China’s Analysis of US Army Network Operations Conceptual Concept Conception: To fight for information dominance

US Army Network Operations Conceptual Concept Conception: To fight for information dominance

The US Army Training and Command Command assesses the future combat environment, clearly emphasizing the importance of obtaining information on all relevant aspects of future battlefields. Army forces in the color of people such as action in the face, with a new, network-based, technology-based threats. These threats use emerging technologies to build and maintain a cultural and social advantage; and make full use of these new capabilities for command and control, staff recruitment, logistics coordination, fundraising and dissemination of information. To take action in this new environment, the Army must re-adjust its message “focus”. Army leaders and soldiers must have an in-depth understanding of how to use information-based capabilities to capture and maintain situational awareness. In the future battlefield, know how to fight for information and give full play to information, while denying the opponent’s ability to win more and more important.

The assessment shows that the Army’s existing vocabulary, including, for example, computer network operations (CNO), electronic warfare (EW) and information operations (IO), will become increasingly difficult to meet demand. In order to meet these challenges, the full spectrum of military operations (FSO) should have three interrelated dimensions, each of which has its own set of causal logic and needs to focus on the development of the program:

The first dimension is the confrontation with the psychological will of enemies, hostile factions, criminal gangs and potential opponents.

The second dimension is a strategic alliance, including maintaining a friend in the country, getting ally in a foreign country, and obtaining their support or identity for the task.

The third dimension is the network power confrontation, including the acquisition, maintenance and use of a technical advantage.

The first dimension and the second dimension emphasize how commanders and staff officers should carefully plan and use information to fulfill their mission. The third dimension emphasizes gaining and maintaining an advantage in increasingly converged cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) media. The advantages of the Army’s access to advantages, protection advantages and opponents’ inferiority are included in these three dimensions; and contribute to the achievement of those actions that must be achieved through tactical, operational and strategic levels of unified action. The current combat action makes us more convinced that each dimension needs to have its own corresponding concepts and capabilities.

Information operations (IO) contain all three dimensions, but the word is increasingly becoming a generic term that can be used for any form of information. Computer network operations and electronic warfare itself is not enough to describe the full range of network confrontation. To this end, we are carrying out a comprehensive description of each dimension of the comprehensive research activities. The first two dimensions (Confrontation and Strategic Alliances of Will) will be presented in a conceptual plan to be developed separately, followed by a competency-based assessment.

This manual relates to the electronic warfare, computer network operations and cyberspace in the third dimension – networked confrontation. The Training and Command Command No. 525-7-8 is the first step towards a consensus on how the technological advances can change the operational environment, how the leaders should think about cyber operations, how to integrate their overall actions, and what they need ability. This manual provides a methodology for developing results-based, emphasis-based, and intelligent solutions that will enable the US Army to win in online confrontation. – Director of the Army – Ability Center for Lieutenant General

Executive summary

Describe the problem

The combat environment has changed significantly. The convergence and rapid development of computer and communication network technology, the global proliferation of information and communication technology (ICT) and its impact on social and social networks impact the combat environment. The use of this information revolution in the form of agents (agents) on the United States of key infrastructure and combat missions constitute a huge threat. These actors have both traditional national and non-combatants, multinational corporations, criminal organizations, terrorists, hackers, mischievous hackers and misuse of individuals. They together to create a continuous turbulence, never calm the environment. In this document, unless otherwise stated, the term “opponent” is used to describe them.

Develop a solution

Training and Order Command (TRADOC) 525-7-8, “CyberOps Concepts 2016-2028”, a comprehensive review of the 2016 to 2028 Army future forces how to make full use of cyberspace implementation of effective Network operations. The manual includes a conceptual framework for incorporating cyber operations into full spectrum operations (FSO), laying the groundwork for subsequent development of the order. This conceptual framework outlines how the commander integrates network operations to gain advantage, protect the advantages and set opponents at the disadvantage. The manual also establishes a common dictionary for the Army’s network operations, describing the relationship between cyberspace and the other four domains (earth and sea) and with the electromagnetic spectrum. Finally, it explains how the technology that continues to converge will affect full-spectrum operations and capacity development, providing strong support for Army design, development, acquisition and deployment of fully integrated network capabilities.

Program Background: Three dimensions of full spectrum combat

A, the US Army Training and Command Commander (CG) instructs the Joint Arms Center (CAC) to lead a working group to organize the mission domain for cyberspace, cyber warfare and information operations, as well as the training and commanding forces The modernization of the structure suggests a conceptual framework. On October 16, 2009, the Command and Command Command (CG) submitted a series of recommendations to the Army Deputy Chief of Staff. In his suggestion included the following:

(1) The Joint Arsenal Center believes that existing vocabularies (cyber-e-warfare) are enough at the moment, but will be increasingly insufficient to describe the challenges the Army faces in future combat environments.

