What is the main reason for US military network warfare? // 美军网络战主要干什么?

What is the main reason for US military network warfare? //


Source: PLA Daily Author: Chen Hanghui Editor: Yao Yuan

Recently, the US military has been “big move” in the field of cyber warfare. On October 24th, the US Department of Defense announced in a high-profile manner that the network task force directly under the US Cyber ​​Command has the initial operational capability to perform basic cyber warfare tasks. From wielding the “cyber weapon stick” to the announcement of major progress in the construction of network forces, the United States intends to send a message to the outside world – the US military has basically built a network warfare power system and strives for the hegemonic position of the “fifth space.”

Strategic guidance –

Create a network action force system

As the creator of the Internet, the US military was the first to plan the formation of a cyber warfare army. As early as 1995, the US National Defense University trained 16 network warriors who relied on computers for information confrontation. From the development history of the past 20 years, strengthening strategic guidance and doing a good overall planning is a basic experience for the rapid development of the US military’s cyber warfare forces.

In 2002, the then President Bush signed the “National Security Order No. 16” and asked the Ministry of Defense to take the lead in formulating a cyberspace action strategy. In December of the same year, the US Navy took the lead in setting up the Cyber ​​Command, and the Air Force and the Army also quickly followed up to form a service network force. In March 2005, the US Department of Defense issued the “Defense Strategy Report,” which defined the strategic position of cyberspace and characterized it as the fifth-dimensional space that is as important as land, sea, air, and sky. The development of US cyber warfare forces is ushered in. The first wave of climax. In general, in the early stage of development, although the development speed of the US military’s cyber warfare forces was fast, it lacked overall planning, and the various military cyber warfare units were stacked in flames and failed to form a joint force.

After President Obama, who relied on the Internet to win the general election, took the stage, he focused on strengthening the strategic guidance for cyber warfare capacity building from two aspects. On the one hand, in May 2010, the network headquarters of the entire army was established to coordinate the cyber warfare forces of various services and strengthen the command and control of cyberspace operations. On the other hand, in 2011 and 2015, two strategic reports, the Cyberspace Action Strategy and the DoD Network Strategy, were launched. The former explained the five pillars of the US military’s cyberspace operations, and the latter clarified the mission of cyber warfare forces. Mission and construction goals.

At present, the US military cyber warfare power system has basically taken shape. At the heart of the system is a network mission force directly under the US Cyber ​​Command, which plays a key role in the US cyber warfare operations. As of the end of October 2016, the number of US military network task forces has reached 5,000, and all of the 133 network task forces compiled have initial operational capabilities, of which nearly half have full operational capabilities. According to the US Department of Defense program, by September 30, 2018, the number of network missions will increase to 6,187, with full operational capability.

Practical traction –

Conduct cyberspace attack and defense drills

In recent years, as cyber warfare has moved from behind the scenes to the front of the stage as an independent warfare style, the US military’s cyberspace action strategy has shifted from “precaution-based” to “attack and defense”, and improving the cyberspace combat capability has become the focus of the US military. At present, the US military mainly promotes network training under actual combat conditions from four aspects.

Open online courses according to actual needs and lay a solid foundation for cyber warfare skills. In response to the new situation in the field of cyberspace, the US military major military academies have added online courses. In 2012, the US Air Force Ordnance Academy launched its first offensive cyber action course, focusing on how to combine network capabilities with traditional combat methods. In 2014, West Point Military Academy established the Army Cyber ​​Warfare Academy to train network elites. In the past few years, military colleges such as the West Point Military Academy and the Naval Academy have conducted network offensive and defensive drills with the “Red Cell” team composed of experts from the US National Security Agency to cultivate the backbone of future cyber warfare.

Develop a general-purpose network warfare training platform to improve the comprehensive benefits of training. At the Department of Defense, led by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the “National Network Shooting Range” was developed to simulate the cyberspace attack and defense operational environment, test network weaponry, and test new operational concepts. At the military level, a virtual environment was developed that could serve as a network range or test platform for testing, planning, and evaluating cyberspace operations. For example, the network virtual city built by the US Air Force can be used to conduct network attack and defense tactics; the naval development of the “tactical network shooting range” can extend network training to the radio frequency physical environment, achieving efficient integration of joint firepower and information advantages.

