式政治模式和價值觀的重要平台。原國防部長蓋茨曾公開宣稱,網絡是“美國巨大的戰略資產,有利於幫助其他國家推進民主”。此後出台的國防部《網絡空間行動戰略》更是引入“集體防禦”理念,展現了美國要在網絡空間建立新軍事同盟的意圖。奧巴馬政府之所以一改美國多年來的抵制態度,高調宣傳網絡空間國際合作,一方面是因為它認識到,即使是美國這樣的超級大國,也不可能憑一己之力解決網絡空間存在的種種問題,更重要的是,美國希望利用自己雄厚的網絡資源,通過在網絡空間的國際行動掌控全球網絡空間發展領導權,改變和影響其他國家的政治體系和價值觀念,鞏固自身在網絡空間的霸權地位。 [4]
新版網空戰略明確了國防部“三大任務”和“五項戰略目標”,首次提出美國國家利益受到威脅時可發動網絡攻擊,並要求美國防部“開發可行的網絡選項,融入國防部各項規劃”,為美國總統​​或者國防部長提供“全頻譜”的選擇方案,以便其在涉及國家利益的時候能夠做出各種決策。與2011年首次發布版本相比,網絡空間行動由主要強調防禦性的網絡安全行動向“採取進攻性網絡行動”轉變,並且新版網空戰略中頻繁出現“威懾”一詞,共出現29次,表明美國已經逐漸將“用精確制導的物理毀傷來應對網絡攻擊的不對稱應對手段”,納入到威懾對美國網絡攻擊、保障美國國家網絡安全戰略、擠壓美國主要戰略競爭對手的網絡空間行動自由的策略選擇之中。同時,新版網空戰略第一次提出將保持網絡空間行動作為戰術選項,運用網絡行動選項控制衝突升級,塑造衝突環境。可見,新版網空戰略已將傳統的物理空間作戰手段與虛擬的網絡空間作戰手段相融合,向世界清晰地傳遞了美國進行網絡報復的決心和實施報復的足夠能力,遠遠超出了主動防禦的範疇,凸顯了美國將網絡空間的保護、攻擊和對抗融為一體的威懾和進攻態勢。 [1] [8]
網絡空間是美軍繼陸地、海洋、天空、太空後的第五作戰領域,新版網空戰略要求把網絡空間行動選項融入到國防部計劃中,確保軍事行動的所有領域中網絡空間行動與物理空間行動協調一致。新版網空戰略提出要動員各方力量,​​構建全方位的聯合作戰體系,包括由國防部主導政府部門間、政企間和國際間的協同行動。新版網空戰略突破了網絡空間戰略“軍民分隔”的態勢,將網絡空間司令部、國家安全局、中央安全署有機融合,由國防部負責網絡部隊的作戰訓練和指導,從而將網絡情報職能與網絡作戰職能進行區分,由國防部主導網絡作戰部隊。新版網空戰略的重要目標之一是至2018年建成一支攻防兼備、形式靈活的網絡空間部隊,包括由6200名國防部和軍事部門的軍人、文職人員和合同員工等組成的133支小組。其中,13支擔負國家基礎設施網絡防護任務的國家任務部隊和8支國家支援小組;27支擔負攻擊敵網絡系統任務的作戰任務部隊和17支作戰支援部隊;68支擔負保護美國國防部及軍隊網絡和系統安全任務的網絡保護部隊。這些動作表明,美軍已經解決了網絡空間戰的編制體制、裝備設備、融入聯合等一系列瓶頸問題,探索形成了網絡攻防戰鬥力生成的有效模式,具備了發動網絡戰爭的力量體系。 [7]
長期以來,美軍一直將科學技術優勢作為國家安全戰略的重要組成部分,始終將科技創新作為維持美軍作戰優勢能力的關鍵。作為網絡信息技術的發源地和引領者,美國防部為保持和擴大技術領域的領先優勢,將繼續加強應用研究和基礎研究,不斷提升網絡空間的技術威懾和進攻能力。新版網空戰略提出,國防部必須在人員培訓、有效組織構建和指揮控制系統方面加大投入,繼續加速網絡空間領域的技術創新,大力開展具有重大優勢的跨越性技術的研發,聚焦提高網絡空間行動能力所需的基礎研究和應用研究,全面發展國防部所需的網絡空間作戰能力。近年來,美國著眼塑造可應對各類威脅的全頻譜網絡空間作戰能力,在成功研發“舒特”、“火焰”和“震網”等2000多種網絡戰武器的基礎上,不斷加大網絡空間作戰前沿技術投入,積極研發虛擬戰場技術和新一代網絡攻擊性武器,並將網絡戰武器與傳統武器進行整合,以實現在戰場環境中靈活的多種打擊方式。新版網空戰略發布會選擇在矽谷發源地的斯坦福大學進行,國防部長卡特親自前往,表明國防部將尋求與私營部門和研究機構間技術、人員和信息聯繫與合作的新機制,廣泛拓展與工業部門合作研發的渠道,大力提升網絡空間行動能力,為美國拓展​​網絡空間利益、維護網絡空間霸權提供堅實的技術支撐。 [7]
長期以來,美國利用網絡信息技術優勢對別國進行安全威脅,近期針對我國高性能計算實施技術禁運,表明其不會輕易放棄主導國際網絡空間安全的話語權。 “棱鏡”事件後,世界各國普遍意識到,沒有核心關鍵設備和技術的自主可控,網絡空間安全的命脈就會掌握在別人手裡,紛紛加大自主可控信息網絡建設力度。當前,世界範圍內新一輪信息網絡技術正迎來新的發展浪潮,大數據、物聯網、量子信息、雲計算等新興前沿技術的發展,正推動傳統信息網絡技術進入更新換代階段,推動網絡空間的技術基礎、系統形態和安全機理髮生深刻變化。應充分利用信息網絡技術更新換代的寶貴“時間窗”,聚焦前沿新興領域中對網絡空間安全具有基礎性、全局性影響的核心關鍵技術,加大自主信息網絡技術和自主信息產業發展力度,持續推進“核高基”重大專項,積極營造自主可控應用的生態環境,下決心擺脫網絡空間安全核心關鍵技術受制於人的被動局面,將國家網絡空間安全的技術和產業發展的命脈牢牢掌控在自己手中。

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