(2) The joint arms center draws conclusions that should be considered from three dimensions, which run through full spectrum operations, and each dimension needs to be addressed by the design of forces and the development of orders.

(3) Thus, while the Army can now describe functions related to network and spectrum military operations as network-electronic warfare – information operations, the Joint Arms Center firmly believes that the future Army should describe them in the following ways:

The first dimension – the first dimension is the confrontation with the psychological will between the enemy, the hostile faction, the criminal gang and the potential opponent.

The second dimension, the second dimension, is a strategic alliance, including maintaining a friendly relationship with allies in the country, forming an alliance abroad, supporting or focusing on the mission of the military operations area.

The third dimension – the third dimension is the net – electromagnetic against. The continuous development of wired, wireless and optical technologies provides the conditions for convergence and cross-linking of computers and communication networks.

B, Training and Command Command No. 525-7-8 manual is mainly about how to win in this third dimension, that is, network confrontation, and put forward a concept – that is, network operations can promote the completion of the other two tasks.

Core point of view

A Win in cyber confrontation means getting progress in three ways: gaining the edge, protecting the advantage, and setting the opponent at a disadvantage.

B. The commander seeks freedom of movement in cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum while losing opponents at the time and place they are determined; thus supporting various military in cyberspace and the other four domains of cyberspace (land and sea) activity. Cyberspace military operations are included in the network confrontation to take advantage, to protect the advantages and opponents in the disadvantages to take action. Network operations itself is not the ultimate goal, more as an important component of the whole spectrum of operations, to win the network confrontation is in peacetime military confrontation in the attention of the general activities. Network operations are ongoing and confrontation takes place every day, and in most cases there is no need for other forces to participate.

Solution framework

The existing terms of the term do not fully address the scope of the relevant tasks according to the definition of the Department of Defense cyberspace and cyber warfare. As a result, the framework developed by the manual defines four major components of network operations: CyberWar, CyNetOps, CyberSpt, and Cyberas.

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1. Related background

The combat environment (OE) has changed significantly. The hostile activities in cyberspace and through cyberspace have reached unprecedented levels, threatening the basic elements of the key infrastructure, financial systems and national power of the United States. These threats come from a wide range of sources, unknowingly hackers to sovereign states, and the level of competencies varies. They together to create a continuous turbulence, never calm the environment. In this document, unless otherwise stated, the term “opponent” is used to describe them.

B. The rapid development of technology and its widespread proliferation make it increasingly difficult to win in full spectrum operations. The combination of wired, wireless and optical technology leads to the convergence of computers and telecommunications networks; handheld computing devices are growing in number and performance. The new generation of systems is emerging to form a global, mixed adaptive network that combines wired, wireless, optical, satellite communications, monitoring and data acquisition (SCADA) and other systems. In the near future, the network will provide users with ubiquitous access, so that they can be near real-time on-demand collaboration.

C. With the rapid development of technology, the ability of national opponents also increased, which makes the combat environment more complex. Who can gain, protect and exploit the advantages in competitive, crowded cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum, who will master the initiative. On the contrary, if a party fails in the confrontation, or because the system was disturbed or destroyed and can not be effective action, it will give a huge advantage to the opponent.

D. Access, protection and advantage are not easy. US rivals use the commercial market as a platform for their development, making them more agile and adaptable than Army’s long research, development, testing and identification, and acquisition processes. Opponents are increasingly good at using cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum capabilities and activities that are often outside the sight of our Army’s conventional operations. In order to capture and maintain the battle and tactical advantages for these flexible opponents, the Army must make cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum the core and conventional components of its operations; and commanders also need the relevant competencies and the corresponding experts to apply them.

1.2. Purpose

The purpose of the Handbook No. 525-7-8 of the Training and Command Command is to examine how the Army’s future forces will integrate the cyberspace capabilities and cyber operations into full spectrum operations between 2016 and 2028.

1.3. Scope

The 525-7-8 Handbook of the Training and Command Command draws out how the commander can integrate cyber operations with other capabilities to gain advantage in full spectrum operations and to protect the advantages of concatenating opponents’ initial research results. The results of the study will be further refined through a competency-based assessment and development process. The manual describes how the commander seeks freedom of movement in cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum while losing opponents at the time and place they determine; thus supporting the cyberspace as well as using cyberspace in the other four domains (land and sea) Of various military activities. This manual establishes a common dictionary and framework for network operations and describes the relationship between cyberspace and air, land, sea, and domain, and electromagnetic spectrum. It also explains how the technologies that continue to converge increase the impact on full spectrum operations and capacity development; identifies the network operations and support capabilities needed to support future force modernization initiatives; and suggests the cyberspace and electromagnetic Spectrum related to research questions.