Conduct integrated network warfare exercises to improve the actual combat capability of network forces. In early 2016, the US Department of Defense’s Office of Combat Test and Evaluation recommended in a report to Congress that, in view of the fact that the US military will perform its tasks under the violent confrontation of cyberspace, it should regularly organize network offensive and defensive units and combat units to jointly conduct operations. drill. Since the beginning of this year, the US Army has conducted a number of exercises using network squadrons such as “Network Exploration” and “Network Flash Battle”, focusing on the actions of network detachments to support combat troops under field conditions. In April of this year, the US Army’s 25th Infantry Division and the 7th Communications Command Network Protection Brigade jointly held a “Network Flash Battle” exercise to test the feasibility of multi-sectoral interdisciplinary collaboration such as communication, network, and firepower.

Organize comprehensive cyber war exercises to strengthen military and network joint network operations capabilities. The US military believes that “the strategic war in the industrial era is a nuclear war, and the strategic war in the information age is mainly a cyber war.” Only by implementing the overall network war of the military and the land can we win the future cyber war. Since 2012, the US Army Network Command has jointly led the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to jointly organize a “Network Guardian” military joint exercise to strengthen information sharing between the US Department of Defense and other federal government agencies and private companies. In the “Network Guardian-2016” exercise held in June this year, more than 100 organizations and more than 800 organizations from government, academia, industry and allies participated in the exercise, focusing on the response to large-scale blackouts, oil refinery oil spills, and ports. Close other network attack scenarios.

Built with one –

Exploring the use of network forces

The United States was the first country to propose the concept of cyber warfare and the first country to use cyber forces for actual combat. As early as 2007, the National Security Agency used computer viruses to infect militants’ mobile phones and laptops, deceiving the enemy by sending false information, and even introducing the enemy into the US ambush to assist the US military in its operations.

After the establishment of the network mission force in 2012, in order to maintain the first-mover advantage in the field of cyberspace, the US military has followed the principle of “building and using, building and integrating” and actively explored and promoted the operational use of network forces. At the end of 2012, the US Army Network Command took the lead in deploying a network mission detachment with full operational capabilities at the Central Command to support US military operations in Syria and Iraq. In October 2015, US Naval Network Task Force Commander Paul Nakaso revealed at the seminar of the Center for Strategic and International Studies that although it had not yet been formed, the network task force had begun to participate in actual military operations. According to reports, from January to October 2015, the US military network task force participated in seven major military operations.

In April this year, under the direction of Defense Minister Carter, the US Cyber ​​Command publicly announced a cyberattack against the “Islamic State” terrorist organization and became the “first show” of the US military network forces. In the course of the operation, the US military network forces focused on the communication network, publicity websites, and social networking websites of the “Islamic State”, and downgraded the information, issued instructions, recruited new people, and paid electronic payments through network downgrades and false orders. ability.

With the increasingly prominent role of cyberspace operations in US military joint operations, the US military has focused on the construction of the network force command and control architecture. After the completion of the US Cyber ​​Command in 2010, the US Army, Sea, and Air Forces established the Service Network Command. In May 2012, the US military formed a “Joint Network Center” at each theater headquarters to serve as a link between the theater command and the US Cyber ​​Command to better use the network mission force to support theater operations. At present, the US military executives are actively promoting the upgrading of the Cyber ​​Command to an independent combatant command. Once this vision becomes a reality, the command relationship of the US military network forces will be clearer and the chain of command will be more efficient.

(Author: Nanjing Army Command Academy) 

Picture: Yang Lei

Original Mandarin Chinese:

近段時間,美軍在網絡戰領域“大招”頻出。 10月24日,美國國防部高調宣布,直屬於美國網絡司令部的網絡任務部隊已具備初始作戰能力,能夠執行基本的網絡戰任務。從揮舞“網絡武器大棒”到公佈網絡部隊建設重大進展,美國意在向外界傳遞一個訊息——美軍已基本建成網絡戰力量體系,全力謀求“第五空間”的霸權地位。




2002年,時任總統布什簽署“國家安全第16號總統令”,要求國防部牽頭制定網絡空間行動戰略。同年12月,美國海軍率先成立網絡司令部,空軍和陸軍也迅速跟進,組建軍種網絡部隊。 2005年3月,美國國防部出台《國防戰略報告》,明確了網絡空間的戰略地位,將其定性為與陸、海、空、天同等重要的第五維空間,美軍網絡戰力量發展迎來第一波高潮。總體而言,在發展初期,美軍網絡戰力量發展速度雖快,但缺乏統籌規劃,各軍種網絡戰部隊煙囪林立,未能形成合力。






根據實戰需求開設網絡課程,打牢網絡戰技能基礎。為應對網絡空間領域新情況,美軍各大軍事院校紛紛增設網絡課程。 2012年,美國空軍軍械學院首次開設進攻性網絡行動課程,重點講授如何將網絡能力與傳統戰斗方式有機結合;2014年,西點軍校成立了陸軍網絡戰研究院,負責培養網絡精英。過去幾年,西點軍校、海軍軍官學院等軍事院校每年都會與由美國國家安全局專家組成的“紅細胞”隊進行網絡攻防演練,培養未來的網絡戰骨幹力量。


開展集成性網絡戰演練,提升網絡部隊實戰能力。 2016年初,美國國防部作戰測試與評估辦公室在向國會提交的一份報告中建議,考慮到美軍將在網絡空間領域激烈對抗的條件下執行任務,應定期組織網絡攻防部隊和作戰部隊聯合開展作戰演練。今年以來,美國陸軍已開展“網絡探索”“網絡閃擊戰”等多場運用網絡分隊的演習,重點演練網絡分隊在野戰條件下支援作戰部隊的行動。今年4月,美國陸軍第25步兵師和第7通信司令部網絡防護旅聯合舉行了“網絡閃擊戰”演習,檢驗了通信、網絡、火力等多部門跨專業協同的可行性。

組織綜合性網絡戰演習,強化軍地聯合網絡行動能力。美軍認為,“工業時代的戰略戰是核戰爭,信息時代的戰略戰主要是網絡戰”,只有實施軍地聯合的網絡總體戰,才能打贏未來網絡戰爭。 2012年以來,美軍網絡司令部每年都與國土安全部和聯邦調查局聯合牽頭組織“網絡衛士”軍地聯合演習,以便加強美國國防部與其他聯邦政府機構和私營企業之間的信息共享。在今年6月舉行的“網絡衛士-2016”演習中,來自政府、學界、業界和盟國的100多個組織、800多人參加了演習,重點演練了應對大面積停電、煉油廠漏油、港口關閉等網絡襲擊場景。




2012年開始組建網絡任務部隊後,為保持在網絡空間領域的先發優勢,美軍遵循“邊建邊用、建用一體”的原則,積極探索和推進網絡部隊的作戰運用。 2012年底,美軍網絡司令部率先在中央司令部部署擁有完全作戰能力的網絡任務分隊,支持美軍在敘利亞和伊拉克的軍事行動。 2015年10月,美軍網絡任務部隊指揮官保羅·納卡索在參加戰略與國際研究中心研討會時透露,雖然尚未組建完畢,但網絡任務部隊已經開始參與實際軍事行動。據報導,僅2015年1月至10月,美軍網絡任務部隊就參與了7次重大軍事行動。


隨著網絡空間作戰在美軍聯合作戰中的作用日益突出,美軍重點推進了網絡部隊指揮控制架構建設。 2010年建成美國網絡司令部後,美國陸、海、空三大軍種相繼成立了軍種網絡司令部。 2012年5月,美軍在各戰區總部組建“聯合網絡中心”,作為連接戰區司令部與美國網絡司令部的紐帶,以便更好地使用網絡任務部隊支援戰區作戰。當前,美軍高層正積極推動將網絡司令部升格為獨立的作戰司令部,一旦該設想成為現實,美軍網絡部隊的指揮關係將更加清晰,指揮鏈運轉將更加高效。


圖片資料:楊 磊

Referring URL:  http://www.81.cn/jskj/2017-03/

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