1.4 method

This manual follows the design process approved by the Training and Command Command. Chapter 2 describes the existing conditions and requirements for cyberspace in combat environments. Chapter 3 compares the existing conditions and the desired final state in the operational environment, thus establishing a plan for the formulation of the program. Chapter 4 presents frameworks, core ideas, support ideas and dictionaries. Appendix A contains the required and related references. Appendix B describes the structure of the evolving network operations. Appendix C describes how to incorporate cyber combat as an organic component into the whole process, rather than being free from the entire action, according to the commander’s intentions and objectives. Appendix D (published) and Appendix E (confidential) discuss the required capabilities. Appendix F identifies issues at the executive level throughout the process, organization, training, equipment, leadership and education, personnel, and equipment (DOTMLPF) to support subsequent cost-benefit analysis efforts.

1.5. Key Definitions

A, cyberspace is defined as “a global domain in the information environment, interconnected by information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, communications networks, computer systems and embedded processors and controllers.”

B, the network war is: “the use of cyberspace capabilities, its primary purpose is to achieve goals in cyberspace or through cyberspace, which includes computer network operations, as well as operational and defensive activities of the global information grid” The

C, the electromagnetic spectrum is from zero to infinite electromagnetic radiation frequency range. It is divided into bands numbered by 26 letters.

1.6. Relationship with the concept of union and the concept of the army

A The Manual No. 525-7-8 of the Training and Command Command is consistent with the concept of joint and the concept of the Army, which includes the concept of joint operations and the top concept of the Army. The capabilities described in this manual may be incorporated into the Joint Capability Domain (JCA) and related operational functions. The Department of Defense uses a joint capacity domain to describe how the various capabilities support the joint function. The joint competency domain establishes the foundation of the process based on the capabilities of the Department of Defense, and the network combat capability can be embedded in the combined capabilities of the first level of force use, protection, combat space perception and network center action. Similarly, the network combat capability not only strengthened the Army’s operational functions and combat elements, but also their necessary composition.

B, Training and Order Command Manual 525-3-0. The manual argues that war is the will of the will, and that in order to win, the army must try its best to play a psychological and technical influence as one of the six main ideas that support the top concept of the army. The top-level concept declares that the Army is increasingly dependent on the continuous integration of electromagnetic, computer networks and space-based capabilities, so the technical influence requires troops to prepare for a new “cyber battlefield” to fight and win. Because the technology that affects the movement of information is developing too fast, the Army must continually assess what capabilities it needs to acquire, protect and exploit advantages in high-intensity cyberspace and electromagnetic spectrum. This handbook supports this top-level concept by determining the capabilities required to successfully perform full-spectrum operations.

C, Training and Command Command No. 525-3-1 Handbook and Training and Command Command No. 525-3-2. These two manuals, in order to support the Army’s operational concept, define the capabilities of operational command, intelligence, fire and protection needed to carry out effective campaigns and tactical maneuvers in future combat environments. Network capabilities and the advantages of cyberspace for the future of the Army in the mobility of command and control to reduce operational risk is critical. The Training and Command Command Manual No. 525-7-8 complements the Army function concept that supports campaign mobility and tactical maneuver.

D, Training and Order Command Manual 525-7-6. With the convergence of wired, wireless and optical technologies, future force commanders will use electronic warfare and cyber warfare capabilities. The use of wired and optical technology is becoming increasingly frequent








本手冊與第三維——網電對抗中的電子戰、計算機網絡作戰和網絡空間有關。訓練與條令司令部525-7-8號手冊是對以下問題形成共識的第一步,包括技術上的進步如何改變作戰環境,領導人應該怎樣思考網絡作戰,怎樣整合他們的整體行動以及需要哪些能力。本手冊提供了製定基於效果、強調集成並且充滿智慧的解決方案的方法,這些方案將使美國陸軍在網電對抗中獲勝。 —邁克爾-文恩陸軍中將 陸軍能力集成中心主任







a、美國陸軍訓練與條令司令部司令(CG)指示聯合兵種中心(CAC)領導一個工作組,為網絡(cyber)、電子戰和信息作戰的使命域的組織以及訓練與條令司令部有關部隊的結構現代化的建議確定一個概念框架。 2009年10月16日,訓練與條令司令部司令(CG)向陸軍副參謀長提交了一系列建議。在他的建議中包含了以下幾條:























1.4 方法




b、網絡戰是:“對網絡空間能力的運用,其首要目的是在網絡空間中或借助網絡空間達成目標。這類行動包括計算機網絡作戰,以及操作和防禦全球信息柵格的各種活動” 。







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